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CWR 3201L Fluid Mechanics Laboratory
Spring 2008
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Florida International University
Miami, FL 33199
2
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 1. Measurement of Density
INTRODUCTION
Faced with the question, “What is a fluid?” you might have difficulty in providing an
answer. It is true that nearly everyone accepts all liquids as being fluids, and many add to
this gases, but this does not explain how one decides whether a given substance is f1ui or
solid.
A fluid is any substance which, when acted upon by a shear force, however small,
cause a continuous or unlimited deformation, but at a rate proportional to the
applied force. Substances which agree with this definition are termed Newtonian
fluids and all liquids and gases behave very closely to the Newtonian fluid.
DENSITY
The density of any substance is defined as the mass per unit volume and is denoted by
“ρ.”
3
M
mass by the occupied volume
substance of mass
=
L
= ∴ρ
since any volume is proportional to a linear dimension cubed.
It should be noted that the density of a liquid remains sensibly constant because the
volume occupied by a given mass of liquid is almost invariable. But in the case of a gas
the density will vary as the volume occupied by a given mass of gas varies. From this it
may be deduced that a liquid may be taken as virtually incompressible while, of course,
gases are compressible.
SPECIFIC WEIGHT
The specific weight of any substance is defined as the weight per unit volume and is
denoted by “γ.”
weight by the occupied volume
substance of weight
= γ .................................................................. 1.1
Now, since any weight is due to the action of the gravitational acceleration on the mass,
then
3
2
T
ML
on accelerati nal gravitatio times mass substance of Weight
=
=
hence
2 2 2 3
T L
M
T
L
L
M
= ⋅ = γ .............................................................................................. 1.2
now g
T
L
and
L
M
2 3
= = ρ
g ρ γ = ............................................................................................................... 1.3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OR RELATIVE DENSITY
The specific gravity or relative density of a substance is defined as the mass of a given
volume of a substance divided by the mass of the same volume of water and is denoted
by “d.”
water of volume equal an of mass
substance of me given volu a of mass
d = ∴
If V is the volume of the substance and of the water p is the density of the substance and
p is the density of the water.
Then
w
s
ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
= =
V
V
d
w
s
..................................................................................................... 1.4
Equation. 1.4 explains why the specific gravity is sometimes termed relative density.
since
g
γ
ρ =
w
s
w
γ
γ
γ
γ
= ⋅ =
g
g
d
s
............................................................................................... 1.5
THE HYDROMETER
In the Scott Properties of Fluids, Hydrostatics Education System the three properties dealt
with in paragraphs 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 are obtained using the hydrometer situated on the
extreme right of the apparatus (see Figure 1.1).
The principle of the common hydrometer depends upon the fact that when a body floats
in a liquid it displaces a volume of liquid whose weight is to the weight of the body. That
is, it depends upon Archimedes’ principle which will be dealt with in Section 4.
4
A simple hydrometer may be made, therefore, from a piece of glass tube closed at one
end and inside of which is placed a paper scale. A small amount of lead shot, sand or
mercury should be placed in the bottom of the tube as shown in Figure. 1.1.
•
First immerse the tube in water and mark on the paper scale the length immersed. Then
repeat by immersing the tube in another liquid, and again marking the length immersed.
If l
w
length immersed in water of density ρ
w
and l
l
= length immersed in liquid of density ρ
l
= dρ
w
then weight of water displaced = ρ
w
g ⋅ A ⋅ l
w
(where A = cross section area of glass tube)
weight of liquid displaced = ρ
1
g ⋅ A⋅ l
l
= dρ
w
g ⋅ A ⋅ l
l
From Archimedes’ principle
the weight of tube = weight of water displaced weight of liquid displaced.
∴ρ
w
g ⋅ A ⋅ l
w
= dρ
w
g ⋅ A ⋅ l
w
Area A
Hydrometer
Lead Shot
Iw
Figure 1.1
Cylinder
5
∴
liquid in immersed depth
in water immersed depth
d = =
l
w
l
l
If then, the depth of immersion in water is marked on the paper scale as 1.00 and for the
liquid (
l
w
l
l
l ⋅ ), by using a number of different liquids a scale may be constructed to read
specific gravities directly.
TEST 1 Measurement of Densities, Specific Gravities and Weights
Object To determine densities, specific gravities and weights of various liquids.
Apparatus The hydrometer, see Figure 1.3
Hydrometer
Measuring Cylinder
Container Liquid
Lead Shot
Figure 1.2
6
Figure 1.3. Hydrometer in water.
Analysis The specific gravity is read directly from scale. See Paragraph 1.5 for the
principle on which the instrument works.
Method (a) Fill measuring cylinder with sufficient water to float hydrometer and
check that the scale marking corresponding to depth of immersion reads
1.00.
(b) Fill three measuring cylinders with the liquids to be tested with
sufficient of the liquids to float the hydrometer and note for each liquid the
scale reading.
Note: It is suggested that the liquids should be those to be used in Test 2
for determining the viscosity of liquids: an engine oil, glycerol, and castor
oil.
Results Barometric pressure______mm of Hg, temperature_____°C.
Liquid Scale Reading =
Specific gravity (d)
Water
Glycerol
Mobil Oil
7
2. Data converted to density (ρ)
since
w
l
water of density
liquid of density
d
ρ
ρ
= = (Eqn.1.4)
∴ρ
l
= d ρ
w
and ρ
w
= 1 gm/ml =
3
(30.48)
453.6
1
⋅ lb/ft
3
= 62.4 lb/ft
3
= 1.94 slug/ft
3 *
*Note: 1 slug = 32.1740 lbs.
Density (ρ) Liquid
gm/ml lb/ft
3
slug/ft
3
Water
Glycerol
Mobil Oil
Specific weight γ = ρg (Equation 1.3)
Specific Weight (γ) Liquid
dyne/ml lb/ft
3
Water
Glycerol
Mobil Oil
8
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 2. Measurement of Viscosity
INTRODUCATION
The viscosity of a fluid is that property of the fluid, which resists the action of a shear
force. Since viscosity depends on the combined effect of molecular activity and cohesion,
the viscosity of gases, in which the effect of cohesion is small, increases as temperature
rises, whereas with liquids, because the greater cohesion, particularly at low temperatures,
has a greater effect than molecular activity, the viscosity decreases as temperature rises.
To obtain a measure of viscosity it is necessary to consider the viscous flow of a fluid and
the following two assumptions must be made:
1. There can be no slip or motion relative to any solid boundary.
2. The shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of shear perpendicular to the
motion.
Consider an element of fluid as shown in Figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1
Let the one face of the element move with a velocity u and the other with a velocity
u + du. Then the rate of shear perpendicular to the motion, or the transverse velocity
gradient =
dy
du
.
dy
u + du
du
dx
u
9
∴From assumption 2, the shear stress τ ∝
dy
du
Therefore, τ = µ du/dy ................................................................................... 2.1
where µ is a coefficient of proportionality termed the coefficient of viscosity.
By arranging for the transverse velocity gradient to be numerically equal to unity
Maxwell defined the coefficient of viscosity as follows:
If two planes surfaces are placed parallel to one another and at unit distance apart, the
space between them being completely filled with fluid, and if one plate is moved parallel
to its surface at unit velocity relative to the other, then the force per unit area acting on
either plate, in the form of a resistance to motion is numerically equal to the coefficient of
viscosity of the fluid.
From Equation. 1.6
velocity
dimension linear
area
force
du
dy
⋅ = =τ µ
velocity
dimension linear
area
on accelerati mass
⋅
⋅
=
L
T
L
T
M
L
M
2 2
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
LT
M
= µ .............................................................................................................. 2.2
Thus the coefficient of viscosity is expressed as a unit of mass per unit of length and time,
s ft
slug
or ,
s ft
lb
,
s cm
gm
e.g.
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
An alternative measure of viscosity is the kinematic viscosity which is denoted by
ρ
µ
ν = ............................................................................................................................. 2.3
M
L
LT
M
3
=
T
L
2
=
The kinematic viscosity is expressed as a linear dimension squared per unit of time.
10
s
ft
;
s
cm
e.g.
2 2
or
Note: µ expressed in
s cm
gm
⋅
is termed poises * and ν expressed in
s
cm
2
is termed stoke. **
* One p = 1 dyn * s/cm
2
** One st = 0.0001 m
2
/s
TEST 1 Measurement of Viscosity
Objective To determine the viscosity of various fluids at atmospheric pressure and
temperature.
Apparatus The falling sphere( ball) viscometer. Three situated at the right hand side
of the test rig (Figure 2.2). The stop clock and hydrometer.
Figure 2.2
ball
FV
175
Falling Sphere
Viscometer
FB
W
0
25
11
Analysis From Figure 2.2, when the ball is moving with a uniform velocity u, the
forces acting on the sphere are as follows:
a. the weight of the ball W
b. the buoyant force or upthrust F
B
c. the viscous force resisting motion FV
Since the velocity of fall is uniform, the algebraic sum of these forces
must be zero.
∴W – F
B
– FV = 0
The weight of the ball r³
3
4
g W
s
π ρ =
The buoyant force r³
3
4
g F
f B
π ρ =
The viscous force FV = 6πµru from Stokes Law
where ρS = density of ball
r = radius of sphere
f
ρ = density of fluid
µ = coefficient of viscosity
u = mean velocity of ball
Therefore,
ρs g4πr³  ρf g4πr³  6πµru = 0
3 3
( )
( )
u 9
2
36
4
2
3
f s
f s
g r
u r
g r
ρ ρ
ρ ρ
π
π
µ
−
= − =
Method (a) Fill the three tubes with the fluids under test to a level just below the
exit from the capillary tube as shown in Figure 2.2.
The fluids under test being (a) An Engine Oil (Castrol XXL)
(b) Glycerol
(c) Castor Oil
Note: Since glycerol absorbs moisture easily from the atmosphere, a small
amount of cotton wool should be placed in the top of the capillary tube if
the tube is left full for any length of time.
12
(b) Use three bails of different diameters with each fluid; measure
diameters of the balls. Suggested nominal size of balls 1 mm, l.5 mm, 2
mm.
(c) Record the time for each ball to fall between the fixed marks 175 to
100 (mm).
(d) Using hydrometer obtain the specific gravity of each fluid.
Results Barometric pressure _____ mm Hg., Temperature_____°C.
Measured diameter of balls 1 mm _____, 1.5 mm _____, 2 mm_____ .
Set of the Balls Meter Reading
(inch)
Average (inches) Average Diameter
(mm)
1
2
3
Specific gravity of steel: 7.8
Specific gravity of fluids: Castor XXL 0.89
Glycerol 1.25
Castor Oil 0.95
Fluid Time to fall
using
1 mm ball
Avg.
Time
Time to fall
using
1.5 mm ball
Avg.
Time
Time to fall
using
2 mm ball
Avg.
Time
Castrol XXL
Glycerol
Castor Oil
Mean velocity of ball u = Distance through which ball falls
average time (t)
u = 7.5 where t = average time
t
13
Then µ = 2 r
2
g ( ρs  ρf)
9 u
and kinematic viscosity ϑ = µ/ρ
Fluid Coefficient of Viscosity µ
(poise)
Average µ Kinematic viscosity ϑ
Castrol XXL
Glycerol
Castor Oil
Check from standard tables the accuracy of the results obtained for Glycerol and Castor
Oil.
Note that with the engine oil, since it is considerably less viscous than either castor oil or
glycerol, only 1.5 mm ball can be used. With a larger size ball the time to fall 75 mm is
too short. And with a smaller size the ball cannot be seen falling through the oil. Further,
because the time is so short, the accuracy must be suspect.
TEST 2 Computing Viscosity (Falling Sphere Viscometer)
A. Determine diameters of 4 sets of different size steel balls by measuring with a
‘Ten—Thousandth Micrometer Caliper,’ and then averaging a minimum of four
balls per set.
B. Ten large balls weigh 10.4381 grams, please determine
C. Determine the viscosity of glycerol (C
3
H
5
(OH)
3
) which has a Specific Gravity of
1.249 at 25 degrees C, by the following method:
1. Measure the time of travel of 3 balls from each of the 3 smaller sets of
balls as they individually fall through the liquid along a known distance in
a 250 ml. graduated cylinder.
2. To accomplish this, first mark the cylinder with two pieces of drafting
tape a at known distance apart. (at least one inch down from the surface of
the 1i and an inch above the bottom). Then measure the time it takes for
each ball to travel between the marks.
3. Average and compare with theoretical values.
D. Determine the viscosity of water using the smallest balls and the large (3foot)
cylinder. Follow the above method 1 through 3.
E. As usual note laboratory conditions (ie. temperature)
Notes on reading a 1 inch (tenthousandths) caliper:
14
1. There are ten major divisions per inch on the sleeve, hence (0.1 in. per division).
2. Each of the major divisions is divided into four subdivisions, hence (0.025 in.
per division) . This added to the above measurement.
3. The thimble (rotating part) is divided into 25 divisions (0.001 inch per division)
and is measured where the horizontal line an the sleeve lines up with the thimble
divisions. If not exact, chose the lowest value. These 1 to 25 thousandths are
added to the total to determine length to the nearest thousandths.
4. The Vernier scale located above the inch scale on the sleeve of the instrument
contains numbers from 0 through 9 to 0 (or ten) . These determine the ten
thousandth off an inch and are measured by matching the ‘horizontal’ lines on the
vernier with the lines on the thimble. The line number on the vernier scale which
matches with the line an the thimble represents the Tenthousandth reading and is
added to the total.
15
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 3. Hydrostatic Pressure
INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the
classical laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids can
be treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the
conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws may be
simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behavior of the fluid.
The Hydraulics Bench Description service module, Flb, provides the necessary facilities
to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to
demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory.
The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the
Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus, Fl12. A full description of the apparatus is given later in
these texts.
DESCRIPTION
Figure 3.1 Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus, Fl12.
16
A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. The line
of contact of the knife edges coincides with the axis of the quadrant. Thus, of the
hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed, only the force on the
rectangular face end gives rise to a moment about the knife edge axis.
In addition to the quadrant clamping screw the balance arm incorporates a balance pan,
an adjustable counterbalance and an indicator which shows when the arm is horizontal.
The clear acrylic tank may be leveled by adjusting the screwed feet. Correct alignment is
indicated by a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank.
Water is admitted to the top of the tank by flexible tube and may be drained through a
cock in the base. The water supply may be obtained from the hydraulic bench. The water
level is indicated on a scale.
NOMENCLATURE
Column Heading Units Nom Type Description
Height of quadrant M D Input Given. See Theory for diagram of
apparatus.
Width of quadrant M B Input Given. See Theory for diagram of
apparatus.
Length of balance M L Input Given. See Theory for diagram of
apparatus.
Quadrant to Pivot M H Input Given. See Theory for diagram of
apparatus.
Mass Kg m Input Weights applied to the balance arm
pan
Depth of Immersion M d Input Given. See Theory for diagram of
apparatus.
Partially Submerged Body
Trust N F Calculated
)
2
=
2
Bd
g ( F ρ
2
nd
Moment
Experiment
M h” Calculated
2
=
Bd
2mL
h”
ρ
2
nd
Moment Theory M h” Calculated
3
d
 H h” =
17
Fully Submerged Body
Trust N F Calculated

.

