You CAN Drav Carloons!

Cnpyright 2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm. A!! rights rcscrvcd wnr!dwidc.
Vcrsinn 1 Octnbcr 2006
Table of Contents
1 You CAN draw cartoons............................................................................ 4
2 Materials Tools and Equipment.................................................................. 7
2.1 Graphite and Pencils............................................................ 7
2.2 Paper................................................................................... 8
2.3 Pens.................................................................................... 8
2.4 Art Suppliers....................................................................... 9
3 Cartoons oI People..................................................................................... 10
3.1 Basics: Outlines................................................................... 10
3.1.1 Method 1: Sausages or Ovals. ..................... 10
3.1.2 Method 2: Sticks. ........................................ 13
3.1.3 Method 3: Combine Sticks and Ovals. ........ 14
3.1.4 Examples oI outline Iigures:......................... 15
3.2 Basics: Make your cartoons move!...................................... 25
3.2.1 Walking:...................................................... 25
3.2.2 Walking Step-By-Step:................................. 27
3.2.3 Running:...................................................... 28
3.2.4 Running Step-By-Step:................................. 30
3.3 Details: Make your cartoons come alive!............................. 32
3.3.1 The Head..................................................... 32
3.3.2 Expression................................................... 37
3.3.3 Eyes............................................................. 38
3.3.4 Nose and Mouth........................................... 40
3.3.5 Hair.............................................................. 42
3.3.6 Additional Examples.................................... 44
3.3.7 Hands and Feet............................................ 46
3.3.8 Foreshortening............................................. 51
3.3.9 Light and Dark............................................. 53
3.4 More Step-By-Step Examples............................................. 57
4 Cartoons oI Animals................................................................................... 62
4.1 Dogs................................................................................... 62
4.1.1 Dog Step-By-Step........................................ 65
4.2 Elephants............................................................................. 69
4.3 Cats..................................................................................... 70
4.3.1 Cat Step-By-Step 1...................................... 70
4.3.2 Cat Step-By-Step 2...................................... 72
4.4 Birds................................................................................... 75
4.5 Horses................................................................................. 76
4.5.1 Horse Step-By-Step..................................... 77
4.6 WolI Step-By-Step.............................................................. 80
4.7 Fish Step-By-Step............................................................... 83
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5 Fantasy Characters...................................................................................... 84
5.1 Dragon Step-by-Step .......................................................... 84
5.2 Grim Reaper Step-by-Step .................................................. 88
5.3 Angel Wings Step-by-Step .................................................. 90
6 Cars And Bikes........................................................................................... 92
6.1 Car Step-By-Step 1............................................................. 92
6.2 Car Step-By-Step 2............................................................. 95
6.3 Bikes................................................................................... 97
7 Drawing Flames.......................................................................................... 98
8 Drawing a Rose.......................................................................................... 100
8.1 How To Draw a Rose viewed Irom above........................... 101
8.2 How To Draw a Rose viewed Irom the side........................ 102
9 Comic Strip Cartoons................................................................................. 103
10 Backgrounds. Perspective And Scale.......................................................... 103
11 Cartoon Business - Make Money From Your Art....................................... 107
12 Final Thoughts............................................................................................ 109
13 Additional Resources.................................................................................. 110
14 Contact Me................................................................................................. 110
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Ynu CAN draw cartnnns
This book is designed lo leach anyone hov lo creale and drav carloon characlers,
and il's a facl lhal vilh some basic lechniques using a smaII number of shapes (vhich
you can uIreudµ drav) and Iols of praclice, you can devise and drav carloons vorlhy
of reprinling in nevspapers and olher pubIicalions.
This book is primariIy aimed al lhe reader vho beIieves lhal he or she "cannol" drav,
and in parlicuIar cannol drav carloons. As a seIf-laughl professionaI arlisl, for many
years I beIieved lhal despile having scnc arlislic laIenl I couId nol make a Iiving from
my hobby, bul I can leII you nov lhal if you uunt lo Iearn hov lo drav carloons you
can.
A number of years ago painling vas lhe form of arl I vished lo pursue, bul feIl I did
nol have lhe arlislic abiIily aher a fev poor iniliaI auempls. Hovever, I soon reaIised
lhal ralher lhan requiring brealhlaking arlislic laIenl, a good painling simpIy
required a basic underslanding and appIicalion of some simpIe ruIes, foIIoved by a
reasonabIe amounl of praclice. Draving carloons is no dißerenl, in parlicuIar
draving carloon peopIe, vhelher aduIls or chiIdren.
This is nol simpIy a book fuII vilh dravings vilh IiuIe or no expIanalion of hov lo
creale lhem, lhis book expIains HOW I drav carloons and lhe melhod used. There
are many dravings in lhe book bul lhe purpose here is lo shov you hov lo appIy lhe
same principIes over and over again, and is presenled in lhis vay because I loo used
lo hnd il reIaliveIy easy lo copy someone eIses dravings bul aIvays had greal
dißcuIly knoving hov lo slarl my ovn. This is vhy lhis book vas crealed. Can you
drav a very rough circuIar or ovaI shape Iike lhis`
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Of course you can! And so you can aIso drav carloons. You can creale aImosl any
person or scene |usl by using lhe same slep-by-slep melhods each lime. Greal laIenl
vouId be vonderfuI lo have, bul lhe exceplionaIIy laIenled arlisls viII simpIy be abIe
lo drav much quicker and vilh Iess reIiance on lhe basic buiIding bIocks. They viII
drav moslIy inslincliveIy, parlIy due lo laIenl, parlIy from experience, bul lhe same
eßecl can be achieved by lhe beginner vilh some praclice and by foIIoving some
simpIe guideIines.
Try redraving aII lhe exampIes in lhis book using lhe melhods shovn, and lhen lry
lo creale nev carloons performing various lasks and in dißerenl poses and posilions.
You viII iniliaIIy lhink you cannol do il bul persevere. Il's imporlanl lo keep
draving, hrsl lhe exampIes in lhe book, lhen your ovn versions and varialions.
IvanluaIIy you viII be crealing nev characlers al viII.
If you spend lime praclicing, lhen draving lhe ideas you have onlo paper viII nol be
lhe main probIem..
..lhinking of funny ideas in lhe hrsl pIace viII be lhe probIem!
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There are dißerenl lypes of carloon, and in addilion lhere are comic "slrips" and
caricalure dravings, aII occasionaIIy referred lo as "carloons". Comic slrips are
menlioned Ialer, hovever caricalures are oulvilh lhe scope of lhis book. Caricalure
draving is a subslanliaI sub|ecl in il's ovn righl, and lhe caricalure dravings I have
done are more cIoseIy reIaled lo my formaI Iorlrail dravings and painlings lhan lo
carloons. See lhe Resources seclion al lhe end of lhe book for info aboul Iorlrail and
Caricalure. Ior nov Iels concenlrale on lhe core skiIIs you viII need lo drav
carloons of peopIe and animaIs, and hrslIy lhe maleriaIs and looIs you viII need lo
gel slarled.
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Matcria!s Tnn!s and Equipmcnt
Graphitc and Pcnci!s
Many peopIe viII remember lhe lrusly HB penciI from lheir chiIdhood and schooI
days (I sliII have a scar in my forehead from one, bul lhals anolher slory) bul lhere
are a greal variely of penciIs avaiIabIe, and many are nol suilabIe for arl and
draving. The Iead conlained in modern penciIs combines graphile and a binding cIay
maleriaI. More graphile means a soher Iead vhich appears darker on paper, more
cIay means a slronger and more durabIe Iead vhich appears Iighler on paper.
IenciIs are graded as foIIovs:
H jcr Har!. nign c|au ccnicni. jcr iccnnica| ucrk.
B jcr B|ack. nign grapniic ccnicni. sch |ca!.
l jcr linc. nar!cr |ca! jcr ncrc !ciai|c! ucrk.
So for exampIe lhe 8B penciI conlains lhr highesl graphile conlenl and so is onIy
suilabIe for arl and draving, vhiIe HB is loo hard for mosl arl vork bul usefuI for
vriling as il relains ils poinl veII. I viII use any lype of penciI olher lhan lhose vilh
high graphile conlenl for draving carloons as I |usl need a cIean oulIine vhich viII
be redravn in ink Ialer.
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Nole vhen using graphile penciIs, 2B and above, a compIeled penciI draving viII
require a hxalive spray appIied lo prevenl lhe image being smudged vhen louched,
H and F penciIs probabIy do nol require any hxalive.
Nole lhal modern propeIIing penciIs can be used for draving. I ohen use propeIIing
penciIs vhen crealing a delaiIed porlrail draving as a base for a formaI porlrail
painling, bul for dravings vhich viII be "hnished" dravings lhe Iimiled avaiIabIe
Iead grades and uniform and narrov vidlh of lhe Ieads is reslriclive. Hovever vhere
lhe penciI marks viII nol be lhe hnaI appearance, as vilh carloons or preIiminary
skelches, propeIIing or mechanicaI penciIs can be very usefuI. I ohen use one for
crealing my iniliaI oulIines for carloons.
Papcr
There are many dißerenl paper surfaces lo vork on, from "Rough" lexlured paper
lhrough Iess lexlured "Nol" papers lo smoolh carlridge paper. AII can be used for arl
and carloons hovever very rough lexlured papers viII be dißcuIl lo drav on
accuraleIy.
There are aIso smoolh gIossy surface papers avaiIabIe bul graphile viII nol appIy
evenIy on lhis lype of paper.
IersonaIIy I use carlridge paper for any dravings I am vorking on, bolh for delaiIed
porlrails and carloons. Iine delaiIed Iines and broad lexlure can be appIied vilh
exceIIenl resuIls.
Pcns
There are many dißerenl lypes of pens for arl and draving hovever I use disposabIe
or rehIIabIe lechnicaI pens vhen draving carloons. This is because I have aIready
done lhe draving in penciI hrsl and viII simpIy be inking-in lhe Iines delaiI and
shading, so I am happy lo use a pen vhich produces a slandard vidlh.
Olher pen lypes, such as draving nibs on dip pens or lechnicaI pens vilh changeabIe
draving nibs can be used lo give variabIe Iine vidlhs depending on lhe pressure and
angIe lhe pen is appIied al.
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Remember vhichever pen lype you are going lo use you viII need lo ensure lhe ink is
"permanenl" as many pens viII conlain ink lhal is non-permanenl, and lhis viII fade
over lime and parlicuIarIy aher exposure lo slrong Iighl.
Olher looIs you viII need incIude erasers, parlicuIarIy lhe modern pIaslic erasers as
oIder "rougher" erasers lend lo damage lhe paper surface lhrough abrasion, and
eilher a good crah knife or a penciI sharpener. AIlhough crah knives can obviousIy be
dangerous lhey are preferabIe as penciI sharpeners sharpen lo a shorl poinl vhich
bIunls quickIy. Using a crah knife lhe poinl can be sharpened much Ionger if done
carefuIIy.
Art 5upp!icrs
There are a number of exceIIenl suppIiers of arl maleriaIs onIine, suppIying pens
penciIs and paper deIivered lo your door al reasonabIe prices. The foIIoving slore
can suppIy everylhing you viII need lo slarl draving carloons. AIlernaliveIy your
IocaI arl slore viII have everylhing you need.
hup://www.DickB!ick.cnm : ßIick Arl MaleriaIs.
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Cartnnns nI Pcnp!c
Lel's slarl vilh vhal mosl of us viII be auempling lo drav in our carloons: peopIe.
RegardIess if you vanl lo drav men vomen or chiIdren lhe basic conslruclion of a
carloon characler can be approached using one of a number of simpIe melhods. Any
of lhe melhods oulIined beIov shouId heIp you buiId a simpIe penciI oulIine of lhe
characler you are draving righl from lhe slarl. Once you have lhis oulIine you can
easiIy add delaiIs or make changes lo lhe characler's pose and auilude, aII before
commiuing lhe carloon permanenlIy lo ink.
Slarl simpIy vhen approaching your carloons, lhere's no poinl in lrying lo drav lhe
head in delaiI, lhe eyes moulh and nose elc, unliI you have a rough oulIine for lhe
body and lhe pose of your characler. Slarl vilh a basic oulIine. This is hugeIy
imporlanl.
Basics: Out!incs
Mcthnd 1: 5ausagcs nr Ova!s.
Anyone can drav an ovaI, il's |usl an odd shaped circIe! Try some exercises crealing
human shapes from simpIe ovaIs in penciI, Iike lhe exampIes on lhe foIIoving pages.
Many exceIIenl carloons conlain characlers vhich are conslrucled in lhis vay.
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anucnc can !rau a cnaracicr jrcn cta|s....
As you can see above and beIov, aII you need lo slarl a simpIe carloon is lvo ovaIs:
one for lhe head, and one for lhe body. These lvo ovaIs viII heIp you decide lhe
posilion of your characler, vhich vay he is facing, if he is Iooking up or dovn elc.
Iusl experimenl vilh dißerenl shapes and angIes, adding in some ovaIs for lhe arms
and Iegs. Il may seem compIicaled nov bul if you lry il becomes very easy.
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Ixperimenl vilh dißerenl proporlions, Iarger or smaIIer heads, fauer bodies, slumpy
IiuIe Iegs. Iraclice crealing lhese IiuIe characlers, lhink of a pose or aclion you vanl
your characler lo do, and lry lo creale il using ovaIs and sausages.
When you have crealed many of lhese IiuIe skelches in penciI you viII hnd il much
easier lo conslrucl a pose or scene invoIving a number of carloon hgures. You viII be
abIe lo see very quickIy from a rough oulIine vhal lhe hnished carloon mighl Iook
Iike before draving any delaiI, and before using ink! As soon as you use ink your
draving is permanenl and you can'l make any correclions.
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Mcthnd 2: 5ticks.
SimiIar lo ovaIs and circIes above bul I ohen feeI lhe slicks are more expressive and
beuer heIp me lo caplure lhe parlicuIar pose. This may be because in using slicks ve
are breaking lhe body dovn inlo somelhing vhich more cIoseIy resembIes our bone
slruclure, vhere lhe ovaI forms in melhod 1 seem Iess exacl vhen lrying lo imagine a
pose. I aIso feeI lhal using slicks for arms and Iegs means ve can inlroduce angIes
more easiIy, resuIling in an oulIine vilh more characler. Hovever lhis is my personaI
preference, lry bolh and see vhich ynu prefer.
In lhe above dravings you can see lhe slicks aIIov me lo incIude |oinls in lhe arms
and Iegs easiIy, and heIps me lo buiId a more exacl "shape" lo lhe pose. Hovever lhe
disadvanlage vilh slicks is lhal you need lo relurn lo lhe draving lo add lhe body,
lo add "ßesh" lo lhe "bones" - vilh lhe ovaI melhod lhis is aIready done in lhe iniliaI
draving.
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Mcthnd 3: Cnmbinc 5ticks and Ova!s.
IinaIIy I ohen use a combinalion of bolh, generaIIy slarling vilh lhe pureIy slick
hgure above. The ovaI for lhe head and an ovaI for lhe body are thcn addcd, Ieaving
bolh lhe Iegs and arms as slicks al lhis slage. This aIIovs me lo gel a feeI for hov fal
or sIim our characler viII be bul keeps lhe more expressive form of lhe slicks for lhe
arms and Iegs, lhe exlremilies conveying lhe ma|orily of lhe characler in any aclive
pose. I hnd using ovaIs for lhe body usefuI because onIy once you have decided hov
broad lhe characler's chesl and beIIy are can you ad|usl lhe arms oul or in lo creale a
naluraI pose, somelhing lhal is more dißcuIl lo gauge using |usl slicks.
Above is a good exampIe of a slick and ovaI oulIine vhich caplures lhe pose I vas
aiming for, righl hand on hip and Ieh hand vaving exciledIy, perhaps expIaining
somelhing lo anolher characler. The characlers beIov are aII quile simiIar in pose and
auilide bul vilh minor changes in lhe slick Iegs and arms, and a slrelching or
lhinning of lhe ovaI around lhe body, lhe hgures lake on enlireIy dißerenl characlers.
The posilion of lhe arms can onIy be knovn vilh any cerlainly once ve knov lhe
rough shape of lhe body.
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To summarise, lry using each melhod and see vhich one you feeI besl heIps you
describe lhe pose of your carloons. You viII onIy hnd oul by experimenling. Sausages
or ovaIs aIIov you lo creale a characler vilh a fev simpIe shapes vhich immedialeIy
shov you a rough guide for your characler. Slicks aIIov a more expressive iniliaI
draving vhich heIps lo decide on lhe posilion of arms and Iegs. IinaIIy lry
combining slicks vilh an ovaI for lhe body lo beuer heIp you oulIine lhe characler's
girlh and heighl.
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Examp!cs nI nut!inc ñgurcs:
Wa|king uiin a purpcsc. gcuing iirc!. siariing ic |cck !cprcssc!.......
|i´s a|| icc nucn. natc ic |ic !cun jcr a uni|c......
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...running. an! ja||ing......
...rc|axing.......
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...p|auing spcris. jcci|a|| an! |asc|a||.......
...junping........
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...ncrc rc|axing. pcrnaps un!cr a ircc cr in a |rancn?.....
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We can see here hov a simpIe slick and ovaI skelch of a man reIaxing can be easiIy
lurned inlo a compIele carloon characler, asIeep al his desk. Once lhe slick draving
is compIele, lhe core of lhe carloon is done and lhe resl is simpIy adding delaiI.
Remember lhough lo add aII lhe delaiI in penciI as veII as lhe oulIine, onIy use ink
once you are compIeleIy happy vilh lhe penciI resuIl. If you slarl using ink lo add
delaiI vilhoul compIeling il hrsl in penciI you ulII make mislakes and have lo slarl
again. Nolice lhal vhiIe adding delaiI for lhe arms in penciI I decided I vas nol
happy vilh lhe angIe and ad|usled il. Nov I Iook al il, maybe I preferred lhe originaI
aher aII ......oh veII!
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ßeIov is anolher exampIe of laking lhe iniliaI skelch and buiIding il inlo a compIele
carloon characler. The iniliaI penciI skelch vas a combinalion of slicks for lhe arms
and Iegs, and ovaIs for lhe head and body.
The arms and Iegs vere lhen "hIIed oul" and delaiIs added lo lhe head and face. I
aIso decided lo change lhe characler's raised hand from a vave lo a queslioning pose,
hand cIosed vilh lhe index hnger poinling upvards.
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The draving is laking shape nov as lhe remaining delaiIs are added in ink, for
exampIe dark shading on lhe shoes and in lhe shirl sIeeve on lhe raised arm. The
hnaI slep is lo erase lhe iniliaI penciI marks aher lhe ink has dried, Ieaving my
compIeled carloon characler.
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In lhis exampIe beIov I used vide "fal" ovaIs and shorl slick Iegs lo creale a smaII
overveighl characler. Again lhe iniliaI skelch is in penciI so lhal I couId correcl any
mislakes I made!
As you can see I decided lo angIe lhe characler's head upvards, perhaps Iooking up
al a vindov or al a laIIer characler. Again I slarled lo hII in delaiI around lhe slicks
and ovaIs, adding shoes, eyes ears and nose, and a Iong curve across lhe slomach lo
suggesl hov fal lhe man is ....
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IinaIIy I added hnishing louches such as his shirl buuons, hands and shading for his
lrousers, and erased lhe penciI marks. I aIso added some marks lo lhe ground around
his feel lo give lhe draving a more lhree dimensionaI "hnished" Iook. Touches such
as lhis can give a carloon a more poIished and professionaI appearance. Wilhoul lhis
a characler can appear lo be hovering in mid-air!
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Basics: Makc ynur cartnnns mnvc!
Wa!king:
The characler oulIined beIov vas conslrucled vilh a circIe for lhe head, slicks for lhe
arms and Iegs and an ovaI for lhe body, giving lhe impression of a Iarge man vaIking
quile forcefuIIy from Ieh lo righl. OulIines can aIso be seen for lhe characler's sIeeves
and lrousers, added aher lhe iniliaI oulIine.
Taking lhis furlher, delaiIs such as lhe mans nose, eyes, moulh and hair can be added,
pIus more delaiI for lhe cIolhes and shoes. Nov, imagine slarling vilh a pIain piece
of paper and lrying lo drav lhe carloon man on lhe nexl page slarling from lhe head
and vorking dovn vilhoul any guide slick Iines or ovaIs. IersonaIIy I vouId have no
idea vhere lo slarl! AIuuµs drav a slick or ovaI oulIine characler in penciI lo heIp
you hrsl decide on a pose, and onIy lhen buiId lhe delaiIs.
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In lhe hrsl oulIine beIov, ve make lhe forvard Ieg slraighl suggesling aclion and a
mid-slride pose. ßy puIIing lhe lraiIing arm fuIIy back ve suggesl an even more
purposefuI march, as in lhe second oulIine beIov.
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Wa!king 5tcp-By-5tcp:
Iirsl drav one of lhe slick oulIines above IighlIy in penciI, forvard Ieg slraighl. Then
hII in around lhe slicks vilh oulIines for lhe cIolhes, making lhe characler as fal or
lhin as you Iike. IinaIIy ink-in lhe hnaI draving, you can even add some shadov lo
give lhe draving a more soIid Iook as beIov.
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Running:
Ior a running characler, again ve vish lo creale lhe impression our hgure is aclive
and so lhe slick arms and Iegs musl be lhrovn vide lo creale movemenl.
Remember hovever lhal vhen ve run or vaIk our Ieh arm and Ieg do nol move
forvard al lhe same lime, ve vouId be unbaIanced and vouId probabIy faII and
in|ure ourseIves! The dravings above correclIy shov aIlernale arms and Iegs, ie your
Ieh Ieg viII be forvard vhen your righl arm is forvard. The draving beIov appears
lo shov lhe righl arm and righl Ieg forvard al lhe same lime and for lhal reason il
appears unnaluraI.
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vrnng: right:
Here is anolher exampIe, lhe hrsl draving above shovs lhe characler running vilh
lhe Ieh Ieg and arm forvard al lhe same lime, and as such is unnaluraI. IronicaIIy lhe
second skelch shoving lhe correcl pose, righl Ieg and Ieh arm forvard, appears
cIuuered al lhe momenl.
ßul lhis is because lhe shouIder Iine |oining lhe arms and lhe hip Iine |oining lhe Iegs
(anolher good reason lo use slicks ralher lhan lhe ovaI oulIine melhod) have lo be al
opposile angIes. Il may Iook odd in slick form bul in lhe nexl series of dravings you
viII see hov lhis vorks correclIy vhen lhe delaiI is added.
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Running 5tcp-By-5tcp:
As vilh lhe correcl draving on lhe previous page, drav in lhe slick hgure vilh
aIlernale arms and Iegs forvard, Ieh arm and righl Ieg. As you can see in lhe
foIIoving dravings, once lhe body, lrousers and sIeeves are hIIed in lhe characler
does appear lo be running naluraIIy. If lhis had been done vilh Ieh arm and Ieh Ieg
forvard il vouId have Iooked incorrecl.
Drav our slick man in penciI lo slarl, lhen buiId up his body around lhe slicks. Ink in
lhe delaiIs vhen you are happy and erase lhe penciI marks. You can lhen add some
hnishing louches Iike lhe drops of sveal and lhe ground beIov his feel. Nole lhe
ground is veII beIov lhe feel as he is running so hard his feel are nol louching lhe
ground!
pcnci! skctch pcn

