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Introduction to Aircraft System

Introduction to Aircraft System

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INTRODUCTION TO AIRCRAFT SYSTEM An aeronautical engineer must have a solid foundation in basics of A/C System, the principle of cooling and

sound knowledge of the way the principle is applied to various systems used in the A/C. The various systems that exist in aircrafts are as follows 1. Hydraulic System 2. Aircraft Oxygen System 3. Pneumatic System 4. Air-conditioning and Pressurization System 5. Electrical System 6. Engine oil & Fuel System 7. Aircraft Instrument System 8. Ice and rain protection system 9. Fire protection and smoke detection system 10. Leak and Waste system 11. Aircraft weapon (Rocket, Gun, Missiles, Bomb& Ejection system) 12. Communication and navigation system 13. Propulsion system Though the systems are used to operate the various counter and components, they require day to day check, repair & examination for smooth and proper function. The purpose to conduct A/C system lab is to familiarize day to day activities required to maintain airworthy condition of A/C. AIRWORTHINESS The continuing capability of the A/C to perform in satisfactory manner, the flight operation for which it is designed. INSPECTION It is the most important form of function of aviation maintenance. As the A/C gives complexity, it becomes more important to detect any possible trouble before it becomes serious. To assist this, aero engineers are provided with detail special check list and the maintenance manual for each type of A/C. The engineer has to go through maintenance manual thoroughly before attempting any kind of activity in aircraft and its components. The operations may be carried out on A/C on daily flying hours and/or cycle basis. MAINTAINENCE The set of action including inspection, servicing, and determination of condition required to achieve a derived outcome which restore an A/C part and equipment in serviceable condition.

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B CHECK This is performed in approximately 3 months. SERVICING It means preparing the A/C for flight. The occurrence can be delayed by the aircraft if certain predetermine conditions are met. 2 . hydraulic fluid contamination test. fuel contamination test & some activities requires replacement of components. Aircrafts usually refer to as one of the following checks. TROUBLE SHOOT It means to analyses and identify the malfunction. REPAIR It means to correct the defective condition. SERVICING SCHEDULES Servicing on Hours/Calendar/Cycle basis. A CHECK This is performed approximately every month. inspection. includes providing the A/C with fuel and other fluid and gases but do not include any work that is maintenance. which are to be carried out on aircraft at set Hours/Calendar/Cycle basis are mentioned in the manual or A/C servicing schedule. air-conditioning equipments. The servicing includes examination. aircraft brake units wheels etc. cycle or number of hours flown since the last check. Aircraft maintenance checks are periodical checks that have to be done on all aircraft after a certain amount of time usage. door locks. lubrication and removal of major components such as landing gear jacks. reworking of parts to a given standard. A/C rigging procedure. MODIFICATION It is a continuous process to improve its reliability and performance. flying control range and moment check. The actual occurrence of this check varies by the type.. This is usually done over night. landing gear functional test.OVERHAUL Overhaul means stripping a unit and restoring it to its design performance level after replacing.

accident and damage to man and material. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHILE HANDLING AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AND ITS COMPONENTS AIM To prevent incident. the respective maintenance manual is to be referred for further instructions. 3 . AIRCRAFT Before carring out any work on the A/C. Before entering the cock pit of a fighter A/C. Schedule and occurrence has many factors. This check is done approximately every 4 to 5 year. CONCLUSION In order to ensure air worthiness condition of an A/C and its associated systems. The component is described and thus varies with the A/C category and type. This is the check that take the entire A/C apart for inspection. This check puts aircraft out of service and requires plenty of space usually at the hanger and maintenance base. Complete overhauling of the A/C and its components even A/C painting is also required in this process. 1. following the schedule show the A/C and its system are kept in fully serviceable condition at all time and in turn enhance the A/C safety. D CHECK This is the heaviest check of an A/C. analysis Non Destructive Testing (NDT) check and complete health monitoring of the engine has to be recorded. ensure that the ejection seat is in safe and all armament operating switches are in safe position and all the safely pins are in position. The time frame of schedules varies from A/C to A/C. Various checks/inspections within stipulated time. The necessary safety precautions are to be strictly followed. OCCASIONS Whenever required to handle the A/C and its system components and ground equipments.C CHECK This is performed every 12 to 18 months. A comprehensive check.

9. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM 1. Before fitting a new hydraulic component. While fitting the non return valve and restrictors. 5. ensure that the marked arrows are in the desired direction. 4. f. a. Ensure that the wheel chocks are engaged. Before switching on the master battery switch ensure that the under carriage selector lever is in down position and latched and all the armament store door switches are in safe condition. 4. Always release the system pressure before removing a component from the A/C 2. b. 3. blank all the parts of the component and the respective pipes. ensure that the control locks are removed. c. Never does any maintenance work on airplane with any other specified oil other than the recommended one. Clean all the vents of the aircraft On removal of components. 3. dirt and foreign particles. Avoid spilling of hydraulic fluid on the A/C and in and around from the A/C. d. If spilled it should be cleaned immediately to avoid slipping. While carrying out the pressure test never exceed the given limitation 4 . 3. Release the system pressure before attempting a job. 7. Carry out the patch test on the system to prevent the contamination of oil. Never tow an aircraft without a person inside the cockpit before towing the A/C. 8. A serviceable fire extinguisher is available. While towing the A/C never exceed the walking speed. it should be unblanked. Follow the necessary precautions to dismantle the hydraulic components. 6. degreased. While working inside the A/C. Before operating the control surface. Blank all the ports of the removed components and the A/C pipe ends to avoid the entry of dust. e. check the brake pressure. Chocks are to be kept in front of the wheel. Never mix different grade of hydraulic oil to service the A/C. g. 2. This can be carried out using Millipore patch test kit. Before starting the engine. 4. collect all the tools and space on completion of the job and ensure no items are left behind. Never drop any tool while working. A/C brake system in servicable. 5. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 1.2. washed and flushed.

6. 12. Smoking. 9. Do not use greasing gloves. 5.5. No smoking. 2. Keep the tools and clothing free of oil and grease. gas and oil combined with O2 is sufficient to develop instant combustion and cause fire and explosion. Make sure the fuelling source contain the proper fuel grade as specified by the manufacture. 4. open flames or smokes should not be permitted while working on the oxygen system. 13. The operation should be carried out in an open or fully ventilated space. 7. radar or any other electrical and electronic equipment except those specified. While charging the pneumatic pressure always use the pressure regulator and safety valve. Object should not come in contact with grease or solvents as this will cause spontaneous explosions. Ground the fuel supply unit and aircraft. Do not carry out oxygen related work. 8. 2. open flame is permitted in and around the A/C. 5. Always use protective cover. It is not permitted to drop any tool while the operation is on. Drain the oil and water separator. Never permit O2 cylinder to come in contact with electrical welding circuits and apparatus. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS DEFUELLING TO BE FOLLOWED DURING FUELLING AND 1. Never lubricate the O2 system components except on approved compatible lubricant. 6. Keep working area and equipment free of oil. 7. OXYGEN SYSTEM 1. Do not operate radio. 11. Never handle any bottle or cylinder from its charging nozzle. 3. Never test for pipe line leaks or flow pipe line with oxygen unless the lines are specifically made for that. Do not carry matches while handling the O2 system 3. 4. Never mix other gas or compressed air is an O2 cylinder. Never use oxygen from cylinder without reducing the pressure through a reducing regulator and safety valves. 10. 5 . 6. grease or any other flammable material. Hand should be clean and free from oil. A/C must be grounded and all electrical power must be switched off. A spark is not necessary to cause a fire or explosion but the chemical reaction of fuel.