\

=
2
D
 d gBD F ρ
2
nd
Moment
Experiment
M h” Calculated
2
D
 d BD
mL
h”

.

\

=
ρ
2
nd
Moment Theory M h” Calculated
d  H
2
D
 d
2
D
 d
12
D
h”
2
2
+

.

\

+
=
EXPERIMENT A
Objectives
• To determine the hydrostatics thrust acting on a plane immersed in water.
• To determine the position of the line of action of the thrust and to compare the
position determined by experiment with the theoretical position.
Method
By achieving an equilibrium condition between the moments acting on the balance arm
of the test apparatus. The forces acting are the weight force applied to the balance and the
hydrostatic pressure thrust on the end face of the quadrant.
Equipment
In order to complete the demonstration we need a number of pieces of equipment.
• The F110 Hydraulics Bench
• The F112 Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus
• A set of weights.
• A jug (not supplied).
18
TECHNICAL DATA
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced
with your own measurement.
Width of quadrant B = 0.074 m
Height of quadrant D = 0.100 m
Length of balance L = 0.275 m
Quadrant to Pivot H = 0.200 m
F112 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
Theory
Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions,
this nomenclature will be used throughout this theory discussion. Whilst the theory for
the party submerged and fully submerged plane is the same, it will be clearer to consider
the two cases separately.
where:
L
H
D C
P
B
D
C .
P .
19
L is the horizontal distance between the pivot and the balance pan.
D is the height of quadrant face.
B is the width of quadrant face.
H is the vertical distance between the bottom of the quadrant face and the pivot arm.
C is the centroid of the quadrant.
P is the Center of Pressure on the quadrant face.
1. Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface
Theory
Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions,
in addition to those shown earlier. This nomenclature will be used throughout this theory
discussion.
where:
d is the depth of submersion
F is the h
_
h is the depth of the centroid
h’ is the depth of Center of Pressure, P.
h” is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. This line of
action passes through the center of pressure, P.
H
Pivote
_
h
C
C
P B
20
1.1 Thrust on Surface
The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as
_
h gA F ρ = (Newtons)
where as A = Bd
and
2
d
C h
_
= =
hence
2
Bd
g F
2
ρ = ….………………………………….(3.1)
1.2 Equilibrium Condition
The Moment, M, can be defined as
M = Fh’’ (Nm)
A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end of
the balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L.
For static equilibrium the two moments are equal.
That is
Fh’’ = WL = mgL
By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F from (1) we have
(m)
Bd
2mL
F
mgL
' h'
2
= = =
ρ
1.3 Theoretical Depth of Centre of Pressure
The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure P. below the freesurface is
Ah
I
h'
x
= ............................................................. (3.2)
where I
x
is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the freesurface.
By use of the parallel axes theorem
_
2
c x
h A I I + =
21
( )
4
3
2
3
x
m
3
Bd
2
d
Bd
12
Bd
I =

.

\

+ = ........................................ (3.3)
The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot point is
h’’ = h’ + H – d (m) ............................................... (3.4)
substitution of (3) into (2) and thence to (4) yields the theoretical result of :
3
' '
d
H h − =
2. Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface
Theory
Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions,
in addition to those shown earlier. This nomenclature will be used throughout this theory
discussion.
where:
d is the depth of submersion
F is the h
_
h is the depth of the centroid
h’ is the depth of Center of Pressure, P.
h” is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. This line of
action passes through the center of pressure, P.
Pivote
d
h
_
h
h’
C
C
P
22
2.1 Thrust on Surface
The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as

.

\

= =
2
D
 d gBD h gA F
_
ρ ρ (Newtons) ....................................... (3.5)
2.2 Equilibrium Condition
The Moment, M, can be defined as
M=Fh’’ (Nm)
A balancing moment is produced by the weight, W, applied to the hanger at the end of
the balance arm. The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm, L.
For static equilibrium the two moments are equal.
That is
Fh’’ = WL = mgL
By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust, F from (5) we have
(m)
2
D
 d BD
mL
' h'

.

\

=
ρ
2.3 Theoretical Depth of Centre of Pressure
The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure, P, below the free surface is
Ah
I
h'
x
=
where I
x
is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the freesurface.
By use of the parallel axes theorem
_
2
c x
h A I I + =
( )
4
2
2
x
m
2
D
d
12
D
BD I

.

\

− + =
The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot point is
23
h’’ = h’ + H – d (m) ............................................... (3.4)
substitution as before yields the theoretical result of :
d
2
D
d
2
D
d
12
D
' '
2
2
−
−

.

\

− +
= H h
Procedure
1. Equipment Calibration
Measure the dimension B, D of the quadrant endface and the distance H and L.
2. Equipment Set Up
Position the empty plastic tank on a horizontal, rigid bench and position the balance arm
on the knife edges. Locate the weight hanger in the groove at the end of the balance arm.
Ensure that the drain valve is closed. Level the tank using the adjustable feet and the
integral spirit level. Move the counter balance weight until the balance arm is horizontal.
3. Taking a Set of Results
Add a small mass to the weight hanger. Using the jug, pour water into the tank through
the triangular aperture adjacent to the pivot point. Continue to add water until the
hydrostatic thrust on the endface of the quadrant causes the balance arm to rise. Ensure
that there is no water spilled on the upper surfaces of the quadrant or the sides, above the
water level. Add water until the balance arm is horizontal; you may find it easier to
slightly over fill the tank, and obtain the equilibrium position by opening the drain cock
to allow a small outflow from the tank. Read the depth of immersion from the scale on
the face of the quadrant; more accurate results can be obtained from reading below the
surface, to avoid the effects of surface tension.
Repeat the above procedure for each increment in load produced by adding a further
weight to the weight hanger. Continue until the water level reaches the top of the upper
scale on the quadrant face. Repeat the procedure in reverse, by progressively removing
the weights. Record carefully factors which you think are likely to affect the accuracy of
your results.
24
PROCESSING RESULTS
All readings should be tabulated as follows:
Height of
Quadrant
D
(m)
Width of
Quadrant
B
(m)
Length of
Balance
L
(m)
Quadrant
to Pivot
H
(m)
Mass
m
(kg)
Depth of
Immersion
d
(m)
Thrust
F
(N)
2nd Moment
Experiment
h"
(m)
2nd Moment
Theory
h"
(m)
Thrust
F
(N)
2nd Moment
Experiment
h"
(m)
2nd Moment
Theory
h"
(m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
APPLICATON OF THEORY
Comment on the variation of thrust with depth.
Comment on the relationship between the depth of the center of pressure and the depth of
immersion.
For both (1) and (2) above, comment on what happens when the plane has become fully
submerged.
Comment on and explain the discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical
results for the depth of center of pressure.
25
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 4. Metacentric Height
INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the
classical laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids can
be treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the
conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws may be
simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.
The hydraulics bench service module, F110, provides the necessary facilities to support
a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a
particular aspect of hydraulic theory.
The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the
MetaCentric Height Apparatus, F114. This consists of a pontoon whose centre of gravity
may be varied A full description of the apparatus is given later in these texts.
DESCRIPTION
Figure 4.1 Metacentric Height Apparatus, (Sketch)
Mast Sliding Mass
Degree
Scale θ
Pontoon Linear Scale Adjustable Mass
Plumb Line
26
Figure 4.2 Metacentric Height Apparatus, F114.
The apparatus comprises a rectangular pontoon, with a vertical mast. The vertical mast
carries a sliding mass, which may be adjusted to vary the position of the centre of gravity
of the pontoon. A plumb line, attached to the top of the mast, is used to measure the angle
of heel of the pontoon in conjunction with a degree scale. This heel is controlled by a
traversely adjustable mass, whose position is indicated on a linear scale.
The apparatus may be used on the hydraulics bench by filling the volumetric tank, using
the flexible bench supply pipe connected to the bench outlet.
NOMENCLATURE
Column Heading Units Nom Type Description
Pontoon Length m l Input Given. See Theory for diagram
of apparatus.
Pontoon Width m b Input Given. See Theory for diagram
of apparatus.
Pontoon Height m d Input Given. See Theory for diagram
of apparatus.
Total Weight kg W Input The weight of pontoon with the
traverse weight applied.
27
Traversing Weight kg P Input The weight applied to the
traverse arm.
Center of Gravity m y Input The center of gravity value is
established as described in
Equipment Set Up. The value
required is the distance from the
base of the pontoon.
Depth of Immersion m d
i
Calculated
1000
1
*
lb
P W
d
i
+
=
Metacentric Height
(Based of geometry and
depth of immersion)
m GM Calculated

.

\

=
2
d
 y
12d
b
GM
i
i
2
Position of Traversing
Weight
m x Input The distance of the traverse
weight from the center of the
pontoon. Measured on the scale.
Angle of tilt degree
θ
Input Measured from the plumb line.
Metacentric Height
(from including
experiment)
GM Calculated
θ cot
W
Px
GM =
EXPERIMENT A
Objective
To locate the position of the Metacentre (M) of a floating body, by determining its
distance from the centre of gravity (G); this distance (GM) is known as the Metacentric
Height.
Note: it is a condition for stable equilibrium that M remains higher than G.
Method
The centre of gravity of the pontoon assembly can be varied by adjusting the position of a
sliding mass on the mast. For a fixed position of the centre of gravity, the metacentric
height (GM) can be determined experimentally by measuring the angle of heel (θ)
produced at each position of a movable mass, as it is traversed across the width of the
pontoon.
Equipment
In order to complete the demonstration of the Metacentric Height apparatus we need a
number of pieces of equipment.
• The F110 Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume
collection.
28
• The F114 Metacentric Height Apparatus.
• Weigh Balance (not supplied)
TECHNICAL DATA
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. if
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced
with your own measurements.
Pontoon length l = 0.350 m
Pontoon width b = 0.200 m
Pontoon height d = 0.075 m
THEORY
Theoretical results given here are derived in many firstlevel fluid mechanics textbooks.
For static equilibrium of the pontoon, the total weight, W, (which acts through the centre
of gravity G) must be equal to the buoyancy force which acts through the centre of
buoyancy B, which is located at the centroid of the immersed crosssection. When the
pontoon heels through a small angle, the metacentre M is identified as the point of
intersection between the line of action of the buoyancy force (always vertical) and BG
extended. For stable equilibrium, M must be above G.
(a) For adjustable position traversed weight experiments:
Metacentric height,
G
B’
M
d
i
d
i
/2
b
G
B
Y
M
B
29
θ cot
W
Px
GM = as θ tends to 0 …………………………...………………(1)
where P = weight of movable mass and the mast of the pontoon.
and x = distance between the movable mass and the mast of the pontoon.
(b) Based upon geometry and depth of immersion
The Metacentric height, GM, is defined as
GM = BM  BG
The Metacentric radius, BM, can be defined as
BM = I / V
where I = Lb
3
/ 12
I is the second moment of area of the plane of floating about an axis through the
centroid perpendicular to the plane of rotation, as the pontoon heels.
L is the length of the pontoon.
B is the width of the pontoon and
V is the immersed volume.
This immersed volume, V, can be determined by calculation. Since the buoyancy force
(upthrust) is equal to the total weight, W, of pontoon and its load then
Vρg = W
The depth of immersion (d
i
) can then be found from
V = Lbd
i
The Point B is at the centroid of the immersed area. It is at distance d
i
/ 2 from base.
The center of gravity, G, is at a distance y above the base.
By substitution from above, the following result is obtained.

.

