SAP Basis Basics

I. Welcome to SAP!

SAP was started by three IBM employees in 1972, and… blah, blah, blah… you can find this sort of information on the internet, in books and other publications, in SAP published documentation, etc. This paper does not contain information which can be easily harvested from the internet but information from over a dozen years of SAP implementations. Nor does it contain information to the other SAP implementation team – the functional team. It is their role to have meetings, ask questions, create spreadsheets, and all the other tripe that makes them look really busy and valuable. No, this paper is aimed at the technical side of the team – the Basis people – and takes a lighter view of things in the hopes that your already frazzled mind can stop screaming “Panic! Panic! Panic!” for at least a few minutes. You are on the fringe of joining the Brother-and-Sisterhood of SAP Basis Professionals. Of course, even that is now a misnomer since Basis is no longer called Basis – you won’t even find it in the SAP Glossary at http://help.sap.com anymore. But we still do the same things. So let’s start off by defining the Basis role: anything having to do with the IT or technical part of SAP falls under the heading of Basis. There are sub-Basis roles that might require specialist like Portals people, CRM middleware people, etc. but they still fall into the category of Basis. There is a old story about a project manager addressing his Basis staff: “People – let’s solidify the role of the Basis team. It goes like this: anything I don’t understand about SAP is Basis.” Sadly, on some projects, this is close to being true. What does Basis mean? I don’t know how the phrase was coined, but Basis functionality can be labeled the “nonflavored” base of any SAP instance which we will talk about in a minute. Up until version 6.10, Basis was the only term for the “whatever” that was this base. As of 6.10, Web Application Server – internet connectivity - was added to this “whatever” layer, so now you will see a few people described as being WAS consultants but it is all Basis. If someone asks you what is your SAP area of expertise, you say you are a Basis specialist. If you say you are a WAS specialist, people might just think that English is your 4th or 5th language. And hardcore Basis people will point at you and laugh. Besides, wait around a month or two and SAP will call it something different. While we are on the topic of what to call things, here are the primary rules for SAPese. If taken alone, SAP is not called sap. It is always called S-A-P. But when joined with other terms, you can call it sap – like SAPGui is sapgooey, SAPScript is sap-script, SAPTech is sap-tech, etc. If you call the standalone term SAP sap in front of anyone who works for SAP, you will get really nasty stares and possibly frantic little black notebook scribbling as your name and other personal information are logged for future… er, hmmm… use.

II. What is IT’s role in a SAP implementation? What can Your Implementation Consultants do for Your IT Group?
It often seems that the Basis group does little while the Functional group has all these meetings and has to update all these spreadsheets and progress reports… but this is not true. The Basis group has limited options when it comes to configuration – we pick the OS, platform, and database. Once that is decided, we purchase the hardware and install the software. At least part of this, the install of the first DEV instances, must be done by IT while the Functional group is still doing Blueprint so that they can use a SAP instance as a reference and demonstration resource. And while there are some variables in picking the right OS, platform, and database, once it is done it is done and there is rarely any changing it later. Some of those variables include which combinations have the largest SAP user base, which get newly released software the soonest, which provide the highest and most stable, which receives the larget share of SAP R&D resources, which seems to guarantee the longest useful life, which allows the strengths of our existing staff to be put to the best use, which moves our company in the direction the entire enterprise needs to go? So you do have to make some decisions. The good news about this lack of choices on the part of IT is that we don’t have to produce nearly as much documentation as the Functional group. This document is part of the Basis Information Kit. Our main document produced using a SAP implmenetation is called the SAP Technical Infrastructure – STI Doc- document and it is a work in progress all through the SAP implementation. Some parts of it, like the SAP instances to be installed, the clients to be created, the TMS procedures, etc. can be entered from the start but these procedures may change based on what works and what does not work for the Basis and Functional groups. Other parts of the document must be completed later as they deal with server serial numbers, server DNS entries, SAP directory files, etc. Generally, your

implementation partner’s Basis lead will complete as much of the document as possible, and pass it on to the client so that the addition of new information is a continuing process. The client Basis group will also receive some SAP publications and other Hitachi produced documents. Besides the STI Document, they will be provided with a Basis Operations document tailored to your specific OS and database. This document details approximately 95% of what a Basis person needs to do in order to handle the day-to-day chores of running a SAP instance. The Basis Operations document will be reviewed jointly by the consultant Basis lead and the client Basis group. The document you are now reading, Basis Basics, will provide a list of all Basis topics to be covered during Knowledge Transfer (KT) and daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, bi-annual, and annual tasks your Basis group to schedule as appropriate, and an appendix containing practice exercises for the Basis group to do to get a hands on feel for the SAPGui interface. Some SAP Tutor files, SIMs, may also be provided for use in teaching SAPGui navigation. Your implementation partner may provide other SIMs and tutorial files as they become available. Installation guides for all SAP software can be found at http://service.sap.com/instguides. It is a good idea for the client Basis group to download and distribute copies of the appropriate installation guides and scan through it if for no other reason that to become familiar with the terms SAP uses to reference IT entities, its software, and the SAP landscape. Formal training by SAP is always encouraged, and it another good resource for an introduction on how SAP views the IT world. The people you meet in these classes may be a valuable asset in the future if you run into problems with after your implementation partner is no longer enagged. Having your company join ASUG – American SAP Users Group – is another good people networking tool and can be done at http://www.asug.com.

III.

What is a SAP Landscape? What is my role in a SAP implementation?

The SAP Landscape is like a layout of a complex garden – you have areas for roses, and areas for lilacs, and it is all laid out in proper form. A SAP landscape can range from one SAP instance with one client and one user who does all the input into the instance via keyboard to dozens of instances with hundreds of clients and thousands of users, with keyboard input, RFC (Remote Function Calls) and ALE (Automatic Link Exchange) from other SAP instances, links to external databases, EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) via flat file from banks, vendors, etc., and RF units in the warehouse. In other words, a SAP landscape can be very simple, or very complex. A bed of petunias, or the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. A normal SAP landscape consists of a Development (DEV) instance, a Quality Assurance (QAS) or Test (TST) instance, and a Production instance (PRD). Some very small implementations will have only a DEV and PRD instance, with the DEV instance containing a QAS client for testing purposes. A non-Production SAP server should have 2 (preferably more) processors, at least 4 gig of memory, and at least 100g of disk space. A Production SAP server should have at least 4 processors, from 4 to 8 gig of memory, and at least 200g of disk space. A hefty server with 6 – 8 processors, 6 – 8 gig of memory, and at lease 200g of disk space can host two SAP instances. This can be done for DEV and QAS but PRD should never share a server with any other SAP instance. The SAP instances form the core of a SAP landscape. The other installed SAP products are peripheral to the SAP instances.

IV.

What is a SAP Instance?

