VOL. VIII-1879

Swati Publications



· .

Published by Swati Publications, 34,Central Marleet, Ashok Vihar, Delhi-llOO52 Ph. 7113395

ad Priated by S.K. Mehra at MtbrI Offset Press, Delhi.



)tn. S. BEAL, FaJstoue, N~1DI1berland:-

The StoI.Y of the FAlTDUL DUll ••• .... ... 258

G. B'lrRLllR, Ph.D., O.I.E., Educa.tional Iupect.or, Gu,jan.t:-

.An bBOAXPrI05 of GovAN,&, m of the Nm1lDlU-

v.d:8A. ... 89

A. o, BuRNELL, Ph.D., H.C.S., Tujore =-

ON 80lD11 JWI.IIY :r&lCRBICNClI8 to the VBDJ.8 by

EtmOl'BJJf Wlll'l'JIlIS ... 98

(See aJso lIJIder Ool H. Yule, CoB.)

BD. J. OAIN, Dummagudem:-

. The BlU.DltJ.CJIBLLAl( a.ud BnuJJJ.I ThuQAS 88, m

H. RIVETT·OABNAC, B.O.S., era, GhAsipur:ABcUOLOGICAL NOTBS on a Harch between Ca.wn·

pore a.ud Nappuli ... 100

RIIV. 'F. T. OOLll, TaQ1wi_

l;drr of WOJI.DS Bad Pmu.as 1rith their S1n!LI

E~llIV J.LJIl1'II ... ... 194

]luo. GUDJ.L A.. CUNNINGHAM, O.S.I., &0., Director .!rchmologica.l Saney, Simla :-

ShAh DauIa.h'. Oh'llUa ... • .. lIM

Tn ~ITOB.:-

:Proteotion of .Antiqu.tja.u Remaiu ... ... 105

!l'mnala1ion of K. Reinaud's rema.rb on the Peri-

Jll'- qftheBryt'M(MMI. Bill ... ... 880

1. lI'. FLEET, Bo. O.S., M.R."'.S. =-

8J..Jr8Qr,r AND OJ.D.CANJ.D8J1 mc:aIl"l'lONB:-

No. L.-yht:a bsc:&IPrIol( of VU:ramMit,ya n,

S.999...... 10

LI.-.1x.lm " " " S. 1018... .111

LII.-Nulm PL.A.Tl8 of l'uLIdit II.... 4B

Lm.-X8cK:aIJ I'Ll'll8 01' VUAyJ.lD.ldDtvt "

LIV.-G.dG.&. GllJ.NT of AmvuJll, S. 169 .1112

LV.-Amo~ INBClII!TIOlr onlrlip" temple of

Pal~ IL, S. 5116 ... ... ... ". 187

L VL"':'S:iLd IlrSC:&IPrIOK on lrIfguti temple at

Aihol....... ...146

LVII.-I:1I'saBIPTIoN of VU1Y1Dm.&. SATYlhir.a.

at Aihol& ... ... Jl840

LVIII.-bsc:&IPrION on Durp. temple at .!mo~ &

LII.-bSC:&IP'l'lON in LI4 Xban'. temple at

.!moto. ...Sf!?

LX.- V ALJ.lIJlt OOPl'D-PL.A.TB Gra.ut of Dba-

. rub.XI., S • .II&1l ... .... .. 801

On Hr. Rice's Weatem 0baJ.1IkJa Gtaut of XirI;ti..

urmt-II. 105

A Parti.cular Use of the -word SJ.llvu ... 151

The Oa1I.UUA V[g1J[.1·V A.I.I.IU or Em of the

western 0baJ.uk;va king ViJaam.A4it;ya VI. ... l.8l"


Bmv. T. FOULKES, F.L.S:, K~.A.S., BeDpJ.ar:-

The Omr.Ilm05 of the DJ.DA, clown to·the aixtb.

century B.O. ..:... 1

'GlWIT of the PJ.LL.lTA Xl5G NANDI VAI.Jl1 ; .. 1W'/

G:a1n'of NANDI V.wd P.u.u.V.1llALr.1 : .. ' ... 178

GEOBGE A.. G:a,Dm.SON, B.O.S., Darbha.up:-

A J'art1mo FoLu.ou P~ ... ... . .. J88

Proper NIPO:" "', '" ,toe 811

PAG:a DB. A.. F. RUDOLF ROEltNLE, O. M. College, Ca.lcuttr. :-


J)BJ(OS '" ..... 196

PB.o:r. R. J'ACOBI, l£finster, WestphaJ.ia.:-

On TaJaprahAri .... ... ... 201


The Ruod .... Y.UI.1x.!VYA of Na.yacha.nd£a. Sfui... 55 BJlv. F. XlTTEL:-

Some Rema.rks on Dr. Pope's" Notes on the S011th

Indi&n or DraviWan Fa.mily of ~., .. , 4.7

W. LOGAN, lLC.S., Collector, Ya.l&ba.r:-

Fnm of .4.NClJINT POTl'IIIl!.Y ill JIU.r..uu... ... 809

1. W. McCBINDLE, 1I..A.., PAtna. College:-

TD ·PB:aIPr.us of the EB.YTHUAN SEA ... 107

lfuol. 1. S. F. lrIACKENZIE, la.te Ma.1sur CommiJaion :-

CU8TOlIS of the XOllTl C.1STlIi .. , ... 86

1. lI:D'IB, C.I.E., D.C.L., LL.D., ie. Edinburgh:-

lI:&T.B.ICAL VElISIONS frout the MczMbh4t'Gta. :

Pra.ise of Rich. (xii. 2l.8ft'.)... ... ... 86

Folly of p1'elJl&ture Ascetiaislg. (m. 29M.)... f11

True Piet;y a.ud Righteousness a.ud their fruita {J:iii.

7594£.) ... 152

Fe&rlessness (v. 1518f.) "

Faith a.ud Unbelief (tii.1M61b-13463}... tJ

The ~ of R'Q.dra. the Destroyer (zii.1I791) '" 2M Moral. Goodnese essent.iaJ. (m. 2885, xiii. 0544) ... "

A. King's beat Treume and the beat Ca.stJ.es (m.

2OlIOb. f. ) 20Ii

The Wa.toh·Tower of W'lSdom (m: &8~xii. 5623) ..

The ArIifnl Cba-ra.cber of Women ... Sill

Lasting pain of ha.rah words (m. 9787£. ; ILDd J:iii.

4896) ... ...338

Praise of a dutiful wife (i. 8027£.; and m. 560811'). 838

SamiB.ce ill ever,thiDg (m. 1320) ... . •. 889

Results of foresight a.ud oourage (i. M04dF.) ... 889

Book Noti.ces 294, m, 826

RIIV. G. U. POPE, D.D., Ws.rdeJi of Bishop Cotton'.

Bchool a.ud College, Bangalor :-

N0TlI8 on the D Vl~I.A.N or SotlTE·mWr Family

of LANGUAGES ... 80

NOTBS on the Xl1U.1l' of the Tamil Poet Tmu •

TA¥t-1I'V.1lI.. (COfI,t./¥Of1I '!lot. VII. 1' • .!UN)... _'" 806

X. If,AGRUN'.1.T.HJI, Bam'ba.y:-

lU:a1fllI SO:e:OOLS a.ud Sc:e:OOLJl.18TDS ... 266


PAul Sasris. NasualArs, &c. ... ... 211

LEWIS If,ICE, Director of Public InstructioD, lfaisur a.udXurg:-

The OBJ.LUltYAB and PALL.lVAS )8

Two N1:W CBJ.LuxYJ. GJU..NTS ...... 8U

B. SEWELL, lrI.O:S., :M:.lI..A..S., BfjwAdA:-

Two E.t.mwT CBJ.LuxYJ.· 001'l'DJ'LA.Tlli G~... 78 l'aoIBSSOBC. H. TAWNEY, lLA., Oaloutta:-

A.. FOLn.oU P .1J.ALLBL... .... '" 87

. .Another FoLn.ou P J.lI.ALLE,... ...... 180

. Lnnrl. B. C. TEHPLE, B.S.O., F.lI..G.S., &0.:-

Note em the 14eupta. Thok .... 829





M.uOR J. W. WATSON, President, RlljuthAnik Oourt, KAibiAwAr:-

The FALL of P!,!,AN SOK.udTII... ... l.63

NOTIIS on the SEAOOAST of SAUn.!SIITIU., with a

few Remarks on the EXTENT of the _ OHU.Q!UK!

RULli '" 181

MONIER WILLIAMS, D.O.L., Boden Prof. of Sans. krit, Ouord:-

NOTEs on INDIAN FOLKLOllJD ... ... 209

OOL. R. YULE, O.B., and DR. A. O. BURNELL:Specimens of So Di8C11l'8ive Glossary of Anglo.lndian

Terms ... 62, 83, 173, 201, 231

EDWARD THOMAS, F.h.S., :wm. de l'InBt. de France:-

Jainism ...

On some BILINGUAL OOINS of Boab! &trtlck in

the 2nd century of the Hijrah ... 009

M.. J. WALHOUSE. late M.O.S., London lIndi&n and African Native Forges .... .ABCHlEOLOGICAL NOTES: (c~from '1101. vn.) " XXII.-Tha Westwa.rd aprea.ci of lome

Indian Metaphors and Myths ... 162

, XXIII.-Some NOD.Sepulohral Rude Stone Monuments in India, Persia, and Western

Asia ... 1640




A. Big Gun ... ·54

Bauddha Oaves in KAbul 8.2

The Menga.la. Thut ... •.• 8.2

AncientRema.ins in Afghanistan, byRev.C. Swinnerton 198 Prof. Harlez's Ma.n'llo!l~ d.Za; Lam.g'llos as l'A'IIesta; .• 207 Report OD the Inscriptions in the Ha.mbantota District

ofOeylou, by Dr. E. Mfiller, Arobll9ologicaJ. Surveyor. 2111 Buddhist Remains in the J e1&l&bAd District, by William

Simpson ... '" 227

Hindu and Russian Pea.sa.nt Life ....., ... 283

The Northern Buddhist Legend of Ava.lokitsSw&rs.'s ·:o-t into the Hell Avtom, hy Prof. E. B. Oowell,

M.A., Cambridge ... '" '249

The Idols of BamiAn ... 254

DArd Clans ... '" 256

Vestiges of Buddhism in Micronesia ... ... • .. 256

The Plunder of Surat by ~iva.ji in 1064, from a letter

to Sir TholDS8 Browne .: ... 256

Ia1a.mi.o Doctrine of Woman's Soul '" 261

The Bunda.hish 262

Tbe W&lis of Peraia.... • ... 262

Jagjivandae the Hindu Reformar, by Rev. B.II. Ba.cll.ey. 289

EduClLted Hindus and Soienti1l.o Resoaroh ... 292

The Six Ttrta.ka.s ... 311

Tbe Weddu, by B. F. Hartshorne 8i4


1. Pigmies.... n; 88

S. CaunibIJism 87, 88

3. Intermarriage of mndus and Mubammadans ~, 88

~ Admiatrion to Caste Privileges , .. 87, 88, llO7

5. PolJ&lldry ~,88

6. COt1TIde ... 87, 106

7. N&,ar OUBtome 87, 88

8. NAp 0uat01D8 88, 206

9. Ghost Worship '" 106

10. O~ of Cute at oerta.in places 106

11. ~ of the Cow 176, !lO6

12. Oret4ts, ChdhA Shah DauJah ... ... 176, 234

13. Elongated skul1s ; imbGoiles; N ephrito I tho Ram.

mer or Axe I Fire by friOtioD of Wood 177 206

14. Succession of Sister's Sous .. : 205

15. 'Ba.ngnJ.ow' 206

16. Oroinleche 207

17. M&ngrol, Manglur 207

18. SBoBamine logs ... 207

19. ~he H_m£m Ma.h47r4vya. lIM

20. Cobily·Maeh'... ... 821

81. Proper Names ::: 321

BOOK NOTIOES. 1. P!of. E. H. PALlUIIt'S Poetioal Worn of Reh&-ed.

dtn ZoheiJo of Bgypt-by W.IiI •. "... 81

I. GoUGH'S Papers re1ating to the Oolleotimt of h

eiea.t Sanskrit Liten.ture in India ... '" 106

a. BeT. T. P. HUGllBS'S Notes on Mnb.mm8~anism. 106 " hi. B. T. H. GIIlffl'l'll'sBirth oltha War.God ... 106 Ii. T. W. Rns-D.A:nD8's Bucldhism-by G. A.. J. '" 178 6. Dr. and lime. HIILPU.'s Travels in Syria, Meso-

potamia., Burma, &c.-by W. F. B. .• ... 207

7. 'Oa.pt. P. ](. "RUJlTBB's A.ooount of the Britiah

~of Adsn.-by W. F. S. • 284r

8.lI:.uu:Ax's Toyapa of Sir 1. ~ ~

TOJIP of Oapt. John Knight: ":P'''.

"",-Raw. VOJ8Pl-by W. F. S. !lIS

.. ~ L.l."m.T'altiracle Play of Hasan lIDIlir";: HI "'~10br:0a.0lasi0aJ and Kistorioal OWO!


.... lI68

11. lbGNAllD'S Ohariot de Terre Ouito ... ... ... 266

lll. BEAL'S Tu:ts from the Buddhist Oanon oommonly

!mown as Dhamma.pa.da ...... 007

18. Prof. P.lLJCII:a.'s Song of the Reed, &0.... 293

14. ~ M~LLII!'8 Sacred Booka ~ the Eut, vol. I.: pa.nis.hads-by J. M1I1r, O.I.E., D.O.L.,

I:'L.D., &0.... ... ... ... ... ... 294

15. Rl1LTZ8cm's Pro1egomens. sa des Ta.sa.ntar~a. QA-

kuna.-biR. R. '" ...... 298

16. S. GoLDsomaDT's PrAlnitica-by R R ll99

17. EDWIN .!.oOLD'. Light of Asia. ..... 299

18. BUGAIGn's La. Religion Vediq~by ;: Mui;;

0.1.111., ~.O.L., LL.D., &c. ... ... ... 823

19. k. LllDWIGB Dar ~ Veda-'- J lI' 0 I E

D.O.L. LL D "J • 1lU', •• .,

, .. ,&0... 8"'"

IlO Prof • ,.,... n._ _. • ... ... .......

. • X::u Del die lbgavyakti del' Krieh •

by R. Boat, LL.D. ... 828



PAGIII 1. Western Chalukya. Gra,nt of Kirttiva.rma. II. S. 679,

I. a.nd nil. to fGee pa,ges M-25

2·4. Ditto ditto IIb.-V. and Seal ... 26-21

5. Inscription from PAtnA of Govana m. of the Ni.

lrumbhava.msa. '" 40

6. Western Chalukya. Gl'8.11t of Pulikm II.... ... 44

7. Western Cbalukya Grant of VijaYamahMm

(2 pages) 46, 4'1 8. .A. Gra.nt purporting to be a. Western ChAlukya. of

one V1ra..No~mba, a.nd dated S. 86612 pages) 94, 95

9, 10. Pallava. Glut of Nandi VarmA (8 pages) ... 168

11. Pla.tes purporting to be a. Gra.nt of the Kongn. mg

.A.rivarmA dated S. 169 ... (2 pages) 212, 218

12. Stone Ta.blet at the temple caJledM~ti at .A.iholp. 241 18. Gra.n~ of Pa.lla.va.maJla. Nandi V 1U'mA, I.- IIIo.. 274. 279

PUB 14. Grant of PaJIa,vamallaN&ndi VarmA, Im.-Va.276, 2'i7 15. Ditto ditto Vb.... '" 277 16. Inscription on the temple called Huchchimalli.gn.di

a.t AihoU i and Inscription on the Gateway of the

Dlll'gI temple at .Aihol~ ... ... 286

Inscription on the temPle of LAd KhAn Pot AJholL 287

17. VaIa.bhi Grant of Dha.rasena. II. dated 252

(2 sides) 302, 808

18. Bock Cells at OhAl1il Xurinyt,1i... 310

19. Pottery found a.t ChAIlil Kuriny61i ... 811

20, 21. Ea.sWn Chalukya Grant of the second year of

VlShnu'VUdhn.na n.... (8 pages) 820

.0, 28. British Museum plates,-Spurious Ohs.llltya

Gmt of PulikeBiI. S.4l1 ... (4-pages) 840





IN the first article of the last volume I sub- main lines a.t Ie&St of the history of those times mitted an interpretation of Fa Hia.n's des- are not quite hopelessly irrecoverable. Some cri.ption of " the kingdom of the D a k s h i ~ a" of the materials for the investigation of that oontainedin thethlrty-fifth chapter ofhia tra.vels, history are a.l.rea.dy before the world, and they which gives ample proof, if my interpretation is tell us pla.in.Iy where we Rhouid seek for more; correct, of the existence of a high state of mIL- and from these materials I hope to be able to teria.l Bond intellectual civiliza.tion in Southern show in this paper that the material· and India. in, a.nd for some time before, the fourth intellectual progress of the D a k h a, ~ for century of the Ohristian e1'&. The monuments of some centuries before the appeamnee of Ganus. architecture a.nd sculpture at .A. mar A v a. t i Buddha is spoken of by the most ancient on the K~h9a, and at M a hAm a 11 a pur a m, authorities accessible to us as on a level with a little to the south of Ma.dra.s, a.fford very the condition of those better known parts of remarkable evidence to the same effect; and the Ind.i& whose civiliza.tion in those early times copper-plate grants of the P a II a v a kings has long been well established.

of Oonjeveram, and of the kings of the neigh- In usiDg these books as authorities for hisbauring countries,. confirm and erlend that torical facts, it will, of course, be nOOllSsary to evidence, and bring it within the circle of bear in mind that they are merely the best authentio history. sources of original informa.tion on this subject

The outline of the history of the D a k h a 7J. at present available to us. Mnch criticism infrom t~t time down to modem days is clearly evitably awaits them, both as regards their date set down in these interesting ancient docn- and their relation to previous records, and the lIlents; Bond other external testimony, as it gra.- a.uthenticity of some portiions of their matter. dually increases, adds new oonfidenoe to the They are used here simply as ancient records of trust which these old deeds have won for them- still more a.noient traditions whieh were current eelves as:6l.i.thful historioaJ. guides. 'at the time when they received their present

But the condition of the D lit k h a. in the form.; in the belief th&t "they 'Were not likely bes before the ObriBtis.n era remains still in to violate all probability of the past history of pat obscurity. . Stray facts do etist which the DakhaI]. in the eyes of those who first heard imply the existence of a weu..organized state these epics and legQIlds in the times when their of things throughout the Peninsula. for many authors lived," as I am reminded by the Editor in tges up into that obs61l1'6 time; a.nd there is some suggestive remarks on this paper. UnleU irI. those fa.ots good ground for tnsting that the they art to be regarded as pure inientions,-and



[J ANU.!XY, 1879.

this it is impossible to suppose them to be,they contain &. certain amo1lIlt ofhiBtorical troth available 'for purposes like that to which they are put by me here: and I hope I have not pressed them beyond the limit of trust which is at present due to them.

The historical books of Geylon show that from. the earliest times to which they refer, down to &. modern period, a. continuous and, for the most pa.rt, So friendly I:m.d intimate intercourse was kept up between that isIa.n.d and K Ali n g-a, or the upper parts of r,he eastern coast of the continent of India. A somewhat similar, but for the most part hostilEl'interconrse WILS also kept up with the C hoi IL and :e a IJ. q Y a kingdoms, I which possessed the rest- of the eastern coast to the southwards. 'The Great Dynasty' of Ceylon originally sprang on the female side from the royal line of K al i n g a ;1 and in more recent times, as Dr. Goldschmidt has shown, S the SiIi1ha1ese were admonished in the royal inscriptions to ohoose their kings, on the fa.iIure of c!irect hem to the throne, from the rega.lline of KAlinga, on the traditionary grounds that· the island of Ceylozi. belonged in some way to that dynasty,1LD.d that th8 national religion would be Sl.fe in their ha.n.ds. .And besides this, these books are, in the main. records of the religion of G a. u ta m So Bud d h a., and they therefore deal, threughont those portions which treat of the esta.blishmei:d afBuddhiam, with the localities which witnessed. the acts of Bu:ddha., and with the soenes on whi~ the earliest events Olhis Jetigion were trausaotsd. It is quite IUIotuml'. therefore, to turn to these books with the expeotr.tion of finding in them some allusions to the early condition 'Of the D a. k h a l}; and the aD.uaions whioh they do contain, sam&"' times di:rectIy 80Ild sometimes incidentally and obecarely, to this part of India., show with un'W'&varUrg unitormity, the common belief that lDL1IlAl'ChioaJ: government, and with it aJl that of DeCJeI8i.ty is implied in th08& words, was already in eristenoo there in atIil Wore the seventh celLfi1ir7 babe Christ.