\

=
2
d
 y
12d
b
GM
i
i
2
30
Procedure  Equipment Set Up
Weigh the traversable mass (= P, kg), used for traversing across the pontoon width.
Assemble the pontoon, mast and both masses and determine the total weight (W).
Position the sliding mass on the mast to give the location of the centre of gravity (G) for
the whole assembly at the level of the top of the pontoon. The position of G can be
determined by:
• Use of a knifeedge,
• Tying a light string tightly around the mast and carefully allowing the whole
assembly to be suspended from it, adjusting the position of the suspension point until
the mast direction becomes horizontal.
Measure the distance of G from the base of the pontoon and record this distance, y.
Fill the hydraulic bench volumetric tank with water, then remove the filling tube from the
tank (to prevent backsiphoning through to the main tank).
Float the pontoon in the tank and measure the immersed depth, d
i
, for comparison with
the calculated value (see Theory).
Procedure  Taking a Set of Results
Move the traversing mass to the central position in the pontoon; then adjust the tilt of the
mast mounting (by slackening securing screws which pass through slotted holes) to give
θ = 0. Traverse the mass to the right in 10 mm increments to the end of the scale and note
the angular displacement (0) of the plumb line for each position. Repeat this procedure
traversing the mass to the left of centre.
Change the position of the pontoon centre of gravity by moving the sliding mass up the
mast. Suggested positions are at the maximum height and then a location midway
between maximum height and the position used in the first test. For each new position of
G, repeat the above test and determine the metacentric height, GM. Hence, locate the
Edge of steel rule
or tensioned string
31
position of the metacentre M (= y + GM) from the base of the pontoon, using the results
from all three tests.
PROCESSING RESULTS
All readings should be tabulated as follows:
Pontoon
length
l
(m)
Pontoon
width
b
(m)
Pontoon
height
d
(m)
Total
Weight
W
(kg)
Traversing
Weight
P
(kg)
Center of
Gravity
Y
(m)
Depth of
Immersion
di
(m)
Metacentric
Height
GM
(m)
Position of
Mass
x
(m)
Angle of
Tilt
θ
(m)
Metacentric
Height
GM
(m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Application of Theory
• Comment on the effects of changing the position of G on the position of the
metacentre.
• Comment on why the values of GM at lowest levels of θ are likely to be less
accurate.
• Explain how unstable equilibrium might be achieved.
32
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 5. Calibration of Flow Meters
INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics has developed as n analytical discipline from the application of the
classical laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids can
be treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the
conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws may be
simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.
The hydraulics bench service module, F110, provides the necessary facilities to support
a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a
particular aspect of hydraulic theory.
The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the Flow
Meter Test Rig, F121. This consists of a Venturi meter, a variable area meter and an
orifice plate installed in a series configuration to allow for direct comparison. A full
description of the apparatus is given later in these texts.
DESCRIPTION
Figure 5.1 Flow Meter Test Rig, F121 and Hydraulics Bench Service Module, F110.
33
The accessory is designed to be positioned on the side channels of the hydraulics bench
top channel.
The Venturi meter, variable area meter and the orifice plate are installed in a series
configuration to permit direct comparison.
Flow through the test section is regulated using a flow control valve. This together with
the bench control valve permits variation of the system static pressure.
Pressure tappings in the circuit are connected to an eightbank manometer which
incorporates an air inlet/outlet valve in the top manifold with facilities to connect a hand
pump. This enables the levels in the manometer bank to be adjusted to a convenient level
to suit the system static pressure. The pressure tappings for the manometers are arranged
to give a set of readings around the flow meters in the system. The setup is detailed
elsewhere.
NOMENCLATURE
Column Heading Units Nom Type Description
Test Pipe Area M
2
A
1
Given Crosssectional area of the test
section.
Orifice Area M
2
A
2
Given Crosssectional area of the orifice in
the orifice plate meter.
Venturi Area M
2
A
2
Given Crosssectional area of the
narrowest section of the Venturi
meter.
Volume Collected M
3
V Measured Taken from scale on hydraulics
bench. The volume is measured in
liters. Convert to cubic meters for
the calculation (divide reading by
1000)
Time to Collect S T Measured Time taken to collect the known
volume of water in the hydraulics
bench.
Variable Area Meter
Reading
1/min Measured Reading from variable area meter
scale.
h
x
M Measured Measured value from the
appropriate manometer. The value
is measured in mm. Convert to
meters for the calculation.
Time Flow Rate m
3
/s Q
t
Calculated Q
t
= V = Volume collected
t Time to Collect
Variable Area Flow m
3
/s Q
a
Calculated Convert from instrument reading
34
Rate (divide by 60,000).
Orifice Plate Flow
Rate
m
3
/s Q
o
Calculated
ρ
p
2
A
A
 1
A C
Q
2
1
2
2 d
o
∆


.

\

=
Venturi Meter Flow
Rate
m
3
/s Q
t
Calculated
ρ
p
2
A
A
 1
A C
Q
2
1
2
2 d
v
∆


.

\

=
Column Heading Units Nom Type Description
Variation Area %
Flow Rate Error
% Calculated ( Q
a
 Q
t
/Q
t
) * 100
Orifice Plate %
Flow Rate Error
% Calculated ( Q
o
 Q
t
/Q
t
) * 100
Venturi Meter %
Flow Rate Error
% Calculated ( Q
t
 Q
t
/Q
t
) * 100
Variable Area
Head Loss
H
a
Calculated H
a
= h
4
– h
5
Orifice Area
Head Loss
mm H
o
Calculated H
o
= h
6
 h
8
Venturi
Head Loss
mm H
v
Calculated H
v
= h
1
 h
3
Timed Flow Rate
Squared
mm Q
c
2
Calculated Used to demonstrate the
relationship between flow rate and
losses
35
EXPERIMENT A
Objective
To investigate the operation and characteristics of three different basic types of flowmeter,
including accuracy and energy losses.
Method
By measurement of volume flow rates and associated pressure losses with three
flowmeters connected in series and using timed volume collection to produce a reference
measurement of flow rate.
Equipment
In order to complete the demonstration we need a number of pieces of equipment.
• The Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume
collection.
• The F121 Flow Meter Apparatus
• A stopwatch to allow us to determine the flow rate of water.
TECHNICAL DATA
The following dimensions are used in the appropriate calculations. If required these
values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own
measurements.
For the Venturi Meter
Upstream Pipe Meter
Hence
= 0.03175
m
Cross sectional area of upstream pipe
A = 7.92 x 10
4
m
2
Throat diameter
Hence
= 0.015 m
Cross sectional area of throat
A
2
= 1.77 x 10
4
m
2
Upstream Taper = 21 degrees
Downstream Taper = 14 degrees
36
For the Orifice Plate
Upstream Pipe Meter
Hence
= 0.03175
m
Cross sectional area of upstream pipe
A = 7.92 x 10
4
m
2
Throat diameter
Hence
= 0.020 m
Cross sectional area of throat
A
2
= 3.14 x 10
4
m
2
The manometers are connected so that the following pressure differences can be obtained.
h
1
– h
2
Venturi meter reading
h
1
– h
3
Venturi loss
h
4
– h
5
Variable area meter loss
h
6
– h
7
Orifice plate reading
H
6
– h
8
Orifice plate loss
THEORY
Application of the Bernoulli equation yields the following result which applies for both
the Venturi meter and the orifice plate.
Volume flow rate
ρ
p
2
A
A
 1
A C
Q
2
1
2
2 d
v
∆


.