A SAP instance is all the components created by the SAPinst program who all share the same database. There are three mandatory sub-instances; the Database Instance (DB), the Central Instance (CI), and the Dialog Instance (DI) aka Application Server. This is the minimum configuration of any SAP instance. There can be multiple DIs but only one DB and only one Active CI which means that a copy of the CI can exist for High Availability but only one of the CIs can be active at any given time. You will hear about SAP being multi-tiered and that term is referancing these three layers. Sometimes you might see “other SAP tiers” like ITS but that really isn’t a separate tier, it used to be an additional piece of software working with IIS, and now ITS is part of Basis/WAS so it is part of the CI Tier. These layers, plus other SAP written software, are also known as the SAP Business Framework. You can probably guess at what the DB contains. There are any number of tables in a SAP instance, from 21,000 to 38,000. Many have four or five character names that are usually abbreviations of things like USR for user, MANDT for client, etc. You could guess that USR is short for user. But MANDT? So, we add one more variable to the equation – those four or five character names are abbreviations of German words. Needless to say, trying to look at SAP from a typical DBA prospective is almost impossible. Fortunately, SAP supplies the tools for you to manage all these tables.

and shutdown of the database. So if you see reference to an Oracle instance. The normal SAP instance start up consists of three parts: starting the SAP OS Collector. The process to stop the SAP instance is close to being the reverse of the start procedure. This is SAP’s main ERP product that handles Financials. however. the installed OS file structure. and anything that is placed on the OS to support and communicate with the SAP instance. However. The process mainly goes like this: ora<sid> logs on and starts the Oracle Listener then <sid>adm logs on and runs the startsap script. handles requests made by the application server(s). and starting the SAP instance. or never be used. this means the installation of the Oracle software. the script simply moves on to the next step. When the SAP Instance starts up via the startsap script. For a Production SAP instance. . and lots and lots of other ERP stuff. If the MCOD installation option was used then only one Oracle Listener is used since both databases share one Oracle listening port which is normally 1527. and sends the returned results to the user’s session. it simply “watches” port 1527 for any database related activity. It should be noted that the installation of a CI instance automatically installs a DI which can be used by everyone if needed. you may need to bring up multiple Oracle Listeners depending on the database configuration. Human Resources. So the SAP OS Collector gets handled one way or another. These are the three main pieces of a SAP instance installation. All the modules are installed during a SAP instance installation. An Oracle database is the creation of a new empty database within that Oracle instance. The Dialog Instance connects the users to the CI. None of this activity could occur if the listener was not “polling” port 1527. Instance can be a difficult term to understand – almost every major database applies this term to the installation of the database software. All these modules – that is what the functional people call them – live in and use common data in one SAP instance. the script starts saposcol as root and then proceeds. relaying the requested database function. and each database uses its own unique Oracle listening port. oraabc’s environment variables tell the server which database for which the listener is to “listen”. If it is not. starting the Oracle Listener. Understanding the Startup and Shutdown prodedures may help solidify this layer concept. Controlling. If saposcol is up and running. One thing to note – the Oracle Listener does not start the database. two Oracle instances were installed.The Central Instance is a lump term for all the SAP executables. The only real difference is that saposcol is not automatically stopped by the stopsap script – there may be other SAP instances on the server which means this software needs to stay up and running to gather OS information until that instance comes down. Other software products often call this the middleware layer. <sid>adm stops the SAP Instance. it checks to see if saposcol is up and running – whether from the root user starting it manually or from another SAP Instance already starting it up. mount. opening. the DB/CI are often installed on one server and the DI on another server for load balancing purposes. then multiple listeners must be started. V. it doesn’t matter. Whether all the modules are implemented is up to the SAP customer. SAP uses a client piece called SAPGui which handles the user-to-DI communication on the user’s workstation. The startup procedure for each SAP Instance would be exactly the same as if only one SAP Instance resided on the server. The <sid>adm and ora<sid> users are assigned environment variables using the SAP installation run that identify them as users of a specific Oracle database and SAP instance. So when oraabc starts the lsnrctl program with the “lsnrctl start” command. The startsap and stopsap scripts handling the startup. What? You say we missed a step? What happened to the SAP OS Collector? The startsap script takes care of the SAP OS Collector for us. and returning the results through the same port. If. and sends back the information. all three layers are normally installed on the same server. Sales. There are other parts that can be added for various sub-access and external tasks. What are the different kinds of SAP software? What kind of hardware will they need? Although the most common flavor is SAP is called R/3. For a Development SAP instance or a Quality & Assurance or Test SAP instance. passes the issued requests to the CI. ora<sid> stops the Oracle Listener. be used only as needed by Basis staff. It “talks” to the database. and root stops the SAP OS Collector. Logistics.

SolMan (Solution Manager). of course. In addtion. large. a SAP landscape can be very simple or very complex. Products such as plug-ins for communicating with other SAP instances. HP. it doesn’t hurt to see what the other platforms are selling for. As stated earlier. You can get a head start on the hardware sizing process by reading the documents available at http://service. And there may be a need for Portals servers. Let’s get this out into the open early: a Basis consultant does not do hardware sizing. Some SAP transactions communicate with external software but the functionality is either in the SAP instance or out on your network or on the internet. and information is send back into the SAP instance. SAP created the sizing program and trained this hardware vendor on it and that is what your quotes will be based. At the very least. More along the lines of every problem message you open with SAP gets its priority bumped down to like a -5. CRM (Customer Relationship Management). Dell. Normally. VI. Even if you mentally are locked into an IBM box running AIX and Oracle. Products such as APO (Advanced Planning & Optimization). If nothing else. the SAP Learning Solution. its installation program SAPinst has changed over the years as well. there are add-ons supplied by SAP. an SAP instance can talk to another SAP instance using RFC – for example. Transaction SICF activates business packages for access via the internet. SAP transactions like SCOT use built-in communication ports for the use of sending email from SAP to a SMTP server. Sarbannes-Oxley. this is how the Transpost Management System moves changed from one instance to another. RFC – Remote Function Calls – can originate in the SAP instance and go out to “talk” to some other product that knows what to do with the request passed. CI and DI . There are also products written by SAP partners which can be accessed externally from a SAP instance: products like Vertex which is a Sales Tax database. Besides servers for your database and SAP instances. How does SAP get installed? . a SAPConsole server… the list goes on and on. Best Practices.sap. I’m not talking about punching you out or stalking you. Remote installation on your SAP servers can make the installation task simpler – it is always more comfortable to do the work from your own workstation than having to sit in a cold. Once you contact the hardware vendor of your choice. They have worked together to create templates for very small. you will need an additional not-too-hefty server for a Solution Manager instance which is what SAP is now requiring as the “tunnel” to get into your SAP landscape.and the process is pretty much the same depending on the age of the product. medium. Just like SAP’s product line. SAP has special “hardware sizing” software on which it trains it’s hardware partners like IBM. small. These add-on products are what the name implies – they “add” more functions and data “on” to an regular SAP instances. they will look at the sizing report from your hardware vendor and tell you if they think it is too weak or too string. From there it is pretty much a plug-in the company data and spit out a sizing reports. and very large SAP landscapes. The Basis group of Hitachi recommends Terminal Services – aka Remote Desktop – for this work. can be added to an existing SAP instance. As for hardware.Each SAP “flavor” must be installed in its own SAP instance.com/sizing. they will meet with you to calculate your SAPs – a unit of measurement SAP uses to estimate workload – decide into which category your company fits. noisy computer room. And it doesn’t hurt if rumor gets back to IBM that you are talking to Dell. UME server. and SCM (Supply Chain Management) are all SAP “flavors” installed into their own instances all of which are pretty much installed the same way – installed with a DB. they are just trying to get you to purchase some really expensive boxes that you just don’t need!”. we recommend that you get hardware estimates from more than one hardware vendor. Playing hardware vendors against one another can lead to some hefty discounts given by a vendor who doesn’t want to see a sale walk out the door. And. Also. BW (Business Warehouse). PCAnywhere and products such as Tight VNC do not possess the stability of Terminal Services. you might need other servers for your SAP landscape depending on the complexity of your SAP implementation. More about this later. Anything critical said about the proposal could get back to all sorts of people who could more or less hurt you in certain circles. SRM (Supplier Relationship Management). Remember. you’ll need a small server having a public IP address and located in your DMZ for your OSS connection. etc. etc. you can impress your hardware vendor by sprouting out all these SAP terms like SAPs and High Availability and SANs. and BSI which calculates payroll taxes. That is about all you can expect of them – their career could be very short-lived if they say “Hey.