The 8Ill'1ia his6orica1. political event connected with 0eJi0n 1rhich. these books record is the .m.J. of priD.ce V ij a., .. the mtmder of. the 'G.tIM n,..v,. IIZlI1 his smm hundred

followers, by sea. from Bengal in the fifth OJ." the sixth century before the Christia.n era, according to the date to be assigned to the death of Buddha: and in the chapter which describes this event there is the following reference to the kingdom of K a lin g a. : -'~ In the land of W So n g 0, in the ca.pita.I ofW So n go, there was formerly Ii certain. Wango king. The daughter of the king of K ali n g a was the principal queen

- of that mona.rch."a This verse occurs a.t the head. of the pedigree of Vijaya, which then proceeds through the following steps:-

KAlinga Raja..


Wango Raja..=Da.ughter.


The lion, or Stha. Daughter-Suppa.dewi.

r ,




Wija.yo, Sumitto, 16 other pairs of twins.

Vijaya landed in Ceylon" on tbeday tba.t the successor of. former Buddhaa reclined in the a.rbour of the two delightful sal trees, to attain mbblinl!m,"· namely, a.ooording totkis authority, in 543 B.C.; and therefore the Kllinga RAja. to whom this verse refers is to be p~ed some time a.bont the seventh centu:ry before Ohrist.

Upham's versions of the sacred. books of!

Oeylon, much condemned as transIa.tions, but of great value; in the absence of'translations, 88 a.bstra.cts of the text and commentaries of those books, uphold the a.bove extract from the M{i/J'ITaIMO iu the material points both of the event and the pedigree. 5

At that time, then.-IUIomely, some time abont I the sixth or seventh century before the Christian era.,-this authority presents to us a king, and . therefore a kingdom, in K 11 in g a; and this king of Kalinga occupied a. position a.mong the contemporary kings of India. of n:fficient rank a.pd aignity to warrant, or to induce the king sf :Btmga.l to seek the- hand of his daughter in ~ ana to give h8l' the position of his ~queen.

The addition,i to the text of the MaMlIalillm

J.A.Nl1A.:B.Y, 1879.]



in Upham's version, which a.re appa.rently taken from the commentary. imply that tms king of K ali n g a was the successor of a line of kings who had reigned in that COlmtry before him :-" In the old time a oertain princess, the daughter of the king OaJingoo, one of the royal blood of the king Oa.1ingoo.Sakritty, of the country of Oa.lingo in Dambe-dwipa, who was queen to the king Wangoo, of the oountry called We.ngoo, brought. forth a. daughter to this king."s

The Reverend R. S. Hardy, in his Manual of BudNism, has translated a Ia.rge number of Buddhist legends; and throughout such of these legends as rela.te to India. there are very clear indications of a generally prevailing beliE( at the time when these legends were. written, that a succession of kings ruled in .K AI i n g a long before the time of G au ta. m a Bud d h a.; and they also contain numerous incidental proofs of the civilization of the D a k hilt J]. long before his appea.ra.nce.

The following legend .in Mr. Hardy's ool~ laotion belongs to the second generation before Buddha, and if he was born about 560 B.O.7 the famine in K ali n g lit to which it refers may be placed about 620 B.O. :-" In the Jambu-dwipa. of a former age, the principal city of S i wi was called Jay a t n r a, in which reigned the king San d a or S a. n j a.; and his principal oonsort was Ph usa t ~ who was previously one of the queens of the Dewa Sekra., and during four asQlYl,kyas and a 7caplakika had. exercised the wish to beoome the mother of a Budha.. In due time they b.a.d a son, who was oalled W e s s lit n t a. r a, from the street in whioh his mother was passing at the time of his birth. This son was the Bodhisat who in the next birth but one becameGotama Bu d h e, Fromthe moment he was born, for he could speak: thus early, he gave proof that his disposition was most cha;cita.ble. When arrived at the proper age, he received in marriage Mad r t dew i, the beautiful daughter of the king of Ohetiya; and Sanda. delivered to them the kingdom. . . • . • . • • A.t this time there was a. famine in K ali n g a. for wa.nt of rain; but the king thereof ha~.ng heard that WeB s a. n ta. r a had. a. white elephant tha.t hl¥i the power to ca.use rain, sent eight of his brahmans to request it. When the

II Upham'slfa.7r&I. L 68.

, BiddlIa died .bout:&.o. 480 ; see I714. ,4",t, Tol. VI. pp. 1409, l54.

messengers arrived at J a. y a. t n r a, it was the poya day, when the prince, mounted on his white elephant, went to the public alms-ball to distribute the royal bOlmty. The brahmans were seen by the prince, who asked them why they had come: a.nd when they told him their errand, he expressed his regret tha.t they had not asked his eyes, OT his flesh, 88 he would have been equally ready to give them, and at once delivered to them the elephant, though its trappings alone were worth twenty.four lacs of treasure, saying a.t the same time. May I by this become Buddha. !"S

In the sequel of this legend, which is called the W e88Q1Y1,tara Jd.taka, the gift of the elephant wa.s resented by the people of C h e d i, and prince Wessantara. was, in consequence Qf it, driven into exile; from which, after several exhibitions ofhi'3 unexampled oharitable spirit, ,he was ultimately restored to his kingdom: the white elephant also was restored to C h e d i by the people of K A lin g s, for the ra.ins had fa.llen again, a.nd "there was now plenty in: the land ;" an9. all the principal personages of the story Were in due time born again, "a.nd W ~ta.ra became

Gata.ma. Bnddhs.!" <, ,-,

The following legend of the vengeanoe of the gods upon K AI i n g a. for the misconduct of its king, belongs to some uhdefi.ned time, appa.rently much earlier than the time of the preceding story:-" At the time that S a r a. bhanga Bodhiflatwas the chief of a. company of ascetics, one of his followers, K i saw a o h a, left; the Giwuln forest, near the river Godavari, where the fraternity resided, and took up his abode in a grove belonging t,o Dan d a k ~ who reigned in the city of Kh um bAT aU in K Uinga. Itha.ppened in the course of time that five hundred co~s passed through the city in gay procession; and the people flooked in such numbers to see them tha.t the street of the city was completely filled. The crowd was observed by the king from the upper story of his pala.oe, and, when he learnt that it was caused by phe beauties of the city. he was offended tha.t they should thus seek to captivate the people, and comm.a.nded th.a.t they should he dismissed from their office. One day, when the courtezans were walking in the royal garden, they saw the ascetic Kisawacha,

, Hardy's Mwn-. BINd'll. 116.

• Ib.l24o.


[JANUARY, 1879.

his face covered with hair, and his beard Howing over his breast; and, as if they had been polluted by the sight of this miserable object, they called for water to wash their eyes, and spat upon the ascetic's body. Soon aft-erwards they were restored to their office, and conIlluded that this good fortune had happened to them in consequence of their having spat upon Kisawacha. About the 880me time the pUTokita or vizier lost his offi.ce; but he went to the courtezans and asked them by what means they had. regained the king's favour; and when they told him that it was through nothing else but their ha.ving spat upon lit miserable ascetic, he went to the garden a.nd did the same. The king then remembered that he had dismissed the Brahmaq. without having properly inquired into his case. and commanded him to be restored; 80 he concluded that he also had been assisted through the insult he had shown to the ascetic. By and bye some .of the provinces rebelled against the king, who collected an army to quell them. The BrahtIIa\L went to him and said that if he wished to conquer his enemies he must spit npon an ascetio who was in Ida garden, as it was by this means he and the eourtezans. had been restored to favour. The kiDg took his advice, and went to the garden accompanied by his courtezans, all or whomspert upon tb! ascetic; and an Ol'der was given to the wa.rdera that no One should be ad. mitiedtbthepalaoe wboh&dnotprevionsly done the lime. A noble who heard of the indignity w~ to Ki_waaba, oleansed his body from the filt.h, aDd ga1'8 him oIiher gaaomenta j after which

."he iDquirec1. .. hi.; wo'llld be thepunisbment of the kmg ia 00IIIef!1J8IlC8 of the crime that had been ~ To this inquiry he replied bt the u... "II'eJ.'e.piYided in opmion upon the subject :

IIOIID8ware~ed that the kingalone should .... i oIihtn that the king and the people .hodd be pu:oiahed in common; whilst others WEn ftIIOlved upon the entire destruction of i:Jle eou.ay. But he also wormed the noble that if the .k:iDg would ,OO!D8 aDd ask: his forgiveness, the ~ QaJamiti.ea 'WtIuld be averted. !lie aoble there£ore went to the king ad made lraotm 10 him what was faking pla.oe; but

. '.1Ie zelDaer1 to &dea to his a.dvioe he resigned. '-1Iia om.; after which. he again went to 4 the 11111181ie.,,8o NIIIftuav1ec1 him to take all he

had and go to some pIa.ce at the distance of seven days' journey from the city, as it would most assuredly be destroyed. The king fought his enemies, and conquered them; and on the day on which he returned to the city it began to rain. so that the people were led to remark that he had been fortunate from the time be spat upon the ascetic. The delJ'" then rained flowers, money, and golden ornaments, a.t which the people were still more pleased j but this was succeeded by a shower of weapons tha.t cut their flesh; then by showers of white burning charcoal, that emitted neither smoke nor :fla.m.e, which was succeeded by a fall of stones, and then by sand so fine that it Could not be taken up in the hand, which continued to faJI until it covered the whole country to the depth of eighty-seven cubits. The ascetic, the noble, and a certain merohant who J;eceived merit through the assistance he rendered to his mother, were the only persons saved. UlO

Of a similar character, referring to a simi1ar undefined early time, is the followipg legend :"In a. former age, N Ali k era reigned in K Ali D g a, and at the same time five hundred BrAhmanical ascetics took up their abode in the forest ofHimAla, where they lived upon fruits and dressed themselves in the bark of trees ; but they had occasionally to visit the villages, in order to procure salt and condiments; and in the course of their wanderings they came to K Ali il g a. The people of the city gave them what they required, in return for which they said bona] and the citizens were so much capbivated with what they heard that they requested them to remain and say bana in the roys.l garden. The king, observing a great crowd, inquired if they were going to some theatrical exhibition; but he was informed that they were going to hear btma, upon which be resolved that he also would be present. When the BrAhma~ heard that the king had arrived, they appointed one of their cleverest speakers to o:fllcia.te. The btma was on the 8lIbject of the five sins, and the consequences of committing them were set ~ sueh as birth in the form of worms, beasts or aswraB, or in hell, ,,!,here the misery will have to be endured during many hundreds of thousands of years. These things were like an iron piercing the ears of the king, and he resolved that he would have his revenge. At

JANUARY, 1879.]



the conclusion he invited the Brihmal}S to a repast at the palace; but before their arrival he commanded his servants to fill a. number of vessels with filth, and cover them with plantain leaves. The Brllhmal}S, on their way to the place of refection, said among themselves that, I as they were about to receive food at the palace, it would be necessary for them to be very circumspect in their beha.viour. When all were ready, the leaves were taken from the vessels, at the king's command, and the stench was most offensive; but he further insulted the BrRhDlal}S by saying, • As much as you please you '11JAy eat, and as much as yon like you can take home, as it is aU provided for you alone. You derided me before the people, and this is your reward.' 80 saying, he ordered his ruffi.a.ns to take them by the shoulders, and hurl them down the stairs, that had previously been smeared with honey and t1!.e gum of t1:.e kumbuck tree, so that they speedily slid to the bottom, where they were attacked by fierce dogs. A few attempted to ma.ke their escape, but they fell into pits that had been dug to entrap them, or were devoured by the dogs. Thus perished the whole of the five hundred BrAlrmaJ}s; but fot' this crime the devas destroyed the country by causing the nine kinds of showers to fall, until a space of sixty yoju/nas was covered with sand to the depth of eighty.seven cubits. "11

The prevailing belief that the D a k h a J;l was civilized in very early times, which the foregoing extracts have been brought forward to illustrate, was shared by ancient Hindu authors 8.S distinctly as by the Buddhists.

The Purl11Jas and the great epics speak of the D a k hal}. quite as familiarly as of the rest of India throughout the whole of the mythological as well as historical ages; and all these refereuces to Southern. India imply or assert tha.t it was ruled by kings and organized into nations. The only exception to this is the D a tJ. ~u. k ilr a It ya.

The MaM.bhUl·ata has comparatively little about the D a. k hal}.; but even here the kingdom of Vi dar b h a is quite conspicuous among tbe nations of ancient India for the splendour of its court, and other marks of civilized pro-

.. Hard,., MM. Budh.. p. 5&.

gress to be found in it. The following description of the scene of DamayanM's BfJayf.tll)fJara and its circumstances may suffice to illustrate this:-

" Came the day of happy omen, moonday meet, and moment 'apt;

Bhlma to the 8vayaliwara summoned all the lords of earth.

One and all upon the instant rose the enamoured lords of earth,

Suitors all to Damayanti, in their loving haste they came.

They-the COllrt with golden columns rich, and glittering portal arch,

Like the lions on the mountains entered they the hall of state.

There the lords of earth were seated, each upon .. his several throne j

All their fragrant garlands wearing, all wi~ pendant ear-gems rich.

Arms were seen robust and vigorous as the ponderous battle-mace,

Some like the five-headed serpents, delicate in shape and hue:

With bright locks profuse a.nd flowing, fin .. formed nose, and eye, and brow,

Shone the faces of the RAjas like the radiant s~ in heaven.

As with serpents, Bhogavati, the wide ha.1l was full of kings ;

As the mounta.;n·ca.ves with tigers, with the tiger-warriors full.

Damayant1 in her beauty entered on that stately scene,

With her dazzling light entrancing every eye and every soul.

O'er her lovely person gliding aU the eyes of those proud kings

There were fixed, there moveless rested, as they gazed upon the maid.',ll

A large portion of the Rttmrtlla~a is occupied with trs.n~ctions whose scenes were in the D a k h (I, J;l. For the purposes of this paper the forty-first chapter of the fourth book may be referred to, which describes the dismissa.l of the 'army of the South' from the banks of the T u Ii g a. b had r tL to scour the whole of the Peninsula and Ceylon in search of 8tM. Herewe find already organized into nati~ties the



(JAlroABT, 1879.

lfekhalas, the Utkala.s, the DaSArDas the Vidarbhas, the lJ.ishikas, the iUhiliaka.s, the MUtsyas, the KHiIigas, the KUika.s, the Andhras, the PU\l~ras, the Ch a las, the P a l;l ~ya,s, and the K ~ r a I a. s, As a specimen of the ci1ies of the south of those days, the following description of B hog a vat ~ whioh probably lay in the heart of the D a k h Ii ~, may be here quoted:':'"

.. Near, Bhoge.vatt stands, the place Where dwell·the hosts of serpent ra.ce :

A broad-wayed city, walled and barred, Which watchful legions keep and guard, The fiercest of the serpent youth,

Each awful for his venomed tooth:

And throned in his imperial haJl

Is VAsuki who rules them all.

Exp!ore ~ serpent oity well,

8ia.rch town. and tower and citadel, And SC&Jieaeh field and wood that lies Around'it, With:jour watchful eyes.JIlI

ThIt Purll!Jtl, mention the peoples :named in ih8' above list in the 1l4m4ya~, as well as I18vereJ others which they place with them amongst the southern nations.. As an instance ~ the great antiqnity attached to their eoneeption of the time of the settlement of these peoples in theDakha~,tr..e K Alingas~ aid to be the del108lldants of K a lin g a. one of the five i'U~ve sons Qf Ba 1 i,. the nine~nth, in descent froin B 0 m .. the founder of the Lunar Dynasty.16

Kllidisa's BaghuvizfhJa bas a description in ita fourth-book of 80 "':our of conquest made by Bag h u, the great grandfather of BAm a, , through the whole or the border-nations of

I India; and it incidentally desCribes some of the prominent features of the kiDgdoms through 'Which he pNIIBd.1S

StarIiiDg from A.,. 0 d h,.a at the :!lead of an Il'!DT of vetaran troops, his route lay first ..twards towards the 00f!II!01l j and when he had oonquered those paris he proceeded to the south along the "hole of the eaatern C08BIi, thzough the kingdoms of Orissa, KiliIiga, 0b6Ia. and P44ya. 'Then turning noitb:wa.rda he ooaquared the kingdoms lying along the 'nIIieat ooaS, pauingthroughK 6 rio' a and the

mountainous regions from Coorg northwards to T ri k 11 ~ a, and then, through a kingdom of thePii ras1ka.'s and Yava na-s, to the banks of the Indus and a. district in its neighbourhood occupied by the Huns. Crossing the Indus he entered the kingdom of K Am b 0 j a, and when he had conquered it he passed on to the Himalaya mountains, and subdued the K ira t a. sand the U t sa vas a Ii k e tIL s. He then descended into the vaJIey of the Bra.hma.putra, and con'quered the kingdom of the Pragj yotisha S; andhefinallyretnrned to his capita.! through the kingdom of K Q mar u. p a. In the a.bsence of an lllnglish trs.nslation of this part of the Baghu,ualilSa, the passages whioh refer io the D a'k h a tl may be quoted here from the Rev. J. Long's Ana.lysis of the poem in the twenty-first volume of the Jou.rnaZ of ths Asiatic 8ooi~ty of Bsngal, page 454 :-" Having conquered the Ban g A l I s who trusted in their ships, he' erected pillars of victory on the .islands of ~he Ganges. Having passed theKapis a river by elephants, underthe guidance of the people ofU t k A I (Orissa), Raghu arrived at K ali :ir g a. Mount M a hen d r a received from him a shock, as from the mahut's goad the stubborn ~eph.ant's head. K8.liilga's monarch, mighty in elephants, in vain atlaoked Raghu, like Indra. attempting to cut his wings. The soldiers, decorating the place with betel leaves, toasted their, success in wine of N U ike r a; but Raghu, desiring victory only for the sake of justice, took possession bfno land. Then to A ga II t Y a's land he marched, skirting the shore fringed with frnizmI betel palms. . The soldiers occupied the plain to the foot of tb& It: a 1 a. y a 'hills, where dOTes flit in spicy groves. \ Thee1epliantshad their temples t'ragraJi~from ,the dust of sandalwood whichthey had raised in their IDal'Ch. The P A -q. 4 y a. kings rende~d homaW' ' to Baghll ,by gems collected from.'the ~'s bed wh8l'8 T .mrapar ill rolls its waves. Having 'meshed himself near t~ Shore on the It: alara and D ardu rio sandal-covered hills • the paps of earth, he line~ with troops the BAh y a hills, from. which ocean had retired far ~ ieft earth's bosoW. bare; the soldiers then marched on to subdue the western people. The dust from the kstaka tree raised by the wiitds'from. the Mural river served to polish the sol~r

U Bee Stemder'. edition, p.80 of text, p. 25 of' I.&tiJt tnulation; or Bom.~.1 Sanakrit Serial, .No. V. p.l11; \lC' Calaala ecIi_ of 1t1'l1, p. 16&.

JANUARY, 1879.]



armour; the tinkling coats of mail drowned the sound of the beteZ trees, agitated by the wind. Old ocean retired at RAma's request, but to Raghu she gave, &S.her tribute, dominion over western kings. TheTriku~a mount, cut by the tusks of maddened elephants, afforded victory pillars. In his battle with the western people he could only recognize the enemy by the twang of the horny bow, so dense the dust 18.y round. The bearded heads strewed thick the ground. In vineyards fair the soldiers, wearied with warfare, refreshed themselves with wine."