\

=
where h g∆ =
∆
2
p
2
ρ
and ∆h is the head difference in m determined from the manometer readings for
the appropriate meter, as given above,
g is the acceleration due to gravity, in m
C
d
is the discharge coefficient for the meter, as given below,
37
A
1
is the area of the test pipe upstream of the meter, in m
2
and A
2
is the throat area of the meter, in m
2
Use of a discharge coefficient, C
d
, is necessary because of the simplif3 assumptions made
when applying the Bernoulli equations. Values of this coefficient are determined by
experiment; the assumed values used in the software are:
For the Venturi meter C
d
= 0.98
For the orifice plate C
d
= 0.63
The energy loss that occurs in a pipe fitting (socalled secondary loss) is commonly
expressed in terms of a head loss (h, metres), and can be determined from the manometer
readings. For this experiment, head losses will be compared against the square of the flow
rate used.
Procedure  Equipment Set Up
Place the flowmeter test rig on the bench and ensure that it is level (necessary for
accurate readings from the manometers). Connect the inlet pipe to the bench supply and
the outlet pipe into the volumetric tank, then secure the end of the pipe to prevent it
moving about. Start the pump and open the bench valve and the test rig flow control
valve, to flush the system.
In order to bleed air from the pressure tapping points and manometers, close both the
bench and test rig valves, open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from the adjacent
air valve. Connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the volumetric tank.
Next, open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometer tubes to purge them of
air. Then tighten air bleed screw and partly open the test rig flow control valve and partly
close the bench valve. Now open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to be drawn into
the top of the manometer tubes. Retighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a
convenient height.
Check that all manometer levels are on scale at the maximum flow rate (fullscale reading
on the variable area meter). These levels can be adjusted further by using the air bleed
screw or the hand pump supplied.
Procedure  Taking a Set of Results
At a fixed flow rate, record all manometer heights and the variable area meter reading
and carry out a timed volume collection using the volumetric tank. This is achieved by
closing the ball valve and measuring (with a stopwatch) the time taken to accumulate a
known volume of fluid in the tank, as measured from the sightglass. You should collect
fluid for at least one minute to minimize timing errors. Repeat this measurement twice to
check for consistency and then average the readings.
Ensure that you understand the operating principle of each of the three flowmeters.
38
PROCESSING RESULTS
All readings should be tabulated as follows:
Test
Pipe
Area
A1
(m
2
)
Orifice
Area
A2
(m
2
)
Venturi
Area
A2
(m
2
)
Volume
Collected
V
(m
3
)
Time to
Collect
t
(sec)
Variable
Area
Meter
Reading
1/min
h1
(mm)
h2
(mm)
h3
(mm)
h4
(mm)
h5
(mm)
h6
(mm)
h7
(mm)
h8
(mm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Time
Flow Rate
Q
t
(m
3
/s)
Variable
Area
Flow
Rate
Q
a
(m
3
/s)
Orifice
Plate
Flow
Rate
Q
o
(m
3
/s)
Venturi
Meter
Flow
Rate
Q
v
(m
3
/s)
Variation
Area %
Flow
Rate
Error
(%)
Orifice
Plate %
Flow
Rate
Error
(%)
Venturi
Meter
% Flow
Rate
Error
(%)
Variable
Area
Head
Loss
(H
a
)
Orifice
Plate
Head
Loss
(H
o
)
Venturi
Meter
Head
Loss
(H
v
)
Timed
Flow
Rate
Squared
(Q
c
2
)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Application of Theory
• Comment on the differences in accuracy of the meters. Could these differences be
due to experimental error?
• Why does the variable area meter show less variation in head loss with flow rate
than the other two meters?
39
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 6. Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration
INTRODUCTION
Fluid Mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the
classical laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situations in which fluids can
be treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of the
conservation of mass, energy and momentum and, in each application, these laws may be
simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behavior of the fluid.
The hydraulics bench service module, F110, provides the necessary facilities to support
a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a
particular aspect of hydraulic theory.
The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with this experiment is the
Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, F115. A full description of the apparatus
is given later in these texts.
The test section is an accurately machined clear acrylic duct of varying circular cross
section. It is provided with a number of sidehole pressure tappings which are connected
to the manometers housed on the rig. These tappings allow the measurement of static
pressure head simultaneously at each of the 6 sections. To allow the calculation of the
dimensions of the test section, the tapping positions and the test section are shown on the
following diagram.
40
Figure 6.1 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, F115.
The test section incorporates two unions, one at either end, to facilitate reversal for
convergent or divergent testing.
A hypodermic, the total pressure head probe, is provided which may be positioned to read
the total pressure head at any section of the duct. This total pressure head probe may be
moved after slackening the gland nut; this nut should be retightened by hand. To prevent
damage, the total pressure head probe should be fully inserted during transport/storage.
An additional tapping is provided to facilitate setting up. All eight pressure tappings are
connected to a bank of pressurized manometer tubes. Pressurization of the manometers is
facilitated by removing the hand pump from its storage location at the rear of the
manometer board and connecting its flexible coupling to the inlet valve on the
manometer manifold.
41
In use, the apparatus is mounted on a base board which is stood on the work surface of
the bench. This base board has feet which may be adjusted to level the apparatus. A level
glass is provided as part of the base.
The inlet pipe terminates in a female coupling which may e connected directly to the
bench supply. A flexible hose attached to the outlet pipe which should be directed to the
volumetric measuring tank on the hydraulics bench.
A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and
pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control
valve, and the bench supply control valve.
NOMENCLATURE
Colum Heading Units Noun Type Description
Volume Collected m
3
V Input Taken from scale on
hydraulics bench. Note: scale
calibrated in liters.
Time to Collect Sec t Input Time taken to collect the
known volume of water in
the hydraulics bench.
Flow Rate m
3
/sec Q
v
Calculated Q
v
=V/t=Volume
Collected/Time to Collect
Manometer
Legend
h
x
Given Manometer identification
labels
Distance into duct m Given Position of manometer
tappings given as distance
from the datum at a tapping
h
1
. See Test Section
Dimensions.
Area of Duct m
2
A Given The area of the duct at each
tapping. See Test Section
Dimensions
Static Head m H Input Measured value from the
appropriate manometer
42
Velocity m/sec V Calculated Velocity of fluid in duct =
Q
v
/A
Dynamic Head m Calculated V
2
/2g See Theory
Total Head m H
0
Calculated H + V
2
/2g See Theory
Distance into
Duct
m Input Position of the Total Head
Probe from the datum at
tapping h
1
Probe Reading h
s
m Input Measuring value taken from
h
8
. This is the head recorded
from the Total Head Probe.
EXPERIMENT A
Objective
To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of
water in a tapered duct.
Method
To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid
convergent/divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.
Equipment
In order to complete the demonstration of the Bernoulli apparatus we need a number of
pieces of equipment.
• The F110 Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume
collection.
• The F115 Bernoulli’s Apparatus Test Equipment.
• A stopwatch for timing the flow measurement (not supplied)
TECHNICAL DATA
The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. If
required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced
with your own measurements.
The dimensions of the plate are described below
Tapping Position Manometer Legend Diameter (mm)
A h
1
25.0
B h
2
13.9
C h
3
11.8
D h
4
10.7
E h
5
10.0
F h
6
25.0
43
Theory – The Bernoulli Equation
The Bernoulli equation represents the conservation of mechanical energy for a steady,
incompressible, frictionless flow.
Where
P = static pressure detected at a side hole, without disturbing the flow.
V = velocity; calculated from v = Q
v
/A m/s
Where A : Tube crosssectional area
Q
v
= V/t m
3
/s, from timed collection of volume V over time t,
and z
1
= z
2
for a horizontal pipe.
The equation may be derived from the Euler Equations by integration.
It may also be derived from energy conservation principles.
Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation is beyond the scope of this theory.
Theory – Other forms of the Bernoulli Equation
If the tube is horizontal the difference in height can be disregarded,
z
1
= z
2
Hence
With the Armfield F115 apparatus, the static pressure head p, is measured using a
manometer directly from a side hole pressure tapping.
The manometer actually measures the static pressure head, h meters which is related to p
using the relationship:
h = p/g
This allows the Bernoulli equation to be written in a revised form, i.e.:
44
The velocity related portion of the total pressure head is called the dynamic pressure head.
Theory – Total Pressure Head
The total pressure head h
o
, can be measured from the probe with an end hole facing into
the flow such that it brings the flow to rest locally at the probe end.
Thus, h
o
= h + v
2
/2g (meters) and, from the Bernoulli equation, it follows that
h
o
1
= h
o
2
.
Theory – Velocity Measurement
The velocity of the flow is measured by measuring the volume of the flow, V, over a time
period, t. Thus gives the rate of volume flow: Q
v
= V/t m
3
/s, which in turn gives the
velocity of the flow through a defined area, A i.e.
v = Q
v
/ A
Theory – Continuity Equation
For an incompressible fluid, conservation of mass requires that volume is also conserved.
A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
Procedure – Equipment Set Up
Level the apparatus.
Set up the Bernoulli equation apparatus on the hydraulic bench so that its base is
horizontal; this is necessary for height measurement from the manometers.
Set the direction of the test section
Ensure that the test section has the 14
o
tapered section converging in the direction of flow.
If you need to reverse the test section, the total pressure head probe must be withdrawn
before releasing the mounting couplings.
Connect the water inlet and outlet
Ensure that the rig outflow tube is positioned above the volumetric tank, in order to
facilitate timed volume collections. Connect the rig inlet to the bench flow supply; close
the bench valve and the apparatus flow control valve and start the pump. Gradually open
the bench valve to fill the test rig with water.
Bleeding the manometers
In order to bleed air from pressure tapping points and manometers, close both the bench
valve, the rig flow control valve and open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from
the adjacent air valve. Connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the
volumetric tank. Now, open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometers to
purge all air from them; then, tighten the air bleed screw and partly open the bench valve
and test rig flow control valve. Next, open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to
enter the top of the manometers (you may need to adjust both values in order to achieve
this). Retighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a convenient height. The
45
maximum volume flow rate will be determined by the need to have the maximum (h
1
)
and minimum (h
5
) manometer readings both on the scale.
If required, the manometer levels can be adjusted further by using the air bleed screw and
a hand pump supplied. The air bleed screw controls the air flow through the air valve, so,
when using the hand pump, the bleed screw must be open. To retain the hand pump
pressure in the system, the bleed screw must be closed after pumping.
Procedure – Taking a set of results
Readings should be taken at 3 flow rates. Finally, you may reverse the test section in
order to see the effects of a more rapid converging section.
Setting of flow rate
Take the first set of readings at the maximum flow rate, and then reduce the volume flow
rate to give the h
1
– h
5
head difference of about 50 mm. Finally repeat the whole process
for one further flow rate, set to give the h
1
h
5
difference approximately half way between
that obtained in the above two tests.
Reading the static head
Take readings of the h
1
h
5
manometers when the levels have steadied. Ensure that the
total pressure probe is retracted from the test section.
Timed volume collection
You should carry out a timed volume collection, using the volumetric tank, in order to
determine the volume flow rate. This is achieved by closing the ball valve and measuring
(with the stopwatch) the time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid for at least
one minute to minimize timing errors. Repeat this measurement twice to check for
repeatability. Again the total pressure probe should be retracted from the test section
during these measurements.
Reading the total pressure head distribution
Measure the total pressure head distribution by traversing the total pressure probe along
the length of the test section. The datum line is the side hole pressure tapping associated
with the manometer h
1
. A suitable starting point is 1 cm upstream of the beginning of the
14
o
tapered section and measurements should be made at 1 cm intervals along the test
section length until the end of the divergent (21
o
) section.
Reversing the test section
Ensure that the total pressure probe is fully withdrawn from the test section ( but not
pulled out of its guide in the downstream coupling). Unscrew the two couplings, remove
the test section and reverse it then reassemble by tightening the coupling.
46
Volume
Collected
V (m
3
)
Time to
Collect
t (sec)
Distance
into Duct
(m)
Area of
Duct
A (m
2
)
Static
Head
h
(m)
velocity
v (m/s)
Dynamic
head
(m)
Total
head
h
o
(m)
1 h
1
0.00 490.9 x
10
6
2 h
2
0.0603 151.7 x
10
6
3 h
3
0.0687 109.4 x
10
6
4 h
4
0.0732 89.9 x
10
6
5 h
5
0.0811 78.5 x
10
6
6 h
6
0.1415 490.9 x
10
6
47
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 7. Fluid Friction in Pipes
INTRODUCTION
This apparatus is designed to allow the detailed study of the fluid friction head losses
which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes, bends, valves and pipe
flow metering devices.
Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can be investigated over a range of
Reynolds’ numbers from 10
3
to nearly 10
5
thereby covering the laminar, transitional and
turbulent flow regimes in smooth pipes. In addition, an artificially roughened pipe is
supplied which, at the higher Reynolds’ numbers, shows a clear departure from the
typical smooth bore pipe characteristics. Pipe friction is one of the classic laboratory
experiments and has always found a place in the practical teaching of fluid mechanics.
The results and underlying principles are of the greatest importance to engineers in the
aeronautical, civil, mechanical, marine, agricultural and hydraulic fields.
Osborne Reynolds distinguished between laminar and turbulent flow in pipes in his
publication in 1883. Ludwig Prandtl, Thomas Stanton and Paul Blasius later analysed
pipe flow data in the early part of this century and produced the plot known as the
Stanton diagram. John Nikuradse extended the work to cover the case of rough pipes and
one such pipe supplied with this equipment has been roughened for flow comparison
purposes. In addition to the smooth and roughened pipes for the study of losses in straight
pipes, a wide range of pipeline components are fitted, including pipe fittings and control
valves, a Venturi tube, an orifice plate assembly and a Pitot tube.
48
DESCRIPTION
All numerical references relate to the ‘General Arrangement of Apparatus’ on page 9.
The test circuits are mounted on a substantial laminate backboard, strengthened by a deep
frame and carried on tubular stands. There are six pipes arranged to provide facilities for
testing the following:
Smooth bore pipes of various diameter (1), (2) and (4)
An artificially roughened pipe (3)
A 90 deg. bend (14)
A 90 deg. elbow (13)
A 45 deg. elbow (8)
A 45 deg. “Y” (9)
A 90 deg. “T” (15)
A sudden enlargement (6)
A sudden contraction (5)
A gate valve (10)
A globe valve (11)
A ball valve (7)
An inline strainer (12)
A Venturi made of clear acrylic (17)
An orifice meter made of clear acrylic (18)
A pipe section made of clear acrylic with a Pitot static tube (16)
Short samples of each size test pipe (19) are provided loose so that the students can
measure the exact diameter and determine the nature of the internal finish. The ratio of
the diameter of the pipe to the distance of the pressure tappings from the ends of each
pipe has been selected to minimise end and entry effects. A system of isolating valves
(V4) is provided whereby the pipe to be tested can be selected without disconnecting or
draining the system. The arrangement allows tests to be conducted on parallel pipe
configurations.
An all GRP floor standing service module incorporates a sump tank (23) and a volumetric
flow measuring tank (22). Rapid and accurate flow measurement is thus possible over the
full working range of the apparatus. The level rise in the measuring tank is determined by
an independent sight gauge (25). A small polypropylene measuring cylinder of 250ml
capacity (28) is supplied for measuring the flow rate under laminar conditions (very low
flows).
49
Ported manometer connection valves (V7) ensure rapid bleeding of all interconnecting
pipework.
The equipment includes a submersible, motordriven water pump (24) and the necessary
interconnecting pipework to make the rig fully self contained. A push button starter (26)
is fitted, the starter incorporating overload and novolt protection. An RCCB (ELCB) is
also incorporated.
Each pressure tapping is fitted with a quick connection facility. Probe attachments with
an adequate quantity of translucent polythene tubing are provided, so that any pair of
pressure tappings can be rapidly connected to one of the two manometers supplied. These