Ensure that the nose landing gear upper & lower torque links are connected prior to jacking. Ensure all ground support units are clear of the A/C. Avoid A/C jacking up operation in open area. 6 . Document 4. Place caution boards/sign boards on the ground near the nose. 5. 7. Equipment -3 . If necessary fit the jack pads on the A/C structure.3+1 . 11. Find out the weather status from the ATC/MET department.AIRCRAFT JACKING PROCEDURE THEORY For maintenance activities such as rigging. 4. Maintain the communication between the crews. Refer A/C manual before jacking up the A/C to know the correct method/procedure. 2. wing tip and tail of the A/C. PREFERENCE It is always recommended to refer the respective A/C maintenance manual before attempting to perform jacking up operation. 12. retraction test. 10. A/C ladder PRECAUTIONS 1. The jacks may be hydraulic or screw type as supplied by the manufacturer apart from this required the additional tail jacks or trestles may be used in accordance with the maintenance manual or the type of activities. 9. wheel brake assembly change and major component change the A/C must be jacked up properly. Man hours 2.G and Gross weight are within safety limits. The jacking up can be done by single point lifting by bottle jack or three point lifting by tripod jack. AIM To lift the A/C by using jacks. If required keep trestles ready for use. Select the hard & level ground. sequence of operation and requirement of equipments. REQUIREMENT 1.bottle jack. leveling. 6. wheel chocks. 8. Ensure the lifting capacity of the jack and the jacks are fully serviceable. 13.A/C maintenance manual . Man power 3. 3. Keep safety lines around the A/C. Do not attempt to jack up the A/c by the main gear shock strut. Do not jack up the A/C before ensuring that the C.

If the A/C is likely to be jacked more than 24 hours or over night. 12. 7 . 5. First raise the nose slightly then simultaneously all the jacks till the wheels are clear by one inch from the ground 8. Engage the lock mechanism and lock the jack to prevent the sudden collapse due to hydraulic leakage of jacks. 3. RESULT A/C jacked up safely without any damage to men. 9. ensure that the jacks are properly placed Raise the jack slowly till the contact of the A/C jacking pod is at the correct place slightly way out the jack and align it. While lowering the A/C from the jack. Place a display board (“A/C ON JACKS”) in front of A/C 11. material and equipments. Deploy one person at each jacking point. Ensure that the ground is hard & level without slipping Remove the Chocks from the wheels Place the trestles wherever it is applicable Place all jacks at specified jacking points. 6. 4. No loose items are available in and around the A/C while lowering the A/C and abstraction if any to be cleared before lowering. 10.PROCEDURE The procedure offers as per the type of A/C and as per the manufacture instruction. 2. 7. ensure the parking brakes are in off position. it is recommended to adjust the trestles at all specified stations to support the A/C weight. 1.

On replacement/renewal of major components.3 2. Plumb ball method (Large wide body) 3. 3. 1. During rigging check During symmetry check As required by manufactures and competant authority REQUIREMENT 1. Engineers steeper method for super sonic A/C NOTE As the procedure differs always.AIRCRAFT LEVELING PROCEDURE AIM To place the A/C level with the ground by using strain gauge and spirit level method. 4.3+1 8 . The rigging position is the position of the A/C at which longitudinal and lateral axis are parallel to the ground (Straight level position). OCCASSIONS 1. therefore always refer the instruction specified by manufacturer for the correct procedure for rigging and instructions required. 2. Manpower . It can be done by three different methods on the A/C type as follows. Man hours . (A/C type light wt) THEORY Leveling of an A/C is the procedure of placing an A/C in its rigging position by means of lifting the A/C by hydraulic jacks so as to enable the rigging check on newly assembled A/C or replacement/renewal of any major component of the A/C in order to ensure the correct fitting and alignment of A/C. Strain gauge and spirit level method (Light A/C) 2.

1. leveling board. A/C rigging charts 4. 3. 6. Adjust the tail trestle till the bouble of the spirit level in brought in center Repeat the same operation Place the Spirit level after checking the accuracy Adjust the main jacks till the double of the spirit level in brought to the center Recheck the lateral level as well as longitudinal level CAUTION Always finish the leveling procedure by checking the longitudinal level without any adjustment RESULT The A/C is level and ready for further checks CHECKING OF WING INCIDENCE ANGLE AIM To ensure correct alignment of using. 4.Tripod jack (hydraulic/screw). when the A/C is in rigging position or straight level flights condition. 7. A/C ladder.3. 5. Observe all the precautions while jacking up the A/C Check accuracy of spirit level PROCEDURE 1. It provides least drag. Document .A/C Maintenance manual. minimum power requirement extra for long endurance of the A/C. INCIDENCE ANGLE It is the angle between the chord line of main plane and the tail plane and the horizontal line when the A/C is in rigging position. Equipment . THEORY The wing incidence angle can be defined on the angle made by the chord line and the elective wing. spirit level. tail trestles PRECAUTIONS 2. The checking procedure differs as per the A/C type 9 . 2. 8. Ensure that the A/C is jacked up properly and place the trestles wherever it is required Place the longitudinal leveling board at port side Place the spirit level over the longitudinal board. wing fitment in order to achieve the correct design parameters. A/C forms.