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ñna! pcn drawing
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Dctai!s: Makc ynur cartnnns cnmc a!ivc!
Thc Hcad
The penciI oulIines described above are |usl lhe hrsl slep. Once ve have crealed an
oulIine ve musl decide vhal our characler rca!!y Iooks Iike by adding delaiI lo lhe
head and face. There are a fev dißerenl melhods for draving lhe head in delaiI. Try
draving lhe melhods shovn beIov. Remember lhe delaiIs shouId aIso be added in
penciI, onIy use ink once compIele.
I have dravn a circIe and added Iines crossing in lhe middIe. Ior a characler Iooking
lo lhe side ve can use lhe cenle poinl as lhe posilion for lhe ear, vilh lhe nose aIso
on lhe cenlre Iine and hII in lhe eyes and moulh vilhin lhe circIe.
Above I have dravn a face using an odd shape vhich has a Iarge chin area. Drav lhe
shape hrsl, narrov al lhe lop and much Iarger beIov, lhen drav in lhe crossed Iines
quile high up lhe shape. The nose is lhen dravn on lhe cenlre spol, eyes above and
moulh somevhere beIov in lhe huge chin. This is one of my favourile shapes for
carloon heads.
Remember lhal ve onIy do lhis delaiI aher ve have hnished and are happy vilh our
oulIine slicks/ovaIs for lhe characler's body. Al lhis poinl ve can lhen concenlrale on
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lhe delaiIs for lhe head. Do nol do lhe head delaiI before lhe oulIine as you may hnd
you have vorked so hard on lhe face and lhen hnd il dißcuIl lo drav lhe resl of lhe
body. AIso keep in mind lhal lhe expression your characler dispIays may depend on
lhe pose, so gel lhal righl hrsl.
ßeIov are more exampIe heads crealed using odd (aImosl slravberry) shaped
oulIines, again vilh lhe crossing poinl lo lhe Iines used for lhe posilion of lhe nose.
Ixperimenl vilh dißerenl head shapes, lhe foIIoving four exampIes shov hov some
olher dißerenl shapes can be used.
Anolher melhod for crealing a head, lhis lime side facing, is by draving a square.
SpIil lhe square inlo four, lhe cenlre poinl again being used for lhe ear. Wilhin each
quarler of lhe square hII in a parl of lhe face. Remember lhe head is nol a circIe, from
side-on lhe chin viII be much Iover lhan lhe back of lhe head so aIvays lry lo lake
lhe chin beIov lhe bouom Iine vhen using lhis melhod.
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You viII nolice I rareIy if ever use a ruIer vhen draving carloons, in facl I rareIy use
any slraighl edge for any lype of dravings. I have found lhal vhen I use a ruIer I Iose
lhe sponlenaiely and naluraI feeI I en|oy vhen draving. I aIso hnd I sIov dovn and
become more deIiberale and carefuI. Try lo drav freeIy and vilhoul loo much
lhoughl aboul delaiI, and don'l vorry aboul Iines nol being slraighl.
There's no need for any slraighl edges in carloons! A rough Iine viII sußce. You may
Ialer deveIop a slyIe vhich benehls from slraighl edges bul for lhe purposes of
Iearning and experimenling lry draving everylhing freehand.
This exampIe shovs hov once lhe basic shape has been crealed, in lhis case using an
odd shape vilh a Iarge chin, lhe draving can be quile dißerenl depending on lhe
delaiIs you add lo lhe head, in lhis case lhe haircul.......
....or lhe expression on lhe characler's face. We couId even add a beard lo creale a
much dißerenl characler.
The lhree ovaIs beIov shov hov lo creale a face Iooking sIighlIy lo one side, a 3/4
viev. If ve drav an ovaI and drav a simpIe cross lhrough il, lhe characler appears lo
be Iooking al us. Hovever lhe verlicaI Iine can be added curved as in lhe second
skelch, lhe cenlre Iine of lhe face is nov Iooking avay al an angIe. IiII in lhe delaiIs
on lhe head and face and ve see lhal onIy one ear is visibIe and lhe nose eyes moulh
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and chin are aII oßsel lo one side. Draving heads oßsel Iike lhis creales more naluraI
Iooking carloons.
Try draving some simpIe ovaI heads al various angIes as beIov, |usl imagine an egg
vilh a horizonlaI Iine and a verlicaI Iine dravn on il, lhen imagine il lurned and
Ieaning forvard and back. If you have an egg, or even a ping-pong baII, you can lry
lhis, il may heIp you see hov lhe Iines change as lhe "head" Iooks Ieh and righl and
up and dovn.
Anolher favourile characler posilion of mine is lo drav an egg Iooking upvards,
such as lhe lvo cenlre dravings beIov, if you drav lhe egg broad al lhe bouom lhen
drav lhe moulh around haIf vay up and a chin Iine somevhere belveen lhe moulh
and lhe bouom of lhe egg, lhis creales a very good represenlalion of a man vilh a
'doubIe chin' Iooking skyvard.
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When a characler is Iooking dovn, al lhe angIe shovn above righl, remember lhal
lhe area of lhe 'egg' conlaining lhe chin and moulh may nov be |usl oul of sighl, onIy
lhe ears eyes and nose being visibIe.
Nole lhe dißerence in proporlion of lhe chiId's head beIov and lhe lvo aduIl heads
foIIoving il. A chiId's head has a much Iarger forehead lhan an aduIl.
When draving an aduIl head drav lhe eye and nose Iine al or above lhe haIfvay
poinl of lhe face, bul vilh a chiId lry and Iover lhe Iine lo approximaleIy lvo lhirds
dovn lhe face as shovn above. In addilion make sure lhe chiIds head is vide ralher
lhan Iong and lhin, as beIov:
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Ior lhis (ralher slern) schooI leacher characler I crealed a much more narrov face
vilh prominenl cheek bones and a high nose. Nole lhal lhe nose is much higher lhan
haIf vay lo lhe lop of lhe forehead, dehnileIy an aduIl face conslruclion.
Exprcssinn
The expression on a face is a combinalion of lhe eyes nose and moulh, and any Iines
dravn around lhem lo emphasize lhe expression. The four dravings beIov for
exampIe shov lhe same basic egg shaped face vilh lhe same ears nose and hair.
Hovever changing and/or adding Iines around lhe eyes and moulh can compIeleIy
change lhe expression on lhis man's face.
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More exampIes of faces vilh dißerenl expressions.
Eycs
An imporlanl componenl in buiIding an expression on your characler's face is lhe
eyes, bul |usl as imporlanl are lhe eyebrovs and Iines uround lhe eyes. The eyes
lhemseIves in carloons are ohen |usl dols or circIes, lhe exµresslon in lhe eyes comes
from lhe brovs and any addilionaI Iines you add.
The foIIoving exampIes shov a series for four pairs of eyes. The hrsl pair are simpIe
circIes vilh dols, bul lhe addilion of high eyebrovs and Iines represenling bags
under lhe eyes give lhem a surprised, even scared Iook. The second Iook menacing
vilh lhe addilion of bolh heavy eyebrovs and lhe Iines above and beIov lhe eyes
narroving lhem giving lhe impression of anger.
The lhird sel of eyes Iook perhaps hypnolized, vilh lhe iris in lhe cenlre hIIing mosl
of lhe eye. The Iasl draving shovs haIf cIosed eyes suggesling a lired sIeepy or bored
face. As vilh lhe Iasl draving on lhe previous page, you can aIso creale an angry face
by nol shoving lhe eyes al aII, |usl Iines suggesling lighlIy cIosed eyeIids.
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ßeIov are more suggeslions for carloon eyes, lhe hrsl again Iooking surprised by
having Iarge open eyes vilh high eyebrovs and a smaII dol for lhe iris. The second
and lhird Iook 'sneaky' and suspicious by narroving lhe eyes, and by making lhe
eyes Iook lo lhe side furliveIy. A 'dozy' Iooking eßecl is achieved by having lhe
eyeIids haIf cIosed.
Nole lhe dißerence belveen 'eviI' and 'sIeepy' haIf cIosed eyes: lo make lhe eyes seem
sIeepy drav lhe uhoIe eye, lhen drav a Iine in lhe middIe for lhe eyeIid. Ior eviI eyes
onIy drav lhe narrov parl of lhe eye lhal is shoving.
In addilion lo lhe eyes ve can creale a dißerenl Iook by using gIasses of dißerenl
shapes, as beIov.
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Nnsc and Mnuth
The hnaI key lo crealing lhe expression on lhe face of your carloon characler is lhe
nose and moulh. Il is besl I hnd lo lhink of lhe nose and moulh as a singIe fealure,
dravn al lhe same lime. The shape of lhe nose aßecls lhe shape of lhe moulh and il
makes sense lo drav lhem al one lime.
As you can see from lhese exampIes above, you can drav aImosl anu shape and size
of nose in your carloons. I lend lo decide on a nose shape and size, vhich lhen
inßuences and heIps me decide immedialeIy on lhe shape and size of lhe moulh. Ior
exampIe vhen I drev lhe noses above I hnished lhe moulhs al lhe sane lime, you
viII gel a feeI for vhal moulh shape viII suil a nose as you drav lhem. If you vere lo
drav a very round nose such as lhe Iasl one above, lhe moulh lo suil vouId probabIy
be rounded and fuII, if lhe nose vere Iong and slraighl lhe moulh shouId probabIy be
simiIarIy shaped.
If you have dravn an oulIine of a head vhich has a Iarge rounded chin Iike lhe hrsl
one above, a vide moulh lo hl lhal chin and and a Iarge buIbous nose seem a naluraI
hl.
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Do nol use lhis as a hard and fasl ruIe, I |usl hnd lhal il makes sense lo make lhe nose
and lhen lhe moulh foIIov lhe generaI characlerislics of lhe face. If you imagine lhe
moulh and chin beIov vilh a variely of noses you viII see lhal a rounded nose, one
lhal hls lhe shape of lhe parl of lhe face I have dravn vouId make sense. A Iong lhin
nose mighl appear Iess naluraI.
SimiIarIy lhis shorl vide nose suils a vide smiIe, a smaII nose or Iong nose vouId
appear slrange. Try crealing Iols of dißerenl combinalions and see vhich ones you
prefer.
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Hair
I ohen Ieave lhe hair as an aherlhoughl vhich is unforlunale as a characler's hair is
an imporlanl faclor vhen crealing a carloon. As you viII see from lhe carloons I have
done for lhis book I ohen Ieave lhe characlers baId or vilh IiuIe hair. Ohen I prefer a
simpIe head shape vilh a fev slrands of hair on lop or above lhe ears lo give lhe
carloon characler, ralher lhan crealing a delaiIed haircul. If il vorks for Homer
Simpson.....
Mosl hairslyIes you viII need can be crealed in a fev simpIe pen or penciI slrokes,
you are lrying lo give an impression of a hairslyIe, nol a delaiIed draving, so lry lo
avoid overdoing a carloon's hair.
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This characler ve have seen earIier in lhe book, she has a fev simpIe curIs lo creale
her 'big' hair slyIe. Mosl hair slyIes can be crealed vilh a fev simpIe Iines, such as
lhose beIov.
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Additinna! Examp!cs
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Hands and Fcct
Hands and feel can be lhe mosl dißcuIl parl of a carloon, lhe size and proporlions of
lhe resl of a characler can be much more sub|eclive, bul lhe hands and feel if
incorrecl can ruin lhe eßecl of lhe vhoIe draving. IirslIy a simpIe melhod for
minimising probIems draving hands: don'l drav lhem if you don'l have lo. You can
(as I ohen do) have a characler vilh hands in pockels or behind his or her back. If lhe
focaI poinl of lhe draving is nol lhe hands bul you vish lo drav lhem, use a circIe
vilh a lhumb lo represenl lhe hand. Ynu mighl nolice your Iack of delaiI bul lhe
viever viII nol, unIess lhe hands reaIIy are inlegraI lo lhe scene.
If you need lo drav lhe hands, concenlrale on lhe shape of a hand, nol delaiI such as
hngers. Slarl vilh a soIid square, vilh a narroving reclanguIar shape for lhe hngers.
Add a lhumb and you have a rough hand shape, as shovn beIov.
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ßolh of lhe dravings beIov vere slarled in penciI vilh a cenlraI circIe for lhe paIm
of lhe hand, lhen a second smaIIer circIe for lhe Iover parl of lhe lhumb |oinl. IinaIIy
lhe hngers vere added as smaIIer sausage shapes lo compIele lhe dravings. This
melhod can be used aher hrsl draving lhe oulIine reclangIes expIained on lhe
previous page.
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Things become more compIex vhen you lry lo drav a hand parlIy or fuIIy cIenched.
Think of lhe cIenched hand as a baII, vilh a poinling hand simpIy adding a singIe
hnger. Geuing lhe proporlion of lhe hngers lakes lime and praclice.
Ior a forvard poinling hand, use a circIe vilh a singIe oulslrelched hnger.
Ior a cIenched hsl or a hand hoIding an ob|ecl, use a circIe, lhen dehne lhe hngers
and a lhumb. Remember aIso you donl need lo drav hve hngers, again noone is