are a mercury manometer (20) and a pressurised water manometer (21).
NOTE: To connect a test probe to a pressure point, simply push the tip of the test
probe into the pressure point until it latches. To disconnect a test probe
from a pressure point, press the metal clip of the side of the pressure point
to release the test probe. Both test probe and pressure point will seal to
prevent loss of water.
GENERAL ARRANGMENT OF APPARATUS
50
INDEX SHEET FOR C6 ARRANGEMENT DRAWING
V1 SUMP TANK DRAIN VALUE
V2 INLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE
V3 AIR BLEED VALVES
V4 ISOLATEING VALVES
V5 OUTLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE (FINE)
V6 OUTLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE (COURSE)
V7 MONOMETER VALVES
1 6 mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIKE
2 10 mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIKE
3 ARTIFICIALLY ROUGHENED TEST PIKE
4 17.5 mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIKE
5 SUDDEN CONTRACTION
6 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT
7 BALL VALVE
8 45 deg. ELBOW
9 45 deg. "Y" JUNCTION
10 GATE VALVE
11 GLOVE VALVE
12 INLINE STRAINER
13 90 deg. ELBOW
14 90 deg. BEND
15 90 deg. "T" JUNCTION
16 PITOT STATIC TUBE
17 VENTURI METER
18 OFFICE METER
19 TEST PIPE SAMPLES
20 1 m MERCURY MONOMETER
21 1 m PRESSURED WATER MOMOMETER
22 VOLUMETRIC MEASURING TANK
23 SUMP TANK
24 SURVICE PUMP
25 SIGHT TUBE
26 PUMP START / STOP
27 SIGHT GAUGE SECURING SCREWS
28 MEASURING CYLINDER (Loose)
29 DUMP VALVE
51
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
Flow rates through the apparatus may be adjusted by operation of outlet flow control
valve (V6).
Simultaneous operation of inlet flow control valve (V2) will permit adjustment of the
static pressure in the apparatus together with the flow rate.
Fine outlet control valve (V5) will permit accurate control at very low flow rates.
Suitable selection and operation of these control valves will enable tests to be performed
at different, independent combinations of flow rate and system static pressure.
Measurement of Flow Rates using the Volumetric Tank
The service module incorporates a moulded volumetric measuring tank (22) which is
stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates.
A stilling baffle is incorporated to reduce turbulence.
A remote sight gauge (25), consisting of a sight tube and scale, is connected to a tapping
in the base of the tank and gives an instantaneous indication of water level. The scale is
divided into two zones corresponding to the volume above and below the step in the tank.
A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator (29). In
operation, the volumetric tank is emptied by lifting the dump valve, allowing the
entrained water to return to the sump (23). When test conditions have stabilised, the
dump valve is lowered, entraining the water in the tank.
Timings are taken as the water level rises in the tank. Low flow rates are monitored on
the lower portion of the scale corresponding to the small volume beneath the step. Larger
flow rates are monitored on the upper scale corresponding to the main tank.
Before operation, the position of the scale relative to the tank should be adjusted as
described in the commissioning section.
When extremely small volumetric flow rates are to be measured, the measuring cylinder
(28) should be used rather than the volumetric tank. When using the measuring cylinder,
diversion of the flow to and from the cylinder should be synchronised as closely as
possible with the starting and stopping of a watch.
Do not attempt to use a definite time or a definite volume.
Operation of the SelfBleeding Manometers
Both the mercury and pressurised water manometers installed on the apparatus are fitted
with quick connection test probes and selfbleeding pipework.
Each pressure point on the apparatus is fitted with a selfsealing connection. To connect a
test probe to a pressure point, simply push the tip of the test probe into the pressure point
52
until it latches. To disconnect a test probe from a pressure point, press the metal clip of
the side of the pressure point to release the test probe. Both test probe and pressure point
will seal to prevent loss of water. Each test probe is connected to the limb of a manometer
via a vented ball valve which is situated over the volumetric tank. In operation, the
connecting valves are set to the 90° position and the test probes screwed onto the required
test points. Pressure in the test pipe, drives fluid along the flexible connecting pipe
pushing air bubbles to the valve where the mixture of air and water is ejected into the
volumetric tank via the vent in the body. In this condition the valve connection to the
manometer remains sealed keeping the manometer fully primed.
When all air bubbles have been expelled at the vent, the valve is turned through 90° to the
live position connecting the test point directly to the manometer.
Prior to removal of the test probe, the valve is returned to the 90° position to prevent loss
of water from the manometer. Using this procedure, the manometers once primed will
remain free from air bubbles ensuring accuracy in readings.
The pressurised water manometer incorporates a Schrader valve which is connected to
the top manifold. This permits the levels in the limbs to be adjusted for measurement of
small differential pressures at various static pressures.
The hand supplied will be required to effect reduction of levels at high static pressures.
Alternatively a foot pump (not supplied) may be used.
EXPERIMENT A  Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe
Objective
To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction and velocity for
flow of water through smooth bore pipes.
Method
To obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates through the three smooth
bore test pipes.
Theory
Professor Osborne Reynolds demonstrated that two types of flow may exist in a pipe.
1) Laminar flow at low velocities where h ∝ u
2) Turbulent flow at higher velocities where h ∝ u
n
These two types of flow are separated by a transition phase where no definite relationship
between h and u exists.
53
Graphs of h versus u and log h versus log u show these zones.
Equipment Set Up
Additional equipment required: Stop watch, Internal Vernier calliper.
Refer to the diagram “General Arrangement of Apparatus”.
Valve Settings
Close V1, 10, V4 in test pipe 3
Open V2,
Open V4 in test pipe 1, V4 in test pipe 2 or 7 in test pipe 4 as required
Open A and B or C and D after connecting probes to tappings
log h
h α u
n
log u
h α u
h
h α u
n
u
h α u
Turbulent
High critical velocity
Lower critical velocity
Laminar flow
54
Taking A Set of Results
Prime the pipe network with water. Open and close the appropriate valves to obtain flow
of water through the required test pipe. Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in
conjunction with flow control valve V6. For small flow rates use the measuring cylinder
in conjunction with flow control valve V5 (V6 dosed). Measure head loss between the
tappings using the mercury manometer or pressurised water manometer as appropriate.
Obtain readings on test pipes 1, 2 and 4.
Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample using a Vernier calliper.
PROCESSING RESULTS
All readings should be tabulated as follows:
Volume
V
Liters
Time
T
Sec
Flowrate
Q
m
3
/s
Pipe dia
d
m
Velocity
u
m/
Head Loss
H
mHg
Head Loss
H
mH2O
Log u
Log h
V x 10
–3
T
4Q
πd
2
(hAhB) (hChD)
or
12.6 H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1. Plot a graph of h versus u for each size of pipe. Identify the laminar, transition and
turbulent zones on the graphs. Confirm that the graph is a straight line for the zone of
laminar flow h α u.
2. Plot a graph of log h versus log u for each size of pipe. Confirm that the graph is a
straight line for the zone of turbulence flow h α u
n
. Determine the slop of the straight
line to find n.
3. Estimate the value of Raynolds number (Re = ρud / µ) at the start and finish of the
transition phase. These two values of Re are called the upper and lower critical velocities.
It is assumed that:
µ is the molecular viscosity = 1.15 x 10
3
Ns/m
2
at 15 °C.
ρ is the density = 999 kg/m
3
at 15°C.
55
Florida International University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics
Experiment 8. Open Channel Flow
OBJECTIVE
Application of the concepts of energy and momentum. The Bernoulli equation will be
applied to determine the discharge underneath a gate. The momentum equation is used to
calculate the thrust force on a gate.
THEORY
1) The discharge underneath a sluice gate is an example of converging flow where there
is negligible friction loss and Bernoulli equation is applicable. The total head at section 1
and 2 in Figure 8.1 is equal to :
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
1 1 1
H
(2g)
V
Z Y
2g
V
Z Y H = + + = + + =
If the bottom is horizontal Z
1
= Z
2
and writing equation in terms of Q:
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
Y 2gb
Q
Y
Y 2gb
Q
Y + = +
Solving for the flow rate yields:
1
Y
Y
2gY bY
Q
2
1
2 1
+
=
b is width of the gate.
2) The force on a sluice gate may be computed by considering the horizontal components
of external forces acting on the control volume in Figure 2. If the force is due to viscous
shear, F
g
is neglected, then, the momentum equation becomes:
1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 g
A V Vx  A V Vx A P  A P F ρ ρ = +
which may be solved for the gate thrust force.
56
Figure 8.1 Cross section of the open channel
Figure 8.2 Cross section of the control volume.
H
2
Datum
Z
1
H
1
Y
1
V
1
2
/ 2g
y
g
y
2
V
2
2
/ 2g
Z
2
F
J
Fp
2
Fp
1
Fg
57
Figure 8.3 Open Channel Flow equipment
Figure 8.4 Open Channel Flow equipment
58
PROCEDURES
1. Adjust flume to provide a horizontal bottom.
2. Adjust gate opening to 20 mm.
3. Adjust flow rate so Y
1
= 230 mm.
4. Measure Y
2.
5. Use pilot tube to measure dynamic pressure at section 2.
6. Repeat the above procedures three times for gate opening of 10, 30 and 40 mm.
RESULTS
1. Compute the flow rates.
2. Compute the trust force on the gate for each of the different gate openings.
3. Compare the trust force Fg obtained in 2) with the trust force computed by
assuming hydrostatic pressure distribution on the gate F
H
. Plot F
g
/ F
H
versus
Y
2
/Y
1
.
Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 1. Measurement of Density INTRODUCTION Faced with the question, “What is a fluid?” you might have difficulty in providing an answer. It is true that nearly everyone accepts all liquids as being fluids, and many add to this gases, but this does not explain how one decides whether a given substance is f1ui or solid. A fluid is any substance which, when acted upon by a shear force, however small, cause a continuous or unlimited deformation, but at a rate proportional to the applied force. Substances which agree with this definition are termed Newtonian fluids and all liquids and gases behave very closely to the Newtonian fluid. DENSITY The density of any substance is defined as the mass per unit volume and is denoted by “ρ.” ∴ρ = mass of substance M = 3 volume occupied by the mass L
since any volume is proportional to a linear dimension cubed. It should be noted that the density of a liquid remains sensibly constant because the volume occupied by a given mass of liquid is almost invariable. But in the case of a gas the density will vary as the volume occupied by a given mass of gas varies. From this it may be deduced that a liquid may be taken as virtually incompressible while, of course, gases are compressible. SPECIFIC WEIGHT The specific weight of any substance is defined as the weight per unit volume and is denoted by “γ.”
γ =
weight of substance .................................................................. 1.1 volume occupied by the weight
Now, since any weight is due to the action of the gravitational acceleration on the mass, then
2
Weight of substance = mass times gravitational acceleration ML = 2 T hence γ =
now M L M ⋅ 2 = 2 2 .............................................................................................. 1.2 3 L T LT
M L = ρ and 2 = g 3 L T
γ = ρ g ............................................................................................................... 1.3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OR RELATIVE DENSITY
The specific gravity or relative density of a substance is defined as the mass of a given volume of a substance divided by the mass of the same volume of water and is denoted by “d.” ∴d = mass of a given volume of substance mass of an equal volume of water
If V is the volume of the substance and of the water p is the density of the substance and p is the density of the water. Then d =
ρs V ρ s = ..................................................................................................... 1.4 ρw V ρw
γ
g
Equation. 1.4 explains why the specific gravity is sometimes termed relative density. since ρ =
d=
γs
g γw
⋅
g
=
γs ............................................................................................... 1.5 γw
THE HYDROMETER
In the Scott Properties of Fluids, Hydrostatics Education System the three properties dealt with in paragraphs 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 are obtained using the hydrometer situated on the extreme right of the apparatus (see Figure 1.1). The principle of the common hydrometer depends upon the fact that when a body floats in a liquid it displaces a volume of liquid whose weight is to the weight of the body. That is, it depends upon Archimedes’ principle which will be dealt with in Section 4.
3
A simple hydrometer may be made, therefore, from a piece of glass tube closed at one end and inside of which is placed a paper scale. A small amount of lead shot, sand or mercury should be placed in the bottom of the tube as shown in Figure. 1.1.
Area A • Hydrometer
Cylinder Iw
Lead Shot
Figure 1.1
First immerse the tube in water and mark on the paper scale the length immersed. Then repeat by immersing the tube in another liquid, and again marking the length immersed. If lw length immersed in water of density ρw and ll = length immersed in liquid of density ρl = dρw then weight of water displaced = ρw g ⋅ A ⋅ lw (where A = cross section area of glass tube) weight of liquid displaced = ρ1 g ⋅ A⋅ ll = dρw g ⋅ A ⋅ ll From Archimedes’ principle the weight of tube = weight of water displaced weight of liquid displaced. ∴ρw g ⋅ A ⋅ lw = dρw g ⋅ A ⋅ lw
4
∴d =
l w depth immersed in water = ll depth immersed in liquid
If then, the depth of immersion in water is marked on the paper scale as 1.00 and for the l liquid ( l ⋅ w ), by using a number of different liquids a scale may be constructed to read ll specific gravities directly.
TEST 1 Measurement of Densities, Specific Gravities and Weights Object Apparatus
To determine densities, specific gravities and weights of various liquids. The hydrometer, see Figure 1.3
Hydrometer
Measuring Cylinder Container Liquid
Lead Shot
Figure 1.2
5
(a) Fill measuring cylinder with sufficient water to float hydrometer and check that the scale marking corresponding to depth of immersion reads 1.00. glycerol. Hydrometer in water. temperature_____°C. and castor oil. (b) Fill three measuring cylinders with the liquids to be tested with sufficient of the liquids to float the hydrometer and note for each liquid the scale reading.Figure 1. Note: It is suggested that the liquids should be those to be used in Test 2 for determining the viscosity of liquids: an engine oil. See Paragraph 1. Results Barometric pressure______mm of Hg.5 for the principle on which the instrument works. Analysis Method The specific gravity is read directly from scale. Liquid Water Glycerol Mobil Oil Scale Reading = Specific gravity (d) 6 .3.
1. Liquid Water Glycerol Mobil Oil gm/ml Density (ρ) lb/ft3 slug/ft3 Specific weight Liquid Water Glycerol Mobil Oil γ = ρg (Equation 1.6 = 62. Data converted to density (ρ) since d = density of liquid ρ l = density of water ρ w (Eqn.2.48) 3 lb/ft3 453.4 lb/ft3 1 slug = 32.3) Specific Weight (γ) dyne/ml lb/ft3 7 .4) ∴ρl = d ρw and ρw = = *Note: 1 gm/ml = 1.94 slug/ft3 * 1 ⋅ (30.1740 lbs.
the viscosity decreases as temperature rises. 2. the viscosity of gases. There can be no slip or motion relative to any solid boundary. whereas with liquids. Since viscosity depends on the combined effect of molecular activity and cohesion. particularly at low temperatures. dy 8 . Consider an element of fluid as shown in Figure 2.1 Let the one face of the element move with a velocity u and the other with a velocity u + du.1. in which the effect of cohesion is small. du u + du dy u dx Figure 2. To obtain a measure of viscosity it is necessary to consider the viscous flow of a fluid and the following two assumptions must be made: 1. or the transverse velocity du gradient = . has a greater effect than molecular activity. Measurement of Viscosity INTRODUCATION The viscosity of a fluid is that property of the fluid. The shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of shear perpendicular to the motion. which resists the action of a shear force. because the greater cohesion.Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 2. increases as temperature rises. Then the rate of shear perpendicular to the motion.
..... the shear stress Therefore.... 2............................ τ τ ∝ du dy = µ du/dy ......... e.......................................∴From assumption 2.... 1.. and if one plate is moved parallel to its surface at unit velocity relative to the other...... then the force per unit area acting on either plate...... By arranging for the transverse velocity gradient to be numerically equal to unity Maxwell defined the coefficient of viscosity as follows: If two planes surfaces are placed parallel to one another and at unit distance apart......................................... .......1 where µ is a coefficient of proportionality termed the coefficient of viscosity................3 ρ M L3 = LT M = L2 T The kinematic viscosity is expressed as a linear dimension squared per unit of time..... 2.........6 µ =τ = = dy force linear dimension = ⋅ du area velocity mass ⋅ acceleration linear dimension ⋅ area velocity M M T ⋅ 2 ⋅L⋅ 2 L L T M ..................g........ 2.. in the form of a resistance to motion is numerically equal to the coefficient of viscosity of the fluid..... or cm ⋅ s ft ⋅ s ft ⋅ s µ= Thus the coefficient of viscosity is expressed as a unit of mass per unit of length and time............... From Equation................................... 9 ................2 LT gm lb slug ............................... An alternative measure of viscosity is the kinematic viscosity which is denoted by ν= µ .. the space between them being completely filled with fluid.........................