Anotherpassa.ge, occurring in the sixth. chapter of the same poem, bears similar testimony to the general belief in the early civilization of the D a k h a r;J. It forms part of the description (>f the 8tJaYlJAilIJarfJ of In d n mat I, the daughter of the king of V ida rbha, 15 aD.d the grandmother of RAm a: and it therefore belongs to the generation succeeding that which witnessed the triumphs of Raghu. The kings of M a ga d h a, Anga, Malava, An1ipa., and Sausena were successively presented to In dum a ti for her choice, and rejected by her: and then Mr. Long's summary17 proceeds thas :-" Him followed K A I i il g a's monarch, lord of M a hend r a, whose arms retain the traces of the twanging bow, a dweller on the ocean where the dashing waves, louder than the trumpet sounding the hours, gleaming throngh the windows, awake from sleep; the shore resot:.nds with the rustle of palm leaves, while from other isles the winds waft the fragrance of the groves of clove. He was rejected. Next came P A ~ Q u's king with garlands decked of yellow sandal leaves, as Himalaya, king of mountains, tinged with the rays of the rising sun i but he made no more impression on the maid than the lanar rayon lotus leaves, unclosed .. ~hen the sun appears. When the torch of the maid's presence was held up to a suitor, he was cheered, but on her passing by, he sunk again into the darkness of despair. As she came to Ragha's son, he stood in suspense, which was soon removed by the agitation o~ her right hand." . • And Aj a the sou of Rag h n became the chosen husband of In dum a.t 1. •• II The royal pair entered the streets of V ida rb h a., which were strewed with branches of trees, and shaded from the heat by martial banners. The women, having left theil' other occupations,

II Btenzler'e.Ra.ghuw_,p.1i1! oft.ut, p.'BoftraDsL· or Bomb. BuIskr. Ser. V. p.1Sl; or Oalcutt&ed. of 1811, p. Sii.

crowded to the windows to gaze i all their senses were concentrated in the eye. B h 0 j a. RAj a of Vi dar b h a. having handed down A j a from. an elepha.nt, conducted him into the houee, and seated him on a throne, loa.ded him with diamonds, the Argha and Madhuparka, a pair of silken garments, which, having put on, Aj a went to In dum a. t!, drawn as is the ocean'. wa.ve to shore by the infI.aenee of the lunar orb. Then. the priest of. B h a j a,' haviDg offered ghf and other things to Agni, which he made .a witness, united the pair in wedlock. The bride of partridge eyes cast grains into the fiames, from which a wreath of smoke arose encircling her ears as with a ga.rland i'a.ir. The royal pair mounted on a. golden seat were sprinkled with moistened grains by heads of families and aged ma.trons. The rejected kings, hiding their wrath under the guise of joy •. reeembled a. tranquil lake. beneath whoee I:Inrface alligators lurk. B h oj a. RAj a accompanied .A j a for three days and then returned." .•.• His departure was the signal for the rejected kings to throw off their "guiso of joy;" and, with true Kshatriya instinct, their pent-up feelings fonnd vent in a. tree fight in order to capture the bride. A j a slew foe after foe in the ba.ttle, and spared the rest; and "with arrows dipped in royal blood he wrote on the banners of the conquered foe,-To-day by Raghu's son ye are bereft; of glory, but through his clemency not of life." And so he carried his bride in safety to K 0 s a I a, to receive the paternal blessing of Raghu.

It may be asked here, how can this view of the early civilizahion of the D a k h a J]. oonsist with the fact that the D a k h alJ. was the site ~f the Ds ~ c;la klira Ha? There can of course be n.o real contradiotion of truth here if both these facts are true i and the solution of the apparent contradiction will be found in a revision of the popular idea. that the D a ~Q a k A r alJ. y a. extended over the whole area. of the D a k s h i IJ. a,.18 The passage in the, Mmciyatta referred to a.bove shows clearly enough tha.t, notwithstanding the poetical mould in which VaImlki has cast his conception of the state of the D a k hal]., for the special purposes of his poem, he also ha.d clearly before his mind a more real prosaic pi~tnre of ita

17 llW/t'. BB'II1:.As. Soc. voL XXI. po 456.

II On thia llUbject I ha.Y8 .. aepmte p&per in prepmIiioD.



[J'All'tl'ARY, 1879.

condition, which was ready to. be produced when the practical side of his events required it to be done; he has shown us as distinotly 88 possible that at the very time when Ram a was wandering in eme through the wilds of the DaQ4.akara~ya, the Dakha1f in which that 07o'!-ya was situated, was occupied by the Vi d 8t r b has and the other nations named above, to all of which emissaries were sent to sea:rob. for the lost Sttil. Moreover, the eollceatioD: of the DaI]Q.a.kAralJ.ytlo with the abovenamed nations in this forty-first ohapter of the fOurth book of the Ramdya!la shows' that VAlmiki regarded it as occupying a. limited portion only of the Dakha~, in the midst of these nations, but yet quite distinct from them. After grouping together in the first ten verses several rivers and countries of the south nnder the grammatical government of the expression ,aroamevdnupasl,yata he proceeds to desJ. with another separate group thus :-

.. VidsrbbantishikAmschaiva RamyAnmll.hishakAnapi tathil.matsyaJ.."8lingath~cha KliSik:AmschaIIIIoll1&D.tatal;l .AnvishyadaJtQ::l.lclra!].yam Saparva.te.nadtgnham Na.dimgodavarimchaiva Sarva.mevAnupaAyata tathaivandhramschaput;tQ:rAthScha Cho!u.nplJ.l~Jansa.keral!1n.

Thus the D a J}. 4. a k Ar a lJ.l a is as clea.rly separa.ted from the countries with which it is here grouped as those countries are' from each other, and still more so from the other countries of the DakhaJt which are included. in the other groups.

It is so also in the BaglmfJaulBtJ. KaJidasa., notwithstanding his extensive and minute knowledge of Indian geography, found no diiliculty in describing the exile of Baghu's great-grandchildren to the D 0.1}. Ij a k a r al}. y 8., although he hall been vividly describing the powerful kingdoms of the Dallal]. a little while before in his account of the triumphal route of Ragh u and of the marriage of In d nmn.tl; he tells of their wanderings there for thirteen of their fourteen yf!MS' exil~, without bringing tbem once over the boundaries of the kingdoms which surrounded it.

The natnraJ. inference from aU this is that the DaJ].4 .. kb&~1&-whatevt'r its actual limits may have been, a.nd wheliher it did or did StoI; CImIr lie 1azger a.ns in any ea.rlier age-is not apolra rI u ext.mding over the whole of the ».tIt.a\li:a the egeofB8ogh.and Aj a and

DaBs. rat h So and RAm & ; and that its existence, from that time forward as well as previously. was quite compatible with the contemporaneous existence of several strong kingdoms, and of much civilization, in the regions around it.

We may now sum up the several items of evidence contained in the above quotations in support of the position advocated in this paper. They show that there has been a prevailing belief from very early times, which runs continuously through the most ancient historical or quasi-historical writings of both the Hindus and . the Buddhists, that the Dakhat;t was the seat of well-ordered monarchical governments as far back, and therefore some time before, the time of Rile g h n, the great-grandfather of Ram a the hero of the R4mI19a'{la ;-that the monarchy was hereditary and absolute; that the purity of the royal blood was maintained by intermarriages U. the royal houses; and that the princesses obtained their husbands, in some instances at least, by their own choice from among several rival royal candidates for their hand i-that the D a k h & lJ. of those days contained the kingdoms of 0 l'i 8 s a, KAlinga, OhoIa, and PalJ.Q.ya on its eastern side, and, to the west of these, the kingdoms ofVidarbha, ~ishika, MAtsya, KUika., Andhra, PU1.1Q.ra, Mahishak a, K A r a I a, axi.d some others i-that the kingdom of K ill i n g a was divided into provinces of sufficient extent to admit of a. treasonable combination being formed by some of them against their sovereign; and that the king had sufficient means to raise an army large enough to quell the rebellion i-that these kingdoms contained cities, towns, villages, towers, and citadels;that some of the cities had wide stJ;'8ets, and some were fortified with walls and gateways ;that the royal cities had palaces of considerable size, having an upper storey approached by au external flight of steps, contnining dininghalls sufficiently large to entertain fivo hundred guests a.t a banquet, and wide state-rooms snpported by pillars of gold, and entered through doorways. glittering with jewels, besides their private a.partments ;-that both the royal pa.laces and the citizens' houses had windows opening 'Upon the public streets ;-tJ;mt there were noble families in those kingdoms; and that Some of the nobles held office at court which they could resign at pleasure;-that a.mong the court

J ANtiA.B.Y, 1879.]



officers was a. court chaplain, who was a BrAh. ma.~ whom the king could dismiss and rea.ppoint at his pleasure, who performed theroya.l marriages, and who was entitled to give counsel to the king j and that BrihmalJs were employed as the kiDg's state emissaries;-that the palaces contained large numbers of dancing girls holding an official position, and an exten· sive establishment of servants j and that they were guarded by warders, ruffians, and watch· dogs :-that the kings had. large armies a.t their disposal using varions kinds <?f weapons; and that the king of K ali D. g III in particular was migh.ty in elephants trained to war; and that the cities were protected by garrisons of soldiers j-that the people cultivated fields and ga.rdens, betel-vines, coeoanut topes, pIa.nta.in. gardens, vineyards, and spice groves; and they suffered from famines and droughts caused by the failure of the rains j-that some of the people were occupied with meroha.ndize and commerce; that salt and condiments, and snch like things, were sold in the village shops j and that they used money in their transactions jthat their cooked food was served in vessels, and eaten off pIa.nta.in. lea. ves; and that they ued condiments in their cookery, and drank wine both of the grape and of the cocoanut palm ;--that they eultivated the a.rts of housebnilding and house-decoration, the a.rt of the jeweller, and of coining money, and of working in metals, and other similar arts j-that they had learnt to train elephants for both domestic and m8.rt.ia.l uses j-that they employed their leisure in attending religious preachings and theatrical performances in large numbers, in which their kings sometimes joined them; and that the orna.mental grounds of the palace were available to them for their recreations j-that they w~ aconstomed to invite each other to repasts, and had street-processions at their weddings; and that on great occasiona they decorated the public streets, stt:ewing the ways with branches of trees, and snspending ma.rtial banners above them both for ornament and for protection from the SUD i-that they decorated their persons with garlands, pendent earrings, and jewels of gold; and their kfugs' ornsments contained a. profusion of ~earllil lind diamonds, and their festive dress included silken garments ;-:-that in their m.&.rJ:ia.gss a. J'eligious service was performed ,by the family

priest, which was followed by a. domestic cere. mony conducted by the assembled guests;that, side by side with acts of gross rudeness towards unpopu.la.r persons, and of insulting practical jokes played even upon BrAlunaa;l.s, the intellectua.l progress of those days was marked by penalties inflicted on, persons who attempted to corrn.pt the morals of the people; by the courtesies of personal intercolll'Se and the amenities of hospitality; by more circumspect behaviour than usual in the presence of superiors; by self. sacrificing interpositions on the behalf of injured persons; by a sense of moral pollntion from contact with objects which disgusted the religions feelings; by the composition, and the exhibition, and the apprecia.tion of dramatica.l works; by public displays of religious oratory, and an extensive popular interest in listening to them i-that the religion of those days included, or consisted in, the worship of the devflS, with In d r a at their head, to whom a control over human affairs was attributed; in ceremonial. sacrifices offered to Agni j in a regard for omens; in a belief in the present favour of the gods shown towards such virtues as filial piety, and their present vengeance upon notorious sins; and in a. belief in future divine retribution for sin, in punitive transmigrations of souls, and in. a purgatorial hell j-a.nd, finally, that there were Brahma1J.S in the Dakhal). in those early times; some of whom, dwelling in the midst of the busy world, were employed in state affairs a.s well as in religions offices j while others devoted themselves to an ascetic life, some of whom dwelt in soli. tary hermitages in the forests which skirted the limits of civilized life, &Jld some formed them. selves into extensive monastic communities, which were connected with simil.a.r religions bodies in North India, and from which they proceeded on prea.ching itinerations throughout the oonntry, receiving alms from the people of snch things as they needed.

Such is the pioture of the civilization of t.he D a k h a J}. in ancient times, as it has been painted by both Rindu a.nd Bnddhist old writers, and as it has been received through th6Ill by the Hindus and the Buddhists for many centuries past. It only remains here to mark the pro. bable time to which this picture applies. Termin.a.ting in the reign of the king or Kaliiaga from whom' the I Great Dynasty' or Ceylon



[J.A.lroaT. 187P.

t:aced its descent by the marriage of one of its I princesses with the king of Bengal, which event has been placed above in the sixth or seventh centUlj' before Christ, the above quotations run upwtLl'ds from that time to the reign of Raghn, king of Kosala. Rag h u' s date might be ascertained from that of his great grandson Ram 80 ; but the date of Rama has been variously placed from 2029 B.C. downwards. Bentley, in his Historical VielD of Hindu. Astronomy, p. 13, from a.stronomica.l data, has placed the birth of Rams on the 6th of April 961 B.C.; and no later date than this is likely to be thought of:

TakiDg the usual 80verage of twenty-be years for a gener&tion, R 80 g h Ii must be placed a.bout a century earlier than RAm' a. j a.nd in this way we arr:i've at about 1085 B. c. for the latest aate likely to be claimed for Raghu's invasion of the Da.khal}.. Some considerable time must

then be allowed for the gro~th of the state of things whioh he found there. So we are broaght at last to this conclusion,-That the D (J, k h a 7_1 has been in possession of civilized i2~8tit'Utio'TIJJ U11d manners for thirty centuries and more from the 'present time. And if this conclusion should surprise anybody, it is nevertheless in perfect accordance with the fact, now sca.roely to be doubted, that the rich Oriental merohandize of the days of king Hiram and king Solomou had its starting-place in the seaports of the D a. k h a 'Q.; and that, with a very high degree of probability, some of the most esteemed of the spices which were carried inbo Egypt by the Midiaonitish merchants of Genesis ttxvii. 25, 28, and by the sons of the patriarch Jacob (Gen. xliii. 11), had been cultivated in the spice gardens of the Dakh&~.lD


BY J. F. FLEET, Bo.C.S., X.B.A.S.

The most complete account, in a. eonneeted form, oftha Western Chalukya and ChAlukyageneeJogy,is to be found in a stonetablet inscription at a shrine of the god Bas a· T a 'HI a aBbe temple of the god S a:r;n eB va ra. on the north side of the village ofYAwUr or YAb:6.r, ~ the S6ripiir or Snrapiir IlAkhA, which is on the eastern frontier of the KaJAdgi District. An abstract translation of pari; of this macnption is am.exed to Sir Walter Elliot's paper 0. HiM" Imer£pticm" at Maar. Jour. of LU. tIIId 80., Vol. vm.. p. 198; and a tran. BCription of the whole of it is given at Vol. 1, po .258, of his MS. Collection. It records a grant by V i kr It. m l d i t Y a VI., or T r i - bhuvanamalla, in the second year of his reign. the Pi D gal a 8II1iwatscra, i.e. ·Sake. 999 ("-D. 1071-8). To enable me to edit the text, I applied to lIajor Evan.Smith, Firat.A.ssist&ut Resident ai HaidaribAd, to obtain for me a Racing or .. rnbbing of the originaJ. stone. He ...... kind enough to give the requisite instrn.c~ tiau tD tba local aul;boritiea; but the result was DOt .. tncing or aro.bbing, bo.t partly a iranscri~ tioa _ parily a hand-oopy. In many respects,

(OQtl.~.from Vo'. VIT., p. 308.)

however, r have found the version thus obtained to be a very useful guide to the correct reading. Meanwhile, in No.2 of Mr. Wathen's Ancient Insoriptions em stone and copper, at Jowr. R . .A.s. SOD., Vol. n., p. 378, and Vol. m, p. 258, I found an account, transcription, and abstract ~lati.on, of a copper-plate grant, in the DAvanAgart oha1'&Cters and the Sans~~t language, on three plates fonnd at :Mi.rad in the Southern Ma.ri~hA Country. It records a grant by JayasiIitha m., or Jaga.d~kamalla, dated Salta 946{.f..D. 1024-5). the Rak tA ~s hi sll'llivatsarG.

The genea1ogica.l portion of the y~ t:abIet is in Sansk;it j and, down to and mclOOing themention of J a. y a. s im h a. m., it II@!8eB almoIIfr word.' for word with the corresponding portion of the Miraj plates. These'plates, in f'act;, must be one of the identical grants on which, as the Y~wt\r inscription itself says, the genealogy given in it is based. By colla.ting these three versions,-the copy of the Y~w1ir tablet in Sir Walter Elliot's MS. Collection; the second copy of the same, obtained through MajorEua.~. Smith; and Hr. Wathen's reading oUhe Miraj plates.-l ~ve suoceeded in esta.blishing the

YO!. II. p. &a5; art. '9itmamcm.' E!'oCVcl. B"'t. (JI81t' ail.). Tol v. p. 785; 1&0 Teunat'l OeyZo .. (1800 ed.). Tal 1. p. CIllO.

No. L.


text without any material doubt, down to the notice of J a. y as i til h a. m. In respect of orthogra.phy, I follow the reading of the Y~wUr tablet, as fur lIS r ean determine it : in the Mimj pla.tes, 80S published by Mr. Wathen, the letter! is not used, and consonants a.re not doubled after 'f; and the letters rand! a.re not used in any of the three versions. From Sam e 8 v a r a. 1, or Ahavamalla, the son of Jayasimha. m., down to Vikramaditya VI., the correct reading is often very d.oubtful, and some passages are entirely beyond my powers of eonjecture. My version, however, will suffioe for the present, for genealogical purposes j and I shaJl supplement the present paper with one that win detail all the generations of this branch of the dynasty. as they are now known. But of course it is desirable that, at the first opportunity, both the Mimj grant and the Y~wfir inscription should, for the sa.k:e of the other matters of interest contained in them, be edited in full from the origin&ls.

The Y$wftr ta.blet commences with the 'usual Saiva invocation ;-NamllB=iwJltga-8irai-ok'Uli1bi &0. This is followed by the V aishl!8ova invoc~ tion, with which the Miraj plates commence :-Jll'JIaty=O!Jis1ikritrllil Viskp8r=VfJardka,il &c. Both the tablet and the pls.tes then continue with another Va.ishJ.!a.va invocation :-


Sriyam=upahaiaU:d=va.~ srt-pati~ kraqa-rapo vilta~vi8ada.daqlsh~·pratilt.a-viSramti.bhajatill A vaha.d::adaya-dash~.Ak!ish~a. vispash~k8qldapratanu.vi8a-ja.~agra-gratilthiva.d=y6 dharitritilll


"May the lord1 of Sri, who assumed the form of a boar, confer prosperity upon you; he, who carried the earth resting on the tip of his formidable white tusk, just like the bhnoh on the furs.part of a slender water-lily, the pl8.in1y. seen stem of which has been mercilessly com. pressed and pulled up!"

Both the tablet and the 'plates then give a verse in praise of the reigning mona.roh at the time of the grants to be recorded. In the

tablet, the name is that of T r i bh u v:, n • m al l a; in the plates, it is that of J:l ga Ha.malla:-


Ka.ri - makara· maka.rik • arilkita • ja!a.nidhi - rasa(sa)nilil vaSika.rat·;::avani-vndhfuil. I Tribhuva.na.malla-kshmapatir ( .... , JagadekamaJla.-bhdpa.tir) = akaJamk: -ya80 .iliburasi{si). va!ayita-bhuva.na~ II


"May the king T ribh u vanamall a, (or, J aga. dA kam all a), by the ocean o~ whose spotless &me the world is encircled, render subject to his control the bride whioh is the earth, girt about, 80S if by a zone, with the ocean which is marked with sea-monsters, both ma.le and female, resembling elephants !"