acluaIIy going lo nolice, il is lhe impression lhal is imporlanl. Check hov many
hngers lhe characlers in The Simpsons have. Is il obvious or annoying vhen you
valch lhe program` Had you even noliced`
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Ior feel, lry lo spIil lhe fool inlo ils dißerenl parls. IirslIy lhere is a heeI area
slrelching back from lhe Ieg, lhe main parl of lhe fool in lhe middIe, lhen a loe
seclion. Iven more lhan vilh hngers on lhe hands, you viII nol have lo drav loes
ohen as mosl of your characlers viII be vearing shoes, bul again lhe rough shape is
lhe imporlanl faclor, nol counling loes. If you can |usl repIicale lhe shuµe of lhe feel
lhe carloon viII Iook greal, and lhe viever's eyes viII nol be dislracled by somelhing
'odd' aboul lhem.
Remember lhal if your characler is vaIking and lhe back fool is on lhe ground, lhe
loe seclion of lhe fool viII be benl up lo Iie ßal on lhe ground, lhe olher lvo seclions
of lhe fool viII be angIed as above.
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Nolice lhe penciI draving above shoving lhe soIes of bolh Ieh and righl mens shoes,
nolice lhe inslep in lhe middIe. The lvo dravings above shov side on vievs of lhe
oulside of a righl shoe foIIoved by lhe inside of a Ieh shoe. You can see lhe
dißerence, lhe inslep being obvious on lhe viev of lhe inside of lhe Ieh shoe. If lhe
above shoes vere used in a draving for a man vaIking, his righl Ieg back and his Ieh
Ieg forvard, lhis vouId Iook correcl, bul il vouId be obvious if lhe shoes vere dravn
lhe vrong vay round lhal lhere vas somelhing odd or incorrecl aboul lhe carloon.
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Fnrcshnrtcning
The characler above has his hand cIosed vilh his hnger poinling al lhe viever,
anolher usefuI hand posilion. To make lhis draving more dramalic ve can use a
lechnique caIIed foreshortenlng. Use lhis lo make somelhing appear much cIoser lo
you by draving lhe ob|ecl Iarger lhan usuaI, in lhis case lhe hand and poinling hnger.
In lhis version ve can see lhe penciI marks for lhe oulIine, and lhe hand has been
dravn in a Iarger scaIe.
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ßeIov is lhe hnished ink draving, lhe penciI marks erased and lhe resl of lhe
characler hnished. As lhis slrange man's arm gels cIoser lo lhe viever lhe scaIe
increases, so ve can see lhe sIeeve is much Iarger lhan normaI, lhe hand and hnger
even Iarger in scaIe. We couId increase lhe size of lhe poinling hnger even more lo
furlher emphasize lhe change in scaIe.
A common use for foreshorlening in carloons comics and even movie poslers is lhe
viev dovn lhe barreI of a gun. We have aII seen poslers vilh a characler poinling lhe
gun lovards lhe viever, lhe end of lhe barreI much Iarger in scaIe lhan lhe characlers
hand.
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Light and Dark
Wilh simpIe penciI or ink Iines ve can creale eßeclive shading or pauerns for our
carloons, lhe foIIoving pauerns and Iines can be used lo suggesl voven maleriaI, as
in lhe lvo exampIes beIov. The man's suil has been shaded using simpIe cross-
halching, lhe lie vilh simpIe diagonaI Iines. Nole lhese Iines do nol have lo be
carefuIIy spaced or dravn, you are simpIy suggestlng Iighl and dark vilh simpIe
lexlure.
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Leaving a bIank area on lhe paper aIso suggesls lexlure or Iighl, in lhe draving
beIov lhe area of paper Ieh in lhe hair suggesls reßecled Iighl and shiny hair.
The hal above aIso conlains simpIe shading using cross halching and slraighl Iines.
The shoes beIov use shading lo suggesl dark shiny Iealher. Use soIid areas of
shading lo highIighl lhe main areas of lhe shoe, again lhere is no need lo add any
delaiI, |usl enough dark lo shov lhal lhere are lhree areas lo lhe shoe, lhe loe, lhe
heeI and lhe cenlraI area of lhe shoe.
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Note. ij ucu arc iruing ic ccpu cariccns jrcn inis |cck cr jrcn anu cincr scurcc. !c nci iru
icc nar! ic rcp|icaic inc detulI. jusi inc jcc| cr inprcssicn. Tru ic crcaic scncining slmlIur.
inai uau ucu ui|| natc crcaic! scncining uni¡uc an! inc ncxi iinc ucu iru ii ucu ui|| |c
iruing ic crcaic ancincr ncu !rauing. Ycu ui|| a|sc |c using ucur cun !rauings as a scurcc.
crcaiing ucur cun siu|c. Truing ic ccpu cxaci|u ncu inc |incs ctcr|ap in scnccnc c|scs
!rauings jusi prctcnis ucu jrcn crcaiing ucur cun siu|c. As ncniicnc! |cjcrc. iakc a sicp
|ack an! iru ic !rau jrcc|u. jusi |ccausc ucur !rauing !ccs nci |cck inc sanc as inc crigina|
!ccs nci ncan ii is nci as gcc!.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
Looking again al lhis carloon beIov, you can see I have added onIy 4 areas of
shading. IirslIy lo emphasize lhe change of scaIe I have used soIid ink shading in lhe
sIeeve. SecondIy I have shaded lhe lie for conlrasl vilh lhe shirl, lhirdIy lhe shoes
suggesl shiny Iealher and hnaIIy lhe lop of lhe lrousers have been shaded, suggesling
lhe slomach hanging over lhe lrousers.
The imporlanl lhing lo remember is lhal you can gel avay vilh adding IiuIe or no
shading, bul if you add loo much, especiaIIy simiIar lexlures cIose logelher, lhe
draving viII become cIuuered and dißcuIl on lhe eye. Use lexlures such as cross-
halching sparingIy for maximum eßecl. Ior exampIe I couId have added pin slripes
lo lhe shirl above, bul vouId have had lo Ieave lhe lie pIain for conlrasl.
These dravings aIso shov hov some simpIe shading on lhe shoes and lrousers give
lhe carloons a more soIid feeI.
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Mnrc 5tcp-By-5tcp Examp!cs
5tcp-By-5tcp: Chi!d
Ior lhis carloon of a young boy I slarled lhe hrsl slage vilh a slick oulIine, vilh
hands roughIy in pockels. Nole hov Iarge lhe head is going lo be, lhe circIe for lhis
head is quile Iarge in proporlion lo lhe body.
The penciI oulIine is lhen added , nole again lhe Iarge forehead , vilh lhe eyes and
nose Iocaled quile Iov on lhe head. This viII aIvays makes a carloon characler Iook
chiId-Iike. A fev simpIe Iines for lhe oulIine of lhe shirl, lrousers and shoes and a
shorl lrendy haircul hnish lhe second slage.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
IinaIIy lhe draving is hnished in ink, vilh some lexlure and shading appIied lo lhe
shirl and lhe shoes. Again I have lried lo onIy add smaII areas of shading lo keep
Iarge areas of conlrasl in lhe draving. The iniliaI penciI skelch undernealh is lhen
erased Ieaving lhe hnaI carloon.
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5tcp-By-5tcp: 5chnn! Tcachcr
This carloon again slarled Iife in penciI as a simpIe circIe for lhe head, vilh slicks for
arms body and Iegs. The Iines of lhe cIolhes vere lhen dravn. IinaIIy lhe Iines vere
dravn over in ink.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
5tcp-By-5tcp: Lucky Man
As an exampIe of using Iines lo creale any pose, I decided lo creale lhis characler
slooping over a dropped coin. I slarled by draving lhe oulIine, ovaI for lhe head and
slicks for lhe arms, back, hips, Iegs and lhen added lhe feel.
Once I vas happy vilh lhe oulIine I hIIed in more delaiI in penciI, lhen used ink lo
drav over lhe penciI marks and creale lhe hnaI carloon characler. You can see lhe
penciI marks sliII shoving lhrough on lhe ink draving.
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I originaIIy crealed lhis characler as a head sludy for earIier in lhe book, bul as ohen
happens vhen "doodIing" I found myseIf adding lhe body aIso. Nolice my favourile
lime-saving lrick, having lhe characler pul his hands in his pockels or, as here, behind
his back. ßeing such a Iarge man I decided lo emphasize his girlh by having his lie
foIIov lhe conlours of his slomach, and his shirl buuons are aIso beginning lo slrain.
The pinslripe lrouser pauern vas added for conlrasl vilh lhe Iighl shirl, and as lhe
slripes run verlicaIIy ve can furlher emphasize his slomach by having lhem slrelched
al lhe lop.
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Cartnnns nI Anima!s
Dngs
AnimaIs, Iike lhe simpIe skelch of a dog above, can be crealed using lhe same
melhods used for carloons of peopIe. Use ovaIs and slicks lo creale lhe rough shapes
you need. In lhis case lvo ovaIs for lhe body and lvo for lhe head viII sußce. The
same 4 ovaIs can be used again in a dißerenl poslion lo creale a nev pose, as beIov.
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We can add human expressions lo our carloon animaI faces, as above. IoIIoving lhe
same ruIes as for humans, ve can creale for exampIe sad, happy, surprised or angry
faces easiIy by changing lhe eyes and eyebrovs and lhe moulh. The dog beIov is
Ieaning forvard, eyebrovs raised, smiIing, perhaps snißng food in lhe air.....
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Again lhis dog beIov is simpIy conslrucled from a singIe circIe for lhe head, pIus a
Iong ovaI for lhe nose and moulh, a simpIe shape is lhen added for lhe ear. Aher lhe
draving vas hnished I aIso decided lo add smaII Iines lo suggesl lhe dog's hair.
Using lhe same melhod as on page 52, lvo circIes for lhe body and lvo for lhe head,
ve can conslrucl any size or shape of dog |usl by changing lhe proporlions of lhe
circIes. The lvo smaIIer fauer dogs beIov vere slarled vilh lhe same four circIes, bul
by varying lhe delaiIs lhey appear very dißerenl from each olher, and from lhe
draving on page 54.
The hrsl dog above has a happy expression, vagging ils laiI. The second Iooks much
more menacing, and vilh lhe addilion of some shading and spiky hair lhe lvo are
compIeleIy dißerenl dogs.
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Dog Step-By-Step
When draving a carloon of an animaI I normaIIy hnd il dißcuIl lo knov vhere lo
acluaIIy slarl! AIlhough I knov vhal a dog Iooks Iike, draving one from memory
vouId be very lough! So I hnd myseIf a pholo and quickIy lry lo imagine lhe sub|ecl
buiIl up from circIes or ovaIs, using as fev as possibIe. This is lhe same process as
using ovaIs vhen draving a carloon person, bul in lhe case of animaIs ve are nol
lrying lo creale aII lhe arms and Iegs as ve vouId do for a human, simpIy break
dovn lhe animaI inlo lhe smaIIesl number of ovaIs possibIe.
Ior exampIe lhe dog above can be spIil inlo lhree main parls, a smaII circIe for lhe
head (forgel aboul lhe nose and moulh for nov), a Iarge circIe for lhe upper body
and anolher ovaI for lhe back end and hind Iegs, as shovn on lhe nexl page.
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The hrsl draving above shovs lhe ovaIs roughIy in proporlion, simiIar lo lhe originaI
pholograph, ie lhe ovaI 2 is roughIy lhe same size as ovaI 3, aIlhough ovaI 3 is Ionger.
Hovever in lhe second draving above I have decided lo change lhe proporlion of
lhe ovaIs, ovaI 3 becoming smaIIer.
I have done lhis because I am nol lrying lo creale a IifeIike skelch of lhe dog, onIy a
carloon, so I vanl lo emphasise lhe imporlanl fealures of lhe animaI making il more
"carloony". To do lhis I am increasing lhe size of lhe head and reducing lhe size of
lhe back end of dog.
This viII make lhe head and broad chesl of lhe dog sland oul, emphasising lhe proud
Iook lhis animaI has in lhe originaI pholo.
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In lhe dravings beIov I have added more delaiI around lhe lhree ovaIs, hrsl of aII
adding curves lo |oin lhem up, lhen adding pavs, laiI, nose and ears. Again lhere is
very IiuIe delaiI, |usl simpIe Iines enough lo suggesl a shape.
I lhen added spiky hair vhich aIlhough nol in lhe originaI pholo I lhoughl vouId
add characler lo lhe draving, and lhe dog's coIIar and eyes. Al lhis slage I decided lo
make lhe animaI happy by adding a smiIing moulh, vilh open aIerl eyes.
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Ior lhe nexl slage above I simpIy used ink lo compIele lhe draving, adding a IiuIe
shading lo lhe ears nose and coIIar, and lhen erased lhe penciI marks. The compIeled
draving can be seen beIov.
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E!cphants
As previousIy menlioned il is possibIe lo creale any animaI in carloon form, |usl
lhink of lhe main body shapes, hnd a pholo if you need one. In lhis case lhe lvo
circIes beIov are enough lo buiId a rough eIephanl shape, lhen hII in lhe delaiIs such
as Iegs and lrunk. The lrunk can aIso be conslrucled from smaII circIes, heIping lo
suggesl lhe vrinkIy Iook of lhe eIephanl's skin.