or s s gm cm 2 Note: µ expressed in is termed poises * and ν expressed in is termed stoke.e. ** cm ⋅ s s * One p = 1 dyn * s/cm2 ** One st = 0. Three situated at the right hand side of the test rig (Figure 2.g. 175 ball FB FV W Falling Sphere Viscometer 25 0 Figure 2.2 10 .0001 m2 /s TEST 1 Objective Measurement of Viscosity To determine the viscosity of various fluids at atmospheric pressure and temperature. cm 2 ft 2 . The stop clock and hydrometer.2). Apparatus The falling sphere( ball) viscometer.
the weight of the ball W b. ∴W – FB – FV = 0 4 The weight of the ball W = ρ s g π r³ 3 4 The buoyant force FB = ρ f g π r³ 3 The viscous force FV = 6πµru from Stokes Law where ρS = density of ball r = radius of sphere ρ f = density of fluid µ = coefficient of viscosity u = mean velocity of ball Therefore. the buoyant force or upthrust FB c.ρf g4πr³ . when the ball is moving with a uniform velocity u. ρs g4πr³ . the viscous force resisting motion FV Since the velocity of fall is uniform. The fluids under test being (a) (b) (c) An Engine Oil (Castrol XXL) Glycerol Castor Oil Note: Since glycerol absorbs moisture easily from the atmosphere. the forces acting on the sphere are as follows: a. 11 .2.6πµru = 3 3 0 µ= 4π r 3 g (ρ s − ρ f ) = 2 r 2 g (ρ s − ρ f 36π r u 9 u ) Method (a) Fill the three tubes with the fluids under test to a level just below the exit from the capillary tube as shown in Figure 2.Analysis From Figure 2. the algebraic sum of these forces must be zero.2. a small amount of cotton wool should be placed in the top of the capillary tube if the tube is left full for any length of time.
Results Barometric pressure _____ mm Hg.5 mm.5 mm _____. (c) Record the time for each ball to fall between the fixed marks 175 to 100 (mm). Measured diameter of balls 1 mm _____. Time Time to fall using 2 mm ball Avg. Temperature_____°C.5 mm ball Mean velocity of ball u u = = Distance through which ball falls average time (t) 7. 2 mm_____ .25 0. (d) Using hydrometer obtain the specific gravity of each fluid. Time Avg.89 1. 1. Suggested nominal size of balls 1 mm. Meter Reading (inch) Average (inches) Average Diameter (mm) Set of the Balls 1 2 3 Specific gravity of steel: 7.(b) Use three bails of different diameters with each fluid.. l. Time to fall Time using 1. 2 mm.8 Specific gravity of fluids: Castor XXL Glycerol Castor Oil Fluid Castrol XXL Glycerol Castor Oil Time to fall using 1 mm ball 0.5 t where t = average time 12 . measure diameters of the balls.95 Avg.
TEST 2 A. graduated cylinder. please determine Determine the viscosity of glycerol (C3H5(OH)3) which has a Specific Gravity of 1. first mark the cylinder with two pieces of drafting tape a at known distance apart.’ and then averaging a minimum of four balls per set.Then µ = 2 r2g ( ρs . And with a smaller size the ball cannot be seen falling through the oil. Measure the time of travel of 3 balls from each of the 3 smaller sets of balls as they individually fall through the liquid along a known distance in a 250 ml. Further. Follow the above method 1 through 3. since it is considerably less viscous than either castor oil or glycerol. because the time is so short.4381 grams. E. Average and compare with theoretical values.5 mm ball can be used. 3. B. To accomplish this. (at least one inch down from the surface of the 1i and an inch above the bottom). Determine the viscosity of water using the smallest balls and the large (3foot) cylinder. temperature) Notes on reading a 1 inch (tenthousandths) caliper: 13 . D. the accuracy must be suspect. by the following method: 1.249 at 25 degrees C. only 1.ρf) 9 u and kinematic viscosity ϑ = µ/ρ Fluid Castrol XXL Glycerol Castor Oil Coefficient of Viscosity µ (poise) Average µ Kinematic viscosity ϑ Check from standard tables the accuracy of the results obtained for Glycerol and Castor Oil. C. As usual note laboratory conditions (ie. Note that with the engine oil. 2. Ten large balls weigh 10. Computing Viscosity (Falling Sphere Viscometer) Determine diameters of 4 sets of different size steel balls by measuring with a ‘Ten—Thousandth Micrometer Caliper. Then measure the time it takes for each ball to travel between the marks. With a larger size ball the time to fall 75 mm is too short.
hence (0. If not exact. Each of the major divisions is divided into four subdivisions. per division).001 inch per division) and is measured where the horizontal line an the sleeve lines up with the thimble divisions. 3.1 in. This added to the above measurement. There are ten major divisions per inch on the sleeve. The thimble (rotating part) is divided into 25 divisions (0. per division) . The Vernier scale located above the inch scale on the sleeve of the instrument contains numbers from 0 through 9 to 0 (or ten) .025 in.1. hence (0. 2. These determine the tenthousandth off an inch and are measured by matching the ‘horizontal’ lines on the vernier with the lines on the thimble. 14 . The line number on the vernier scale which matches with the line an the thimble represents the Tenthousandth reading and is added to the total. 4. chose the lowest value. These 1 to 25 thousandths are added to the total to determine length to the nearest thousandths.
15 . these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behavior of the fluid. dynamics and thermodynamics. The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus.1 Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus. Hydrostatic Pressure INTRODUCTION Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statics. The Hydraulics Bench Description service module. in each application. Flb.Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 3. provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory. A full description of the apparatus is given later in these texts. DESCRIPTION Figure 3. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass. energy and momentum and. Fl12. Fl12. to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media.
Given. Given. NOMENCLATURE Column Heading Height of quadrant Width of quadrant Length of balance Quadrant to Pivot Mass Depth of Immersion Units M M M M Kg M Nom Type D B L H m d Input Input Input Input Input Input Description Given. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. Partially Submerged Body Trust N F Calculated F = (ρ g Bd 2 ) 2 2ndMoment Experiment M h” Calculated h” = h” = 2mL ρ Bd 2 Hd 3 2ndMoment Theory M h” Calculated 16 . See Theory for diagram of apparatus. Correct alignment is indicated by a circular spirit level mounted on the base of the tank.A fabricated quadrant is mounted on a balance arm which pivots on knife edges. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. only the force on the rectangular face end gives rise to a moment about the knife edge axis. Weights applied to the balance arm pan Given. Thus. The clear acrylic tank may be leveled by adjusting the screwed feet. an adjustable counterbalance and an indicator which shows when the arm is horizontal. Given. of the hydrostatic forces acting on the quadrant when immersed. The line of contact of the knife edges coincides with the axis of the quadrant. The water supply may be obtained from the hydraulic bench. The water level is indicated on a scale. Water is admitted to the top of the tank by flexible tube and may be drained through a cock in the base. In addition to the quadrant clamping screw the balance arm incorporates a balance pan.
To determine the position of the line of action of the thrust and to compare the position determined by experiment with the theoretical position. • A jug (not supplied). 17 . Equipment In order to complete the demonstration we need a number of pieces of equipment. • The F110 Hydraulics Bench • The F112 Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus • A set of weights.Fully Submerged Body Trust N F Calculated F = ρ gBD d mL D 2 2ndMoment Experiment M h” Calculated h” = ρ BD d M h” Calculated h” = D 2 2 2ndMoment Theory D2 D + d12 2 D d2 + Hd EXPERIMENT A Objectives • • To determine the hydrostatics thrust acting on a plane immersed in water. The forces acting are the weight force applied to the balance and the hydrostatic pressure thrust on the end face of the quadrant. Method By achieving an equilibrium condition between the moments acting on the balance arm of the test apparatus.
If required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurement.074 D = 0. C P D D P.200 m m m m F112 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Theory Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions. L B H C. where: 18 . Whilst the theory for the party submerged and fully submerged plane is the same.275 H = 0.TECHNICAL DATA The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. it will be clearer to consider the two cases separately. Width of quadrant Height of quadrant Length of balance Quadrant to Pivot B = 0.100 L = 0. this nomenclature will be used throughout this theory discussion.
1. This nomenclature will be used throughout this theory discussion. _ 19 . P. D is the height of quadrant face. h” is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot. P is the Center of Pressure on the quadrant face. B is the width of quadrant face. P. This line of action passes through the center of pressure. C is the centroid of the quadrant. Pivote H C h C P _ B where: d is the depth of submersion F is the h h is the depth of the centroid h’ is the depth of Center of Pressure. H is the vertical distance between the bottom of the quadrant face and the pivot arm. Partly Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theory Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions.L is the horizontal distance between the pivot and the balance pan. in addition to those shown earlier.
.. By use of the parallel axes theorem Ix = Ic + A h _ 2 20 .. can be defined as M = Fh’’ (Nm) A balancing moment is produced by the weight..2 Equilibrium Condition The Moment.......1) 1... applied to the hanger at the end of the balance arm.3 Theoretical Depth of Centre of Pressure The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure P.1 Thrust on Surface The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as F = ρ gA h (Newtons) where as and hence A = Bd h=C= _ _ d 2 F = ρg Bd 2 2 ….(3.2) Ah where Ix is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the freesurface.....…………………………………. For static equilibrium the two moments are equal...........1...... below the freesurface is h' = Ix .(3.......... The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm. L.... That is Fh’’ = WL = mgL By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust........... F from (1) we have h'= ' mgL 2mL = = (m) F ρBd 2 1. W...... M...
....3) 3 ( ) The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot point is h’’ = h’ + H – d (m) .... P..... This nomenclature will be used throughout this theory discussion........ This line of action passes through the center of pressure................ h” is the distance of the line of action of thrust below the pivot.....(3........(3....... Fully Submerged Vertical Plane Surface Theory Below is a diagrammatic representation of the apparatus defining the physical dimensions...4) substitution of (3) into (2) and thence to (4) yields the theoretical result of : d 3 h' H − ' = 2.. Pivote d h C _ h’ h C P where: d is the depth of submersion F is the h h is the depth of the centroid h’ is the depth of Center of Pressure........... P......... _ 21 ........Ix = Bd 3 d + Bd 12 2 2 = Bd 3 4 m . in addition to those shown earlier........
.. By use of the parallel axes theorem Ix = Ic + A h 2 D2 D I x = BD + d− 12 2 2 _ (m ) 4 The depth of the centre of pressure below the pivot point is 22 .. P.. applied to the hanger at the end of the balance arm.2..... F from (5) we have h'= ' mL D ρ BD d 2 (m) 2. M. L. For static equilibrium the two moments are equal....... The moment is proportional to the length of the balance arm.... below the free.....(3....... can be defined as M=Fh’’ (Nm) A balancing moment is produced by the weight.5) 2 2.... W....2 Equilibrium Condition The Moment.surface is h' = Ix Ah where Ix is the 2nd moment of area of immersed section about an axis in the freesurface.1 Thrust on Surface The hydrostatic thrust F can be defined as F = ρ gA h = ρ gBD d _ D (Newtons) .. That is Fh’’ = WL = mgL By substitution of the derived hydrostatic thrust..3 Theoretical Depth of Centre of Pressure The theoretical result for depth of centre of pressure....
. Repeat the procedure in reverse. above the water level. Add water until the balance arm is horizontal..... Ensure that there is no water spilled on the upper surfaces of the quadrant or the sides. Ensure that the drain valve is closed... Record carefully factors which you think are likely to affect the accuracy of your results. Level the tank using the adjustable feet and the integral spirit level.... Read the depth of immersion from the scale on the face of the quadrant..... Continue until the water level reaches the top of the upper scale on the quadrant face.. Continue to add water until the hydrostatic thrust on the endface of the quadrant causes the balance arm to rise. Move the counter balance weight until the balance arm is horizontal... and obtain the equilibrium position by opening the drain cock to allow a small outflow from the tank. Locate the weight hanger in the groove at the end of the balance arm...... 2.. Equipment Calibration Measure the dimension B..... 23 .. Equipment Set Up Position the empty plastic tank on a horizontal. you may find it easier to slightly over fill the tank. rigid bench and position the balance arm on the knife edges..4) substitution as before yields the theoretical result of : D2 D + d− 12 2 h' = ' D d− 2 2 H −d Procedure 1....... to avoid the effects of surface tension........ by progressively removing the weights..(3. 3. Repeat the above procedure for each increment in load produced by adding a further weight to the weight hanger.h’’ = h’ + H – d (m) . Taking a Set of Results Add a small mass to the weight hanger.. pour water into the tank through the triangular aperture adjacent to the pivot point.. Using the jug. D of the quadrant endface and the distance H and L. more accurate results can be obtained from reading below the surface..
For both (1) and (2) above. 24 . Comment on and explain the discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results for the depth of center of pressure.PROCESSING RESULTS All readings should be tabulated as follows: Height of Width of Length of Quadrant Quadrant Quadrant Balance to Pivot D B L H (m) (m) (m) (m) Mass m (kg) Depth of Thrust 2nd Moment 2nd Moment Experiment Theory Immersion F h" d h" (N) (m) (m) (m) Thrust F (N) 2nd Moment 2nd Moment Experiment Theory h" h" (m) (m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 APPLICATON OF THEORY Comment on the variation of thrust with depth. comment on what happens when the plane has become fully submerged. Comment on the relationship between the depth of the center of pressure and the depth of immersion.
1 Metacentric Height Apparatus. (Sketch) 25 . F114. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass. The hydraulics bench service module.Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 4. This consists of a pontoon whose centre of gravity may be varied A full description of the apparatus is given later in these texts. Metacentric Height INTRODUCTION Fluid mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statics. dynamics and thermodynamics. in each application. to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. F110. provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory. DESCRIPTION Mast Sliding Mass Plumb Line Degree Scale θ Adjustable Mass Pontoon Linear Scale Figure 4. energy and momentum and. The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the MetaCentric Height Apparatus. these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.
This heel is controlled by a traversely adjustable mass. Given. 26 . The weight of pontoon with the traverse weight applied. A plumb line. attached to the top of the mast. F114. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. which may be adjusted to vary the position of the centre of gravity of the pontoon. whose position is indicated on a linear scale. See Theory for diagram of apparatus. NOMENCLATURE Column Heading Pontoon Length Pontoon Width Pontoon Height Total Weight Units m m m kg Nom l b d W Type Input Input Input Input Description Given. with a vertical mast. The apparatus may be used on the hydraulics bench by filling the volumetric tank.Figure 4. The vertical mast carries a sliding mass. The apparatus comprises a rectangular pontoon. using the flexible bench supply pipe connected to the bench outlet. Given.2 Metacentric Height Apparatus. is used to measure the angle of heel of the pontoon in conjunction with a degree scale.
Note: it is a condition for stable equilibrium that M remains higher than G. Measured on the scale. Method The centre of gravity of the pontoon assembly can be varied by adjusting the position of a sliding mass on the mast. Input Measured from the plumb line. 27 . Input The center of gravity value is established as described in Equipment Set Up. Calculated W+P 1 di = * lb 1000 2 Calculated d b GM = y. Calculated Px GM = cotθ W Input Input EXPERIMENT A Objective To locate the position of the Metacentre (M) of a floating body. by determining its distance from the centre of gravity (G). the metacentric height (GM) can be determined experimentally by measuring the angle of heel (θ) produced at each position of a movable mass. • The F110 Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection. this distance (GM) is known as the Metacentric Height. The value required is the distance from the base of the pontoon.i 12d i 2 The distance of the traverse weight from the center of the pontoon. For a fixed position of the centre of gravity. as it is traversed across the width of the pontoon. Equipment In order to complete the demonstration of the Metacentric Height apparatus we need a number of pieces of equipment.Traversing Weight Center of Gravity kg m P y Depth of Immersion Metacentric Height (Based of geometry and depth of immersion) Position of Traversing Weight Angle of tilt Metacentric Height (from including experiment) m m m degree di GM x θ GM The weight applied to the traverse arm.
200 d = 0. For stable equilibrium. 28 . if required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurements. M must be above G. Weigh Balance (not supplied) TECHNICAL DATA The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. (which acts through the centre of gravity G) must be equal to the buoyancy force which acts through the centre of buoyancy B. Pontoon length Pontoon width Pontoon height l = 0. For static equilibrium of the pontoon.• • The F114 Metacentric Height Apparatus. the metacentre M is identified as the point of intersection between the line of action of the buoyancy force (always vertical) and BG extended. When the pontoon heels through a small angle. which is located at the centroid of the immersed crosssection. M M G di B b di/2 G Y B B’ (a) For adjustable position traversed weight experiments:Metacentric height. W.350 b = 0.075 m m m THEORY Theoretical results given here are derived in many firstlevel fluid mechanics textbooks. the total weight.