10. 2. You can think of client 000 as the owner of all the client independent data in the SAP instance. 4. 11. country codes. Run SAPinst to install the DB instance. it must be noted that only the SAP company is allowed to KT (Knowledge Transfer) installation information. Current the TMS for the SAP instance. So. we have the concept of a SAP instance. Make all server configuration adjustments as specified in the SAP installation guide. Without getting into the little details. Normally the post installation work takes 2 . This is optional and I believe a fee is involved for this service. Like state abbreviations. Data like users. and are encouraged to install and delete sandbox instances on a spare server rather than let it gather dust. Think of a client as a view of the database. But if you intend to add the Java Add-on or Java components after the SAP instance is installed. HR titles. Thus the concept of client dependent and client independent data. or PRD instance. If you log into client 100. Download and install the most current SAP kernel. 7. QAS.First. etc. Install the database software. the Data Dictionary tables. VIII. adding users. Download and install JDK 1. are client dependent. VII. Clients may watch all they wish during installation. You have to go into a specific client in order to see this data. . etc. These are said to be client independent.and start the real work. customers.4x in order to run the SAPinst interface when you install a new SAP instance. All rows in some tables are accessible from any client like T000. The base SAP instance comes with two clients: 000 and 066. client 000 is where the Basis Team does a lot of its maintenance like patching. and that instance has a database which contains thousands of tables which contain a whole bunch of rows. Run SAPinst to install any additional DI instances. 6. But installation is not part of your purchased Technical Knowledge Transfer package. companies. in order to let the Functional Team do their own thing without screwing anything up. vendors. This regardless if it is a DEV. After SAP is installed.x if you aren’t going to use the ABAP add-on. here is what gets done during the typical SAP install – the work that gets done after the hardware has been installed into the network and DNS: 1. printers. Do remaining post-installation work such as connecting SAP Online Help. 5. Download and apply all outstanding SAP patches. you see all client independent data – like the ABAP programs – and all the data that is dependent on client 100. tables that contain the ABAP programs. If you log into client 000. etc. 12. The installation itself normally take a one eight hour working day and the post-installation work two eight-hour working days for a total of three working days to install a SAP instance. What is a SAP client? OK. Also. The Basis Team people are the only implementation members who will ever have access to client 000. add themselves a user ID in client 000 – “our” client . Run SAPinst to install the CI and default DI instances. All the base or subset data is contained in client 000. Do I have to install JDK 1. 8.4x – you can use JRE 1. We don’t want to mess this subset of data up so we need to populate it to a “work” place for the Functional Team to do their work. Request and apply the permanent license key. Patch the database software. it is used by SAP when you get close to GoLive and you want an EarlyWatch report. these tables need to have some base data in order for customization and configuration to begin. SAP provides a subset of this data so that the Basis team can get in the new instance. creating clients. You can’t see the data that is dependent on client 110 while you are logged on to client 100. etc. 3. Forget client 066. you need JDK in order to do so. Explanation in a minute. 9.4.4x? SAPinst – the SAP installation program – needs at least JRE 1. Or several work places.4x the amount of time of the actual installation. you can see all client independent data – like the ABAP programs – and all the data that is dependent on client 000 only. we create a new client for them.

When you add a new SAP instance to your landscape. Basically. it would normally use the next available number in the port range. Is it to be used to create configuration changes that are to be transported to QAS and PRD? Is it a reference client. This is called a local client copy since the source or “from” client is contained within the same SAP instance as the target or “to” client. etc. production client. unit test client. More about that later. like QAS. The only exception to this rule is the using the SAP_CUST profile to do the copy – it will leave all the data in the target client intact with the exception of the user master data which will be deleted and replaced with the source client’s user master data. log on to the new client. but here are other ways such as connecting to a Citrix server on which SAP is installed or connecting from the internet using a SAP product via Portals. You can even mix and match. of course. ITS. and objects. That is his whole job. create a RFC source using transaction SM59 for the source or “from” client. If you had a second SAP instance installed on the same SAP server. This would be a remote client copy. It would use ports 3600 for the Dispatcher. use port 3601 for the Dispatcher. and print a list of available printers.IX. Then the user has to be able to connect to the application layer in some from. SAP uses some common ports no matter where it has been installed. and 3601 for the Message Server. and schedule a client copy from the source client to the destination or “to” client. to create this printer list once a day. go to transaction SPAD. or only client-dependent data. XII. configuration client. and copying them both at the same time in the same client copy run. and to print the list to any . A client is created using transaction SCC4 and at the time of creation you must specify what type of client it will be. authorizations. you add a new logical system in transaction SALE. you add a client 100 and schedule a client copy from client 000 to client 100. authorizations. or no changes allowed at all? These various types of client have their own labels to the SAP implementation team: golden client. How do I limit what my users can do when they log on to a SAP instance? SAP user security is done via roles. 3300 for the Gateway. it installs with a temporary license that expires in 4 weeks. create a new client in transaction SCC4 using the logical system you created previously. So SAP instance #2 would be System Number 01. “frozen” so it can be used to refresh the data contained in test clients? Can both client-dependent and clientindependent data be changed in this client. and authorization objects bundled together for use by a group of users with common functional needs. be sure to ask for clarification so that the wrong client does not end up being the source client for a client copy! X. create a RFC target destination using transaction SM59 with the same name of the logical name. The first instance installed on a server is labeled as System Number 00. you might want to copy client 100 in the DEV instance to client 200 in the QAS instance. all the data in the target client is deleted during the client copy. you need to add them to the SAP instance. How do I create a new client? This is a pretty easy procedure. If someone references a client with which you are not familiar. to go to the SPAD transaction. 3301 for the Gateway. It helps to think of all this is simplistic terms. People often get intimidated by SAP security – there are thousands of transactions. XI. All he needs to do it log on. As long as a user can access these ports from his workstation. This group definition is saved and generates a profile which is attached to the SAP user who needs it. How do the users communicate with the SAP instance? Well. A role is basically a group of transactions. the data from one client and the user data from another. What is this permanent key stuff? When a SAP instance is first installed. and 3600 for the Message Server. You must request a permanent license key via the SAP Marketplace. Let’s say you have a user who needs access to one transaction in the SAP instance. or some other product. he can log on via the SAPGui installed on his workstation. So the procedure is not just for creating new clients but refreshing existing data. ABAP client. So he needs the authorizations that allow him to log on to SAP. or using one of the SAGUi alternatives like SAPGui for Java. Normally this is using the SAP supplied program SAPGui which is installed on a user’s workstation. That’s all there is do it When you bring up a new SAP instance. A client copy is destructive – in other words.