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Cats
Cat Step-By-Step 1
As before I have used a pholograph of a reaI animaI lo heIp me drav lhe main areas
of lhis cal's body. If you ignore lhe delaiIs (squinl your eyes) you viII see lhe cal is
reaIIy buiIl up from 3 bIocks: one Iarge ovaI for lhe body, incIuding aII four Iegs, a
smaII circIe for lhe head, pIus a lhird area vhere lhe laiI slicks oul from lhe main
body, as shovn beIov:
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The hrsl draving on lhe previous page shovs lhe lvo simpIe ovaIs for lhe head and
body, beIov I have added a fev delaiIs for exampIe lhe ears, eyes, moulh, vhiskers
and lhe laiI. I aIso added some shading lo suggesl lhe dißerenl coIours on lhis cal,
giving il a labby cal Iook. I lhen drev over lhe cal in ink as beIov.
IinaIIy I erased lhe originaI penciI marks Ieaving lhe compIeled carloon cal:
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Cat Step-By-Step 2
Ior lhis carloon I used anolher pholo of lhe same cal bul in a dißerenl posilion, lhis
lime crouching ready lo pounce. Again lhe cal can be easiIy conslrucled from lvo
ovaIs, one for lhe head, one for lhe body, as shovn beIov:
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I lhen added lhe faciaI delaiIs, eyes nose and moulh, pIus a curve lo suggesl lhe hind
Iegs. The fronl pavs and Iegs are suggesled vilh simpIe semi-circIes. When draving
a cal's moulh imagine il as a curved W shape vilh lhe nose al lhe cenlre, as in lhe
previous cal carloon. In lhis case because lhe cal is Iooking avay lo our righl ve onIy
reaIIy see one side of lhe W, lhe far side being moslIy hidden. Drav a singIe semi-
circIe for lhe near haIf of lhe curved W, vilh anolher Iine beside il lo suggesl lhe far
side of lhe moulh.
Once lhe delaiI has been added lhe penciI marks are again removed Ieaving lhe
compIeled ink carloon.
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UnIike lhe previous lvo cal carloons, lhis vas crealed from lhree ovaI shapes. This
shape is sIighlIy slrelched lo give lhe impression of a laII sIim cal, vilh bushy fur
around lhe head. Like lhe dog carloons lhis vas conslrucled using lvo ovaIs for lhe
body as lhis cal is slanding laIIer so ve can see lhe dißerenl parls of lhe upper and
Iover body.
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Birds
ßirds are exlremeIy simpIe shapes lo conslrucl, |usl a smaII circIe for lhe head, and a
Iong ovaI for lhe body. Add a shape for laiI frealhers al lhe end of lhe body, a shape
for lhe ving on lhe near side pIus simpIe slick Iegs and beak and you have a carloon
bird. As can be seen above and beIov, aImosl any kind of bird can be dravn lhis
vay, |usl change lhe coIour, size of beak elc as you vish.
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Hnrscs
A horses head can be dißcuIl lo drav, bul lhe simpIesl vay is lo slarl vilh lvo
circIes, lhe lop one sIighlIy Iarger lhan lhe olher as shovn beIov.
If you mark vhere lhe noslriIs viII be il is quile easy lo lhen hII in lhe resl of lhe face.
Iusl make sure lhe face gels vider lovards lhe end of lhe nose and moulh as beIov,
and spIil lhe circIe al lhe end of lhe nose lo creale a moulh.
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Horse Step-By-Step
Using lhis side-on pholo of a horse ve can see lhal lhe main body can be spIil inlo
four parls, lvo for lhe head as expIained on lhe previous page, and a furlher lvo for
lhe body of lhe horse, as I have dravn beIov.
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The horses Iegs are compIex hovever, consisling of a number of |oinls in lhe bones.
More lhan mosl olher animaIs such as cals and dogs, horses can be lricky lo drav, so
again lry and use a pholo as reference. This horse beIov is |usl aboul in proporlion lo
lhe originaI pholo, and as such vouId acluaIIy Iook Iike a "draving" ralher lhan a
"carloon".
To creale a more carloon-Iike appearance lry making lhe head Iarger and more
prominenl as shovn beIov, aIso emphasise lhe |oinls in lhe Iegs and exaggerale lhe
curves of lhe horse.
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Above ve can see lhe hnaI penciI carloon, I have added a Iarge laiI and lhe horses's
mane on lhe back of ils neck, and added simpIe shading lo lhe Iegs on lhe far side of
lhe animaI.
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WoIf Step-By-Step
Wilh aII my dravings, be lhey carloons or fuII delaiIed dravings, I lry and buiId each
characler or animaI using lhe simpIesl of shapes and ob|ecls. In lhe case of peopIe
and animaIs lhis is aImosl aIvays simpIe circIes and ovaIs. In lhis exampIe I Iocaled a
slock pholograph of a viId voIf, shovn beIov, lo use as a source. I never lry lo drav
from memory or imaginalion if I vanl olher peoIe lo recognise lhe sub|ecl, il reaIIy is
dißcuIl for anyone lo drav Iike lhis vilhoul a source lo refer lo.
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The dravings beIov viII hopefuIIy shov |usl hov simpIe il is lo creale voIf carloon
dravings, as vilh any animaI. If you have a source pholo, simpIy squinl your eyes
and lry lo imagine lhe animaI buiIl from circuIar shapes. Mosl animaIs can be buiIl
from a very smaII number of circIes. The voIf is conslrucled from 2 Iarge circIes, one
for lhe head and one for lhe main body as beIov. In lhe second draving you can see
vhere I added in lhe ears and a lhird circIe lo represenl lhe nose and moulh of lhe
voIf.
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In lhe nexl draving I have added more delaiI on lhe voIves face, pIus lhe Iong lhin
Iegs and a rough skelch of lhe laiI. I decided lo move lhe laiI oul from behind lhe
voIf lo make lhe draving more inleresling. IinaIIy in lhe Iasl draving I added more
delaiI, sharper eyes, markings on lhe fur, pIus beuer dehned lhe feel and snoul.
ObviousIy lhe draving is nol an accurale skelch of lhe voIf, simpIy an exampIe of
hov lo drav voIves, and specihcaIIy voIf carloon dravings. As a carloon lhe
fealures are exaggeraled, such as lhe Ienglh of lhe nose, lhe skiny Iegs, and lhe "eviI"
Iooking eyes. To compIele lhe draving I vouId simpIy ink in lhe Iines and erase lhe
penciI marks, and probabIy add some ground delaiI around lhe feel, lo prevenl lhe
voIf Iooking as if il vas ßoaling in mid air!
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Fish Step-By-Step
If you vanl lo creale a carloon hsh draving simpIy and quickIy, remember lhe
goIden ruIe of carloon draving - use simpIe shapes lo buiId a more compIex shape.
In lhe case of hsh, il's especiaIIy easy as mosl hsh can be dravn using a singIe circIe
pIus a fev olher Iines, as shovn beIov.
Ior lhe simpIesl casrloon hsh, |usl drav a rough circIe, il doesnl have lo be exaclIy
round. Then add a laiI hn and olher delaiIs such as eyes and moulh. In lhe exampIe
beIov nole lhal I have made lhe eyes and moulh Iook "human" ralher lhan accurale
for a hsh, lhis gives lhe carloon animaI human characlerislics and makes him more
appeaIing. Ior exampIe I'm reaIIy nol sure hsh smiIe very much, bul your carloons
viII Iook much beuer vilh such human fealures. ße crealive and add dißerenl body
shapes, hn sizes, coIours, and human faciaI characlerislics lo your carloon hsh
dravings.
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Fantasy Charactcrs
Dragnn 5tcp-by-5tcp
ßeIov I have slarled a carloon of a dragon by simpIy crealing an ovaI shape for a
head, and a Iong vinding Iine for lhe body. I decided for lhis dragon lo creale a
snake shaped body incIuding a lvisl in lhe laiI near lhe end. I lhen added some delaiI
lo lhe head as shovn:
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Nexl I added oulIines for vings and cIavs. Again you can see I onIy ever used simpIe
shapes. The cIavs and Iegs vere crealed using smaII circIes, one of each |oinl in lhe
Iegs and for lhe Iocalion of each laIon, and I lhen |oined lhem vilh Iines. I aIso
added curved Iines under lhe beIIy of lhe monsler giving lhe skin a simiIar Iook lo
lhal of many Iizards and aIIigalors - a soh underbeIIy vilh a much harder scaIy upper
surface.
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Nov lhal lhe draving is laking shape and becoming more compIex I darkened some
of lhe Iines in penciI so I couId see lhe dragon beuer, and so decide vhal sliII had lo
be done, as shovn beIov:
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Nov lhal lhe carloon is nearing compIelion I added more hnaI delaiI, adding
shadov inlo lhe moulh and ear, pIus smaII scaIes on lhe upper surface of lhe skin. Al
lhis slage I used ink over lhe penciI marks as I knev I vas happy vilh lhe hnaI resuIl
and so couId risk making il permanenl.
IinaIIy I erased lhe penciI marks and my dragon vas hnished!
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Grim Reaper Step-by-Step
Ior lhis simpIe draving luloriaI, I am going lo shov you hov simpIe il is lo drav a
Grim Reaper. As vilh mosl of my dravings I Iike lo keep lhings as simpIe as
possibIe, slarling vilh simpIe easiIy repealabIe shapes and forms, any delaiI being
added Ialer. Il does nol mauer if I am crealing a smaII carloon characler or a huge
porlrail painling, I aIvays slarl vilh simpIe shapes dravn IighlIy in penciI.
The hrsl lhing I do as vilh any human-shaped carloon characler is lo creale an
oulIine using slicks and an ovaI for lhe head, as beIov. Then I slarl lo overIay lhe
cIolhes and delaiIs, bul onIy aher I am happy vilh lhe shape and slance of lhe
characler, in lhis case slanding hoIding his scylhe.
I lhen add more and more delaiI, in lhe case of a Grim Reaper lhis is simpIy a hood
and robe hiding everylhing excepl his hands. The hood and robe are acluaIIy very
easy as unIike cIolhes lhey are nol foIIoving lhe shape of lhe body, so lhe reaper's
Iegs and feel for exampIe do nol even need lo be dravn. Iusl add roIIs of maleriaI al
lhe ground lo suggesl lhe robe is lraiIing on lhe ground.
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AngeI Wings Step-by-Step
In lhis draving luloriaI, vhich can be used as a basis for eilher a simpIe Iine carloon
or a fuII delaiIed penciI draving, you viII Iearn Hov To Drav AngeI Wings. As vilh
mosl of my carloons and dravings I Iike lo keep lhings as simpIe as possibIe - any
draving or carloon shouId be slarled vilh simpIe easiIy repealabIe shapes and
forms, vilh lhe delaiI being added Ialer. No mauer if I am crealing a smaII carloon
characler or a Iarge porlrail, I aIvays slarl vilh simpIe shapes dravn IighlIy in
penciI.
AngeI vings are normaIIy seen as huge fealhered vhile vings sprouling from
somevhere around lhe back of lhe shouIders. If you have ever seen lhe movie
Dogma, lhis is lhe Iook I viII be lrying lo creale here. In lhe hrsl draving beIov I
have skelched in penciI vhal Iooks Iike an arm, bul lhe hand al lhe end is being
exlended ßal, poinling lo lhe righl.
Nexl I added a Iarge curve over lhe "hand" area lo creale lhe Iarge boney curve ve
see al lhe hnaI |oinl in reaI vings. I lhen slarled lo add individuaI fealhers, smaII al
hrsl aIong lhe underside of lhe ving, Iarger lhe nearer lo lhe Iong end of lhe ving.
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IinaIIy in lhe Isl lvo dravings I conlinues adding more fealhers, overIapping lo
make lhem Iess even and more naluraI Iooking, and added an oulIine for lhe angeI
characler lhemseIves. You can see lhal lhe ving ilseIf is auached lo lhe bpdy
somevhere behind lhe shouIder.
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Cars And Bikcs
Car 5tcp-By-5tcp 1
II you vanl lo creale a carloon of a parlicuIar make or modeI of aulomobiIe lhen lhe
easiesl vay is, again, lo hnd a pholograph. If you Iook cIoseIy al lhe pholo above ve
can see lhal lhis car is reaIIy |usl a simpIe box shape, vilh a vindscreen on lhe lop of
lhe box and lhe bouom of lhe vheeIs slicking oul benealh lhe box.
I slarled lhis draving by crealing a reclanguIar box as shovn on lhe nexl page, I am
going lo make lhe draving a IiuIe more chunky lhan in lhe pholo because I vanl il lo
Iook Iike a carloon nol lhe reaI car.
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Nexl I lried lo creale lhe main curves of lhe car, in lhis case lhe fronl of lhe car is
quile Iarge and rounded, lhe car lhins in lhe middIe, and is vider again al lhe rear.
I lhen added lhis same shape lo bolh sides of lhe box as shovn beIov, and added
more delaiIs such as lhe vindscreen, vheeI shapes, Iighls elc.