Then follows in each a description of the ChI ukya fa.mily:-


Gadyaril S II Svasti Samastabhuva.na-satilstilyamana-Manavya.-sagatral].atil ffiritia_putr~4til Kausiki-vara-prasada.ls.bdha.sv~tatapa.tr-Adi.rajya.-ohihnW.m sapt.a-ma~aparirakshp,AnAtil Klirttik~ya-vara-prasadalabdha. - mayftra-pichchha. kutilto.' - dhva.janaril bha.gava.n-Narli~pramid.as~dit.a-vara.varA.ha ·litilchhan - 3~. kshal).a-vaStk!it-Arati-riljr matilqalbam eama.stabhllva.nasraya-sarvvaJak~ sraya- Vish:q.uvarddhana- Vijayadity.adi-visesha·nAmnam raja-ratnAnAm:udbhava-bMmiQ . I V~tta.ril II Kaba.~t.a-Na.la-Iakshmir=dduIjjay. amijitya.-Mri vihata-p!ithu-KadamMcJambar~ MSouryya-nirjjit I Nija.bhuja-b$-bhUmu= otp!lja.yan Rashtrakll~an khi(giHita5.Ka!a.chllrierh-=asti Ch3,!ukya e - vamsah II


" Rail! There is the C H l u k y a fa.mily, which devours in a. mouthful the glory or the N a] a B ; which appropriates the power of those whoa.rehard to be conquered; which destroys the arrogance of the mighty K a Ii a mba s; which uproots the R! s h ~ rR. k'O. ~ as with the sbuudaJl.ce of its strength of arm j and which swallows

1 V'llIh1)U. jl'ichM-~utllfI:L_1 MS. ColI. a.nd B. 0., khiJita.; W. P.,

.. piUta.-e Mr. Wathllll's rea.ding of the lISJIle in the platu

VenOllB Readmg.. 18 BlWlloya OM.musn.ya, which he suggests, 111&1 be a.

S This word is not m the plates.-- MS. ColleetioD, mista.ke for 'C!w.h1UDfl,Dll' or 'Chohan.' On a snbseq118llt

IIIId Second Q2py obta.ined through Maior E=.Bmith, I occaaion the mista.ke is expJe.ined to be that of his P~dit, H4nti· Mr. Wathen's readin of the l'Iates, H&fffl.- in ~ OMmllShy& where he O'Il8ht to have 1'Ii&d'

• MS. 0011., jl'ill:chhcl-klllhta.; I. C., pilh.la.kwllta; W. p., Ch8.lukya. or O~kya.. ,

:' 12


[JANUARY, 1879.

'Ip the glory of the K a. ~ a. c h uri s i-the birth- I Tfa'l!8lation.

:place of jewels of kings, who were of the lineage I "Sixty kings, less by one, born in that lfamily),

of Y a. n D T' Y a, which is praised over the ,,:hole I having from their city governed their kingdom world; who were the descendants of H Ar It t ; which was not to be (sZ&ccessfuUy) warred against, who acquired the white umbrella, and other and having passed away,-after that, sixteen signs of sovereignty, through the excellentfavonr kings, born in that lineage, ruled the country of K au 5 i k i; who were preserved by the that includes the region of the south."

seven mothers (of 71lan.l:ind) ; who acquired the Then allusion is made to a temporary loss of banners of the peacock's tail and th.e spear their pOWEll" by the'C hal ukya s, a.nd to the throllgh theex~elI:nt~yonr of x: Art. hkey a; restoration ofih in the person of Jayasimhawh? hod the terntones?f hostile kings. made Vallabha, with whom the genealogical porsubject to them on the Instant at the sIght of tion of the two inscriptions commences:-

the excellent sign of the boar, which they acquired through the favour of the holy N a r Ay &1]. a; and who possessed the distinguishing names of 'asylum of the universe', 'refuge of a.ll people'. 'Vi s h lJ. u vn.r dh an a.', 'Vij ay adi tya.', and other (titles)."

Then a. reference is ma.d.e to the early traditions of the family. In raj!lam ayJrJ.hya}n, 'a. kingdom not to be (BUccS88fully). warred against', which seems to be the correct reading, a. punning allusion is probably made to A y a d h Y a, which, it is said, was the capital of the C h a I n- 11: y a s in early times; see, for instance, No. IX .. of this Series, Vol. V., p. 15, transcr. 1. 8. The mention in this verse of "the con.ntry that inclodes the region of the south" does not neceslI8.rily imply that the C hal uk y ~ s crossed the N a l' III .. d i southwards at this early time. .A.a I haveatated at Vol. VII., p. 247, I am strongly inoliJ1Bli to think tha.t this did uot happen till the time of Pu l i U Si LAud, if' the suggested ldentifi.ca.tion of the J 80y a. S i m h a I. of the IIOUthern grants with the J 8. Y a. s i m h a. of the Ka.ira grana be accepted, Kaira is quite far enough to the south from A.yodhy& for the aeWement of the Chalukyas there, when they left A y ad h ya. to be spoken of in the terrDs of this verse :-


'r..i.j~bl1 rljyani:oa.nup&lya. gat&hu rAjasV=&k_7-abash~i.ga.-q.a.n&hupn:r1d=ayOdhya.m1l I Tadnm5a-j£s--ta.d.=auu sba!Ja,8a. bhtimipAli\ikshmam dabh.~jusbam bibharAlh-ba.bMvnl]. II


Dush~-Avas1i~abdMya.m oha" katipaya-

purnsh-Amta.l'-amtaritnyalh ChAlnkya-kula-

sampa.di bhuyaS=ChA!oJ.."Ya-vamsya &va II V!ittalil10 II Kamda.1;lll ktrtti-Iah-Amkurasya ka.ma!a.m Lakshmi-vilAs-:ispadam vaJram vairi-mahibhptam pratinidhir=ddavasya daityadruhal) I R.\j=aslj=Jayasimha.- Vallabha. iti kbyatas:icha.ritrair=nnijair=yya raja chiram= a.di-rlja-charit-atkam~ha.-pra,jan=a¥ranll I yo Rash~kti~a.-k$m=lndra18 iti prasiddham Krishl}.ahvayasyaUo sutam=ash~sat-~bha._ sainyam I Nirjjitya dagdha.n~ipa.-pamohasatb babhAra bhUya.S=Cha!ukya.kuIa-valla.bhadja-lakshmun II


"The fortunes of the C h A ! u k y a family having been impeded by wicked people, and having been interra.pted by several other men (of hOltila races ),-then, agtl.in, there was a king, belonging indeed to the 0 h A ! u k y a lineage, renowned under the name of J a. y a s i m h 80- Va, 11 a b h a.,-the bulbous root of the tendril of the creeper of fame; the water-lily whioh was the pla.ce of the sportive play of the goddess of for~ne ; a very thllD.derbolb to hostile kings j the counterpart of the godls who destroyed the demons,-who shone for a long time, captivating his subjects, who longed for the deeds of kings of early times, with his achievements. Having vanquished him, who was the son of K :r ish I]. a, and belonged to the Rash ~ r 80-

JANUARY, 1879.]



k 11 ~ a family, and was renowned under the name of In d r a., and possessed an army of eight hundred elephants,-and having completely destroyed five hundred kings,-he again nourished the regal fortunes of the (1,;~ngly) favourites of the C h a! u ky a family."


Cha~ula·ripu.turaga.1G-paVu.bha~a-kara~i.gha~ko~.gha~ita-ral].8.-raga}_l1 Su-kpta..Hara-charal}aragas'" tanayo",bhftt=tasya. RaJ;laragal} " Translation.

"His son was R a I}. a rag a, whose love for war was produced by the handsome horses of the enemy and theil' skilful warriors and their troops of elephants, and who delighted in (wo'TBhipping) the auspicious feet of H a r a."


Tat-ta.na.yal}. PulakMi KMi-nisftdana-samo", bhavad"'raja I VAtRpi'7-purl-vara..patir=e.kajita.khaja-Ka.!i-ka!amka-kalal}. II Vayam~api Pulakt\si-kshmapatiIh val'l}.I}ayamta.l) p~akakalita-dt\hR}_l pasyat=AdyApi samtal,t I Sa hi tnraga-~jAmdr61S gram.a-saram sabasradvaya. - parimitam '" ptviksach - chakAr19= asvamMMJI


" His son was king P u 1 a k ~ 8 i,-eqnal to the destroyerto of (the demon) K A 51">; the lord of V A tap i, the best of cities; who acquired not the faults and deceits of the wicked K a I i age. See now !, even toda.y, we, while describing king P n 1 a k A 8 i, have our bodies experiencing the sensation of the hair standing erect through pleasure; for he, who was possessed of hoeses and noble elephants, bestowed two thousand most excellent villages'" upon the priests at the celebration of the horse-sacrifice."


Tat-tanayaJ.L I Na!a-ni!aya-vilopi MauryyaniryyAJ;la-Mtul}. prathita-ppthu-Kadambastambha-bMdi knfjha~ I Bhuvana-bhavana-

Vtll'ioUB Rea.a.iflgs.

l' :MS.Coll.a.ndS.C., as in my text; W. P., ripl£l'Ul'llga. .. :MS. Coil. and S. C., as in my text; W. P., Dhdt4pi.- 11 :MS. Coil., as in my text ; S. C. a.nd W. P., ga.je,i;d.l'a..U ltS. Coll, parikha.ta.1IrittiSlIa.lftcha.kQra.; S. C., 'P'lTi- 1oh.a.tlwrittisya.mchcha.k4r4; W. P., a:a in my text.

.., Kris~, i.8. VisbJ).n.

• , There is a fanciful attempt to allot a meaning to his name in theBe two verses.

•• Or .. the revennes of 110 villa.ge, csJcula.ted Bot twothonsa.nd (o! the sta.nda.ra. coi7ls th.en. current)."

Va.ri01.!8 Rea.a.'ngB.

n :MS. Coil., sa.."IlOrol,Pi1; S. 0., aa.rvOa.1Jip4; W. P., as

bhRg - apUraJ;l - arambha - bhara - vyavasitasita-ktrttil.l Khttivarmma nrip8=bhUt II


His son was king K irtt i v a r m a, who destroyed the habitations of the N n. ! as; who was the cause of the exile of the M a n r y as; who was the axe to sever the column which was the famous and mighty K a dam bas; and whose white fame busied itllelf with the burden of the undertaking of filling (all) the divisions of the palace which was the world.


Tad"'anu tasy=anujnl) I Sarvva-d,ip2'.

iUcramaJ;la-mahaso yasya nao.-setubamdhair= ullamghy=abdhhil vyadita P1'itMuP· Revatldvipa-Iopam I Rii.ja-striI,lam!l' hatha.-patir=

abhUd=yas=oha Ka!achchnriI,lllms• bablri

bhUmim saha sa sakalail'=mmamgalair=

MmalhgallSaq II


" A.fter him, his younger brothel', :M a il g aI is a, governed the earth with complete proilperity,-whose army, he being powerful enough to invade all islands, crossed tM ocean by bridges of boats, and eWeated the plundering of the island of R ~ vat i; and who became tht' husband, by ravishment, of the queens of the Kii.! a c hch nris."n


J yesh~ha-bhrAtns:sati I!uta-varti=py~

arbbhakatvM=a8a.kte yasminn=iltmany~akpta hi dhuram Mam.,ooa1isal}, ppthivyal) I Tasmin= pratyarppayad,s=atha mahim yftni SatyiiSray~ san Chillukyrmdm ka iva hi pathO dharmmy= atal,1 prachyavgtaU" .J~tnr=ddi5am vijitaHarsha.-mahil-nppasya datur=mmanoratha.-satildhikam = artthayM=yaI.lllO I Saty-ildi-sarvvagul}llrratna-gaI,l-akarasya saty-ilsrayatvam= upalaksh&I,lam=t\va yasya II

. Translation.

"Since M a. n g a 11 Sa took upon him~~ _~('

in my text. -" MS. Ooll., ~·ya(lhita.p;'Qtll'tlu; S. C., 'IIya.d.itaprito.71a.; W. P., lIyatkitaprit<llvl.-" srs, ColI. and S. C:,-as in my tm; W. P., rOjya.<r~lb.-·· MS • Coli., KdlaAch!l.r21!4111; S. 0., K41a.sh~'I'Z'!"';i; W. P ..

Kd.la.clthu.'ffIdli.. •

., The vowel of the first syllable is lengthened, Bond tht' eha. is doubled onJ~ for the sake of the metrP; rfln,,: transcr.l. 6 of ]ro. XIII., at Vol. V., p. 6i .

rariolls Reaclings.

•• MS.' ColL, pratyd8'llip_aa.; S. C., p,.a.ty4d;rripa.d; W. P., -808 in my tm.-u :MS. Co~rabh.1Wetu; S. C., prabhulltt4.; W. P., as iii. my text. 14~- Coil., rvriMlIua.bk4h; S. 0., a.rtYlIya.cW!I/!; W. P., as IU my test.

J ANUAltY, 1879.]



k 11 ~ a family, and was renowned under the name of I n d r a, and possessed an army of eight hundred elephants,-and having completely destroyed five hundred kings,-he again nourished. the regal fortunes of the (kingly) favourites of the Chalukyafamily."


Chavula-ripu-turaga'6-pa~-bhata-kara~i-gha~Akoti-ghatit&-ra~a-rAgal].1 Su.k!ita-Hara-chara~ragas = t&nayo=bhUt=tasya Raltaraga1;t II Translation.

" His son was R a It a rag a, whose love for war was produced by the handsome horses of the enemy and their skilful warriors and their troops of elephants, and who delighted in (WfYI'Bhipping) the auspicions feet ofHara."


Tat-tanayaq. P.ulakMi K~si-nisudana-samo= bhavad=rajA I VIld.pi17-puri-vara-pa.tir=akajitakb$-Ka.ji-ka!aIDka-kajal}. II Vayam::-api Pulakesi-kshmapatirh va1'Jt~ayaIiltaJ} pnlakaka!ita-d~Ml.t paSyat=Adyapi samtal}. J Sa hi turaga.-gajAmdrolS grama-saram sahasradvaya - parimitam = titviksach - chakar19= MvamMM II


" His son was king P u I a k ~ s i,-equal to the destroyerlO of (the demon) K ~ Ii 11,; the lord of Vat it pi, the best of oities; who acquired. not the faults and deceits of the wicked K a I i age. See now I, even today, we, while describing king P u I a k ~ s t, have on.r bodies experiencing the sensation of the hair standing erect through pleasure; for he, who was possessed of hoeses and noble elephants, bestowed two thousand most excellent villagesU upon the priests at the celebration of the horse-sacrifice."


Tat-tanaya~l I Na!a-ni!aya-vilopi Manryyaniryya~-Mtul} prathita-ptithu-Kadambastambha-bhMi kntMral]. I Bhuvana-bhavana-

Various Reo.dmgs.

,. MS. CoIl.lLDd S. C., as in my text; W. P., rip!ll"IIT!!ga. 17 MS. 0011. ILDd S. C., as in my text; W. P., DM.td.pi.- 1. 14S. 0011., as in my text; S. C. and W. P., gaj.,hdre.•• )lS. 0011., pairikllata'lJl'ittjjualllc/w.kQra.; S. C., petri. k'h.a.tallTittis'lja.tllchchak4r4; W. P., as in my text.

00 KrishQa., '.e. Vishl1u. •

II There is So f&nciful a.ttempt to a.Ilot So meanmg to his Dame in these two verses.

" Or .. the revenues of a. village, calcu.ls.ted at twoth01lS&l1~ (OJthB standard coins then. C'!!'I"I'en.t)."

Va.nOIl8 Read.i'I!gs.

•• MS. OolL, Ba.-u09'Vtp4; S.O., Barv6.wip4; W. P., as

bhag - apllra~ - araIhbha - bh9.ra - vyavas.itasita,-kirttil.l Kjrttival'mmil nrip()=bbUt II Translation.

His son was king Ktrttivarmu, who destroyed the habitations of the N a! as; who was the cause of the exile of the M au r y as; who was the axe to sever the column which was the famous and mighty K a dam bas; and whose white fame bnsied itself with the burden OJ the underta.king of filling (all) the divisions of the palace which was the world.


Tad=ann tasy=anujnl) I Sarvva-dvip2"-

akramat;ta-mahaso yasya nan-setubamdhair= ullamghy=abdhiIil vyadita p!itanil2• Reva.ti~ dvipa-Iopam I Raja-strit;tRmU ha~ha.-patir=

abhud=YaS=cha Kajachchurit;tAmU babhrA

bhUmiIh saha sa saka!air=mmamga!ail"=

Mmamga!lSaq. II


" After him, his younger brothel', 11 a il g aI ih, governed the ea.rth with complete prosperity,-whose army, he being powerful enough to invade all islands, crossed tM ocean by bridges of boats, and eJFected the plundering of the island of R ~ v a. t i; and who became the husband, by ravishment, of the queens of thE' Kit 1 a chch uris."u


Jyesh~ha-bhratus=sati suta-vare=py=

arbbhakatvitd=asakM yasminn=Atmany=-ak!itllo hi dhnraih MaIhgalisab. p!ithivyab. I Tasmin= pratyarppayad,s=atha mahiIil yilni SatyliSray~=san Chiljukyll.nihh ka iva hi pathO dharmmy= I1tal~ prachyavetaiS II Jtitur=ddisAlil vijita· Harsha-mahA-ntipasya datur=mmanoratha-SatitdhikaIP- = artthayM=yal,30 I Saty-li.di-sarvvagul}arratna-ga!].-nkarasya saty-asrayatvam= upa.laksh&~am=~va yMya II

. Translation.

"Since Man gal i IS a took upon him~~~' the

iu my text. -" MS. 0011., 'fya'lhifp.prat'tn~; S. C., vya.d.ittJ,pritaM; W. P., V!lathitaprit~na.-·· .1II~;, Coli. and S. O. as in my tmJ W. P., ~dJya;rt~O.IJl.- MS. ceu, Kala.§ch'Lril!4!11 I S. (J., K41a.ah~rj7J4Ijl J W. P.,

Kalachhu,.(na,j~. ,

., Tho vowel of the first syllable is lengthened, and. t~ eha is doubled only for tbe sake of the metre; rnn,r. tl'lLD8Cr.l. 6 of No. XIII ... at Vol. V., p. 67.

rarious Readings.

•• MS.' 0011., pra.ty8.S'lli,llad; S. 0., pra.ty4d.vipad; W P 'as in my text._'· MS. Co~bhuveW; S.O., PT~bh.'uvtta.; W. P., 88 i'n my text. X~. 0011., MliM. y"tlbhah I S. 0., (£rt!laya.cWa~l; W. P., a.a In my test •


[JANt"ARi, 18'i9.

burden of (lJ(8 goz:ermnent of) the earth while the best of the sons flf his elder brother was iaecmp~f ~to rule) on account of his childhood, be then restored the earth to him, Sat y Ii. s ray a, when he became a young man.-to him, who conquered the regions, and who vanquished the great king H a, r s b a, and whn gave more thana hundred-fold of what was desired to my one, who made :reqnests to him, and whose condition of being the asylum of truth became indeed his designation because he was the mine of all the jewels of troth and all other virtnollS qualities; for who of the C h s~ uk ya s, being of So religious disposition, would deviate from this path (rj'propriety andfal11,ily cNliom) 'P"


A.~n..."'!'ita-dig-vala.yo == rddita-dviq=am.a:riparigtta.-maM-ya8~ I M!i~m=arish~a.-1qi.ta.m manas=6dva.han=NaQamari-kshitip6=jani tatsnta.l;l.8111


.e King N a. qa lILa ri was born as his son,who ma.de the circuit of the regions free from tumult; who caused distress to his enemi~; whose great fame was sung by the lovely women of the gods; aud who carried the beneficent M~ i I} aa. in his heart."


Suta.s=ladiyo. gulplo-:ratn&-Inl'lllbhu-vaJ.labM= bhM=bhuja.-viryya..sa!i I Aditya.va.rmm=oljjita~ PUl}.y&-karmm! tAjobhir=8.ditya-sa.m.a.na.dl!s.rmm8 II


"His son WlIoS .A di t Y 80 varma,-garla.nded with the jewels of his virtuous qu~lities; the favourite of the world; possessed of prowess of ann; of very holJ deeds; eqna.l to the sun in splendqur."


Tat-suto Vikramadityo vil...-ram-akrAmta-

bh'O.- tala!}. I Tato=pi Y uddhamall-8.khyo yuddh6 Yama-samo nripaQ. II


" His son was V i k ram Ii d i t ya, who pervaded the ea.rt4 with h is prowess; and from him (was born) king Y u d d ham a II a, who was equal to Yam a Un dealing out cZeath) in battle."