In order to download any of these patches. This is always done to a new SAP instance and most likely done following a support package application run. This number is like any other customer number you assign your own customers. each of the SAP components you purchase is assign an installation number.com/patches. when the note contains instructions that must be done manually – in other words. excluding the check printer. etc. you need to regenerate all the ABAP loads so that users don’t have to sit watching Compiling… messages the first time a changed ABAP program is called. allowing the user SAP_ALL during training but limiting the user to his/her PRD role in another client on the last day so he can test the role he will really use out. Once you sign your software license. There are times. you signed a mySAP. Then let’s says a new check printer gets added to SAP. things must be done that SNOTE cannot do. and use the SAP Notes Side-Effects tool off the SAP Support Packages in Detail site at http://service. SAP security can be very tight or very loose. . and then plug-ins. In PRD. QAS may be a little tighter. license number. and we don’t want the user to be able to print his printer list to the new check printer. You apply these “fixes” in a specific order: Basis. He has * to all printers.available printer. In general. it is loose in DEV. SPAD. Often. and rarely enough that you don’t spend all your time preparing for the next support package application window. Eventually. Just make sure to get a list of all the packages that will be applied.to allow every DEV user to do everything with the exception of Basis tasks. SAP will group them together and release a new support package so that they can be applied en masse and not one-by-one. or that companies assign to you.sap. Support packages are used to make ABAP code and functionality changes. Other products. The Basis staff either manually applies an ABAP code fix or uses the SNOTE transaction in the SAP instance to apply the fixes. are patched via a combination of deployment of packages and replacement of OS executables. and SAP Notes – aka OSS Notes. you must log in and download them from the SAP Marketplace at http://service.sap. or a combination. ABAP is the language in which SAP is written and it is pronounced AAAA-bop and not AAAAA-bap. How do I patch a SAP instance? How often should I do it? There are three different types of a SAP patch: support packages. however. ABA (Application Basis patches – the software that supports the interaction of SAPGui with the SAP instance). you should schedule your support package maintenance often enough to prevent shell-shock to users due to massive changes in the SAPGui screens. And you must have a valid OSS ID – aka SAP Front-end User ID or “s” number – with the rights to access the patches webpage. and the authorization object S_SPO_DEV set to all because he can see and print to any printer. What are all these numbers? “s” number. In general. users should only receive the rights to only what they absolutely need to do. After you apply support packages to a SAP instance. So we change authorization object S_SPO_DEV to a list containing authorizations for the printers to which he can print. as the SAP Note corrections become more and more. Kernel patches are simply a replacement of the SAP executables on the OS level. SAP Notes – or OSS Notes – contain a patch or two to solve an immediate problem. So. using a modification of the SAP_ALL profile – sort of God-like powers and what the Basis people normally use since it already exists and why make a role that does the very same thing? . He basically needs a role containing the transaction he is allowed to do. This is a simplistic example but you can see how it works. And he will be able to print to any printer in his printer authorizations list. His dropdown list for printers won’t even show the new printer now. Support packages contain a group of ABAP “fixes” that must be installed via transaction SPAM from within a SAP instance. etc. XIII. XIV.com Business Suite license? Then you will be assigned an installation number for R/3. When you become a new SAP customer. of course. patch application is driven by an identified problem that can be fixed via a support package referenced by SAP. It uniquely identifies your company to SAP. that also exist in the instance because add-ons and stuff have to be patched too. SAP assigns you a customer number.com/patches to get a list of everything that is changed during patching for your Functional team leads. APPL (application functional patches). such as J2EE. kernel replacements.

go to transaction se37. give it to your ABAPer and he can enter it into the system. SAP sometimes splits existing products out to other divisions.com/licensekey.sap. just the user master data is copied from the source client over the target client. Now your system is flying! But your ABAPers sign on for the first time.sap. etc. He will only have to supply it once per SAP instance. this time to generate an object key. Use this website to give SAP information on which SAP flavor your have installed. You log on to apply the advance correction. No matter how you manage your user security. another installation number for CRM. If you open a problem under your R/3 installation number. or as it is now known. This identifies your operating system information so SAP can generate a key that is not only good for your SAP version but for your hardware as well. Now your ABAPers are cranking out code. So if you change your SAP license from AIX to NT. there is no getting around the fact that you have to manually add them all to at least client at some time or another. you would use http://service. The hardware key for NT is different than. and then! Pow! The dreaded short dump hits you when you aren't looking. Make sure to limit the powers of any subsequent OSS ID’s generated by the Basis group. Now there is only one other really important number you need to know: the phone number for your Basis technical consultant! XV. You should have received your primary OSS ID when you got your SAP license. you have to get a key in order to apply the advance correction. The best way is to add them all to client 100 in DEV since that is . and go to a command prompt. How do I add users? Do I have to add them all to each client one-by-one? You use transaction SU01 to add and change users. you can use the SLICENSE transaction as well.sap. The user ID to perform the tasks outlined in this message must have administration rights. go to http://service.another installation number for BW. SAP will generate the new key and e-mail you a text file. Save the text file on your SAP server. and the rest of the database is left intact. SAP did that with Enterprise Portals. log on as <sid>adm and go to a command prompt. Your OSS ID is connected to your SAP customer number. your system is humming. To request your new permanent license key. If you have not received a primary OSS ID. When the profile SAP_USER is used during a client copy. it keeps asking for an access key for R3TR FUGR XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX. An installation number identifies a customer's SAP component. your give yourself a developer key. SAP has recently complicated the license scenario by introducing user licenses. and is used to register your super users who will be responsible for adding new code and changing SAP-owned code. All this SAP website access also demands that you have an OSS User ID. This key is generated by SAP as well. but a new popup won't go away. and they need to add a new program to upload master data. you will need your hardware key. the hardware key for AIX.com/sscr. To see your hardware key. Since SAP owns all the ABAP code that comes with the SAP instance. etc. More on this later. You look up the error code and find a valid OSS note to fix the problem. You must get an object key in order to modify an SAP-owned object. If you want to copy the users from client 100 to the users in client 110. you will receive two OSS IDs. so you may even be assigned a second customer number with new installation numbers assigned under that number. But you signed your license agreement! When an SAP instance is installed. Again. Jot it down. Your key should be installed! In later versions of R/3. A few weeks later. and normally the only function of the Basis group in this regard is using su01 to register the "type" of each user. These are two different things! Usage by users of an SAP instance will be monitored by your auditing team. You need to request a permanent license key as soon as you finish your installation of the SAP instance. you will need to make sure that your company is attached to the new hardware key or you won't be able to request new permanent license keys. you can do a special kind of client copy that is non-destructive. You will have to provide your hardware key as well. Do not confuse your software license keys with SAP licensing of the usage of named users. Type "saplicense -install ifile=<path and name of txt file from SAP>". How? First. you will need it later. Four weeks later your users get a message saying that the license has expired. SAP shipped your installation kits and you installed R/3. it gets assigned a temporary license key that is good for approximately four weeks. Go to http://service. SAP knows that the problem is going to deal with R/3 and not CRM. for example. log on as <sid>adm. contact SAP AG to resolve the problem. You also signed a license for KW? That would be another installation number. Once you have the developer key. BW. so if you have two customer numbers. Type "saplicense -get" and your hardware key will be displayed. or your SAP reseller seems to have control of your primary OSS ID. SAP Service Marketplace User ID or “S” Number. When they enter se38 they get a message asking for their developer key.com/sscr to register your programmers.

multiple that by about 1000x and you have an idea of what configuration entails. Once the transport has been tested in QAS and is ready for PRD. All the SAP instances of a particular flavor share a transport directory which is normally owned by the DEV instance since it is the first instance installed. Whether adding a new program or changing an old one. The transport is also moved into the PRD queue where is stays awaiting approval. If none of them contain a format you can use. Thus. all that stuff technical people really don’t want to know. all BW instances share a TMS. the SAP instance may force you to register these changes in the form of transport. ABAP programmers are “special”. Now. When you add a new user to the parent client. one user add will trigger others within the instance and to other SAP instances as well. Movement of these changes between clients in the DEV instance can be done by the functional people using SCC1. you can use a client copy for just user master data and pop all the clients wherever you want them. XVII. SAP comes with several canned Sales Invoice documents. Once you have them all in one spot. Very few transports can safely be cross-instance applied since not only the SAP flavor should be the same but the Basis version as well. Once the changes need to go to QAS. Depending on the configuration and customization changes made. So if you hear someone reference Z . CUA allows you to designate one client in the SAP landscape that is the parent of all or specified clients. it is available to all clients in that instance. meaning all CRM instances share a TMS. No only do they create new ABAP programs. Once you add a printer using the SPAD transaction in an instance. Think of configuration equal to you going into Outlook on your workstation and changing things in your Tools -> Options. etc. This technique should only be used on clients that are not to be refreshed in the future. the Basis team takes over and uses TMS to move them for the functional team. the child clients get populated with this data. your Functional Team will work with an ABAP consultant to create a new Sales Invoice document that better suits your company’s needs. The TMS tool is used by the SPAM and SAINT transactions in order to manage the support packages waiting to be applied which is why it is one of the first post-installation steps that must be done in a new installation. both local and remote. Different SAP flavors need their own SAP transport directory. Customization is changes made to SAP-owned objects when configuration does not have an option for what you need to do.the “Golden” client and should never be “refreshed” or written over by a client copy. the project supervisor and/or system administrator uses a transaction to OK the change import into PRD which releases the transport in the PRD queue which gets imported into PRD during the next scheduled PRD TMS job run. sales pipeline. This is called manual TMS control. These programs are SAP-owned so things can get a little sticky. What goes on in the DEV instance mostly never is important to Basis. company codes. they sometimes have to change existing ABAP program. XVI. every programmer need a developer’s key that we previously discussed. Some shops simply release a transport and then send email to the Basis group asking them to move the transport into QAS. So what does the Functional Team do in their own little client(s)? They do configuration and customization. There is another way to add users to clients called Central User Administration (CUA). This will be fine for new programs. and later into PRD during off hours. The TMS (Transport Management System) is used to move these transports between SAP instances. sales regions. country codes. and importing the change into multiple clients across the landscape. For example. This configuration covers tax rules. The implementation will try to group all these changes into transports that contain all the work done for a project or a unit of work so that they can be moved to QAS and later PRD easily. Do I have to add printers to each client too? No. There are several variations such as moving changes to client groups in DEV the same time the change is imported into QAS. programs that should either begin with “Y” or “Z”. You change your Calendar Default Reminder to 5 minutes instead of the default 15 minutes. Some companies schedule jobs to move any transport found in the QAS queue to QAS at a set time once or twice a day. The method is automatic and requires little intervention by the Basis Team. TMS movement can be very loose or very tight. Most companies use some combination of these methods. sales areas. printers are client independent data.