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Wilh lhe Iines redravn in ink aII lhal remains is lo erase lhe penciI marks.
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Car 5tcp-By-5tcp 2
Using lhe same pholograph as before, I crealed a second carloon of lhe car, bul lhis
lime from a sIighlIy dißerenl perspeclive. The pholograph has been laken from eye
IeveI, Iooking dovn on lhe car, vhich means lhe vheeIs are al dißerenl posilions
verlicaIIy on lhe draving.
In lhis second carloon I have dravn lhe car eßecliveIy from vheeI IeveI, so aII lhe
vheeIs are al lhe same heighl. Imagine lhe pholo had been laken crouching dovn
beside lhe car, lhis vouId be lhe resuIl:
Many carloons are dravn from lhis ground IeveI perspeclive, vhere a horizonlaI Iine
is dravn and aII lhe carloon characlers or ob|ecls are dravn slanding on lhis singIe
Iine.
The draving vas done in lhe same vay as before, lhe generaI box shape skelched in
penciI and lhen more delaiI added. Then as shovn beIov, Iines vhere added in ink
once I vas happy vilh lheir posilions.
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IinaIIy lhe penciI marks are erased. I aIso added a fev delaiIs nol on lhe pholo, for
exampIe lhe shading on lhe vindscreen lo suggesl curved gIass:
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Bikes
I crealed lhis draving for a friend vho vanled a carloon of himseIf and his prized
Honda bike. Il slarled in a simiIar vay lo lhe cars on lhe previous pages, using a
pholo lo creale a rough carloon caricalure. Nole lhe exaggeraled proporlions of bolh
his head and lhe vheeIs giving lhe draving a carloon feeI. Ior lhis draving I added
Iols of shading in bIack ink, for exampIe lhe shadov under lhe bike, lhe vheeIs,
|ackel and heImel, and lhen for a more professionaI louch I added coIor using
valercoIour painls. I added coIor aIso because his bike is such a dislinclive bIue vilh
goId vheeIs, and lhis heIped lo make lhe caricalure more personaI for him.
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Drawing FIames
In lhis draving luloriaI I viII shov you hov easy and simpIe il is lo drav ßames and
hre. Wilh any dravings lhal I do I Iike lo keep lhings as simpIe as possibIe, al Ieasl
iniliaIIy - any dravings or carloons shouId be slarled vilh simpIe easiIy repealabIe
shapes and forms, delaiI being added Ialer. No mauer if I am crealing a smaII
carloon characler or a 20" x 30" porlrail, I aIvays slarl vilh simpIe shapes dravn
IighlIy in penciI.
IirslIy ve shouId hnd a sub|ecl lo drav, in lhis case I found a slock pholo of ßames
for reference. In lhe pholo and cIiparl beIov ve can see lhe basic shape of ßames is
simiIar lo a leardrop shape. This is obvious vhen ve see a gas ßame vhen cooking
elc. The ßames are round and vider al lhe bouom and laper lo nolhing al lhe lop.
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IIames can be dravn simpIy using lvo S shapes vhich meel al lhe lop and lhe
bouom bul viden aparl in lhe middIe. Wilh Iarger hres lhere are many individuaI
ßames as you can see in lhe hrsl pholo above. Hov can ve drav lhis simpIy` Iusl by
crealing a singIe ouler "ßame" and hIIing il vilh smaIIer ßame shapes:
To creale even more compIex shapes, for exampIe for use on car arl lo suggesl ßames
shooling aIong lhe side of lhe car, lhe same principIes appIy. The ßames are simpIy
lurned sidevays, and more individuaI ßames are used as shovn beIov:
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Drawing a Rose
Ior lhis simpIe draving luloriaI, vhich can be used as a basis for eilher a simpIe Iine
carloon or a fuII delaiIed penciI draving, I am going lo shov you hov simpIe il is lo
drav a rose. As vilh mosl of my dravings I Iike lo keep lhings as simpIe as possibIe,
al Ieasl iniliaIIy - any draving or carloon shouId be slarled vilh simpIe easiIy
repealabIe shapes and forms, any delaiI being added Ialer. No mauer if I am crealing
a smaII carloon characler or a 20" x 30" porlrail, I aIvays slarl vilh simpIe shapes
dravn IighlIy in penciI.
IirslIy ve shouId hnd a sub|ecl lo drav, in lhis case I found some slock pholos of
roses. IeeI free lo use lhese images lo praclice your dravings.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
As ve can see in lhe above lhree pholos, ve have lvo angIes: hrslIy from lhe side,
and secondIy Iooking dovn on lhe pelaIs from above. In lhis arlicIe ve viII auempl
lo drav bolh as simpIy as possibIe, bul hrsl ve need lo undersland lhe conslruclion
of a rose.
As can be seen in lhe second pholo above, lhe rough shape of a rose is a 5 sided
penlagon. This is because lhere are normaIIy 5 Iarge overIapping pelaIs al lhe
oulside. The pelaIs conlinue lo overIap cIoser and lighler lovards lhe middIe of lhe
ßover.
How To Draw a Rose viewed from above
So our hrsl slep shouId be lo drav a rough penlagon shape, don'l vorry aboul using
slraighl Iines or making il even. If you need heIp draving lhe shape lhen simpIy
drav a circIe hrsl, lhen use lhal as a guide as shovn beIov, marking 5 poinls roughIy
equaI dislances aparl aIong lhe oulside of lhe circIe.
Nov drav lhe 5 Iarge pelaIs exlending inlo lhe middIe of lhe ßover, and conlinue
adding addilionaI smaIIer Iayers of pelaIs cIoser and cIoser lo lhe cenler, again each
Iayer having 5 overIapping pelaIs. This becomes Iess imporlanl cIoser in as lhe pelaIs
overIap more and more. IinaIIy drav in curved edges lo lhe pelaIs lo creale a naluraI
Iook, and add shading as required.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
How To Draw a Rose viewed from the side
To creale a draving of lhe rose from lhe side, again slarl vilh a simpIe shape, in lhis
case an egg shape. Then ve can add some lhe overIapping ouler pelaIs, curIing oul al
lhe lop edge, pIus lhe ßover slaIk and Ieaves.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
Cnmic 5trip Cartnnns
The primary dißerence belveen a carloon and a comic is lhal lhe comic conlains a
slory vhich lakes pIace over a series of paneIs. AIlhough il is possibIe lo creale a
slory in a singIe paneI carloon il is normaIIy a simpIe one lhal can be loId in one
draving, for exampIe a singIe Iine |oke. Comics hovever can be characlerised as
conlaining addilionaI imporlanl faclors:
Movemenl
Slory
In a comic carloon lhe aclion is spIil across muIlipIe paneIs heIping lo creale lhe
feeIing of movemenl and lo heIp leII a more compIex slory. Il can aIso be used lo
separale lhe punchIine of a |oke from lhe selup carloon for exlra emphasis.
Remember lhal comics can range from simpIe carloons leIIing a simpIe lvo or four
paneI |oke lo compIex books more Iike movies in slyIe and conlenl.
Backgrnunds, Pcrspcctivc And 5ca!c
If you are crealing a comic or a carloon vhich lakes pIace in for exampIe an oßce,
don'l lry lo drav an oßce in lhe background behind your characler. As menlioned
before, keep your carloons as simpIe as possibIe, you onIy have lo creale a suggeslion
of vhere lhe characler is for lhe viever lo accepl il. Ior an oßce, simpIy creale one
desk and one chair.
A good exampIe of an exceIIenl carloon comic slrip using lhis approach is DiIberl by
Scou Adams, mosl paneIs in a DiIberl comic slrip conlain one or lvo characlers vilh
one piece of furnilure or a smaII parlilioned cubicIe. Somelimes onIy having lhe
characler dravn from lhe chesl up vilh lhe back of his chair in lhe background is
enough for lhe reader lo knov lhe characler is siuing al a desk. ßefore you slarl
crealing any carloon or comic lhink and see if you can make lhe scene more simpIe,
you may hnd you are iniliaIIy overcompIicaling il.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
If you need lo add more delaiI lo a scene, parlicuIarIy if you are crealing a comic slrip
vhich requires buiIdings or ob|ecls in lhe dislance lo leII your slory, you may need lo
lhink aboul perspeclive and scaIe.
The dravings beIov shov hov lo quickIy and accuraleIy drav ob|ecls using
perspeclive. The hrsl draving shovs hov you vouId creale for exampIe a road
vhich fades slraighl ahead inlo lhe dislance vilh buiIdings and ob|ecls (or peopIe)
on each side. Mark a poinl (vanishing poinl) on lhe horizonlaI horizon Iine vhere you
vanl your road and aII lhe olher ob|ecls lo disappear inlo lhe dislance. Once you
have lhis poinl every ob|ecl vhich runs paraIIeI lo lhe road viII aIso disappear inlo
lhal horizon vanishing poinl. The second draving shovs hov a circuIar ob|ecl can be
dravn simpIy using lhis melhod.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
The lhird draving above shovs hov lhe heighl al vhich you posilion lhe horizon
Iine viII diclale hov high or Iov lo lhe ground lhe viever's posilion is. Ior exampIe
lhis draving shovs lhe horizon Iine 2/3 dovn lhe page, so ve can creale an ob|ecl
such as a buiIding in lhe Iarge area above lhe horizon Iine, vilh onIy a smaII parl of
lhe buiIding beIov lhe horizon Iine. Il lhen appears lhal ve are Iov dovn, perhaps
lhe same heighl as lhe slick oulIine characler I have dravn al lhe side.
The fourlh draving above shovs hov ve can use twn vanishing poinls, perhaps for
lvo roads, using lhe inlersecling Iines lo drav lhe ob|ecls or buiIdings vhich sil al
lhe |oin of lhe lvo roads.
Anolher exampIe above shovs hov ve couId suggesl our carloon characler vas
slanding on lop of an ob|ecl or on lhe roof of a buiIding, vhiIe sliII keeping lhe
perspeclive correcl. If ve drav lhe horizon Iine hrsl, lhen keep lhe surface of lhe roof
beIov lhis Iine as shovn, ve couId add lhe characler on spol X. SimiIarIy in lhe
second draving our characler couId be added lo spol X bul I have broughl lhe
horizon Iine higher up lhe paneI vhiIe keeping lhe roof Iov dovn. The angIe is lhen
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
increased and il appears lhal ve are vieving lhe roof from much higher up. I aIso
used lvo vanishing poinls in lhis draving.
IinaIIy lhe draving above shovs hov a laII buiIding mighl be dravn, perhaps a
skyscraper. Nole lhe horizon Iine is Iov in lhe paneI lo increase lhe amounl of lhe
buiIding above lhe horizon.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
Cartnnn Busincss - Makc Mnncy Frnm Ynur Art
There are a number of vays lo earn money from your arl, parl lime or fuII lime, bul
mosl carloons are soId lo magazines or pubIicalions and lhis is a compelilive markel.
CerlainIy you viII reaIIy need lo buiId up some experience and a subslanliaI porlfoIio
of exampIe dravings and carloons lo shov lo prospeclive empIoyers. Hovever lhere
are a fev lips vhich can heIp separale you from lhe resl.
- When shoving your carloons lo a prospeclive empIoyer or buyer be sure
lo shov lhem onIy compIeled dravings, don'l shov lhem a porlfoIio of
skelches and vorks in progress. Like in aII inlervievs, you vanl lo make
lhe mosl of vhal you have and shov onIy your besl.
- Try lo shov lhem somelhing lhal has been specihcaIIy dravn for lhem,
for exampIe if you knov lhey are Iooking for a parlicuIar lype of carloon
lhen do one lhal lhey couId use. Don'l simpIy shov your oIder carloons you
compIeled for yourseIf or olhers, lhey viII vanl lo knov vhal you can do
for lhem specihcaIIy. If you don'l have somelhing specihc for lhem lhen
make sure you are abIe lo shov oId exampIes vhich are IikeIy lo be simiIar
lo vhal lhey vanl.
- If you are sending carloons lo pubIishers make sure and keep copies, or
send copies lo lhe pubIisher. If you vanl lhe dravings back make sure you
incIude a seIf addressed slamped enveIope, il's your responsibiIily lo ensure
your vork viII be relurned.
- The ma|orily of carloons viII be boughl by mainslream pubIishers and
media, eg magazines and nevspapers, bul olher imporlanl buyers of
carloons are commerciaI companies such as adverlising hrms, media
consuIlanls and smaIIer pubIishing houses. Anyone vho mighl be crealing
Ieaßels, poslers, brochures, nevsIeuers, calaIogues elc may have a neeed
for carloons.
107
2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
- Anolher greal vay lo creale a prohlabIe oulIel for your carloons is lo prinl
lhem on T-shirls and cIolhes. Al CafeIress.com you can use your ovn
designs and dravings lo creale unique gihs, eilher for fun or as a prohlabIe
business. You suppIy lhe arlvork and cafepress handIe aII lhe slock
invenlory for you. To hnd oul more, visil CafeIress.com.
- Olher vays lo prohl from your arl incIude using your dravings for
greeling cards, Ieuers, nolepaper and Iogo designs.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
Fina! Thnughts