Taj-janma Vijayadityo vir-linllk-Amga.-sariJ.ga;r3 I Chaturl}:Q.8.m.= mamqa,lanam=apy = ajayad= Vijay-opamal.l II


"From him was born Vijayadi tya, who, resembling V ij a yaBS (in Cot&ragB (Jncl strength). conquered even four dominions in many personal conflicts or' brs.ve men."


Tad-bhav6 Vikramadityal) Klrttiva:rmmatad-Atmaja.l.t I Yena Chalnkya.-raja-srir= a,mta:rAfo.ty=abhtldu=bhuvi II


"From him was born Vi k r a. mad i t Y a.

His son was K t r t hi v arm a, through whom the regtltl fortune of the C h a ! u k y a s became impeded on the earth."


Vikramaditya.-bMpa!a.-bhratil BMma-

parakramal) I Tat-s>1~uQ. Kil'ttivarmm=abMt

m!it.Yn-siidbita,8I-durjjo.nal) II


"The brother of king Vikram ii. d i t y e was he who possessed the prowess of B him a. 80 His son was Kirttivo.rmti, who killed wicked people."

VaNQUS Rea.iL!l1ga.

• S1 Mel. Ooll., a.rbtal'1liyy(l,"~a.bn.M, correatcd in pencil JI~to.a!11ta.r4yaa:cWn.1liL; S. C., as in my tox~· W. P. nttll-

'l"lLywWabh.f1.d.. ' ,

SO' 14S. 9oll., 1'WI'!~t!lU864h.ita.; S. C., mrittyusli.dcJ.h.it..r.; W. P., mr,tpr4B4rcZlta.

:IS From this it J1JJJ.l be inferred that his name was' B~ The verse ~ht be translated "Ria Ion WIllI 'Blrttiva.rmA, the brother of Icing Vikra.mllditya -whl) possessed the {Jl0We88 of Bhlma, a.nd who killed ~eked people",-thllB mtroduoing a.nother Vikmml\ditya. ilIto the genealogy, a.nd :ma.kin.Ir liim Bond the KlrltiVlloTm& of this vena the 80na of the larttiwrmll of the preceding verse Sir :w- a.1t.e.r Elliot ~d Mr. Wa.then substantially a.grea with me m ~ ilmnela.tiona; but. they have got rather ~d \ \1p Over thiI with. the pr8cedinr and following V6l'8e;8-

.tANUARY, 1879.J




Taila,.bhupas=ta.to jaM Vikramaditya.-bhl1~ patil~ I Tat-sUnnr=aphavat=ta.sm,4d=Bhhna-rajo= ri-bhikara4 II


" From him was born king T a. i 1 3. His son was king Vikram il di tya. From him ~tOa8 bom) king B h 1 m a, who was terrible to his enemies."


AyyaJ?-Aryyas=tat& jajM yad-vamsasya. sriyam BukharilS7 I Prapaya.rht=iva varil.SasY3 sa.rhbabh~ K:pshIJa-narhdanil3S II


"From him was born the noble Ay y a ~ a, the glory of whose lineage the da.ughter of K ! ish ~ 339 nourished, causing it to atta.in, as it were, the happiness of (her own) lineage."


• Abhavat=tayoI) tanilj6 vibhava-vibbAsi.a virodhi-vidhvarhsl I Tejo..vijit-Ilditya!;l satya,. dhano Vikramil.ditya!;t " Chea-iSa,.va.rhSa.~ltilakilrh LakshmaQ.a.-ril.jasya narhdanilm nntasilArh. . Borhthildeviri!.·' vidhivat=paril}inyS·s Vi.Immu1dityab. II


"Their son was Vik rama di tya, who shone brightly through his power j who destroyed his enemies; who surpassed the sun in lustre; and who abounded ill trUth. Vikra· mad i t Y a married according to rite B 0 nt had e v 1, the glory of the family of the lords

fo,rioUll Reaa.ill!]s.

., MS. Coli., 811 in my text; S. C., sllko,Ih; W. P., s1:akaJi~.-" llS. Coll., l'rt1JJayalhtiravaJi~~n8yo.su.lilb~jl·J. b~8htanaJilaana., with some corrections, introduciug the word '!"!<ira, which I cannot quite ma.ke out; S. C., pr4. p"'Y(l7r~tl'l/adas8ali1chj8all!.babh.J·Jkrish,!"na.J'Id.a.n4lt; W. P., pr6'IJtl!lo,YaAlIlIi_Jill:lmsaVIWriMkashf!olLnatlldan4,11.

.f Probably the RAshtrak1ij:a. king KriahQa.-AkAla.va.rsha.. deva. of the SMii(gi inscription at Vol. I" paoge 203, dated "when Saka 867 had expired", but "in the PIILVIJilga .Yalilvatsal·"''', which WIle Saka. 869.

VaA·jCJ'l.l,B Read.ings. .

'" MS. Coll., and S. q 1 as in my text; W. P., 1:ijQlljtlvi. hdsl.-6l lIS. Coll., HMMrvali,la: S. C. and W. P., a.s in my text.- :MS. Coll. lind S. C., I!.S in my ten; W. P., VOlj.tM(.ZP.~.£Jjl.-" MS. CalLand S. C., paA"initai; W. P.,

liB in my ten. .

.. Tlie name of II people who lived in Band@lkhnl)4. :Mr. Garrett, in his Olassicat Dictiona.rYI sub voce 'Ch~. dya,i, spesks of the country of Chedi, 'which is usually considered liS Cha.n.dail, on the \vest of the J1IIlgie ma.b.AlS, towards NAgpftr. It is known in times subsequent to the Pllol'41!4s as-'Ra.Qastambha." But he does not give his authority for the latter statement.

of C h ~ d i", the daughter of king La k s h. . m a 1]. a, possessed of ([food) character that was commended."


Sutam=iva Vasud~vad=D~vaki Vaso'dovarh

Guham=iva Girij=api d~vam~'=

.A.rddMrhdo'mauI~1;t I Ajanayad=atha

Borhthadevy'6=ata9 Taila.bhilparh vibha,vlJ,· vijita,.Sakrarht7 Vikra.m~ditya-Dllmnal;t II Ari.· kurhbhi. knzabha- bMdana.· ripu- durgga.. kavil~a.bl:iaIiljanll-prabhritil;t I Sahaja-ba.!asya Ha.r~r= Iva bala.krig=ilbhavad=yasya " Kirh eha. I Rlish~rako.~ku!a.4S.r.i.jya·samba.dd.ha v = ubhaO,"& I U rjjityach = charal]h := iva'O prachalitau sakshilt=KalU!;t krllma.ta.I;l krUrau baddhar-sarirakau gum-jans-dreha, prar6ha v= iva. I raj- aikharhQita. 01_ rush~raku~a.ka.-kula.-sri· valli-jat-arhknrau hlnau y~na sukMna Karkara.raJ}.a.-stambhau~s ralJ.a-prarhgal}e II Ittharh

pura Diti.-sutair=iva bMta-dMtrlrh yo

Rash~raku~a.-ku~i!ail'=gga.mit"m=adha.stat I Uddhptya. Madhava iv=ihli-~arilha-rilpo ba.b~ Cha.!ukya-ku!a-va11a.bha-ruja-lakshmlrh II HiiJ]& OS_ pr!b;lahara-praMpa-dahan6 yatra-wsan··mara val} Chaidya.ehehhildy=akhi!& 55 -kshamajaya,.nayt;t.-vyutpanna-vir-Otka4a.Q.55 I y&.=atyugra.-raI}.-8gra.-darsita-b$-prllchnryya - saul'yyodayaq karagara-nivMitag, kavi-vpsha yam"' val'1J.~aya.n=ghill'lJ.-q.ate II Brahm&-Har-Abhad $8= abhavad=bhUpalad=Rashtraku~a,.ku!a,.ti!akilt I Lakshmil.'=iva salila-nidhel; Sri-Jt1kabb-ahvayt1u kanyu ~I Chlilukya,valils-urhbara-bhUnumll!i Sr1- Taila,.bMplila npayo.t=a.inil.m I Tayos=cha lok-abhyudaytiya yoga!;t sach·chalhdrikiiehazhuramaslir=iv=asit·1I

V""iol~ ReadilOYS •

•• MS. ColL, Gil'ij&llIiwJw,TJI ; S. C., Girij'lmil'daNtll; W. P., as in my text.-·· MS. Call. a.nd S. C., as in my text; W. P., I'QJhtMilt.'lvt.-" MS. Call. alld S. C.,·as in my text; W. P., .:iutrulll.-·· liS. Ooll., kili1.l'hi. a.,.attahtr.&; s. C. a.wi W. P., as in my tcxt.-·· 11[8. oeu, sambacl(UId.vyabhall; S. C., su.lj,buildM~l!cM; \Y. P., 8mi.bh~w.u, with nothing !Lfter it.-·O lIS. Voll., atjit!l,j"jclJI.Il"l.llJl1.diva; S. C., jWitylichch",,·,'I!'l;liwl.; w. P., a.s in my text._&l }IS. CulL and S. C., as in my text; W. P., la.lcitkhl"illjita.-GS MS. Coil. and W. P.,

. as in my ten; S. C., Ku.rkaolla,·.'1)4Sta.71IuM.-" MS.

Ooll., dy!17J.Q,; S. 0., cLy8.11Q.; W. P., as in my text . ...:.' •• MS. Coll., 1/Clt,-u.t,·a; S. C., ?/alli'tt<.f1'O; W. 1'., 8.B in my ten.-eo MS. osn, bMd'laJchajlll,YflkT,ij'J.; S. C., bhMy(l.uMtlyakllip; W. P., Ill! In my te:d:._S. MS. Coil., VirMp:da; S. C., viritpalLl1; W. P., a.htrlLtp.(n~a/l.., MS. ColL, niv~<it~kaplJ."ap~!la.l;~; S. C., 8idudital,. X'II1:i:/,l'ip&yuJil; W. P., as in my text.__'· MS. Coli., BhasllllwhararbMd; S. C., BhCIfJL'lI.O.ll11.'1'Q,ttu..~; w, P., Bh.arilbhabharabMJ..__'· MS. ColLI J4k4bllyll.Jh1.va1fa ; S. C., J4kabj4vh~y4; W. P., J.l~a.a11'V4dvay4. The ter. mins.tion of the JIIIUle is undoubtedly abb4, the Ssnsloritized form of the Ca.na.rese (l.VVrJ., "'1I'iI8 • mother', which, like the Sa.ns»rit ambiS, alnoik4, 'mothe;', is a.lIIxed ta proper name. for the lake of l'88~



[JANUARY, 1879.

Trun« aiion,

"Then,--Gs D ~ v a k i brought forth a son, \'8.suuevaco, from Vasud~va, and even ns the DaughterS1 of the mountain brought forth a son, the god Guh a'", from himG? who wears a. portion of the moon on his tiara,-so B 0 n-

t h 11 d th i brought forth, from Vi k ram ad i t ya, a. son, king T a i l a, who surpassed Sit kraft< in power i-whose childhood's play, I he being innately strong as H a r i was, consisted of clearing open the frontal projections on the I foreheads of the elephants whioh were his II enemies, and of breaking through the doors of the forts of his foes ;-And, moreover, by whom were easily cut asunder in the field of battle I the two pillars of warG" of' Ka. r k araGG, which I belonged to the kingdom of the R H. s h ~ t: a - k 'Ii ~ So family, and which, from their great I strength, were manifestly the two feet of K ali stretched out in the act of striding, and which were cruel and firmly knit, and which were the branches of enmity against spiritnal preceptors, and which were the young shoots of the creeper of the fortunes of the R a. s h ~ r a It 11 ~ a. k a fa~ily, (hitherto) unbroken by (any other) kings ;-Who lifted up the royal fortunes of the kingly iavoarites of the C h a ! n kyo. family, which had been made to sink down by the deceitful practices of the R a, s h ~ l' a k u ~ a s, as formerly 1rU d h a. van, in the form of the first boar, rescued thc ea.rili which had been caused to &ink down by the sons ofDitiGSj-Who destroyed the life-destroying power of the H nJ}UCl8j wlio caused the inhabitants of the desel.'ts1o to tremble at his journeying forth; who eradicated the C h a. i d Y a. s u; who subj 0.gated. the brave U t k a ! a SU by all his pa.tience and victory lLnd administrative talent; by whom anyone who possessed an abundance of strength and increase and courage, manifested in the

eo ~ •• PArvatl. os K&rttik~.

.. Ik_ .. Indra.

U Sir Walter Elliot tn.kes ~al)tUta.mbM &.II the name of a pla.ee, and does not tr&nalate K'Jrklll'G at all. :Mr. Wathen takes ~mfllI". 88 well lIB KII'rNril, 88 the na.me of a ~. A -mmlilaa, 'pill&r of war', is the same as 110 JeIrm-ltombM, 'pilla;r of fame'l 'Viii., a column set up to celbbn.te .. rictory. &_na.moM might be the DAIlIe of .. p1aoe, bllt bOt of .. ~n i and the _ is entirely ~ to its beiDp; 1I88Ii ~re as a proper name at all. .

'!'he Kak~ije., or Kakkala.d~ija, of the Ka.rd4 lJbi'a! at JOllr. R. .As. Soc., VoL U~., p.O'" dnted &!ai: 81M . ~the Xakbla of the~~ p1ates at Jour. Bo: .Dr. B.b.~ ... VoL L, p.S09,da.ted &b 930, subIeq~tl to ... ill ",me. it is ~l,. said that he was

brtile ~ king Taila.pL


• The IIothar of the DlitJIII. or ilemOllS.

exceedingly fierce van of battle, was cast into prison; and in describing whom (et7en) the best of poets is driven to his wit's end. ra As L ak s h. m i was (bo)"1~) from the ocean, so from that king, the glory of the Rash ~raku~a family, who resembled Brahml1 and Ha r a, (thel'e was hom) a daughter named Sri-Hka b b r... The king Srt-T a i l a, the Bun of the sky which was the family or the C h a ! n k y a s, married her; and their union, like that of the excellent, moonlight and the moon, was for the happiness of, mankind."


Sd-Taua.-bhUmipa!at . Sri-JAkabbA1•

sama.jija.nat I Srimat-Satyasraya.m Skamdam= AmbikA Tryambakad-=i.va II Vpodvishad.gOtra,itrAsi devo vibndha-saaamatal; I Div=iva bhuvi yo dha.tte sal'VV8r-varJP]a-dbara.m dhann}.l II .A pi oha I Yasya pra.~pa-jvala.n3na. dagdhaq. pra.Tohat=iv=Ari.ga.~asya va.rilsaJJ, [ Bfm,aib. prarilQ.h-amknrs-j~.kalpair=ddisW:b. vijetuI} patbi sarilnivishta,i1;r. II


"From the king S ri.T ail a, S ri·J Aka b ba. gave birth to the glorious Sat y is r a y a ;-&8 Am bi k a 70 (ga'De hiTth to) S k a n da." from Tryamba.ka78 ;-Who, causing trouble to the families of his enemies, and being godlike, and being honoured by learned people, carried on the earth a bow that supported alt castes, just as (IluiTa), who'causes trouble to the cow. pens of his foes, and who is a god, and who is' honoured by gods, carries in the sky a bow" that contains all colours ;-And, moreover, bI. the :f:la.me of whose prowess the family of his enemies was, as it were, burnt up, as he conquered the regions with arrOWB which were like a cluster of young sprouts grown forth, and were gathered together (i'~ dense numbers) on his path."

•• A. people living in BhAn.ta.va.rsha. •

70 The sandy p1n.ius of central a.nd northern India. n The people of CMeli; see note 4,1, u.bove.

,. The people of Orissa..

'" This VE!rse is not altogether satisfactory l but there is n,o.!ull Uansl.a.tion of it by wbiah I might approach more ~=~ to the ori~l text. Mr. W I1then tmnslates, "Who -:,o<vyed the /Uj48 of HfuuL·DJSa. In whose !»'Boise ~ are eOIl$l;antly employed." While Sir Wa.ltor Elliot gI~ :' He likewise humbled Chbla, and many other prmces. '

Vl!I'ious &etmings •

d;.:sl[~. Co~ JWIIJb!l~; S. C., J4ka.~j4; W. P., .J4'krJ.. MS 0;;11. ThiS verse &lid the folloW1llg are Dot m the'

'a Parv:~ s. C. " XArttik~

11 Siva. ,. The rainbow.

JANUARY, 1879.]




Tasy=muja~ Sri·Da8ava.rID.m&-nama tadvaIJ.a.bh& BMgya.va.t=iti dM I Tayor=abhUd= vikrama.-sl!a-saji Sri- Vikr&.llillditya.nppas= taniljal! II Asaa. nija.jyesh~ha.-pituh paroksham ba.bhira vmasi-v~tAm dha.ritrim I Bhuje.na k¥ra . latAm = iv=ochchair = vvidArit - ;hitikadambakena. II Jyaaostn=~v=Achcbha.-SIlnirmmalA niSi. sa.ras-t1reshu haIils-aJq1tih kASa.st6ma.sa.mA saritsu gaga.nA ga.ur·abhra.-v~da.dyutiQ I Ktrttir=yyasya. tad-udyam.ochita&a.ra.ch-chihnByamana. ripun=nityam bhavayat= ittha.m=anya.-samay~=py=a-masa..vidvashil).t II V 1IJ.'lj.J1,-asram8.J1,a.m sthita.y~ sthito=pi yas=ch= akarOd=va.rr;u;la-viS&ha.-hAnim I Sva.-ldrttibhir:: vyapta.dig-aIiltarAbhis=tathapi IOke mahanlya. eva. " Tyag-Mayo yasya gu~al! prasiddhD.l~ samyam=atikramya sadA prav¥ttal! I Y &J). saj.janmam hpdayaui badhva samachakarsha.

sva.-samlpa.-desatil "


" His younger brother was he whose name wasSrl-Daeavarma, and whose wife was the queen named B H g y a vat t Their son WILB the king Srt-Vikrama ditya., who was endowed with the character of heroism. Beyond the sight of his most noble father, he, with his arm which dispersed the ass~mblage of hi a fo~\ lifted up on high the earth, encircled by the ocean, as if it were the thread of a bracelet." His mme,-as if it were the moonlight in the night which is as pure as crystal; or resembling 8. swan on the banks of a. river; or like a. branch of Msa-grass beside the streams; or radiant as a mass of white clouds,becoming the mark of an a.utnmn season suitable for his eJf'ortsa, and continuing its hostility up to the end of 8. (whole) month, always caused his enemies to be thus (in difficll.lti6B), even a.t

Va.rio'llS Readings.

a. This verseJ. as also the two that follow, is not in the MS. Coll a.nd It. O.

., .AJ this epithet might aJso be translated "which dis. pened the hostile Kada.mbahs", there lIIIIy possibly be a pmming reference to the Ka.ds.mbaa.

•• Yr. Wathen imusJB.tes, "This Vikra.mAdityar~a, of his own prowess, suooeeded his 1lI1cle in the go'Vermnent"; a.nd adds, in a. note "Da8s.'I'I.l'IIIi, therefore, was nat king." BuHdonotthmkthat i!l.lI~~itl'i can·mea.n , 1lI1cle.' The mea.nings of jyhM"'" a.re ' elder, senior', '1IIl elder brother', • ohieI, greatest', 1IIld, aa I ta.keit here, 'most exce1lent, moat nable, ~ent.' The sense of the 'Veree obviously is WI the kingdom was threa.tened by some hostile power; thB.t.Vlkrain&ditya 1IlI8 deputed to resist the in_on' a.nd th&t he gained a lietory lit some dia. tint part of the terriWies, and therefore beyond th8 rsnge of sig1l.t of his father. Sir Walter Elliot onfy giveI, "And·

any other time. Though he stood out for the maintenance of the castes and stages of life, he destroyed all distinctions of colour" by his (white) fame which perva.ded all the regions; nevertheless, he was verily worthy to be honoured iII the world. His celebrated qualities ofliberaJity, &0., always surpassed enumeration ; and, having taken captive the hearts of good people,he attracted to himself the country1ying near to him."