you will probably spend the rest of your SAP career changing. The most commonly used programs in a SAP instance number in the thousands. What factors affect SAP Performance? Like every other complex piece of software. a SAP instance is comprised of millions of lines of ABAP code which are generated into load objects. and everything else “off”. Many people fail to process the ReDo files created by an Oracle database by backing them up to tape and informing BRBACKUP that they have been processed. the needed program has to be read and then placed in the program buffers for use. As a form of security and to allow better tracking of SAP-owned objects.the program must FIRST be recompiled and then loaded into the buffer. so as the day goes by. when adding a new “S” number for a non-Basis group person. ABAP programs are client independent. you should schedule a statistics run on the database as well. Another common problem with Oracle is if the logging and automatic archiving are turned “off”. On PRD instances where a backup should occur nightly. And remember. As we touched on earlier. This will keep your database tuned and efficient. You can use the process ID in SM50 to investigate the corresponding tasks on the server. allow note searching and any message to SAP options “on”. genereally. etc . That is why even though you make your changes to the profile . Only the Basis group can do this. The third. etc. and generates other type logs. so if a bug gets into a program from a change made by a programmer in client 120. and you have to have a “S” number with administration rights in order to generate a Developer’s Key or an Object Key. all clients share one version of the ABAP programmer. or that is the way your Basis group should make it work. most DBAs turn “off” log archiving. it will execute faster since its load object is already out there in the buffer.com/sscr . it is a general term to refer to all “home-grown” SAP programs and include not only the programs whose names begin with the letter “Z” but the ones that being with “Y” as well. Basis has control over the other “S” numbers generated against your SAP license. But there might come a time when some of these “fast” program have to be switched out of the buffer because their date/timestamp is the oldest of all the programs in the buffer. Transaction SM50 shows you what is running at any given moment.SAP Software Change Registration – that is unique to the object about to be changed. and the buffer is full. default client.sap. This can cause the database to hang which causes the SAP instance to hang. Index rebuilds and statistics jobs should be scheduled on all your SAP instances on a monthly basis. which is something rather easy to spot. So every time a new SAP program needs to run after being cycled. You want to make sure there is plenty of space available on all your SAP server drives. For a DEV or QAS instance.. Rarely will you touch two of these. When a SAP instance is stopped and restarted. etc. all data and program information is flushed from SAP’s internal buffers. a key must be generated at http://service. The next time the program is called. the DEFAULT. Not only that. It is possible for someone or something to get into an infinite loop and just keep eating up your CPU. This occurs more often in Oracle instances since a MS SQL Server database will just keep growing until there is no more room on the hard drive. You can normally use SM50 to cancel any “hung” processes but sometimes you have to go to the OS level and cancel the process there. and they just keep accumulating until there is no place else to put them. SAP response time goes faster since getting a “hit” in the buffer for a certain program happens more and more often.PFL and START_DVEBMGS00_<server>. So. Server space is not just critical on the hard disk where the logs are created. Another factor that often causes a slow down or even a hanging SAP instance is failure to “dump” the database log. a task can be scheduled to delete all ReDo files older than 2 or 3 days as long as the archive files are backed up when the rest of the SAP instance is backed up. Both should be never both be off to prevent the archiver from getting “stuck”. Erroneously changing one of these profiles is common reason why a SAP instance that was working perfectly in the past won’t come up now. 110. The most common complaint is when a SAP instance is cycled – meaning stopped and restarted. performance in a SAP instance depends on many factors.programs. Any time you do a mass program regen using transaction SGEN. XVIII. Every SAP instance contains three profiles that let us tune and adjust various parameters such as buffer size. it affects client 000. SAP is like any other software. like job logs and print logs. Almost every process shown in SM50 has a corresponding process on the server side. number of processes. <SID>_DVEBMGS00_<server>. 100. SAP doesn’t like programmers just going in and changing ABAP code that it “owns”. you know what they are talking about. Buffer swapping can slow a SAP instance down. So you often have to play detective to find the core of your problem. Any shortage of hard disk space on a SAP server should be corrected at once. programmers cannot request SSCR key on their own. if the ABAP code for that program has been changed or the load object invalidated in any way – like a kernel replacement that added new functionality. it uses TEMP space.

But with new SAP flavors and their instances came the need to modify this slightly. the standard SAP instance that is the first instance on a server – i.e. and you aren’t even close to being able to understand it all.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> ms. XX. When a DI is optionally installed. First. XIX. When a SAP instance is installed. Generally. CI. So the R/3 instances would be R3D. and PRD used to be good enough to handle your entire landscape.using transaction RZ10. CRQ. I think you probably get it now. the enqueue and spooling specific ones first. The same for CRM – CRD.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> also dw. and any shadow processes it might spawn. we have discussed that a SAP instance contains three components.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> gwrd also dw. once you activate it. DEV. The reverse is true during instance shutdown. Each SAP instance must have a three character code that is unique on any given server. And this <SID> thing? SID stands for System Identifier or something pretty similar. the message server comes up. your SAP instance creates many processes when it successfully comes up. Different implementations do things differently but they should implement a plan that can grow as their landscape grows. The types of work processes are as follows: Type Dialog Update Update2 Enqueue Batch Message Gateway Spool Description Process user requests in foreground Server uses to process mission critical updates Server uses to process less critical updates Used for lock management Process jobs in the background Message server Gateway server Used for spool management Process dw. Besides having your database software running. TST. and maybe even a R3S installed at some point or another as a Sandbox. you can pretty much tell if your SAP instance came up sucessfully or not. It may be configured to start at least one of every type of process SAP uses during the average day. and update processes start. QAS. the disp+work work threads for the dialogs. and the last the part of SAP instance. and PRD came from. given that the German word for update starts with a V. And finally. the dw’s can’t start unless the gateway/dispatcher is up which can’t start unless the message server has come up successfully. you can undo the changes with VI on UNIX or notepad on Windows. it isn’t down until that messsage shows in the log. and CRP. we use the first 2 characters to designate the SAP flavor. it gets written as a flat file out on your instance server. R3P. the DB. So I can tell just by looking at the \usr\sap\<SID>\DVEBMGS00 directory on the OS level that this is a full SAP instance – it has all the parts. One depends on the other. and finally the message server shutdown will always be the last thing in your log when you stop your SAP instance. batch. TST. leaving the more muscular work for the CI elsewhere. What the heck is all that DVEBMGS00 crap? Up to now. QAS.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> also dw. So if a parameter change causes your SAP to fail during startup. A SAP instance can only have 1 message server. But what do I SEE on the OS level when my SAP instance is up and running? The answer to this is complex.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> also dw. But every SAP instance will have at least 1 work process kicked off when it starts. the name is normally in the form of D<System Number> since it is subservient to the main SAP instance. and should be unique within any given SAP landscape.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> also dw. or it may be a more specialized SAP instance that just handles user communication. R3Q. Just looking at the processes running on a server. That is where DEV. first the dw’s go then the gateway/dispatcher. R3T. and DI instances.sap<SID>_<DVEBM> Instance Parameter rdisp/wp_no_dia rdisp/wp_no_vb rdisp/wp_no_vb2 rdisp/wp_no_enq rdisp/wp_no_btc N/A N/A rdisp/wp_no_spo So. so we will just present the big picture for now. it takes the place of the SAP instance’s system identifier in upper case. <sid> is the same in lower case. Anytime you see a reference to <SID>. so we know this is the main directory for the instance. System Number 00 – you get DVEBMGS00. CRT. its directory structure will look like this: usr -> . and then the gateway/dispatcher starts and connects to the message server.