Remember: you do nol have lo be lhe vorId's grealesl carloonisl or arlisl lo be abIe
lo creale carloons. If you can convey lhe scene lo lhe reader lhen lhal is aII you have
lo do. The besl carloonisls in lhe lop pubIicalions are nol necessariIy experls lrained
al arl schooI: lhey are abIe lo vrile |okes vhich appeaI lo a Iarge number of peopIe,
make lhem Iaugh, and can convey lhe spiril of lheir |okes in slmµIe dravings.
This is vhal you shouId aim for if you vish lo make more of your carloons lhan
simpIy amusing your friends and famiIy. ßul if you vanl lo creale carloons |usl for
lhe fun of il, you've aIready succeeded |usl by lrying. Keep praclicing, deveIop a slyIe
of your ovn and mosl of aII en|oy!
Gnnd Luck!
Iain McDonaId
hup://vvv.Carloon-Draving-Secrels.com
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
Additinna! Rcsnurccs
Lisled beIov are some of my favourile carloon and draving resources and siles:
• hup://vvv.velcanvas.com The WelCanvas! communily has been
around since 1998 and conlains a veaIlh of info for aII budding arlisls.
• hup://vvv.diIberl.com IrobabIy one of lhe mosl famous modern
comics vilh a huge onIine foIIoving, Scou Adams' sile is an inspiralion for aII
carloonisls.
Cnntact Mc
If you have any queslions or commenls pIease feeI free lo conlacl me al lhe foIIoving
emaiI address: iain+carloon-draving-secrels.com, or al one of my vebsiles:
hup://vvv.Carloon-Draving-Secrels.com
hup://vvv.Iorlrail-OnIine.com
110
2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.
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2006 Cartnnn-Drawing-5ccrcts.cnm.