Ta.d=anu tasy=annja~ I Ya.sy::AkJriIa.-vyApi ys.Ba=vadAtam=akam4a.-dngdh-ambudhi-v~ddhi. Bamkfu:iJ. I Kar6ti mugdh.Ama.ra.-sumdariqAm= abhUt=sa bhUyo·· Jaga.dAka.ma.Ila~ " S8.d::Avana-

sthsl,t p*·vikra.m.aQhy615 mad·amdha-

ga.mdMbha-gha.~a-vipatl I. Dhar-orjjitaprasphurita-prabMvo rarAja ya=snu Jayasimhar~ja~ II Ya.S1tra, prastdati samasta-ja.ga.oh= c~y~ nyakchakra.r=Amt&ka.m=a.pi kshitipa~ sakopam I Yasm8.n=ma.noratha.-pathAtigam=arttham=artthisamprapya.sa.r:ilsma.ratina. sma Sura.·drllmR'>lam It Agamad=a.kbija.dhAtrl yeDa l'sjanva.t1tvam nivasa.ti nppa.-Iakshmlr= yyasya sllbhr-atapa~ I Sa sakala.-namit-lri. kshO~bhtin-mauli - ra.tna.-dyuti - sulalitaSI_ pAd& gamQaro!-ga.mQ9"·-bhf1pa~ 11 A-doshikarasamgo=pi vin=api sukha.-ddshaJ}.am I SadbMti·bhUsha~6 yas=cha satilprApa. ja.ga.d-

. lSatim II ViSOkhylta.-Krishl].&verJ1.'>l' (?)n_TaiIasnAh.opaIa.bdha.-sa.ra.!a.tva~lol I Kumtaja..vishay& nilarbD.°B viraja~ mallik..Am6da.~ II


" After that, again, there was his younger brother, JagadHamalla.; whose white fame, pervading everything, makes the lovely women of the gods to be apprehensive of Bn unsea.sonable iIlcrease of ilia full·swollen ooean. He is that same king J a. y a s i m h a., W110 is

to them was bOl'll Viknm!dityll, who broke the Btrengt:h of the Ka.da.mbas."

n BeC8iQS6 the :rains would then have cea.eed, a.nel the country would have become pwa.ble &gain. This vene,

however, is l'IIther obs=e. _

a. The pls.;y on words is in t1l&I'I)G, , colour', and 'cute.' VeriO'llS~s.

II MS. Coll.lIIld B. 0.,88 ill. my te:lt I W. P., bk.Qp~. _B. MS. Ooll., ''IIil'l'IJ7IIMY'; 8. 0., tJikTGm&:!!l8; W'g l' 'llik'l'amlSWm8.-It This ferle is not in the MS. Coil.

S. C._s. MS. 00J).. and S.O.,salllUtcI, W. p~ B<IIIwtJ til. _80 MS. Oall and S. C, as in my teD, W. P., gClIII. qa,r02a.md,CI/ _9C1l114l11'oJ ill the Ca.na.rese loa. »1111'. of g~m4C1.-" This verse ~ not in W. 1.-n MS. Co11.,. kris~; S.C, kria~ M8.Coll,1CII'ao ja.taA; ~. C., ~ja.M.-I. MS. CoIL, 'ilWhay4nlrifMlSm; S. 0., 'I/U~8.tlI. .



[JANtrARY, 1879.

gloriotlS, always continuing in protection, ana abounding in skilful valour, and tearing open the frGnt&1 globes of the rutting elephants who are those that are blind with passion, and possessed of great glory which gleams over the world. While he is the protector, the world is calm. and kings treat with contempt even angry Dea.th; and the beggar, having obta.ined from him wealth that Surp8rSRes his wish, remembers not the (plenty-gi1:ing) trees of the gods. 'l'hrough him the whole world has attained the condition of being possessed of a good king j the goddess of royalty dwells in his white umbrel.la j having his feet made beauti£a.l with the lustre 'of the jewels in the diadems of all the hostile kings who hs.ve been bowed down by him. he is a very king of heroes among heroes. .Abstaining, even without obstructing their happiness, from the society of fa.ulty people, and being decorated with good. feeling, he atta.ined the lordship of the world. The district of K u n tala, fragrant with its jasmines, is very gloriotlS, having attained fertilityHo through the moisture'· of the celebrated (rif1llr) K rish1J.lIover1].K, andhonestyH. (on tha part of its inhabi.tams) through the e.fi'ection'l of the celebrated (anlf0rtf£8r king) Tail&." '0

The identity of the two inscriptions ceases at this pomt. The Miraj plates oontinue :-


Sa. tu' m-P!ithnvaUa.bha.-mahArAj-adbirAja.pa;ramMV&'ra- paramabb.a.~m.ka - Satya'rayaku- 1atili!Jm.. B801I1IIoSt.a.bhll va.n8.myv. - Cb.lJ.ukyA bhara.J}&irimaj-Ja,ga.dAka.ma.lla.dAval}. srimad.. Va.llabbana.reuulradeva.l1. ku8aJJ sarvvAn=&va yatbA - sambadhyamAnakAn. = rAsh~pati • viihayape.ti - grama.1t~k - tYllkta.ka. - niyn.ktakldhikArika.-mab.a.tta.r-ad1n=sa.mA.diSaty=asta. val;l aa.xb.vidifam yatb=i.smAbhi4 Saka.-n!ipa-k8.Iltiia· samvatsara - sali&hu nava.su shat. cb.a.tvlrimSad-adhik&hv=a.1hka.t&1;a ~vat 946 Raktlkshi - aa.m.vats&r • amta.rgga.t.a, - VaiBakhap&m'IP}&m9syAm=Aw.ty&vlrA yam Ohalht1rami.1- idhipatilb 'balavalbta.m. ChaIam nirgghib"a sapta..

.. ~tm. .. Bfil1wL

• 'ail _ illIIitlIsr obacme, ud it is not BIllY to aee _ iii it iD.Irod1lD8CL The KJiahQaverQS, or ~TeIJX)i. lIIam. .... here ill iDe lt1mta.la. ~ ~ ia __ "'~" ; andCllllo cumot''Wel1 appl

too .... bat tile GIl that ~ J

It ~ 1ft four of IJlIiaiaIJ, the D&ture of

-- ~ ill !lOt ~ P.mfaar Monier 'WiDiIa ..... ~u tha __ as ~

'1M JaeId.IIiiIJII, or tGe oldeat I11III, of ''fillIce.' Bat tiuI

Kozhkau-adhisvarAI;tAm sarvvasvam gpMtva uttars. :dig - yjjay - Arltha.m KolM(lla P)pura.samipa. - samAvAsita. - nija - vijaya. - skamdhavare Paga.1a.~i-visbay - amtal}.pati - Mudnnira. - grama. • jataya. KauSika-gotraya. Bahv!icha-eakhiyv. bra.hma.chA~ Sr1dhars.bha~~a.·p8utraya RAva1}Aryya.bha,~a-putraya. Vasudevaryya.sarmma,v.e yaja.na-yajan-!di-shat-ka.rmma.nixa.t&ya. vMa-vAdarilga-piragAya. Padadoredvi - sahasr-amtal}.pati - Kara.~ikav.1J.u-triSa.tamadhy& :MB.q.abhdriiro.-gramal}. sSl-dhwya-< hira1J.y-Ad3ya.l}. nidhi-nidhana.-sameta.~ rajakiya.ntm.=a.n.a.mguli.preksha.l;tty~ sa-su1ka1;a sa.rvva.Jmra...b&dhA.pa.ri~ sarvvana.ma.syo= grahQro datta.l;l II


"He, the glorious J agade ka m a l Ia d h a, the glorious V a l l a b han arendra, de v a,the favourite of the .world., the great king, the supreme king, the supreme lord, the most wor· shipful one, the glory of the family of Sat y As ray a, the asylum of the universe, the Ol'll&ment of the ChAlukyaa,- being in good health, thus informs all those who are concerned, (viz.) the lords of countries, the lords of districts, the hea.ds .of villages, the J.yuktakas, the Niyuktahas, the Adkikdlrika6. the Mahattaras,r, and others:'Be it known to you that,-in nine centuries of years, increased by forty.six, (or) in figures, the year 946, in the years which bad expired in the era. of the Sa.ka kings, on the day of the full moon of (the month) V a. i sa k h lit in the Ra k t A k s hi Bo.7Iwatsfl'ral8, on Sunday, -at Onr victorious oa.mp which, after warring against the mighty C hoI a, the supreme lord of (thll city of) C han d ram il a, and. after taking the property of the lords of the Seven Koilka,1].8s'9, islooated near (thetity of) K 0 Ih a p n r &100 for the purpose of conquering the northern country'-the villa.ge of Mad a.. bhilrnru, in the Kara.~ik&~I).u Threehnndred which lies in the Pa,4I1odoreTwo-thou. saud., bas beengiven by Us, with its grain and gold and o.rUya101, and with its deposit of treasure, and not to be po41ted at with the :finger- (oJ confisca.-

~1I1Ua1l08 are evidentlJ xefer.red to here as distinct from the lCeMttaf'IU.

.. By the Ttsblft in Brown's (7anIQ.fic CJMOM109'll. Sa.b.

Me 11&1 the RaktAbhi aamootaMrJ.

Ii Or ... of the l18Ven lords of the ~IIII."

lOG This ia the modern form of the name. The orlg:iDB.l ...... be,l. .... has • Ko1l&pma', 'Which is the a.ncient fonJl, loUd fI Uedin insorlpti.cms of even la.ter da.te thr.n thia.

101 A. teolmicaJ. tem., thept()p8L' ~ of 'Which ia DOt clea.:. Profeaaar ~ WiIliaimI a:pIaiDs it, from 44,

J'utrAl!.Y, 1879.]



ticm) by the king's people, a.nd with its customsduties, and attended by (ezempUcm frr:wn,) all tues a.nd opposing claimslOI, a.nd as a.n entirely rent-free103 agrah4ra,.grant, has been given by Us to V AsudhbyllohrmA, who wasOOrn at the village of Mud un Ira in the district of Pagala~i; who is of the KauSika g8tra; who is of the Bah v ~ic h a Bdkhrt; who is a. religious student; who is the son's son of Sridh&n bha.Ha. a.nd the son ofRha~8.rya.bhaHa.; who is intent npon the six rites of sa.crifioing, and ca.usingsa.crifices to be performed, &0.; and who is well versed in the Vedas and the V8d411gas.' "

The rest of the inscription consists of a description of the bounda.ries of the village, a.nd of the usual benedictive and imprecatory verses.

At the end come the words:- .


Srimad.rAjAdb:irAja-r!jachAQ!m.a.~l,1. srtma.j~ Jayasimha.dAvasya da.ttiI}. II SAsan-!dhikAri-mahAprachamQa -dalilQa,nAyaka -srtmat -PrOl}Aryyapratibaddha-lAkhaka-:Maia.yyAna. likhitaJiJ. II M.a.mgaJam mahA-,rt-arl·srl II


"The gift oftheglorions supreme Jring of Jrings, the most excellent of kings, the glorious J fIIy asi'mhadha. Written by MAiayya., the writer att80hed to (the offioe of) the most impetuous Leader of the forces, the glorious Pr a~! ry a, who is entrnsted with the authority of (ismin.g) charters. (May there be) prosperity sad great good fortune!"

At the same point, the YAwt1r tablet continues with the genealogy :-


Tatal,1 pra.tAp-ojjvaJa.na.prabbAva-nirmmUla.Icirdda.gdha.-virbdhi- vaJhSa4 I Tasy=atmajalJ, palayitl dharAyAJ,t Sr1mAn=a.bl.!ud= AhavamalladAvaQ. II Mamga1am II .AtmlvastbAna..hAtar=a.bhilasha.ti. sa.dA mamqalam MA18;v~ dOIam. tBItvan_AmtAny=a.nusa.ra.til06 sarhmAtha.-kUlAni . Ch6!8.1}. I KanylkubjAdhirAja bhajati oha taras' kamda.ra.-sthAnam.10"=

Ader=uddam6 yat-pra.t8pa-p~bha.ra.-bhay. MbMti-vibhrAmta-ohittal,1. II .A.mnAnalOll·Ta.ila.gul}.l10 - Samgrs.h8lpl. - pravriddha - Mj& • viS&!ha. - da~ta-dvisha.d..a.ndha.kAra.l) I Amdh-irttatAm sa.manusritya 101 lia. vi· prsdhAnair=yya1.l prachyaW .:nanu Chalukya-ku1a-pradipal,1 II NA.mn=AV=iti-chalamIOB dvishan.m!iga.-kw.am vibhrAmsyalOU tej&-dh.ik&i ratnair=a.-sphuritamllO pur! Gajaps.t@s=tan--nisa.yitvA 1Xladalil. I Tu.lb.gAnAm.=aVllolll"bhptam=a.nudinam • . • . . .

. • • . . . . • • . • • • . • • •• preps. . Sri-

JayasiJhha.1U.na.xb.da.na. iti khyA.~ aha. ya1;t. prastnMm II JAtv=aty-aynkt-.A.Ji:tta.kajalll_ .prabhAva.-nirmmf4a,n-MdA.ma.-b$sya y&IIy& I Vir8.jate nirjjita.-MinakM&r=dd&vasya. Cb8!ukyama.h~varatvam II


CI Then the proteotor of the earth was his SOIl, the glorious.A. h a v a m all a de 'I" a, who entirely destroyed the family of his enemies by the power of the radiance of his splendour. (May it be) auspicious! Having his thoughts distracted by excess of fear a.rising from the burden of the putting forth of his prowess, the lord of M Alava is ever in q~est of a. territory in which to establish himself; a.nd Ch a la, in a state of doubt, bef:a.k:es himself to the banks of the ocean, edged with groves of palm-trees; a.nd the king of KanyAkubja, who was uncontrolled from the begimrlna-, quickly experiences a.n abode a.mong the caves. Having destroyed the darkness which was his enemies by the excess of his brilliance which was increased by his acquiring through tradition the virtuous qualities of (thB former king) T ai I a, he is properly called ' the torch of the family of the C h a ! uk y a s' by eminent poets, who had fa.llen into the condition of being distressed by the darkness. Having ca.used to disappear, as if'by (the mere men.ticm of h,i&) name, the herd of the deer which were his enemies, vfJry swift (in. the aot offlsBing),-a.nd having, with jeWels abounding in brilliance, destroyed the fury of G aj a po. tillB, which had not been manifested ~fore,--a.n.d having. • • • . • • • . . . •



[JANll'ARY, 1879.

_~===============T================= n. of eminent kings,-he acquired the re- the water-lily that grows in the navel of the

D.owned appella.tion of' the son of S r i-J a y a- god Vis h 1]. u, it states that, among the Chi,· s i ta h a,' He, the godlike one,whosestrength !ukyas, who were born in his family, there was irresistible in subverting the power of the wa.s king T a i I a, whose Bon, (omitting Sat y lexcessively ill-behaved. son of AntakallS, Braya) was Dasavarma. His son was having conquered him,UG who bears (the BlI~· Vi k ram a, to whose yo~ brother, J aya· blem of) a. fish npon his banner,-his condition simhavalla. bh a, king Ah a va. m all a was of being the great lord U1 of the C h a ! n k y as born. His sons were S 0 m e s v a r a and

is glorious." Kali·Vikrama, or 'the brave Vikrama.'

TBflt. There is then given, at some length, the genes-

Tasmid=ajAyat& jagaj-janita-pramoiia4 logy of R a v ide va, or R a vi y a1J, a b h a~ ~ a

srimgRra-vtra.-rasikal.t kavi-loka-kAmtA1,1. I as he is also called, by birth a: BrAlu:na.l} of the

Kamta -vilo!a-nayan -otp&1a. -cUm -chathdra.8= K a s y a. p a gotra; and it is recorded that he

Chl!ul.-ya-vaIilSa-tija.ko Bhnvanailramalla1;l. II oansed a certain NAg a v a r ~ Ii to build a

TralulaUon. temple of the god S v a y a. lit b h u-S i v a at the

"From him was hom Bhuvanaik'a.- villa.geofE'hur.llS Then come the grants to m So 11 a, the ornament of the C h a ! n k y a this temple :-

lineage,-who produced the happiness of the Tezt.

world; who was characterized by love and Swsti . Sama.sta-bhuvan-asraya.m art-

bravery; who was dear to poets; and who was prithvlvalla.bha .ma.harilj-adhiraja-para.mesva.ra.as a beautifal moon to (caus8 to open into para.ma.bha.~~ara.ka.m. Satyasraya.-ku!a.-tijakam

blogsom) the water-lilies which were the tremu- Chil!uky-n.bha.ra.l}.am srimat-Tribhuvana..

Ions eyes of his mistresses." malladevara vijaya.-rajya.m.=ntta.r-8ttar-abhi-

After this the copy in the MS. Collection vriddhi- pravarddham6.nam = a·chamdr • Arkka.a.nd the Second Copy differ so hopelessly, and tAra.rit baralit salllttam = ire Kalyap.a.da. ~eleeach is so nnpresentable by itself, that I vtQin.o}=Bukha-samka.tha-vinOdadirit rAjya.m. ca.nnot any further reconstruct the text in s. geyyuttam=ire I Rbh~ra.pa.ti.vishs.ya.pa.ti. readable form. There is one more verse in praise grama.ku~a.k - aynktaka - niyuktak - adhikarika. - of B h u van 8. i k a m a 11 a., and then four ma.hattar-ldi-samma.ta.d.im Svasti srlmllA)hin praise of his younger brother Vi k r a. m a.. Oha!ukya- Vikrama.- varshada. 2neya. ~ Pimgala. d it y &, also oaUed T rib h u V 8. n a. m a) 1 8.; they samva.tsa.rada Srava.~pa.IlrJ}J}a.mAsi AdityavB.r8. do not 800m to contain a.ny historical allusions. abma.-gra.ha.J}a.-m.a.hA-parvva.-nimitta.dilit pala.vllm The Sanakrit portion of the inscription termi. mab.6.-dlnamga!am ko~ftl dBna.-ktladol srimannates here, and is followed by the words:- ma.MpradhAna.til hm-la!am salitdhi·vigrahi 1416 ~cfmra..u.alladol = irdda OM/ukUll-en,akra.- datilganayaka.m Ra.viyal}abha.~~ra binnapa.dim 'IIattifgGla N)i1iGd1l .,.djymh-geyil.=arasuga!a 'faj. avar=~Q.isida. 1lli&mllO Sri.Svayambh1l- 4fH* ; i.e. "This (is) the royal genealogy, which devargge gamd.ha.dhupa.-dipa.-naivedy.A.dywas in a copper-p1a.te charter, of the kings, who archcha.na.k:kath khamda.. sphn~ita. jir""llexe:rcised dominion, oftha lineage of the OhA. Oddhi.ra.-nava-slldhakarmma.k:ka.m pavuJa,1I1_ I uky a emperors." varggakkath v&(8)duva. kAtva. 'Vidyartthi-

Then commences the Oanarese portion. After tapMha.nara ohhlttra.ra 111 aian-

a T8!'Il8 invoking a. blessing on a Leader oftha AchchhAdanakka.m avargge va(o)khkhal}isuva

fol'ClllS, JIII.ln8d R av i d 6 va., it reverts to and bha.~~gam Chaitra· pa.vitr-Abhyagat-i.di..

recapiiuJa.t.es pa.rt of', the genealogy. S~ pUjega.lga.rit sa.tbkrAmti-grahat}.-Adi-pa.rvva.

wi\h the god B 1'8 h m A, who was born from h&na-bali-kriy·3.diga!garit Bri.hma.1J,.Adi.dln •

.: ~~ ill the teD are ~le here. see

1M ... ~ _GDC DImad Dma !D.1ISI; be aJlu.aed ~tt.t~~~ who is ceriaiDI.)' zefened to :"1IiIl to be the::-fo!I.d PIO~ here also, is lOme.

_ • ~ Of DlIumI" u.. ;e.ma, ~.Aniab.:

.UlepitW~X~~ iiIh-buaDarecr, u

11' Ma.h~. There is also a.n alllloeion to the de. ~n of KAJQ8.dba. by Ha.hHvara, or IIi.,..

,.:_~ This is the form of the na.me here in both oopiea. ... "., metre ahowa tha.t the tim Bylla.ble is long.