And if I don’t find my problem in the work directory or don’t understand what the error message is telling me? SAP supplies tools to help you help yourself. two aliases are created – sapmnt and sapalloc. dev_ms. and then go to http://service. and start opening files to searching for problems. This is universal regardless of the operating system used – the “/” just become “\”. the System Number for this new instance would default to 02. When a SAP installation runs successfully. Anything with the word *old* in it is from the previous Sap startup and you can ignore those files. You can manually override this if you wish. dev_wx. go to the work directory.\usr\sap. the instance profiles in /usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/profile. if during post-installation work you install the Java Add-on. If anything bad happens when you start your SAP instance. One is the System Identifier – the three character label for the instance – and one is the System Number – more or less the instances order of installation on the server. You have . They are both point to the same thing . and can use any system number up to 98 as long as it is not already in use. it will be recorded here. and stderrx files. XXI.com/notes. and our SAP executables in \usr\sap\<SID>\SYS\exe\run.sap -> <SID> -> DVEBMGS00 -> data exe igs log sec work SYS -> exe -> run gen global profile sec trans -> EPS -> in out bin buffer cofiles data etc log sapnames tmp * * * * IGS executables Audit and Trace logs Used with SSO Logs instance operational files * SAP Instance Executables * SAP Instance Profiles * Storage for support packages * * * * Store common TMS configuration Stores the instance TMS queues Header files for transports Data files for transports * Logs TMS operational files * User names of users using TMS * TMS Temporary storage So from this chart. it is a Java SAP instance. For example. If a SAP instance does not come up. Where on the OS level can I look for help with SAP related problems? Your /usr/sap/<SID>/DVEBMGS00/work directory can sometimes be your best friend. Most instance System Numbers will be 00 but more and more products are coming out to interfere with this numbering scheme. DEV’s profile directory would be called /usr/sap/DEV/SYS/profile… and on and on and on. If we had a DI instance attached to this instance. we can see that the TMS files are stored in /usr/sap/trans. If you go to install a second SAP instance of this same server. 99 times out of 100 you will find more information regarding the problem XXII. So you could also access the trans directory by using /sapmnt/trans. sort the files descending by date/timestamp with “ls ltr” for descending or “ls –lt” for ascending. there would be a /usr/sap/<SID>/D01 directory as well. Those x’s stand for numbers because several of them can be created at any given time. this will create an instance 01 (or whatever the highest system number is + 1) although it is not a ABAP SAP instance. Write down or cut-and-paste (if your message is from a SAPGui screen. our instance logs and work file in /usr/sap/<SID>/DVEBMGS00/work. using CTRL+Y and CTRL+C can do this) any error messages. usually in the dev_rfcx. It is important to remember that SID and System Number are two different things. Don’t use 99 either since SAP uses that one for OSS connection.sap.

release and SP level. you will see SAP Notes – aka OSS Notes . and allowed you in with the proper user ID and password. and SAP Super Users contains Knowledge Repositories where you can pilfer hints. Why do we need a Solution Manager instance? What does it do? Once you get your OSS link to SAP up and running. Now. SAP gets cranky about that – I would leave the priority at Medium unless you are dealing with a real show stopper. all SAP support activates must be done either via the SAP Marketplace or via new functionality of your Solution Manager instance. Get it done early and keep a monkey the size of King Kong off your back when you hit a problem. etc. send messages to SAP. Instead of having to write down all the pertinent information about the instance having problems. you will open a connection for them in the SolMan instance. will be easily displayed by SAP by the SolMan instance. The old way of communication to SAP was using transaction OSS1 which went out. and techniques without going through the pain of figuring something complex out yourself. all the information SAP needs like patch level. kernel patch level. register ABAP developers. get your permanent license keys. It really isn’t hard to fill out. and you normally had to go through a 3rd party to get this work and its configuration done. and it should only take about half an hour at most. . database vendor. so that SAP doesn’t have to ask or dig the information out.sap. add-ons. And now all this is folded into the SAP Marketplace. Then it was changed to SAP Frontend Support. tricks. In return. A few warnings about doing this – don’t set the priority of your message to Highest unless this is a PRD instance that is down. and you have no OSS connection up and running. Can’t find anything in SAP Notes to help you? You can go to http://service.search screen that allows you to paste or key search criteria. This was called an OSS – stands for Online SAP Support or something close. and SAP needs to get into your landscape. and setting the permissions table. OSS1 will no longer be in use as of April. etc. and all its functionality has been replaced by the SAP Marketplace at http://service. Also. installing a SAP product called saprouter. Think of a Solution Manager as the hub of your SAP landscape. SAP support can be used via transaction OSS1 until April 2006. and just about anything SAP related you will ever need to do. Here is where you can download software and patches. a new SAP client was looking at installing a X. expect to wait a day or two for a non-PRD problem.com. And SolMan gathers this information on a scheduled basis to keep it fresh. kernel version. setting up a server in your DMZ. And make sure that you have a working OSS connection so that SAP can log into your SAP landscape – more about this in the next section. At that point. It contains information about your SAP instances – called satellite systems. add new “S” numbers.sap. You might get faster results by tapping the knowledge of your fellow SAPer’s on one of the more popular SAP websites. 2006. XXIII. As of April when SAP needs to get into one of your instances. etc. SAP Genie.com/message and open a problem directly with SAP. this seems to be one of the implementation tasks that every client keeps putting off until there is a major problem on some sort. It does this via Remote Function Calls (RFC) we talked about earlier from the Solution Manager instance to the satellite instances. and they will use SolMan to connect to the instance with the problem. Once you are in. Your OSS connection will be added and configured via SolMan.to use that “S” number we talked about earlier to log on here.25 or Frame Relay connection in order to have a direct connect to the SAP servers. So the importance of getting your Remote Connection Data Sheet completed and FAXed to SAP cannot be over stated. and SAP Super Users have forums where you can post your problem. knocked on SAP’s door. A working OSS whatie? As you have probably figured out by now. But make sure that the SAP release for the note matches your SAP release or the note is probably worthless to you. This information includes the instance patch levels. However. support package levels. In the past. SAP will FAX you the information you need to complete your setup to one of the SAP servers – there are different ones supporting different OSS configurations and different parts of the world. SAP Fans. clients. the technical part of the SAP company was once called OSS or SAPNet. it is a simple matter of obtaining a public IP address. But you still see tons of OSS references within SAP Notes so just get use to dealing with multiple terms for the same thing which is a norm for SAP. Start broad and narrow your search scope until you think you might have an idea as to your problem. release and SP. XXIV. And turnaround can be within minutes if you get lucky and someone out there is really bored or an insomiac. Be sure to provide other information like OS vendor.

