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Armature Reaction and Commutation

Armature Reaction and Commutation

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Armature Reaction and Commutation

Introduction
In a d.c. generator, the purpose of field winding is to produce magnetic field (called main flux) whereas the purpose of armature winding is to carry armature current. Although the armature winding is not provided for the purpose of producing a magnetic field, nevertheless the current in the armature winding will also produce magnetic flux (called armature flux). The armature flux distorts and weakens the main flux posing problems for the proper operation of the d.c. generator. The action of armature flux on the main flux is called armature reaction. In the previous chapter (Sec 1.19), it was hinted that current in the coil is reversed as the coil passes a brush. This phenomenon is termed as commutation. The criterion for good commutation is that it should be sparkless. In order to have sparkless commutation, the brushes should lie along magnetic neutral axis. In this chapter, we shall discuss the various aspects of armature reaction and commutation in a d.c. generator.

2.1 Armature Reaction
So far we have assumed that the only flux acting in a d.c. machine is that due to the main poles called main flux. However, current flowing through armature conductors also creates a magnetic flux (called armature flux) that distorts and weakens the flux coming from the poles. This distortion and field weakening takes place in both generators and motors. The action of armature flux on the main flux is known as armature reaction. The phenomenon of armature reaction in a d.c. generator is shown in Fig. (2.1). Only one pole is shown for clarity. When the generator is on no-load, a small current flowing in the armature does not appreciably affect the main flux J1 coming from the pole [See Fig 2.1 (i)]. When generator is loaded, the current flowing through armature conductors sets up flux f1. Fig. (2.1) (ii) shows flux due to armature current alone. By superimposing f1 and f2, we obtain the resulting flux f3 as shown in Fig. (2.1) (iii). Referring to Fig (2.1) (iii), it is clear that flux density at; the trailing pole tip (point B) is increased while at the leading pole tip (point A) it is decreased. This unequal field distribution produces the following two effects: (i) The main flux is distorted.

A. Fig.A. coincides with G. Clearly.N.1) 2. no e.) is the axis drawn perpendicular tothe mean direction of the flux passing through the centre of the armature. N.2). Flux f3 at full load is. the increase in flux at pole tip B is less than the decrease in flux under pole tip A. is produced in the armature conductors along this axis because then they cut no flux. 2. less than flux f1 at no load.2 (i)]. N. (2.m. As we shall see. it is the axis of symmetry between two adjacent poles. therefore. the brushes must lie along M. saturation sets in. (ii).N.(ii) Due to higher flux density at pole tip B. as shown in Fig. . (2. the weakening of flux due to armature reaction depends upon the position of brushes. the M. Consequently.N. Clearly.2) (ii) The magnetic neutral axis (M. A.A. A.2 Geometrical and Magnetic Neutral Axes (i) The geometrical neutral axis (G. In order to achieve sparkless commutation.) is the axis that bisects the angle between the centre line of adjacent poles [See Fig. With no current in the armature conductors. (2.f. Fig.

Consequently. OF is the vector sum of OF m and OF A as shown in Fig. (i) Fig. 2.A.N.N. the M. The armature conductors to the left of G. However.A. Let us discuss these effects of armature reaction by considering a 2 -pole generator (though the following remarks also hold good for a multipolar generator).A. (iii) Fig. Note that M.N. (2.f. (ii) Fig. producing the main flux is represented in magnitude and direction by the vector OF m in Fig.m.2.f. Due to brush shift.N.N.N.N. from G. is shifted through an angle U. the brushes must lie along the M.3) (ii) shows the flux due to current flowing in armature conductors alone (main poles unexcited). It cross-magnetizes or distorts the main flux.m.f. the combined action of main flux and armature flux shifts the M.A. is always perpendicular to the resultant m. It is clear that armature flux is directed downward parallel to the brush axis.N. Note that OF m is perpendicular to G. (iv) In order to achieve sparkless commutation. The direction of magnetic lines of force can be found by cork screw rule.f. In case of a generator.A.3) (iii) shows the flux due to the main poles and that due to current in armature conductors acting together.N. (2. the M.A.A.f. The result is that armature m.N. The flux across the air gap is uniform.N. In order to achieve sparkless commutation. coincides with G.3) (iv).m.3) (ii). It is because some of the conductors which were earlier under N-pole now come under S-pole and vice-versa.A.f.A. the brushes are shifted through an angle q so as to lie along the new M. (2. the m. The m.m. (2. the brushes have to be moved along the new M.m.3) (iii). the armature reaction produces the following two effects: 1.3) (i) shows the flux due to main poles (main flux) when the armature conductors carry no current. carry current ³in´ (x) and those to the right carry current ³out´ (‡).A. The m. producing the armature flux is represented in magnitude and direction by the vector OF A in Fig.3 Explanation of Armature Reaction With no current in armature conductors.3) (i). FA of the armature is also rotated through the same angle q. is shifted in the direction of rotation of the generator. (2.A.A. (2. when current flows in armature conductors.N. is shifted in the direction of rotation of the machine.. FA will no longer be vertically downward but will be rotated in the . The resultant m.m. Under such a condition.A.N. the M. (2. It demagnetizes or weakens the main f lux. Since M. as shown in Fig.

it is called the crossmagnetizing or distorting component of armature reaction. For this reason.f.m.3) (a) The component Fd is in direct opposition to the m. (2. OFm due to main poles. it is called the demagnetizing or weakening component of armature reaction. Fig. It may be noted that with the increase of armature current.direction of rotation through an angle q as shown in Fig.m. Now FA can be resolved into rectangular components F c and Fd.3) (iv). (b) The component Fc is at right angles to the m. . It has a demagnetizing effect on the flux due to main poles.f. (2. both demagnetizing and distorting effects will increase. For this reason. OF m due to main poles. It distorts the main field.

N. there is only cross-magnetizing effect of armature reaction.N.4) (ii). Consider a 2-pole generator with brushes shifted (lead) Um mechanical degrees from G. (i) The armature conductors USm on either side of G.N. produce flux in direct opposition to main flux as shown in Fig. Thus the conductors lying within angles AOC = BOD = Um at the top and bottom of the armature produce demagnetizing effect.A. when the brushes are shifted from the G.A. .A.N. We shall identify the armature conductors that produce demagnetizing effect and those that produce cross-magnetizing effect.2. position. However. position. the armature reaction will have both demagnetizing and crossmagnetizing effects.A. These are called demagnetizing armature conductors and constitute the Demagnetize-ing ampere-turns of armature reaction (Remember two conductors constitute a turn). (2.4 Demagnetizing and Cross-Magnetizing Conductors With the brushes in the G.

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