VlM'ioua ReacUng ••

111 MS.OolL, Mn1I4Zt1; B. 0., .. in my text.-UO MEl, Con., 1"6~; S. 0., 1i\1arG._Ul MS. Con., .. in ml ted; S. C., p4vrJp._UI !'lS. OolL, I~; S. 0., ci\M-

JA.NU.6lI.Y, IS79.]



hAtba-samtarpp8J}ak:kam=agi aJliyalll acbAryyarll6 = Elem~Iasilnhapa.da 115 nmamqa1iya MaIiyAtapa.mqitadevara. Bishya.r=:Mmirimjiya.lU Obikka.devara. prasishyar=appa. ~1mat(j)JwaraSipamq.itargge dhtra-p1irvvakaril maqi ko~a Nariyumbotey=erppatta,r.a.U7 baiiya Kiriya-Benumba~~eya. poIs.d-o!ag=Eiaraveya. tlrtthada. gaq,izilbada.l Ravtara.-Mallana poIs.dO!U8=a!edu bi~~ kariya nee matt.a.r= innllr-ayvattull'lI


" Hall! While the vietorioua reign of the glorious T rib h u v a. n a mall a d e v a,-the asylum of the mriverse, the favourite of the world, the great king, the supreme king, the supreme lord, the most worshipful one, the glory of the family of Sat y is ray s, the ornament of the C h a I u k y a s,-:-wa,s flourishing with perpetual increase, (80 as to endure) as long 1141 the moon and sun and stars (might laBt), and while he was ruling, with the delight of pleasing conversations, at the capital of K a 1 y Ii. J]. a,-with the consent of the lords of countrieslllO, the lords of districts, the heads of villa.ges, the Ayuktakas, the NiY'l/lkta1cas, the Adhikttrikas. the MaMttaras, and others,-Haill,-a.t the time of making gifbs, after the bestowal of certain great gifts on account of the great festival of an eclipse of the moon on Sunday, the day of the full-moon of (the month) S:r.AvaJ].a of the Pingala 8o"h:"atsara, which was the second of the years of the glorious Chi!ukya Vikumal81,at the request of the glorious Great Minister, • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 138, the officer for peace and war, the Leader, of the forces, R a vi y a t;t a b h a ~ ~ a.-there were given, with libations of water, for the god S r t-8 v a y a mb h il of ~h u r, whose temple lie had caused to be built, to the holy J na n a r as i p 8.1]. q. ita.

tra.1'!I.._lt8 MS. Coll. omits from 8Ill'll.ulbllt. down to cdlNfa., mclUJive.-"· MS. oen, bra"l1vma.ch"""u~r; S. C., as m my t.en.__t.. MS. Coll., Aitll.1wupiUW i MS., simMpi11'fl.-'M MS. Coll., nshy«m1.nlh;Ata. ; S. C., sishymlfljaya..-'" MS. OolL, a.T'IIo17lltta.ra.; S. 0., onJIltta.ro.._lOI MS. Coll., 88 in my text; S. 0., pjl1eyol. _"'1 MS. Con., ma.tto::wim~ttu ; S. 0., ma.tta.ra.ntl.

t'lI!/vatW. • 0 C

IJIO TheseDamea ofoflicialB, so 1Illusual m II.ll Id ~.~

inscription, are m themselves strong P~ th&t the M~ pl&.~ are the principal8011rCe from which the Y4wftr m· acrimou 'W1IoII dmWII up.

lil-By the Ta.b~8 in Brown's Ol1h'7lAfM C1wono1ogy, the

Pin-Ia. BolllwMBMG wa.s Sam 999.

-UlHtfn.Z4h or hirl.t4la.; JDADiDg not mown. The

. ,

the AcMhJla of that place the disciple of Maliya~apal].4itadev'a of Elem@las i m hap ado n m a I':I(~ 801 i, 8!ld the' disciple's disciple ofCh i kk8od~ v a of l!irinji138, two hundred and fifty matiars of black-soil land, measured by the gar;limba18• of the sacred place ofE! a r Ave, in the field ofRa ttar a-Y all a in the lands of (the 'Village ~i> K i !' i Y aBe! ! u m ba~ t e which is near to185 the N a r iy u iii b o] elSS Seventy (?),-for the incense and the lamp and the perpetual oblation and the other forms of worship, and to ~pa.ir whatever may become broken or torn or worn-out through age, and for renewing the whitewash, a.nd for . • . . . . • . . . . . . • • .ur, and to provide food and clothing for the stUdent-ascetics and the pupils who read and listen (to tl/,Q,t wh.ich is read to them), and for the Bhajl£18 who preach to them, and for the Oh.aiira and the Pa'lYitro, sad ~e entertainment of guests ~nd the other l'ltes, and for the Mma and the bali and other offerings at the time of the passage of the SIlO, and 'at eclipses and at other festivals."

The rest of the inscription is taken up with the other details of the grants, and with the ttsua.l benedictive and imprecatory verses.

No. LI.

~ writing the a.bove paper, I found in the ~llio~ ~S. Co~ection, at Vol. I., p. 326, another mscnption which, though it does not make the same acknowledgment as the Y~wUr tablet, must have been founded in the same wayan the Miraj plates and some other eopper-plate grant. It is on a. stone-tablet on the right side of the image in the temple of the god V t r a b h ad r a. at Ah1r in the Ga.dag TAlukA of the Dharwaq District. It is another inscription Qf th.e Western Ch~lukya. king VikramAd 1 t Y a. VI., and 18 dated in the sixteenth year of his reign. the P raj A pat i 8alhvatsara, i.e.

first part: 0'£ th~ w~!d is pr'lb&bly h3ri. as in 11. 12.13 of theKAdar611 _ption &t Vol. I., p. 141; aad it '!My be thasa.m.o word 88 II'fIl'JlIl, • husband master.

1:sa The modern lfiraj. • •

11 ~ This muet be some standard measure l but I C&Illlot obtain &!If clue to the e~tion of it. On eu.mining a ole81w photogra.ph of M830r Dizou'. No. 105, lIublished &t Vol. IV., p.278, I find that the readi.n2 in n. 15.16 should be $ri.~ml81Ja.ra..MtIa.I"IJ ga4imbQM IPI"ya. ; the text and tra.UlIla.tion should be corrected accordiJigly, and note t . ~. S79o, should be cancelled

111 Ba.Jiyc. •

~~ se, • (the Yillage of) the meam of the jacul.'

. P4WJa..va.rgga."kcm, or pa.vala"'I.'Mgga.Ucm; mean.

Ulg not known.



[JANUARY. 1879.

Baka 1013 (A.D. 1091.2). and also in the fortyninth year ofhis reign, the K r a d h i 8a!lWatsaTa, i.e. Sa.ka. 1046 (.u. 1124-5). The MS. 001- lection copy of this iDseription does not enable me to improve any further on my version of the lfiraj plates and the Yewur tablet. It will, however, be nsef!ll and convenient to give here an abstract or its contents.

The opening verses a.re arranged rather differently. First comes the verse Jayaty=4uish- 1crit4th V'IBk!'k'ir, &c .. ; then the verse 8riyam= "'paAaratdb:t;al}, &C. j then the verse Karima· kara-makCl'l'ik-dtilkita, &e., in pra.ise of T ri b h nv ana mall ajand thenthevel'Se Namtl8=ttMilga-, Birai-M""h'bi, &e., followed by the words HariHfIt'a.-HirG1}yagarbbh4ya "1.a71l.CO~.

It then continues, in just the same way as the Yew tablet, with but few verbal clliferences. and repeating most of its mistakes, from BfH.J8ti Bamasta-bhmllma-sauist-D!gamd.nfl,.Md.'1I4VYo, .saunIr4¢,h, down to flicUf'it..ar6~i-kada,hbak6",a in the description of~ ik rama d i ty Qo V.; except that it omits the verse Hu.!'fJ-Pf'd.!'flhara-pratd.padall1cn8, &0. in the description of T ail a n. The verses eoncerniDg N a 4. a mar i and A 4 it Y a v a. r m a 0C0Ul' with. precisely the same mistakes as in the MS. CoJlBction copy of the Y&wUr fBblet.

In the- description o! J a. ya. 8 i m ham., it gives only Tad=aH to.sy=ll.",'Uj4 followed by the verse Bad=8varuwtkal,., &C. The other verses are omitted.

In the description of A. h a va mall a. or Sam6ivaraL, it gives only the verse Patt4 prGiilp-8jjealo.fUI, &C.

The oDlf verse descriptive of B h u van a i k am a 11 a ar Sam & 5 v ar a n., is 1J!aamid--ojayaW jagllj';'ittJ, &c.

Tn the description of V ik ra mAd i t Y a VI., there are hhe same four verses as'in the Yh&- iahlst ; bu.t even this freab version of them doea DOt 8II&ble me to make Ollt .the text with.· arq appraech to 8OO'Irr8CY'

Then,~the wordalciut4trwtWlsMUJdol= infdc, A, it winds up the genealogy with the .... .,..,t, partly in the Oauanae aDd parf;ly in *lie &makrit ~.:r~_ i.ud .. 1~~1._

• _......., """""!S........r very much

lDiDd tip. B~~~r4i:ldkir6ja-

pa.,am&Nara,h paramabkana.,aJcath B~I1.BrayfS. lmla-tilakalh Okit!uky.abka,ra~lh fNmat-Pnohw'UQ,fI,(Jmallad6va~ kma!, 8anJf1I1.~G gatha-sambadhyaml1.p,akd..", .'1'ash!rapati-'Oishayapati-g.,l1.maku.. !ak..flyWctaka-niyuktak-Ukikarika-maha.ttOll'-ddi", 8amddiSaty=asflu 'Val} s~;ilfJid.itati1. yatk=dsm4bhi~ 1'4j- dval';' 8amt1pta, i.e. "The glorious T rib h nvan a mall a d ~ v a,-the Bvourite of the world,

. the great king, the supreme king, the supreme lord, the most worshipful one, the glory of the family of Sat y a s r a. ya., the ornament of the o h A ! u k y a s,~being in good health, thus informs all those who are concerned, (viz.) the lords of countries, the lords of districts, the heads ofvilla.ges, the .J.yuktakas, the Niyuktakas, the .J.dhik4rikas, the Mahattaras, and others, that, The royaJ geneaJ.ogy has been ,finished by Us."

The rest of th~ inscription is in Old Oanarese, with the occasional use of Sa.uskpt iIdleetions in the first record of grants, as if the writer of the inscription had by him for reference some ,unapawG, or I deed of gifl;,' drawn up in the Sans]qit language. The first record of grants is dated at the time of the sun's commencing his progress to the north, on Thlll'Sday, the twelfth day of the bright fortmigbt of the month Pushya. of the Prajapati 8I.&m'Vatsara, which was the sixteenth of the years bf the glorious OU i ] u k ya king V ik r am a., while the victorions camp was located at the 1'ajtiraya, or I capital' ,-i.e., probably, at the city

, of K al y A JiI. a in the Dekkan. It sates. that two hundred .",i'l1artam.as on the north of the Tillage, and other porln.ons of land, at the agt'ahdra-village of M A I a. d.A 1 d r in the M As a. v A Q i One-hundred-aud.forty, were given to M ah A d&vayyana yaka, a. Bhal#" of the Vas ish ~ h a goWa" for the rites of the temple of the god Traipurushal", during the governmentl'" of R a v i y a. \l a b h a. ~ ~ a., the glorious IDgh :Minister,. • • . • . . • • . • . • • • • • • 160, the officer far peace and war, the Leader of the forces ; and that the two-hDlldred MaMjl.&fUI8, headed by the Urogeu.l, althe'Village of II A I a d.A.I t r, gave certain grants of gadydf}U of gold and certain lands into the trusteeshipl" 0:( Suragiy.a.-MahAdhay-

JANUARY, 1879.]



ya nAy a k a, for the purposes of the gramakhya or I village-rites.'

The second record. of grants is dated. at the time of the mahd-smii'kTamatla, or the sun's oommencing his progress to the south, on Sund&y, the day of the full-moon of the month S r A val}. a of the K r a d h i salRvatsara, whioh was the forty-sixth of the years of the glorious ChA!ukya king Vikrama. It st:a.tes that while the Leader of the foroes,

S uragiya-Pe rpt A IJ.iyaras a, was governing at :M: A ! a d-A 1 ft r1U, the two hundred Mahdj'anas, headed by the. Uroq,e, of the agrah~ra-village of :M: a 1 a d-A I fl r, which was a grant of the glorious J II. n a m & jay s., built a ma,yapa for the god T r aip ur us ha.-S are. sv a b ; and gave cerbain grants of gadyapa8 of gold and oert:a.in lands into the trnsteeshipl" of Suragiya-PermAIJ.iyarasa, for the purpose of the grama-7cIlrya or I village-rites.'



The long-continued animosity and oontests between the kings of these two dynasties are matters of history. It would almost seem as if there were 80mething in their origin, as implied in an expression to be notioed further on, whioh rendered them mutually inimioaJ. Iudeed I Chalukya' has a suggestive resemblance to the Greek name I S e leu k e i a, , while the P all a va.s have been desoribed1 as P a h 1 a vas, denoting a Pel'Sia.n. origin, and as Skythians.· It is true the C h a.- 1 n k ya s olaim a very oiroumstantial Hindu descent; but, from inscriptions recently published, the question arises whether it may not have beeu adopted from the K a dam bas, whose dominion was probably the wealthiest and most extensive which the C h al uk ya s ·supplanted. Of the' Pall a. vas, sufficient is not known. But, apart from any such hypothesis, there were abundant reasons to account for a state of continual hostility between the two powers. The following insoription contains so many new and interesting details in regard to the sllbjeot. that the above seemed an appropriate heading under whioh to publish it.

The object of the inscription is agrant by the Chalukya king K tr t t i-va. r m m a II., and it is. dated not only in the Sa.ka era, but in the year of the king's reign, thus fixing the date of his accession, and, by consequence, the termination of his predecessor's reign :-points, as far as my information goes, not before known. It also clears up the doubt as to whether Vi k r amAdHya's snocessor was his son Kirtti·

va. r m m a, or his nephew of the same name. These bits of iuforma.tion alone would give the inscription value. But it is in oonnection with the yet little known P a II a v a. 8, that it supplies details which seem to :ne of chief interest. '

The grant is engraved in Ha.!e Kanna~ chara.cters on five copper plates (91 in. by st in.), seoured in the usual way by a metal ring, bearing a 'lJarilha or boar (It in. by 1 in.) on the seal. 8 The language throughout may be described as high Sa.nsk¥t, and it is generally free from inaccuracies. The date is Bah 680 (A..D. 758), the 11th year of the king's reign, thus giving us A..D. 747 for the end of the reign of'V'ikramAdityaIT., and the beginning of tha.t of Kirt t i-va rm In a n., who makes the grant. This consists of a gift of certain villages in the Pan u Ii gal distriot (the modern HangaJ, in DhllrwicJ) to a Brlhmal}. named MAd h a v a.-s a. r m m a, on the application of Sri-Do sirAj a, apparently the local ohief or ruler.

The origin of the C ha I ukya (here ChanInkya) family being desoribed in the nsua.l manner of their early inscriptions, the first king mentioned is P a u I a k e s i, who is stated to have performed the horse-sacrifice. His son Klrtti-varmma was the subdu81.' of the kings ofVanav A s i, i. e. the Ka dam bas. Next comes S a. t y AS r a. y a, who gained viotories on simply riding forth alone on his horse Chitrake.l}.~ha, and who defeating H a rsha.-varddhana, the king of all the north, thence took' the title of ParOAneivartl, which,

• Gauer..! 01lDllingham, ArcMlol.BIp. 'fOL m. Po'.

a It was shown to me in Vokb.l~ri, about thlrtymilM north·east of ~re, by .. man "ho had booa'ht it for /O'UII' G7J.M8 of .. r&i1&t "ho found it while diggiDg._lleIe, 1 could not lllcertain.



[JAWJ.Bl', 1879.

as well as the surname Sat y il. Sr a. y a, is adopted by all the succeeding kings.

'V ikrama di ty afollows,·"ho smites down the kiv.gs of Pa ~ Qya, Cho [a, Ker 8! a, and K a ! a. b h r a. a With him commences the :6xst notice of the P all a '\" a s,-according to the inscription, till then unconquered. For he is said to have forced the king of KAnch~ "who had never bowed to any man", to lay his crown at his feet. This must have been at the end of the Gth century.

Vinayadity&, his son, succeeded. He, it is said, captured the w~ole army of T r a ir i j ya (Pallava), the king of Kiln e h t; levied tribute from the rulers of Ka ver a, Para Bika, S i m h II. I a, and other islands; and by churning all the kings of the north acquired the P8lidln;aja, and immense wealth. The island of Silbhala. must be Ceylon, while Kavera, if meant to be described as an island, I can. only guess may be some island on the K averi (a. derivative from Kavera), such as Srimilgam, SiVIJ.Bamudram, Serings.patam, or some other; bul; the intervention of P A. r as i k a, a well.known name for Persia, between the two, makes it doubtful whether the term • island' is to be applied to more than S i m h a l a. The geography here seems rather uncertain, but it is strange to :find a P h a. s i k a in thiB connection, unless indeed the PaIl a v a B, reo taining the tradition of a supposed Persian origin, should have given the name to some isla.lld in the south. The churning of all the kings of the north implies a. large range of conquests. But among the trophies of these victories is the PIl{i-rlhvaja, or flag, which is several times mentioned in the succeeding parts of the insaription. This term is quite new to me, and I have met with no e:rplana.tion or it,' unless Pili is the well·known name of the sacred 1augoage of the Buddhists, and is equivalent to Buddhist. The word: is spelt here with the heavy fa. of Kanna4., a letter which, it appea.rs,' oocurs in Se.nsk!it only in the Vedas.

If it be the name of the langnage above men· tioned, we may suppose that the banner, from its designation, bore some legend or motto in Pi.li -perhaps the Buddhist fo1'ID.ula of faith.

In the next reign, that ofVijayitditya, were apparently completed tbe conquests his grandfather had made in the south, and those his father had made in the north. By the latter victories were obtained the following regal trap hies :-the G a. iI g A, Yam II n A, and Pillidhvajapala, the great q,hakkd. drum, rubies, and lusty elephants. Further on the Pd./i.iJ,hvaja is again mentioned as one of the chief insignia of this king. With it are now assooiated, as it appears, the Gail g a and Yam un' fla.gs, which are quite as difficult to account for.

With VikramA.ditya. n. we are brought to close quarters with the Pailava s, Soon after his coronation (A.. D. 738) he resolved to uSES the whole powers of the kingdom, now at his disposal, to root out the Pall a v a. s, the obscnrers of the splendour of the former kings of his line, and prakrity.amitrasya, • by nature hostile, ~ an expression to which I have r.d'arred at the beginning of tbis·paper. Vi k ra. m' d i t ya, by a. rapid movement, got into the U d a k a. district, whioh, it seems, must have been in. the Pallava territories, though whether it is a name or a descriptive term is not clear. Here he encountered the enemy, and in the battle which took place slew the Pall a va king, whose name was Nan diP 0 h·v arm milo, I and captured the following trophies :-his lotus-mouthed trumpet, his dram called 'Roa.r of the Sea,' his chariot, standard, immense and celebrated elephants, together with his collection of l't\bies which by their own radiance dispelled all darkness. t The victorious C h a I n k ya next made a triumphal entry intoK !'ii. e h 1, thaP a. 11 a va. capital, which he re£rain.ed from plundering. Here he was struck with admiration at the scnlptures of the city. These, we a.re told, consisted of statues in stone of R a. j a-s i m h e 8 v ar a and other d6f1fJkuZ~ which had been made ("~4pita) by

caontriu : after him mau)' men a.re ua.med. Rill me.. after whom 80me WOIIIen are IUIDIed, are called GlUlpmlDa 8Dd Pol&bmma or Poleramma. Thalllll.llllwer to Panch and J'udJ." ~!IJBore. Potappa ~ rep1'eIeII.ted ... a IIWl with a .lWOm ~ C!II8 1!and, and a b_1:dfalo'8 head in the other. H1811gure 18 mftl'laobly placed m. the temples of DhanDa lUJa. the obief object of worship tmIODg the TiaaW! a oM

of ,cultivators froni the Tamil ClOIlIltr,-. . ,

The temple at P a ita d kal, in KaJ.~ __ erected to oalebrate ~ 'rictori,"by Lo k am a h & d e Tt, the qUell of VibamJditJa: LnG. AM. vol. VI. po 8L

J'AWABY, 1879.]