the whole process is going through a major change and when we understand. XXV. Basis Knowledge Transfer Hitachi will teach you as much as possible about Basis but stops short of breaking a SAP instance to show you how to fix it.sap. This site contains online documentation for all of SAP products and can be a valuable information resource. The following is a list of topics your Hitachi Basis consultant will cover during KT: ABAP □ □ □ □ □ Workbench: how how how how how to to to to to add/change/delete/run a program add/change/delete/run a function create/change/delete/use a variant make changes to a table structure browse the data in a table Client Administration: □ how to add/copy/delete a client □ how to “lock” and “unlock” a client Connectivity: □ how to add/change/delete RFC destinations □ how to add/change/delete Logon Groups Instance Monitoring: □ how to what work processes are in use □ how to perform a Tuning Summary (ST02) session □ how to monitor all table and update locks □ how to change the number of work processes available □ how to increase the number of batch processes after hours □ how to troubleshoot performance □ how to view application log data □ how to view all errors occurring in a specific work process number □ how to monitor Internet Communication . opening messages to SAP. Just keep in mind. you may as well include it as part of your SAP landscape now. we will pass the knowledge on. Besides using the provided documentation.Opening a service connection will use a different procedure than the previous method as well. Since you have to have it by April 2006. Taking responsibility for ownership for your new the SAP instances is a hard step to take but the most valuable KT Hitachi provides is to show you where to look when you don’t know the asnwers. First. and a whole lot of other things we haven’t done yet and have to research in order to explain it to you. If something occurs that was not presented in your KT.com. your Basis group should have been given the necessary tools to find a solution on their own. Solution Manager does a whole slew of other functions as well including customer service and help desk tasks. and a Service Connector Setup Program needs to be run on a workstation holding a SAPGui so that OSS1 can sorta still work the way it used to. and posting your situation on a SAP website. the LOP program needs to be run on the box hosting saprouter. you have full access to the SAP Online Documentation library at http://help.

Jobs: □ how to create a new background job □ how to see the status of a background job Maintenance: □ how to apply support packages □ how to apply kernel replacements □ how to schedule database maintenance jobs □ how to apply a SAP note using SNOTE □ how to add/change/delete system parameters using RZ10 □ how to mass regenerate all or selected SAP ABAP loads □ how to add/change/delete Logical System Names Miscellaneous: □ how to send a system-wide message □ how to lock a transaction □ how to change the time zone □ how to change the SAP logo on the main screen □ how to configure SAP Online Documentation □ how to add/change/delete a message on the logon screen □ how to track the problem causing a short dump □ how to stop a run-away process □ how to configure/monitor email going out of SAP □ how to view the SAP file structure on the OS from SAP Non-Instance Software □ how to start. and stop the J2EE instance SAP Marketplace Functions: □ how to apply for and install a permanent license key □ how to generate a developer’s key □ how to generate a SAP System Change Registration key □ how to open the SAP landscape for access by SAP □ how to download patches from SAP Marketplace □ how to download new software CD images from SAP Marketplace Security: □ how add/change/delete a role □ how to add/change/delete/display a user audit trail □ how to view a user’s security errors Spool related: □ how to add/change/delete a printer □ how to reset the cache for a printer □ how to reprint and reroute print . test. test. and stop saprouter □ how to log on and off the J2EE Visual Administrator □ how to confirm that J2EE is up and running on a server □ how to start. test. and stop the IGS instance □ how to start.

□ □ Start □ □ □ □ □ how to reorganize and reclaim TemSe objects how to keep the job log clean up and shutdown: how to start and stop a SAP instance how to start and stop a SAP-related database how to know a SAP instance is up and running troubleshooting SAP instance start up and shut down how to start. test. and stop HTTP communication TMS: □ how to add/change/delete a TMS setup □ how to release/transport a transport request □ how to lock a transport queue Troubleshooting: □ how to view errors in the system log □ how to search SAP notes for issues □ how to open/check/close a problem message with SAP User □ □ □ □ XXVI. related: how how how how to to to to add/change/delete a user do mass user changes see open user sessions add/change/delete a SAP Marketplace user ID and password Basis tasks to be done on a regular schedule Daily Tasks: □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Check that the SAP System(s) is up Check that daily backups executed without errors Check that all application servers are up Check the CCMS alert monitor (if applicable) (RZ20) Check work processes (SM50) Look for any failed updates (update terminates) (SM13) Check System Log (SM50) Review for cancelled and critical jobs (SM37) Check for “old” locks (SM12) Check users on system (SM04) Check for spool problems (SP01) Check job log (SM35) Review and resolve dumps (ST22) Review workload statistics (ST03) Review buffer statistics (ST02) Review error log for problems (AL02 & ST04) Review UNIX system logs for problems (AL16) Review Windows system logs for problems (OS06) Check the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) Weekly Tasks: .

Test database recvoery Restore database to a test server/ Archive all transport files older than 6 months from the /usr/sap/trans directory. SAP R/3 Administrator’s Handbook is written by known. Sometimes a used copy turns up on Amazon. run a check database and a update statistics job (DB13) For MSSQL. run a check database integrity mainenance job and a update statistics maintenance Check file system for adequate space (RZ20 . The SAP Authorizations Made Easy and SAP System Administration Made Easy guides are geared toward the Basis team members. Record disk space growth usage for plotting growth. free versions at SAP Super Users.com.□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Check database for free space (DB02) Monitor database growth (DB02) Check spool for problems and that spool is properly cleared (SP01) Verify all properly approved transports imported into PRD (STMS) For Oracle. Can Hitachi recommend any good books to help new Basis people? Yes. preprinted forms. Do any server "housecleaning" .tapes. etc. Can Hitachi recommend any SAP courses for new Basis people? . Review list of "prohibited" passwords in table USR40. etc. check.com if you are lucky. These guides are not released new for every version of SAP so just order the most current you can find.Technical Operations Templates -> Space Management) Review space usage and that sufficient free space exists in the file systems Check system monitoring systems for update System monitor Review for any events that should be added or deleted Check system monitor alert mechanisms System monitor Test e-mail Test paging Clean tape drive. Check consumable resources . Review all scheduled jobs via SM37 to determine if they are still appropriate.old /tmp files. Tape drive Clean using cleaning cartridge Monthly: □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Defragment the server memory by cycling the SAP instance and rebooting the server. Review system profile parameters for password standards. Quarterly Tasks: □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ Perform quarter-end backups and send tapes to long-term offsite storage. Cleaup all SAPDBA/BRTOOLS files and logs. XXVII. XXVIII. Perform a full server backup. reliable author and is the only other book we purchase whenever a new version is published. and can be purchased from Amazon. The SAP R/3 System Administration for Dummies is a good high-level resource for becoming familiar with SAP components and terminology but it is hard to find since it is no longer in print. You can download older. Review disk storage usage on server. Record database growth usage for plotting growth. Review user IDs via SUIM for terminates users that should be locked or delete. data cartridges. SAP has a branch called SAP Labs which produces a series of books called Made Easy guides. paper.

com/trainingcatalog.Recommended Basis aka WAS courses are: ADM100 ADM102 ADM505 ADM940 SAP Web AS Administration I SAP Web AS Administration II Oracle Database Administration I SAP R/3 Authorization Concept You might want to throw in one of the introduction courses if you want to start with a high-level view of SAP.sap. . The availability of these and other courses can be reviewed at http://service.