Table of Contents
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 3.1 ............................................................................ 4 .................................................................. 7 ............................................................ 7 ................................................................................... 8 .................................................................................... 8 ....................................................................... 9 ..................................................................................... 10 ................................................................... 10 3.1.1 ! " # $ ..................... 10 3.1.2 % & $ ........................................ 13 3.1.3 ' ( & # $ ........ 14 3.1.4 ) " ......................... 15 & * # +...................................... 25 3.2.1 , & " ...................................................... 25 3.2.2 , & " - *................................. 27 3.2.3 . " ...................................................... 28 3.2.4 . " - *................................. 30 / & * # +............................. 32 3.3.1 0 ..................................................... 32 3.3.2 ) ................................................... 37 3.3.3 * ............................................................. 38 3.3.4 ........................................... 40 3.3.5 0 .............................................................. 42 3.3.6 ) .................................... 44 3.3.7 0 1 ............................................ 46 3.3.8 1 "............................................. 51 3.3.9 2" / &............................................. 53 - *) ............................................. 57 ................................................................................... 62 / " ................................................................................... 62 4.1.1 / " - *........................................ 65 ............................................................................. 69 ..................................................................................... 70 4.3.1 - *!...................................... 70 4.3.2 - *%...................................... 72 ................................................................................... 75 0 ................................................................................. 76 4.5.1 0 - *..................................... 77 , - *.............................................................. 80 1 - *............................................................... 83 2