Equipment -3 . Check the accuracy of Spirit levels PROCEDURE 1. 4. In this experiment the general procedure has been followed. The necessary repair/replacement work may be initiated as per the maintenance manual RESULT The wing alignment is ensured to be corrected and the wing incidence angle is found to be zero degree. Man hours 2. 2. Place the wing incidence board at the top of the wing. If the bubble is away from the center the incident angle in member less than the specified dispending upon the position of the bubble. On replacement or renewal of wings Initial illustrations of the aircraft/transportation Followed by erosive ‘G’ loads/heavy loading As and when required by the manufacture and compact authority. If the incidence angle is not correct the mounting point of the wing fuselage is to be checked for its correct fitment crackers. Aircraft rigging charts .Aircraft Maintenance manual. trestles. distortion. If the bubble is in the center the subjected incident angle is correct 4. Jack up the A/C as per the procedure by taking all the safety precautions 2. 3.and follow the instruction given by the A/C manufacture for a correct procedure.Tripod jack (hydraulic/screw type). (the lib number is reframed in the respective A/C maintenance manual) 2. Place the adjustable spirit level over the wing procedure board 3. 6. OCCASIONS 1. 5. Level the A/C as per the procedure 3. Adjustable board for leveling adjustable spirit level. CHECKING OF WING DIHEDRAL ANGLE 10 . using incedeure board PREPERATION 1.3+1 . losers. Manpower 3. aircraft ladder. REQUIREMENT 1. Document 4.

leveling port. 4. 2. 5.3+1 . Check for the bubble. Manpower 3. Equipment -3 . Followed by heavy landing report Followed by flight through turbulence During electron of new airplane On removal or revilement of wings Any major work or repair carried on the wing As and when required by the regulator delay REQUIREMENT 1. when the A/C with dihedral angle is banked the tilted lift vector through its horizontal component set up a grade slipping velocity to wend the lower using tip. Maintenance chart . Level the A/C and check the accuracy with the help of adjustable sprit levels 3. Adjustable spirit level.A/C manual. 3. Jack up the A/C by taking up all the precautions 2. Man hours 2. Dihedral board PROCEDURE 1. if necessary adjust it if the bubble it is center the angle is considered to be correct RESULT The dihedral angle of 20 of the pushpak A/C is measured and found correct CHECKING OF WING SWEEP ANGLE 11 .Jack.THEORY The upwind inclinatron of the wing to the fund age given to provide the derived lateral stability during rout of the A/C. Document 4. The effect of the dihedral angle into toss to meet the lower using at the allowed angle of check than that of higher wing there by allowing moment in lift on the lower and sets up a restoring moment to correct the position of the A/C. Place the spirit level in the dinehedral board 5. AIM To check the given dihedral angle of the aircraft OCCASIONS 1. Place the wing dihedral board at the specified station along the span between the labs (The Lib and statren number is mentioned in the manual) no 1 to 4 in the front spam 4. 6. Adjustable trestles.

THEORY Wing sweep back in the angular setback given to the A/C lateral axis along the longitudinal axis to improve the A/C speed by reducing from the drag. the change in dynatron of the airflow over rewiring passing over a short effect chord with a greater effective camber than that of the reused wing. The stability effect also themes due to higher aspect retro of lower wing. through begging shielded. It is misty done by on high speed A/C to improve flight characteristics. AIM To measure the wing sweep back angle and to ensure the retention of dared flight characteristic 12 . As the A/C with dihedral the upper wing may also suffer. When an A/C with a sweep back form in banked by a disturbance. The final result in before a relatively greater amount of left from lower wing which affect the lateral level.

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