Browse a Database Table Browse a Database Table in Spreadsheet Form Transaction Run-Time Analysis ABAP Function Editor ABAP Program Editor R/3 Documentation Transaction Authorization Objects HTTP Service Hierarchy Maintenance Installation Check SAP Load Generator Application Log: Object Maintenance Application Log: Display Logs Application Log: Delete logs Lock Transactions System Messages User Sessions Table Locks .Appendix A Commonly Used SAP Basis Transactions AL02 AL11 AL16 BD64 DB02 DB13 DB20 OS06 OSS1 PFCG RZ10 RZ11 SAINT SALE SCC1 SCC3 SCC4 SCC5 SCC7 SCC8 SCC9 SCCL SCOT SCUA SCUL SCUM SE03 SE06 SE10 SE11 SE13 SE14 SE16 SE16N SE30 SE37 SE38 SE61 SE93 SICF SICK SGEN SLG0 SLG1 SLG2 SM01 SM02 SM04 SM12 Database Alert View the SAP File Structure on the server Local Alert Monitor for Operating System Maintenance of Distribution Model Database Monitor DBA Planning Calendar Refresh Database Statistic by Table Local Operating System Activity SAPNet Support – OSS Link Security Role Maintenance System and Tuning Parameters Profile Parameter Maintenance Add-On Installation Display ALE Customizing Client Copy .Special Selections Client Copy Log Client Administration Delete Client Post-Client Import Methods Client Export Remote Client Copy Local Client Copy SAPconnect Administration Central User Administration Central User Administration Log Central User Administration Tool Transport Organizer Tools Set Up Transport Organizer Transport and Change Organizer Maintain Objects in the SAP Data Dictionary Maintain Technical Settings (Tables) Utilities for Dictionary Tables Data Browser .

SM13 SM19 SM20 SM21 SM30 SM35 SM36 SM37 SM49 SM50 SM51 SM59 SM69 SMICM SMLG SMW0 SNOTE SP01 SP12 SPAD SPAM SR13 SSAA ST02 ST03 ST03N ST04 ST05 ST06 ST22 STMS STZAC SU01 SU02 SU10 SU25 SU3 SU53 Update Locks User Security Audit Maintenance Audit Logs System Logs Call View Maintenance Batch Input Monitoring Create a Background Job Job Maintenance Execute external OS commands Work Process Overview List of SAP Systems RFC Maintenance Maintain External OS Commands Internet Communication Monitor (ICM) Maintain Assignment Logon Group to Instance SAP Web Repository SAP Note Assistant Spool Output Spool Administration Output Device Maintenance Support Package Application Manager Profile Parameter Maintenance System Administration Assistant Tuning Summary Workload Analysis Workload Analysis (Graphic) DB/2 Performance Monitor Trace Requests Operating System Monitor Short Dump Analysis Transport Management System Global Time Zone Maintenance User Maintenance Profile Maintenance Mass User Change Upgrade Tool for Profile Generator Maintain User Profile Missing User Authorizations .

Patches – Download SAP software fixes and patches. Software Distribution Center – Download license SAP software. SAP Online Knowledge Products – SAP Online training materials. Platforms – Platform and Technology Information Center.Open Service Connection so SAP can access your SAP Landscape. Quick Links – A list of SAP Marketplace links. Other SAP-owned websites: SAP Help Portal – All SAP Online Documentation is located here. and resumes – a lot of material but not too organized. documentation. Remote Connectivity – Information on the connection to the SAP OSS servers. Service Connection for SAP . SAP Notes – Search SAP Notes – OSS Notes – for problem resolution and information. SIMs. webcasts. SDN – SAP Developer Network. Product Availability Matrix – SAP Product Availibility Matrix – when products available and out of maintenance. Documentation. Q & A & Troubleshooting.Generate SAP Software Change Registration keys – ABAP developer and object keys. License Key – Apply for permanent license key for a new SAP instance. SAP Software Change Registration – SSCR . User Administration – Add new SAP Marketplace user IDs aka “S” numbers. papers. and training materials – constantly adding new materials. SAP Fans – Forums – fast response for problem postings. SAP Genie – Forums. Message – Maintain a SAP message from you to SAP – normally problem reporting.Appendix B Available Internet Resources SAP Marketplace: Connectors – SAP Connectivity connector information and software downloads. SAP Super Users – Forums. Websites: SAP Database – SAP Database of freely Available Information SAP Forums – Forums. .

Open this icon. it is best if you reboot your workstation one more time.40 installed on your workstation. Enter the following information and click Add.40 Program on Your Workstation If you already have a SAPGui 6.0 instances just in case you don’t have a DEV instance up at your company yet. don't just manually stop and restart the download . click the Systems tab. please download the SAPGui-6. to patch your SAPGui to level 15.40-Comp-3. you can skip to You should. Once you have installed the SAPGui.zip and gui640_13-10001615. If you are asked for a user ID and password. Unzip the zipped file and install the SAGui on your computer by executing \GUI\WINDOWS\WIN32\setup. You will need a SAPGui installation on your computer.exe. If you do not have access to this software.124. And make sure to use the download FTP client properly.your buffers won't be flushed and this can create a error in your download file. If your download appears to "hang".Appendix C Practice Exercises This section is to allow you to get a little feel for what you are going to be doing with the rest of your life.74/. After the patch is successfully applied. Since both of these files are rather large. The first file installs the SAPGui and the second file patches it.71. reboot your workstation if the install does not ask you to do so. use george for both. the exe file. . Then use the second file.exe files from ftp://65. let the tool error you out. Installing the SAPGui 6. It does not hurt if you select all the available SAP options during this install. It may not be the same SAP flavor or version you will be using at your site but these exercises are Basis oriented and so pertain to every SAP instance.. There should be nothing to select or decide during the patch installation.. otherwise let everything default during the installation.40 for SAP Access You should have a SAPGui Logon Pad icon on your desktop. Configurating SAPGui 6. User accounts have been created for in one of our internal SAP ECC 5. and click on the User-Defined button. we recommend the use of a FTP client such as WS_FTP or CuteFTP be used since you can resume a download if your connection is interrupted.

Click the c.234. Make sure to press ENTER after you add the role in order to get the Role Description to pop into the Name field. Something you should note .26. last letter of your trainee user ID. 2. Go to transaction SU01. you aren't reaching the server. add the role ZBC_NON_BASIS_TEAM. Fill in the User group name as first five letters of your trainee user ID + GROUP + the Create Icon. a. the new user you just created. Enter the User Names for all your fellow trainees. Click the c. use notepad to cut-and-paste these three lines to the bottom of your \Windows\system32\drivers\etc\services file: sapdp00 sapmsERI # 3200/tcp 3600/tcp The last step is to make sure any firewall software that may intercept your SAP connection is “off”. So if you are having problems connecting to the SAP instance. g. use the dropdown to select English for the Language. Be sure that your Insert key is set so that you can type your password in properly – you can delete whatever is in the password field in order to enter your password.this server is not pingable. and then click the . On the Maintain User Groups screen. Click the 3.567. Now you should be able to access the SAP instance. b. Go to transaction SUGR. you are reaching the server. and your own user ID. and 3600 ports are open. Press ENTER to make the actual user names appear in the User Save icon. set the OutputDevice as LP01. On the Roles tab. fill in the Text field with a description of the user group. If you get a "Connecting To 63. b. You are going to add a new user. d. your trainee user ID.190.After you have successfully configured your SAPGui. the Personal Time Zone to CST. Fill in the User as the first five letters of your trainee user ID + NEW + the last letter of Create Icon. Assignment section. On the Defaults tab. On the Address tab just make up name stuff. Add a new user group.190. a." message that just sits there. 3300. f. If the whole screen goes black and all letters on it disappear..148. Save icon. d. set the Decimal Notation as 1. On the Logon data tab.26 3600 And press ENTER. These user IDs will be deleted shortly after your GoLive date but not before just in case you need a reference resource. Log on to client 999 of the HC ERI instance.89.148. Only the 3200. click the e.. Your company has been granted a range of temporary user IDs in the format of OPUB-TRAIN01 – OPUB-TRAIN05 with a password of init in client 999. and the Date Format as MM/DD/YYYY. Password Wizard to generate a password. You will be asked to change your password the first time you log on. open a DOS-window and type: telnet 63. The Exercises 1.