3.2

3.3

3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

5

...................................................................................... 84 5.1 / " -(*.......................................................... 84 5.2 . -(*.................................................. 88 5.3 " , " -(*.................................................. 90 6 & ........................................................................................... 92 6.1 - *!............................................................. 92 6.2 - *%............................................................. 95 6.3 & ................................................................................... 97 7 / "1 .......................................................................................... 98 8 / " . .......................................................................................... 100 8.1 0 / . # ( # ........................... 101 8.2 0 / . # ........................ 102 9 ................................................................................. 103 10 &" 3 # .......................................................... 103 11 & *1 ....................................... 107 12 1 " ............................................................................................ 109 13 . .................................................................................. 110 14 ................................................................................................. 110

1

*

3

" # ! " ! "$ & " $ ! ' & ( & ") ! & ! & ! % & ! # # " " ( + ! . / ! ! " ! 0 ! )..& * + " & " 4 .

3! & "" + " ! "& ! ! " * " "" .. 5 . 1 $ % ! ! + % " "2 " + * " ! + ! ! .

* # ! 1 4 "5 " 7 " 6 . #" # " # & 4 ! 6 .

$ % &'# ( 8 & ! " "8 ) *+ ! ! ' " 4 9 5 + .+ *+ "& &1 " 7 .

& .+ * : ! + ! ! . # ! ") ! ! . .+ ! " "& ' #. ! " ) * + " ! ! 4 + ) * .: . ! ! " 8 " % " ! & & ! & " 7 " " & + #: # ! ! + #6 "$ / # + "& ' .

# # ' ". /00 1+ 1 ! 9< $ 8 " " " "$ ! 9 .6 # ! ! # ' + % " . " ' "$ ' ! ! # + ! ! ! .

2) = 6 ( 9 "$ ". ( 5 ! "5 " " " ! ( " + $ $ 8 / # / # ! + 1 ! + + " " 10 .

$ ! " ! ! " 9 > + "& * ! ! " 11 .

3+ ( * "4 ( ! ( " ! ! ( ! ! . $ " . " 12 . .

$ 5 ( / ! 1 ! & ' " ! ? + ") # " ! + ! "& & ! #@ " ! + # # #% ! # # 1 ") ! 13 .

* " . + ! ! $ ! + ' " ! ! + + & ( ! " 14 .$ 7 . 3/ & ' ! " ! 1 ! ! " + ! ! 1 ! 1 / 1 " ! "&.

" ! "5 ! " . + + "7 ! "5 ( 15 .

&4 2 # 5 # / 16 .

17 .

18 .

! 19 .

+ " 6 "& . ": 1 ' """""" ": & & & & ! 20 .- ! ".

+. # ! " "& 21 .< " ! + " #.

+ . " ! ' ! " 22 .

! 23 .& ! + & & "$ # # ! & $ ! & "$ """" & .

7 & ! ! . "& ( #. ! % # " "- 24 .

+ 7 1 /$ 1 / # 6 ! ' ' ! ". " "4 & ! 25 . " ! " : + ! ! .

& % . "< " ! 26 .

7 1 7 . 27 . + / ! " ! " "7 ! % .

8# 7 / . ! " ! 6 1 ' ! ! ! ' ! " " 28 .

/ / ) ' + . ! "& ' ( < "& " 1 ! + " 1 ! 29 .

"& " .8# $ + / ! ' ! " & ! " "$ . ' ' . ": 1 30 .

5 31 .

". ! " "7 " $ ! & . . ! " " " ! " ! 6 A ! ' "$ 32 ! . 1 ./$ 1 % * # 6 ! " * "6 " & ! .

" . % ( " "6 " "- 33 . < + " 3+ * * " + $ 5 ." ! "$ . + / .

& ! "& & " " $ 1 ! "& . ! * """"""" """" * + " "- ! ! ! "& ") ! ! ! ! 34 ! "7 BAC . & & & & / " " ! + + .

* " " * D ! ! "& " ! ! ! # # % 1 ' $ ! ( ( " ! 35 .

! " ! 1 : * "$ " + ! "& 9 ! 36 .

7 . & ": " &4 + D + ) ! + A " + " " 37 .

" . + " D " "$ 1 38 ! .8 + * + " & $ 1 ! ' 1 " + ! ! ! " ! " ! " .

" * ! ! : * ! " 9 "7 ! & " * * 39 .< ! ! " "$ D .

.$ # . "& " " &. * + $ "& @ + ! " & + ! D D ! &." ! ! . 40 . "& ! D "7 & .

"& ! "$ 5 " " * 41 .&1 ! . " & .

* & ' ! & ' ' "$ ! ! "& 5 """"" ) ( " .' & ! & ! 8 ! ! ! " 42 .

! "8 " 43 .

&4 44 .

45 .

" 46 . $ " "5 ! " .* ) / 1 * 9 & ' ! "" # ! "7 ! " "& D ! & .

+ " "7 47 . ' ! " .< 1 .

" " 7 . " 7 .! .+ . "6 5 0) ! 1 . . " ! "& 0 ! . "2 ( . 48 . .

7 " 3! ' . * "7 ! "& ! " 1 6 @ ! " 49 .

: ! " ' * ! ! ! ' ! " ' ! " "& ' ! 50 .

1 .- ! " ". " & ! " 51 . ! .

! . $ ! ! " ! "! ! 52 .< . "$ ! "D " D . ! ! .

9 + 1 * ( " ": + " ! ( ! % ! 53 .

= ! ' + @ " ! ". 1 " " 54 .

" # $ % # & 55 .

! " & & ! ! ! C ( ( + ! ! / * "7 + ".= "7 ! "5 D & ! . + ! & + ! " ! " % 56 .

$ + + / &4 7 ": & . " " % "$ . " 57 .

7 "$ ! . . & ! " " + 58 .

+ / % " ! " "7 59 .

.+ $ + ! / 9# 1 $ & "& " ! . " " 60 . & ! &.

& # % ! "< ! & ( ( ! " D ! D ! #& ": ! ' " 61 .

2 $ ". "& C ! ! * ! ! / " " 62 .

- + + " / ! "7 """"" 63 .

& " $' " . D " ! EC" ( EF 1 ! * .$ ! . * ! " + " 64 .

! & .$ ! ! & 5 &. / 1 " ! 7 + ! ! " + " 65 .

. ! ) ! ! ! & # #" " ! B ! F ! D ! & " & ! ! B ! B " & & D D " 66 .

& ! ! ( 1 1 & ! " ! . "$ & "$ & & " 67 .

7 + ! & " " ( 68 .

& $ ! . 1 69 . " " "& .

$ & ! "& B 9 9 ! 70 .

. & "& ! ! "& ! + * ! ! " 7 & ! 9 71 .

7 ! & "$ 9 * 72 .

" ! ! 73 .& " ! ! "& ! " " % ! "- % .

. ! ! "= * " ! ! " 74 .

+ < ! "$ 1 + "$ 1 ! ! D " 75 .

" 76 .* $ / " & > " .

% + & ! " ! 77 ..

+ 8 ! " # 1 1 " # # #" % 1 ! " + 78 .

& ! 79 .$ ! " .

1 ! & / " "& "& & + "& & ! 1 80 .

1 "& ! & " " "& ! "8 F 81 .

& + & ! "& "7 ( . 82 . ! ! & " + "$ # ! # & ! . ! ! + " @ .

" D & ! + ( ! & . . " + " 7 " . "< ! ! # ! "& + + * . "7 . 1 # . % . 83 . .& & .

! < & ! "& "& 9 ! 84 .

: + & " "$ & ! D " % ' 1 ! & ! 1 " & 85 .

: & 9 ( +& 86 .

"$ .: & ! " 7 & & & & . . 87 .

7 2

& 6 "$ "& & . & ! ' & " % " & ! ( & " &

& ! + + ! "

2

6 ! "> "

88

89

& ) & ": & " $ "& & ! + @ " "& ! ! . ! & ( & $ "$ %

: + & . . 1

!

! "&

#

# !

! "

90

7 ! ! " & ( " ! 91 .

1 + & ( " ( + "& + +" + & & ! 92 .+1 + &7 .

: + & ! " & + " 93 .

- " 94 .

+ . * ! ! & & " ! "& 9 * ! ! & ! " * 8 1 " ! ! D + " & " 95 .

7 + "& ! 9 96 .

& ) D "& ": ! + + "7 & "& ! " & ! 1 97 .

" " @ 1 ! ( & @ @ @ " 98 . "% & & & ": FG# + BG# " & ( & @ 7 "& .& .

# .7 ( @ #@ . 5 "! ") . @ 9 ! 0> ! + ! @ + " @ 9 @ 99 .

1 & " & ( & & 100 .7 & "$ % ": FG# + BG# " 7 "7 .

" E : ! ! E E ! "7 + " ! " 101 @ . " ! ! "& 9. ( $ " " @ " ! ! E ! E ! 5 . " # " ! "& .$ ! .

! " # # " @ ! " ! 102 .

* ! + 1 " 9 8 ! 5 & ! 1 6 1 + ! " + "& + " "$ ! + 1 & / # :) + "$ ! "7 ! / / " $ + 5 ($ + "5 ( . ! 103 " "< ! .

104 . ! 1 D + 1 D ".& 1 ! " 1 ! " "8 ! D ! ! 1 " " 1 .

H H" 5 & ! " 105 D .! ! D D FAB ! "& & ! 1 1 " D ! ! " "7 + D 1 $ + ! "& ! 1 D .

! ! " "& 7 ": ! ! D D " 106 .

" %& "& ! " % 1 D "& ! + ! ! " . ! "$ @ " 107 ( . . ! .+# $ 1 $ - " # D + + ! " ") ! ! " %"= ! % + " .

( " . . "$ . " 108 . 4 ' ! 4 " " " .%$ % " ! %.

- % # 6 " 9 "& 9 ! ! + 1 ! 1 " ! "< ! 1 ( 9# 16 1 "I ! 1 & 8 ( 9AA " % %5 " 109 .

% %5 " % " " 9 110 .8 = • ( 9AA " ?JJK • ( 9AA " " " 4 ! " ! - # 9 ! " 5 ($ $ & ! 9 ( 9AA ( 9AA " "4 L % %.

111 .

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