It is at distance di / 2 from base. and x = distance between the movable mass and the mast of the pontoon.. as the pontoon heels. can be determined by calculation.………………(1) where P = weight of movable mass and the mast of the pontoon.i 12d i 2 29 . This immersed volume. V. BM. is defined as GM = BM . d b2 GM = y. L is the length of the pontoon. the following result is obtained.GM = Px cotθ as θ tends to 0 W …………………………. Since the buoyancy force (upthrust) is equal to the total weight. G. is at a distance y above the base. The center of gravity.. (b) Based upon geometry and depth of immersion The Metacentric height.BG The Metacentric radius. GM. can be defined as BM where I = = I/V Lb3 / 12 I is the second moment of area of the plane of floating about an axis through the centroid perpendicular to the plane of rotation. W. of pontoon and its load then Vρg = W The depth of immersion (di) can then be found from V = Lbdi The Point B is at the centroid of the immersed area. By substitution from above. B is the width of the pontoon and V is the immersed volume.
adjusting the position of the suspension point until the mast direction becomes horizontal. The position of G can be determined by: • • Use of a knifeedge. then remove the filling tube from the tank (to prevent backsiphoning through to the main tank). Fill the hydraulic bench volumetric tank with water. Edge of steel rule or tensioned string Measure the distance of G from the base of the pontoon and record this distance. then adjust the tilt of the mast mounting (by slackening securing screws which pass through slotted holes) to give θ = 0. Float the pontoon in the tank and measure the immersed depth. locate the 30 . Change the position of the pontoon centre of gravity by moving the sliding mass up the mast. Repeat this procedure traversing the mass to the left of centre. Position the sliding mass on the mast to give the location of the centre of gravity (G) for the whole assembly at the level of the top of the pontoon. mast and both masses and determine the total weight (W). For each new position of G. y. used for traversing across the pontoon width. kg). for comparison with the calculated value (see Theory).Taking a Set of Results Move the traversing mass to the central position in the pontoon.Procedure .Equipment Set Up Weigh the traversable mass (= P. Tying a light string tightly around the mast and carefully allowing the whole assembly to be suspended from it. di. repeat the above test and determine the metacentric height. Assemble the pontoon. Hence. Procedure . Traverse the mass to the right in 10 mm increments to the end of the scale and note the angular displacement (0) of the plumb line for each position. Suggested positions are at the maximum height and then a location midway between maximum height and the position used in the first test. GM.
Comment on why the values of GM at lowest levels of θ are likely to be less accurate. using the results from all three tests. Explain how unstable equilibrium might be achieved. 31 .position of the metacentre M (= y + GM) from the base of the pontoon. PROCESSING RESULTS All readings should be tabulated as follows: Pontoon Pontoon length width l b (m) (m) Pontoon height d (m) Total Weight W (kg) Traversing Weight P (kg) Center of Gravity Y (m) Depth of Immersion di (m) Metacentric Position of Angle of Height Mass Tilt x θ GM (m) (m) (m) Metacentric Height GM (m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Application of Theory • • • Comment on the effects of changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre.
dynamics and thermodynamics. 32 . provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory. to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. DESCRIPTION Figure 5. A full description of the apparatus is given later in these texts. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass. The hydraulics bench service module. F121. F121 and Hydraulics Bench Service Module. The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the Flow Meter Test Rig. This consists of a Venturi meter. these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behaviour of the fluid.Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 5. F110. F110. Calibration of Flow Meters INTRODUCTION Fluid mechanics has developed as n analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statics. in each application.1 Flow Meter Test Rig. a variable area meter and an orifice plate installed in a series configuration to allow for direct comparison. energy and momentum and.
Convert to meters for the calculation. The volume is measured in liters. Flow through the test section is regulated using a flow control valve.The accessory is designed to be positioned on the side channels of the hydraulics bench top channel. NOMENCLATURE Column Heading Test Pipe Area Orifice Area Venturi Area Volume Collected Units M2 M2 M2 M3 Nom A1 A2 A2 V Type Given Given Given Measured Description Crosssectional area of the test section. This together with the bench control valve permits variation of the system static pressure. Taken from scale on hydraulics bench. variable area meter and the orifice plate are installed in a series configuration to permit direct comparison. Time to Collect Variable Area Meter Reading hx S 1/min M T Measured Measured Measured Time Flow Rate Variable Area Flow m3/s m3/s Qt Qa Calculated Qt = V = Volume collected t Time to Collect Calculated Convert from instrument reading 33 . Reading from variable area meter scale. This enables the levels in the manometer bank to be adjusted to a convenient level to suit the system static pressure. Crosssectional area of the orifice in the orifice plate meter. Crosssectional area of the narrowest section of the Venturi meter. The pressure tappings for the manometers are arranged to give a set of readings around the flow meters in the system. The value is measured in mm. Convert to cubic meters for the calculation (divide reading by 1000) Time taken to collect the known volume of water in the hydraulics bench. Pressure tappings in the circuit are connected to an eightbank manometer which incorporates an air inlet/outlet valve in the top manifold with facilities to connect a hand pump. Measured value from the appropriate manometer. The setup is detailed elsewhere. The Venturi meter.
h8 Calculated Hv = h1 . Calculated Cd A 2 ∆p Qo = 2 2 ρ A2 1A1 Calculated Cd A 2 ∆p Qv = 2 2 ρ A2 1A1 Column Heading Variation Area % Flow Rate Error Orifice Plate % Flow Rate Error Venturi Meter % Flow Rate Error Variable Area Head Loss Orifice Area Head Loss Venturi Head Loss Timed Flow Rate Squared Units Nom % % % Ha Type Description Calculated ( Qa .Qt/Qt ) * 100 Calculated ( Qt .Qt/Qt ) * 100 Calculated Ha = h4 – h5 Calculated Ho = h6 .000).h3 Calculated Used to demonstrate the relationship between flow rate and losses mm mm mm Ho Hv Qc 2 34 .Qt/Qt ) * 100 Calculated ( Qo .Rate Orifice Plate Flow Rate m /s 3 Qo Venturi Meter Flow Rate m3/s Qt (divide by 60.
For the Venturi Meter Upstream Pipe Meter Hence Cross sectional area of upstream pipe Throat diameter Hence Cross sectional area of throat Upstream Taper Downstream Taper = 0. If required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurements. Equipment In order to complete the demonstration we need a number of pieces of equipment. Method By measurement of volume flow rates and associated pressure losses with three flowmeters connected in series and using timed volume collection to produce a reference measurement of flow rate. • • • The Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection. TECHNICAL DATA The following dimensions are used in the appropriate calculations. including accuracy and energy losses.03175 A = 7.77 x 104 = 21 = 14 m m2 m m2 degrees degrees 35 .92 x 104 = 0.EXPERIMENT A Objective To investigate the operation and characteristics of three different basic types of flowmeter.015 A2 = 1. The F121 Flow Meter Apparatus A stopwatch to allow us to determine the flow rate of water.
h1 – h2 h1 – h3 h4 – h5 h6 – h7 H6 – h 8 Venturi meter reading Venturi loss Variable area meter loss Orifice plate reading Orifice plate loss THEORY Application of the Bernoulli equation yields the following result which applies for both the Venturi meter and the orifice plate.92 x 104 = 0.03175 A = 7. g is the acceleration due to gravity. Volume flow rate Q v = Cd A 2 1A2 A1 2 2 ∆p ρ where 2 ∆p ρ = 2 g∆ h and ∆h is the head difference in m determined from the manometer readings for the appropriate meter. 36 . in m Cd is the discharge coefficient for the meter.For the Orifice Plate Upstream Pipe Meter Hence Cross sectional area of upstream pipe Throat diameter Hence Cross sectional area of throat = 0.14 x 104 m m2 m m2 The manometers are connected so that the following pressure differences can be obtained. as given below.020 A2 = 3. as given above.
and can be determined from the manometer readings. In order to bleed air from the pressure tapping points and manometers. Values of this coefficient are determined by experiment. as measured from the sightglass. You should collect fluid for at least one minute to minimize timing errors. then secure the end of the pipe to prevent it moving about. Procedure . For this experiment.63 The energy loss that occurs in a pipe fitting (socalled secondary loss) is commonly expressed in terms of a head loss (h.98 For the orifice plate Cd = 0. Connect the inlet pipe to the bench supply and the outlet pipe into the volumetric tank.Equipment Set Up Place the flowmeter test rig on the bench and ensure that it is level (necessary for accurate readings from the manometers). This is achieved by closing the ball valve and measuring (with a stopwatch) the time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid in the tank. metres). open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from the adjacent air valve. open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometer tubes to purge them of air. Connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the volumetric tank. Next.A1 is the area of the test pipe upstream of the meter. These levels can be adjusted further by using the air bleed screw or the hand pump supplied. head losses will be compared against the square of the flow rate used. Repeat this measurement twice to check for consistency and then average the readings. Retighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a convenient height. Start the pump and open the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve. in m2 Use of a discharge coefficient. Check that all manometer levels are on scale at the maximum flow rate (fullscale reading on the variable area meter). Procedure . 37 . Now open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to be drawn into the top of the manometer tubes. is necessary because of the simplif3 assumptions made when applying the Bernoulli equations. in m2 and A2 is the throat area of the meter. to flush the system. close both the bench and test rig valves. record all manometer heights and the variable area meter reading and carry out a timed volume collection using the volumetric tank. the assumed values used in the software are: For the Venturi meter Cd = 0.Taking a Set of Results At a fixed flow rate. Ensure that you understand the operating principle of each of the three flowmeters. Cd. Then tighten air bleed screw and partly open the test rig flow control valve and partly close the bench valve.
Could these differences be due to experimental error? Why does the variable area meter show less variation in head loss with flow rate than the other two meters? 38 .PROCESSING RESULTS All readings should be tabulated as follows: Test Orifice Venturi Volume Time to Variable Pipe Area Area Collected Collect Area Area Meter Reading V t A1 A2 A2 (m2) (m2 ) (m2 ) (m3 ) (sec) 1/min 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 h7 h8 (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) Time Variable Flow Rate Area Flow Rate Qt (m3/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Orifice Plate Flow Rate Qo (m3/s) Qa (m3/s) Venturi Variation Orifice Meter Area % Plate % Flow Flow Flow Rate Rate Rate Error Error Qv (m3/s) (%) (%) Venturi Variable Meter Area % Flow Head Rate Loss Error (%) (Ha) Orifice Plate Head Loss (Ho) Venturi Meter Head Loss (Hv) Timed Flow Rate Squared (Qc2) Application of Theory • • Comment on the differences in accuracy of the meters.
These tappings allow the measurement of static pressure head simultaneously at each of the 6 sections. energy and momentum and. The test section is an accurately machined clear acrylic duct of varying circular cross section. F110. The particular laws involved are those of the conservation of mass. A full description of the apparatus is given later in these texts.Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 6. The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with this experiment is the Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus. to situations in which fluids can be treated as continuous media. Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration INTRODUCTION Fluid Mechanics has developed as an analytical discipline from the application of the classical laws of statics. provides the necessary facilities to support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate a particular aspect of hydraulic theory. It is provided with a number of sidehole pressure tappings which are connected to the manometers housed on the rig. the tapping positions and the test section are shown on the following diagram. F115. To allow the calculation of the dimensions of the test section. these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behavior of the fluid. in each application. The hydraulics bench service module. 39 . dynamics and thermodynamics.
1 Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus. The test section incorporates two unions. All eight pressure tappings are connected to a bank of pressurized manometer tubes. is provided which may be positioned to read the total pressure head at any section of the duct. the total pressure head probe should be fully inserted during transport/storage. this nut should be retightened by hand. Pressurization of the manometers is facilitated by removing the hand pump from its storage location at the rear of the manometer board and connecting its flexible coupling to the inlet valve on the manometer manifold.Figure 6. To prevent damage. This total pressure head probe may be moved after slackening the gland nut. one at either end. 40 . to facilitate reversal for convergent or divergent testing. the total pressure head probe. F115. A hypodermic. An additional tapping is provided to facilitate setting up.
Note: scale calibrated in liters. The inlet pipe terminates in a female coupling which may e connected directly to the bench supply. A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. This base board has feet which may be adjusted to level the apparatus. The area of the duct at each tapping. the apparatus is mounted on a base board which is stood on the work surface of the bench. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control valve. NOMENCLATURE Colum Heading Units Volume Collected m3 Noun V Type Input Description Taken from scale on hydraulics bench.In use. A level glass is provided as part of the base. and the bench supply control valve. See Test Section Dimensions. Time taken to collect the known volume of water in the hydraulics bench. A flexible hose attached to the outlet pipe which should be directed to the volumetric measuring tank on the hydraulics bench. See Test Section Dimensions Measured value from the appropriate manometer Area of Duct m2 A Given Static Head m H Input 41 . Qv=V/t=Volume Collected/Time to Collect Manometer labels identification Time to Collect Sec t Input Flow Rate Manometer Legend Distance into duct m3/sec Qv hx Calculated Given Given m Position of manometer tappings given as distance from the datum at a tapping h1 .
Equipment In order to complete the demonstration of the Bernoulli apparatus we need a number of pieces of equipment.Velocity Dynamic Head Total Head Distance Duct into m/sec m m m m V Calculated Calculated Velocity of fluid in duct = Qv/A V2/2g See Theory H + V2/2g See Theory Position of the Total Head Probe from the datum at tapping h1 Measuring value taken from h8.9 11. • A stopwatch for timing the flow measurement (not supplied) TECHNICAL DATA The following dimensions from the equipment are used in the appropriate calculations. This is the head recorded from the Total Head Probe. The dimensions of the plate are described below Tapping Position Manometer Legend A h1 B h2 C h3 D h4 E h5 F h6 Diameter (mm) 25.0 42 .0 25.0 13. If required these values may be checked as part of the experimental procedure and replaced with your own measurements. Method To measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.8 10. • The F110 Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection. H0 Calculated Input Input Probe Reading hs EXPERIMENT A Objective To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct. • The F115 Bernoulli’s Apparatus Test Equipment.7 10.
calculated from v = Qv/A m/s Where A :. without disturbing the flow.Theory – The Bernoulli Equation The Bernoulli equation represents the conservation of mechanical energy for a steady. z1 = z2 Hence With the Armfield F115 apparatus. It may also be derived from energy conservation principles. Theory – Other forms of the Bernoulli Equation If the tube is horizontal the difference in height can be disregarded. is measured using a manometer directly from a side hole pressure tapping.: 43 . from timed collection of volume V over time t. The manometer actually measures the static pressure head. frictionless flow. incompressible.e. Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation is beyond the scope of this theory.Tube crosssectional area Qv = V/t m3/s. i. Where P = static pressure detected at a side hole. The equation may be derived from the Euler Equations by integration. h meters which is related to p using the relationship: h = p/ g This allows the Bernoulli equation to be written in a revised form. and z1 = z2 for a horizontal pipe. the static pressure head p. V = velocity.
in order to facilitate timed volume collections.The velocity related portion of the total pressure head is called the dynamic pressure head. A1v1 = A2v2 Procedure – Equipment Set Up Level the apparatus. Bleeding the manometers In order to bleed air from pressure tapping points and manometers. Connect the rig inlet to the bench flow supply. close the bench valve and the apparatus flow control valve and start the pump. tighten the air bleed screw and partly open the bench valve and test rig flow control valve.e. Thus gives the rate of volume flow: Qv = V/t m3/s. the total pressure head probe must be withdrawn before releasing the mounting couplings. close both the bench valve. Theory – Total Pressure Head The total pressure head ho. this is necessary for height measurement from the manometers. open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to enter the top of the manometers (you may need to adjust both values in order to achieve this). t. The 44 . then. v = Qv / A Theory – Continuity Equation For an incompressible fluid. Gradually open the bench valve to fill the test rig with water. Connect the water inlet and outlet Ensure that the rig outflow tube is positioned above the volumetric tank. can be measured from the probe with an end hole facing into the flow such that it brings the flow to rest locally at the probe end. Set up the Bernoulli equation apparatus on the hydraulic bench so that its base is horizontal. from the Bernoulli equation. Retighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a convenient height. open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometers to purge all air from them. Thus. it follows that ho1 = ho2. Theory – Velocity Measurement The velocity of the flow is measured by measuring the volume of the flow. which in turn gives the velocity of the flow through a defined area. A i. Connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the volumetric tank. V. If you need to reverse the test section. conservation of mass requires that volume is also conserved. ho = h + v2/2g (meters) and. Next. Now. over a time period. Set the direction of the test section Ensure that the test section has the 14o tapered section converging in the direction of flow. the rig flow control valve and open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from the adjacent air valve.
Unscrew the two couplings. Setting of flow rate Take the first set of readings at the maximum flow rate. remove the test section and reverse it then reassemble by tightening the coupling. Procedure – Taking a set of results Readings should be taken at 3 flow rates. Finally repeat the whole process for one further flow rate. so. This is achieved by closing the ball valve and measuring (with the stopwatch) the time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid for at least one minute to minimize timing errors. Reading the static head Take readings of the h1h5 manometers when the levels have steadied. Finally. you may reverse the test section in order to see the effects of a more rapid converging section. The air bleed screw controls the air flow through the air valve. Repeat this measurement twice to check for repeatability. If required. Reversing the test section Ensure that the total pressure probe is fully withdrawn from the test section ( but not pulled out of its guide in the downstream coupling). Again the total pressure probe should be retracted from the test section during these measurements. the bleed screw must be closed after pumping. Reading the total pressure head distribution Measure the total pressure head distribution by traversing the total pressure probe along the length of the test section.maximum volume flow rate will be determined by the need to have the maximum (h1) and minimum (h5) manometer readings both on the scale. in order to determine the volume flow rate. the bleed screw must be open. The datum line is the side hole pressure tapping associated with the manometer h1. set to give the h1h5 difference approximately half way between that obtained in the above two tests. and then reduce the volume flow rate to give the h1 – h5 head difference of about 50 mm. the manometer levels can be adjusted further by using the air bleed screw and a hand pump supplied. A suitable starting point is 1 cm upstream of the beginning of the 14o tapered section and measurements should be made at 1 cm intervals along the test section length until the end of the divergent (21o) section. Ensure that the total pressure probe is retracted from the test section. 45 . Timed volume collection You should carry out a timed volume collection. when using the hand pump. To retain the hand pump pressure in the system. using the volumetric tank.
9 x 106 Static Head h (m) velocity v (m/s) Dynamic head (m) Total head ho (m) 46 .9 x 106 151.0732 0.4 x 106 89.0603 0.7 x 106 109.00 0.9 x 106 78.0811 0.1415 Area of Duct A (m2) 490.Volume Collected V (m3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Time to Collect t (sec) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 h6 Distance into Duct (m) 0.0687 0.5 x 106 490.
Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 7. an orifice plate assembly and a Pitot tube. civil. valves and pipe flow metering devices. bends. In addition to the smooth and roughened pipes for the study of losses in straight pipes. Pipe friction is one of the classic laboratory experiments and has always found a place in the practical teaching of fluid mechanics. mechanical. a wide range of pipeline components are fitted. Osborne Reynolds distinguished between laminar and turbulent flow in pipes in his publication in 1883. John Nikuradse extended the work to cover the case of rough pipes and one such pipe supplied with this equipment has been roughened for flow comparison purposes. Ludwig Prandtl. including pipe fittings and control valves. transitional and turbulent flow regimes in smooth pipes. Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can be investigated over a range of Reynolds’ numbers from 103 to nearly 105 thereby covering the laminar. an artificially roughened pipe is supplied which. marine. Thomas Stanton and Paul Blasius later analysed pipe flow data in the early part of this century and produced the plot known as the Stanton diagram. In addition. 47 . a Venturi tube. shows a clear departure from the typical smooth bore pipe characteristics. The results and underlying principles are of the greatest importance to engineers in the aeronautical. Fluid Friction in Pipes INTRODUCTION This apparatus is designed to allow the detailed study of the fluid friction head losses which occur when an incompressible fluid flows through pipes. agricultural and hydraulic fields. at the higher Reynolds’ numbers.
The ratio of the diameter of the pipe to the distance of the pressure tappings from the ends of each pipe has been selected to minimise end and entry effects. strengthened by a deep frame and carried on tubular stands. (2) and (4) An artificially roughened pipe (3) A 90 deg. “T” (15) A sudden enlargement (6) A sudden contraction (5) A gate valve (10) A globe valve (11) A ball valve (7) An inline strainer (12) A Venturi made of clear acrylic (17) An orifice meter made of clear acrylic (18) A pipe section made of clear acrylic with a Pitot static tube (16) Short samples of each size test pipe (19) are provided loose so that the students can measure the exact diameter and determine the nature of the internal finish. elbow (13) A 45 deg. A system of isolating valves (V4) is provided whereby the pipe to be tested can be selected without disconnecting or draining the system. The arrangement allows tests to be conducted on parallel pipe configurations. “Y” (9) A 90 deg. Rapid and accurate flow measurement is thus possible over the full working range of the apparatus. bend (14) A 90 deg. A small polypropylene measuring cylinder of 250ml capacity (28) is supplied for measuring the flow rate under laminar conditions (very low flows). elbow (8) A 45 deg.DESCRIPTION All numerical references relate to the ‘General Arrangement of Apparatus’ on page 9. 48 . The test circuits are mounted on a substantial laminate backboard. An all GRP floor standing service module incorporates a sump tank (23) and a volumetric flow measuring tank (22). The level rise in the measuring tank is determined by an independent sight gauge (25). There are six pipes arranged to provide facilities for testing the following: Smooth bore pipes of various diameter (1).
To disconnect a test probe from a pressure point. A push button starter (26) is fitted. Probe attachments with an adequate quantity of translucent polythene tubing are provided. The equipment includes a submersible.contained. These are a mercury manometer (20) and a pressurised water manometer (21). the starter incorporating overload and novolt protection. GENERAL ARRANGMENT OF APPARATUS 49 . Each pressure tapping is fitted with a quick connection facility. simply push the tip of the test probe into the pressure point until it latches. so that any pair of pressure tappings can be rapidly connected to one of the two manometers supplied. press the metal clip of the side of the pressure point to release the test probe. motordriven water pump (24) and the necessary interconnecting pipework to make the rig fully self. An RCCB (ELCB) is also incorporated. NOTE: To connect a test probe to a pressure point. Both test probe and pressure point will seal to prevent loss of water.Ported manometer connection valves (V7) ensure rapid bleeding of all interconnecting pipework.
"Y" JUNCTION GATE VALVE GLOVE VALVE INLINE STRAINER 90 deg.INDEX SHEET FOR C6 ARRANGEMENT DRAWING V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 SUMP TANK DRAIN VALUE INLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE AIR BLEED VALVES ISOLATEING VALVES OUTLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE (FINE) OUTLET FLOW CONTROL VALVE (COURSE) MONOMETER VALVES 6 mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIKE 10 mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIKE ARTIFICIALLY ROUGHENED TEST PIKE 17.5 mm SMOOTH BORE TEST PIKE SUDDEN CONTRACTION SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT BALL VALVE 45 deg. BEND 90 deg. ELBOW 90 deg. "T" JUNCTION PITOT STATIC TUBE VENTURI METER OFFICE METER TEST PIPE SAMPLES 1 m MERCURY MONOMETER 1 m PRESSURED WATER MOMOMETER VOLUMETRIC MEASURING TANK SUMP TANK SURVICE PUMP SIGHT TUBE PUMP START / STOP SIGHT GAUGE SECURING SCREWS MEASURING CYLINDER (Loose) DUMP VALVE 50 . ELBOW 45 deg.
To connect a test probe to a pressure point. the position of the scale relative to the tank should be adjusted as described in the commissioning section. independent combinations of flow rate and system static pressure. A stilling baffle is incorporated to reduce turbulence. A dump valve in the base of the volumetric tank is operated by a remote actuator (29). consisting of a sight tube and scale. A remote sight gauge (25). Low flow rates are monitored on the lower portion of the scale corresponding to the small volume beneath the step. Timings are taken as the water level rises in the tank. diversion of the flow to and from the cylinder should be synchronised as closely as possible with the starting and stopping of a watch. entraining the water in the tank. simply push the tip of the test probe into the pressure point 51 . is connected to a tapping in the base of the tank and gives an instantaneous indication of water level.OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES Flow rates through the apparatus may be adjusted by operation of outlet flow control valve (V6). The scale is divided into two zones corresponding to the volume above and below the step in the tank. the measuring cylinder (28) should be used rather than the volumetric tank. the dump valve is lowered. Do not attempt to use a definite time or a definite volume. Suitable selection and operation of these control valves will enable tests to be performed at different. When using the measuring cylinder. Operation of the SelfBleeding Manometers Both the mercury and pressurised water manometers installed on the apparatus are fitted with quick connection test probes and selfbleeding pipework. Simultaneous operation of inlet flow control valve (V2) will permit adjustment of the static pressure in the apparatus together with the flow rate. allowing the entrained water to return to the sump (23). When test conditions have stabilised. Larger flow rates are monitored on the upper scale corresponding to the main tank. Fine outlet control valve (V5) will permit accurate control at very low flow rates. When extremely small volumetric flow rates are to be measured. Measurement of Flow Rates using the Volumetric Tank The service module incorporates a moulded volumetric measuring tank (22) which is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. Each pressure point on the apparatus is fitted with a selfsealing connection. the volumetric tank is emptied by lifting the dump valve. In operation. Before operation.
The pressurised water manometer incorporates a Schrader valve which is connected to the top manifold. Each test probe is connected to the limb of a manometer via a vented ball valve which is situated over the volumetric tank. the valve is turned through 90° to the live position connecting the test point directly to the manometer. When all air bubbles have been expelled at the vent. The hand supplied will be required to effect reduction of levels at high static pressures.until it latches. Pressure in the test pipe. Method To obtain a series of readings of head loss at different flow rates through the three smooth bore test pipes.Fluid Friction in a Smooth Bore Pipe Objective To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid friction and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipes. Theory Professor Osborne Reynolds demonstrated that two types of flow may exist in a pipe. Alternatively a foot pump (not supplied) may be used. the connecting valves are set to the 90° position and the test probes screwed onto the required test points. This permits the levels in the limbs to be adjusted for measurement of small differential pressures at various static pressures. Using this procedure. EXPERIMENT A . In operation. the manometers once primed will remain free from air bubbles ensuring accuracy in readings. the valve is returned to the 90° position to prevent loss of water from the manometer. Prior to removal of the test probe. Both test probe and pressure point will seal to prevent loss of water. 52 . press the metal clip of the side of the pressure point to release the test probe. drives fluid along the flexible connecting pipe pushing air bubbles to the valve where the mixture of air and water is ejected into the volumetric tank via the vent in the body. To disconnect a test probe from a pressure point. 1) 2) Laminar flow at low velocities where h ∝ u Turbulent flow at higher velocities where h ∝ un These two types of flow are separated by a transition phase where no definite relationship between h and u exists. In this condition the valve connection to the manometer remains sealed keeping the manometer fully primed.
Internal Vernier calliper. Valve Settings Close V1. Refer to the diagram “General Arrangement of Apparatus”. h hαun hαu u Turbulent log h hαun High critical velocity Lower critical velocity Laminar flow log u hαu Equipment Set Up Additional equipment required: Stop watch.Graphs of h versus u and log h versus log u show these zones. V4 in test pipe 2 or 7 in test pipe 4 as required Open A and B or C and D after connecting probes to tappings 53 . V4 in test pipe 3 Open V2. 10. Open V4 in test pipe 1.
It is assumed that: µ is the molecular viscosity = ρ is the density = 1. These two values of Re are called the upper and lower critical velocities. Open and close the appropriate valves to obtain flow of water through the required test pipe. Obtain readings on test pipes 1. 2. PROCESSING RESULTS All readings should be tabulated as follows: Volume V Liters Time T Sec Flowrate Q m3/s V x 10 –3 T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pipe dia d m Velocity u m/ 4Q πd 2 Head Loss H mHg (hAhB) Head Loss H mH2O (hChD) or 12. 2 and 4. Plot a graph of log h versus log u for each size of pipe.6 H Log u Log h 1. Estimate the value of Raynolds number (Re = ρud / µ) at the start and finish of the transition phase. 3. Plot a graph of h versus u for each size of pipe.15 x 103 Ns/m2 at 15 °C. transition and turbulent zones on the graphs.Taking A Set of Results Prime the pipe network with water. Measure head loss between the tappings using the mercury manometer or pressurised water manometer as appropriate. Determine the slop of the straight line to find n. 54 . For small flow rates use the measuring cylinder in conjunction with flow control valve V5 (V6 dosed). Identify the laminar. 999 kg/m3 at 15°C. Confirm that the graph is a straight line for the zone of turbulence flow h α un. Measure the internal diameter of each test pipe sample using a Vernier calliper. Confirm that the graph is a straight line for the zone of laminar flow h α u. Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank in conjunction with flow control valve V6.
1 is equal to : H 1 = Y1 + Z1 + V12 V2 = Y2 + Z 2 + 2 = H 2 (2g ) (2g) If the bottom is horizontal Z1 = Z2 and writing equation in terms of Q: Y1 + Solving for the flow rate yields: Q= bY1 2gY2 Y1 +1 Y2 Q2 Q2 = Y2 + 2gb 2 Y12 2gb 2 Y22 b is width of the gate. The total head at section 1 and 2 in Figure 8. The momentum equation is used to calculate the thrust force on a gate. Fg is neglected.P2 A 2 = Vx 2 ρ V2 A 2 .Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 8. 2) The force on a sluice gate may be computed by considering the horizontal components of external forces acting on the control volume in Figure 2. The Bernoulli equation will be applied to determine the discharge underneath a gate. Open Channel Flow OBJECTIVE Application of the concepts of energy and momentum.Vx 2 ρ V1 A 1 which may be solved for the gate thrust force. 55 . the momentum equation becomes: Fg + P1 A 1 . THEORY 1) The discharge underneath a sluice gate is an example of converging flow where there is negligible friction loss and Bernoulli equation is applicable. then. If the force is due to viscous shear.
1 Cross section of the open channel Fg Fp1 FJ Figure 8.V12 / 2g V22 / 2g H1 Y1 H2 yg y2 Z2 Datum Z1 Figure 8. Fp2 56 .2 Cross section of the control volume.
4 Open Channel Flow equipment 57 .Figure 8.3 Open Channel Flow equipment Figure 8.
30 and 40 mm. 58 . 2. RESULTS 1. Adjust flume to provide a horizontal bottom. 3. Adjust gate opening to 20 mm. 6. Adjust flow rate so Y1 = 230 mm. Plot Fg / FH versus Y2/Y1 . 2.PROCEDURES 1. Measure Y2. 5. Repeat the above procedures three times for gate opening of 10. Use pilot tube to measure dynamic pressure at section 2. Compare the trust force Fg obtained in 2) with the trust force computed by assuming hydrostatic pressure distribution on the gate FH. 3. Compute the trust force on the gate for each of the different gate openings. Compute the flow rates. 4.
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