N a.usiJilhaP ota-v a rmma., who must have oeea.n,l°-ofwhioh agraphic descriptionisgiven been a former P a II av a king, though at what in traly oriental styIe,-where he dwelt in distance of time is not known, but he is expressly peace after withering up PA ~ 9Y a., 0 h 0 ! ... stated to have been a friend of the twice-born, Ken!a., Kalabhra., and other kiDgs.

ie. the Br~s. These statues the con· We now a.rrive at the reign of Kbtti.

queror caused to be'overlaid with gold. varmma., the donor of the grant. On at1ain.

Of the magnificent works of s()ulpture exe- ing the proper age he was made YtWar4ja, and, entad under the Palla vas we have sufficient in order to distinguish himself by some wa:r1ike evidenae in the .A. m 8. r ~ y a t i 8 t U P a., and in exploit, requested permission to :ma.roh apnat the remains ofM a h A b 801 i p fl r, or the SeVel:! the king of K A ii e h ~ the enemy of his race. Pagodas. But the subject of these sts.tues is The victoricus expedition of the preceding not c1ea.r. DBDa kala, would seem to imply that reign had therefore reduaed, but not crushed, the they were images of gods, but there is no such P .. 11 a va power. The young prinae obts.ined god as R aj a-s i Jh h a that I am aware of. It his father's permission, and marohed against seems allowable to suppose that they were statues the weakened P all a va., who, being unable to of deified members of the royal family. It is a withstand him in the fiela,' took refuge in a common practice to erects. Zitigain the name of hill·fort. There K i rttj·varmma seems to a deaeased king. Thus the aelebrated temple have left him, but scattered his forces and at Ha!ebi4 is dedicated to Hoysa!e'vara, and plundered his treasures, carrying off elephants, the late Ma.h&raja of:M:a.isilr founded the temple rubies, and gold, which he delivered to his of 0 hi m ar Aj e han in honour of his father. Thus in due time he beca.mea 84nnnrfather OhAma Raja. Now the account b1uwm<&,or~versalemperor.

which Sir Walter Elliot has given of the Such are SOllie oI the dets.ils furnished by this first encounter of the C h a I u k y a s and the interesting inscription, a transcript and transl ... PallavaslunstothefollowingeJrect:-Inthe tioo of which here follow. The gradual acreign of T rilochana.-P allava the C h a- cumulation of the titles invariably applied to the !ukya king J ayasililh a invaded the king- 4ter ChaIn kya kings will be noticed. P au· dom. He was, however, ela.in. But his wife, lake.8iisaimply'tlaZw.bkIHnaMrdja.'Ktl'ttithen pregnant, :lied and took refuge with a varmmaprefixesprUkitit totlalZablla. SatBrAln:na.\I named Vis h 9 u-So m ay Aj ~ in yUraya further prefixes Sri, and assumes the whose house she gave birth to a son named title 'paH'amen_: whioh he had won. VikralU j a-s i lil h a. On attaining to ma.n's estate he mAd it y a extends the list with bJw,11dra'ka; renewed the coutest with the Pallavas, in which while in the description of V ij a y a d i t Y a ia he Was finally successful, cementing his power first used the phrase BIl~b7lm.wm-rtirayaj

by a marriage with a p~cess of that race. which afterwards becamo a title.

H the Rajasirilhehua statue in It was only thirty yea.rs later than the date

question·was that of a former prince of his own of this grant that, according to Wilson, the race, the:first who had been victorious over the Buddhists were expelled from the neighbourPallavas, and whose memory, from the fa.ot hood ofKU chi to Oeylon. In 78& A.V., he ofhis having:married into their family, V i k r... says,.A. k a I a n k ... a Jain teacher from SraV&l}& m 1 d i t Y a now found to be thus reverently ehe- Belgo!a., who had been partly educated in . rished,it would account, perhaps, for his madera- the Banddha college at Ponataga. (near Trivation towards the city; and for his commemorat- tflr, south of KAOOM), disputed with them in ing his entry by causing the statues to be gilded. the presenae of the W;t Bauddha prince, Hem a.-

We are om introduced to him in a seaside 8 i tal a, and having confuted them, the prinae residenoe at a plsee called J a tam a. m- became a Jain, and the Bauddhaa were banished b h a, situated on the shore of the sOuthern to Kandy.ll

Vokkalm PZatBI. ~lMIscript.

I. Svallti Jayaty '.vishlqoitam- VisJl:9.or.vAr&ham kllhobhitAr:Qavam dabhinQllDAta-c1alIuh;


.. Oalled GhdrrJamAu&rQa-no doubt.. deacriptiV8 I might BuggtIt another deri",tioD, besideI the mQl' ~

epithet, and aot • _. If·the latter, the 1b'It pn of ~ . Ii_, for ,00roID8ol1deL u MeL OolL vol L p. ·lIf,



[JANUARY, 1879.

vr.pua ArimatAm sakaIa..bho.vana-samstnya.milna.-:M&navyaea·gotrAnAm m.nti-putrA-

DAm sa.pta-Ioka·mA,tribhis-sapta-mau.ibhir-abhivarddhitanam KArttikeya.-parirakaha.:Qa.-prA.-

pta-kaJyAl:la-parampar&;!Jm bhagava.n-NArA.Y&J?A-praa&da.-aamAa&dita-vs.r8ha.-lA.n-

chane-kah~ - ksha~ - vaSikritAsesha. ", mahibhritAm CbaulukyAnAm kulam - alanka-

l'lOshl;Lor as vamedhAvabhritha-snAna.-pavitrikrita.-gAtrasya sri- 'Paulake-

Ii .a.1Ia.bha-ma.h.ArAjasY80 s6nuh . parA.kr~a~ta:. Vana.;&sy-Adi-para.-n~pati-ma.ndaJa - pra.n.i.baddha •• iSuddha • ktrlti - art - Ktrttl- Va.rmma. • prlthn1 - vaJIabha • maMrAJas tasyA~jas' aama.ra.·aamsakta-sakalotta.ra-pathesvara-sri-Harsha. Varddhana-parAja.

yopAtta-Pa.rameSva.ra.-sabdas ta.sya ,BatyAliraya.erl-prithivi-va.-

II.a. lJabha-mahAdjAdhirAja-paramesvr.rasya. priya-tsnayasya. prajnA[ vina]ya-

sya kha4ga-mAtra-saMyasya Chitre.k~~hAbhtdhA.ns.-prava.ra.-turangame:Qaikenaivo-


sAtkritya prabhAva.-kulisa.-daJ.ita-PA,:p.!Jya-Ch$-Keraj.a-Kaja.bhra-prabhriti-bhd.

bhfirdJ Opad-abhra-VibhramaSYAnanYB.va.natA-KAnchiPati.ma.ku~a.-ohuxnbita-pA.-

dA mbhujasya Vikramllditya-SatyMraya-sri.prithirl-vaJlabha-mahA.

r&jAdhirAja.param.esvara.-bha.p~A,rakasya priya,s'Ilnor :BAlendu.Sekha-

rasya-TArakArAtir-iva D~tya.ba.1am-a1iisamuddhatam.Trair8.jya.E1nchipa.ti- •

balam-avaBht;a.bhye. karadilqi.I;a-Kavera-PArasika-Bim.ha:!t\di-dvtpAdhipa-

IU. aye. sakalotta.ra-patha..DAtha-mathanopA.rjjitorjjita.-pAli-dhvajt\.di'BamaBta-

p&ra.maiSvaryya-cbinhaaya. VinayAditya-SatyMraya-§rt.p!'ithivi-vallabha-mahArA.-

j&dhir&ja-parameSvara-bha~~II.~ya priyAtmajali . sai'ava-varAdhigatMeBha..

stra-BAstro dakBhineBA.-vije.yini.pitt\ma.he.samunmlllita.-akhila-k~t;a..

ka-aamhatir uttarApatha-vijigishor.go.ror.agrata.-evAhava-vyApAra-

o m-Avaran·narAti-gaja-gha~pA~ana-viBiryy~kripll.va·

db&raa aamagra-vigra.hA.gresaraB Be.-aauhABar-aBikah-pa.rAilmukhtk:rita- .....

tru.m.a.:MaJ.o GangA..YamunA·pAti.dhvl\iapa~e.-9hakkA-maht\Babda.-ch.inhA-mA_


kal;ham-a.pi vidhi-vaBAd apanito pratAp&d. eva visha..

fiI.A. ya-prakopam. e.rAjakam.utsArayan. Vatsa-RAja-iv&napek8hitA-parasabA-

,.ataa tadavagr&h&n-nirggatya-Bva-bhujAvr.Bh~ambha.-prasAdhit&lieBha-viBvambha.rah pra-

bhur-.!k.hav-dtva ar.k:Ii-trayatvAt chhatru·mada,-bhanjanatvAd udAratvAn, nirave.dyatvA-

d yaa aamasta-bhuva.nt\Sra.ya.a aakala-p&rammvaryya-vye.kti-hetu-pA.Jj..

dhyaOjt\dY-UjvaJa-P~~rAj.yA VijayAditya-SatyASraya-sr!:-prithivi-

..... llabha-mQbArt\JAdhirAla-pe.ra.melivara-bhat;~A.rakasya , pl'iya-po.tra-

I sa.ksJa..bhuvana-BlI.mrAjya.-lakshmi-8vr.yamve.rA.bhisheka_eamayAnanta._

ra-samupaj4ta-mahotsabab. Atma-vams!l:ia-p'ftrvva-nri,pati-chohhAyt\_

pab&riDa.h pralq-itl-amitrasya(h) PaUave.sya sam1llott:Ora..

moh. nAya-1a.itamatir at.i-tv8.ra,yAt-udAka.-viahayam.prApy&bhimu[khJAgat&.n. Nandi.Pot;a... Va-

rDI!Il&bhidhAnam-PaUava.m'1'8oJ;III-mukhe-sampra.hfi.tya prapalAsya-ka.:iJkam.ukha.-vAdi. tra-aamudraghoaht.bhidht\ne.-vAdya-viBeshAn kha~vAnga-dhvaja-prabhllta-prakhyAte.-

hasQ....... sva-kira:9a-nikara-vikAsa·ni.rAJqoita-timiram-mAl}.ik:ya-r&Bi_

JHIha. Ohaatekritya. Xa1aSabbava-nilaya-barid-allgan-Allchita-kAnchiya-

.... Dnchtm.avinAiya-pravi8ya BaDtata-pravritta-dAnA-nAndita-dvijje.-

~jauo N~Pota- Ve.rmma-nimmApitr.-8il&maya-RAja_ ~~ku1a-BUva~r&lii-pratyarpp&Ilop&rjitojita-PU7;loyah

, ~~Pita-PAJ},c).ya-Ohola-Kara!"Kala.bhra-pra-

IT ... b1di-~ kshubhita-kAri-maka.'ra-bra-hata-dalita-snktt_mukta-muktAphala.-

~.~kuJa..Gh~bhidht\ne dakahinA-

~ •. Ba.md.amrJ"'-~vi.iacJa..ya80-r&Bimayam Jayamam.bha_

~ MiIh~ped VibamAditya-8atyA8raya-irl-Prithi:rl.val1abhe.-mabAr&jAdhiri.-





JANUAlIi, 187p.]



ja.parameSvara.-bha~~ArakaBYa. priya.-sAnuh Mlye.susikshlta-sa.stra·SAstraS Satrn·

sha O~·va.rgga.-nigraha.-pa.ras sva.~kalAd(h)·Anandita-hridayena-pitli-sa.ma..

ropita-yauva-rAjyah sva.-kuJa..va.iriJ).am·K&nchlpate[r}nnigra.biya mAm.preshaya. i· ty Adesllm·prnrthya.·JabdhvA tadaua.utaram eva krita.-prayAnas.sann abhimukham.a.ga· tya prakasa.yuddha.m.kartum-a.samartha.pravish~.durgga.m·Pa.Ua.vam.hhagDa-sa.ktim.kritd

matta-matangaja-lIlA.¢k~·suv~koYir.adAya. pitre sllmarpitavA-

IV.D. n eva.m·kram~prnpta.-S!rvvabhaumll'padah prat&pAnurAgAvana[ mya]m3na.-maku~

ta.-mAlA-rajah.punja.-pinjllrita.-chs~.sarasi[ rn ]hah Xirtti. Varmma.·8atyASraye..srl.

Nithivl.V&1la,bha-mah8.rAj&dhir&ja.-pllrameSvara.-bha*~Arakas sarvdn.eva.-

m-AjuApa.ya.ti viditam·astu·vosmAbhir ll8ova-saptaty.uttsra-shat·chhateshu Sa.Jm..varshe.

shv'Ottteshu .prav~ll8o.vija.ya.-rAjya.:samvatsare ekAdaSe vartta.

IDA ne Bhtmarathi.na.dy.utta.ra·ta~astha.-bhaJ?4Ara.-Ga.vi*~a.ge-n&ma.gr&ma·

m-adhiVIIsllti.vijllya-skandbAvAre BhMrapada-pa.u~masyAm . srl.Dosi·RAja.

vijuApanaya KAmakAyana.gotraya ~g. Ylljur.vveda.-pAraga-Srl. VishJ?u·

. SlIrmI!lll:Q&h.pa.utrAya. ~shJ?a.Sarmml'Jt8.h.putrAya. MAdhava.-SarmIll8ol}e

[P&]nimgal.vishaye ~a.dOJ;e.na.di·daks.ta~e Tamara·

V. mdge.PAnunga.!.KirnvaUi·BaJaVllra.ity eteve-gramAn·madhye N engiyO.r·Nandivll

Silhitas SnWyllr·nnama·gr8mo dattas tadAg4mibhir asmad.vamByair anyaiB-cha-rAjllbhi[r &J yur-aiSval'yyAdtnAm.viJasitam'lIchirnmsu.chaIichalam·avagachchhadbhir &chandr&rkll-dha.r&~

va.-stithi.sa.tnakAlam·ya.Sas.vivtrshubhis svaclatti.nirvviseshsm.paripAlaniyam uktafi-cha

bhagavat&.vedavyAsena.- Vy&sena. bahubhir VVIISudhA.bhukt&.rAjllbhis Sagar&·

di Obhih yaJlya. ya.sya ya.dA bhAmis ta.sya. msya tIldA' pha1am svandAtum

snmah&chchhakyam dnhkham anyasya. pAIanam. dAnam va pAIanam vetti dAnA-chchreyo· nupAJanam svadattAm paradattAm vA yo ,hareta Vllsundhar&m shashVim varsha sa·

ha.sr&¢ vish~ayAm jAyate krimir iti mahA-sandhivigrahtka. srlmad·Ani·

~ta.-Dhananjaya.-pwty8.·vaJlabhasya likhitam idam 8&sa.nam.


Mllyit be well! Supreme is the Boar·form of 'the resplendent Vis h ~ u, whioh dispersed the waters of the ocean and bore up the peaceful eart'b. on the tip of his strong right tusk.

Of the Man a v y a gotra praised in all the world, sons of H a r i t i, nourished by the seven mothers the mothers of the seven worlds, 'through the protection of Khttikeya hav· ing acquired a succession of good fortune, (or the .succession to KaJ~), having in a moment brought all kings into their'subjeotion at one glimpse of the boar-ensign obtained from the favour of the adorable NArAyaQ8, were (the ~s of) the auspicious C h a u 1 u k Y II race.

To which (race) being an orna.men~ his body purified by. the final ablutions of the horsesacrifice, was S r .t·p a nls k e Ii i. VaIl a. b h a,. MaharAja.

, Whose son, with unsullied fa~e gained by the conquest of the groups of the Van a v As i and. other hostile . kings, was S r i-K t r t t ivarmma, favourite of the e6rth. great king.

His son, who encountering in battle Sri.

Harsha-varddhaull the lord of all the north, by defeating him acquired jilie title of P(Jh'amBBvara (supreme lord), was Sat y A. Ii ray a, favourite of earth and fortune, great king of kings, supreme lord.

His dear son, perfect in wisdom and rever· ence, his sword his only aid; making his own the wealth which his father, alone, mounted simply on his splendid horse named Chi t r ak a I]. ~ h a, and desiring to conquer all regions, had won, together with that inherited for three generations; rej oicing in splitting with the

. thunderbolt of his va.lour the mountains the PAI].~ya, Chola, KenIa, KII!abhra, and other kings, from the sky to their base; whose lotus-feet were kissed by the crown of the king ot K An 0 hi who had never bowed to any other mIID.. was Vi k ra mA di t Y a-S II ty A. is ra y eo, favourite o~ earth and fortune, great king of kings. supreme lord and sovereign.

His dear son, who as ThaHriti (Ku. mArasvAmi) the son of B U end u Be k ha. r a



[JAlfU.!l!.T, 1879.

(8 i va) to the forces of the Daityas, so captured the proud army of T r a. i r Ii j Y a, the king of K i ii chi j levier of tribute from the rwers of Kaver&, PAras ika., Sirilha,1a, and other islands; possessed of the Pd.[i-dht·aja and all other marks of supreme wealth which by churning all the kings of the. n~rth he had :V~n and increased, was Vinaya d 1 tye.-S aty as.r &ya, faTOlll'ite of earth and fortune, great king of

kings, supreme lord and sovereign. •

His dear son, having in youth acquired the use of all the weapons and accomplishments of a great king; uprooter of the clumps of thorns (Bpri:nging up) among the kings of the south of whom his grandfather was the conqueror j exceeding in valour in the business of war his father who desired to conquer the north, he lI1lr1'Ounded his enemies, and 'With his arrows desl;royed their elephant forces; war his chief policy; with his glad sword causing the hosts of his enemies to turn their ba.ck:&; in the same mauner as his father, capturing n.om the hostile kings he bad pnt to flight, the Ga.ilga, Yamuna, ad Pi{ l fta.gs, the emblems of the grea.t f}kakkd drum, rubies, a.nd lnsty elephants; with difficulty stopped by destiny; by his vaJ.our exciting the COIIlltl'y; in removing kings who eheriahed evil designs, like Vat sa raj a; desiring not the aIlI!iatauce of &llOther; in setting out and with his own a.rm. conquering and subjecting the whole world, a lord like Indra; by the three modes 01. policy, by breaking the pride of his enemies. by gene1'08ity, and by his invincibility, having become the re£'nge of the world; having acquired .. kingdom resplendent with the P4{i-dk"aja and other tokens of all supreme wealth, was Vijaylditya.SatyAbaya, favourite of earth and fortune, great king of kings. supreme lord a.ud sovereign.

His dear son, who upon being anointed. as the aelf-chosen of the Lakahmi of the dominion ur the whole world, obtained great energy; who, determined to root ont the Pall a vaS. the obscmera of the splendour of the former kin8s of his line and by DAt.ure hostile, going with great l,.aed into the U d l 11: a province, slew in WtJe the Palla va. named Nandi PotaTarmma who cam.e against him, captured. his defiazat lotus-mout.hed trumpet, his drum called • Roe or the Sea,' his cha.ri~ his ~ __ Me aDd celebrat.ecl elephautlJ, olaaters of

nabla. ~"Ma) which b;r t.heU- own radiauoe

dispelled all dark!ness; a.ud entering without destruction K a ii. c h t, the zone (kcinoh"1 as it were of the lady. the region of A g & sty a's abode (i.e. the south), acquired the great merit of covering with gold RAj a-s imh as vara and other gods scnlptured in stone, which N araB iiiI h a P 0 ta-v armm a-the protector of poor ann indigent BdhmSoJ;ls rejoiced by the bestowal of continual gifts-had made (or created); the sovereign who by his invincible valour having withered up P a. n Q y a, C hot IL, K era! a, Ka! a. b h r a, and other kings, was residing in J IL yam a m b h a, the embodiment of a fame as brilliant as the pure light of the autumn moon, situated on the shore of the southern ocean called the' Rolling Ocean,' whose beach was strewn over and glittering with marine heaps formed of clusters of pearls scattered from their shells by the blows of the snoutsof crocodiles r.esembling mightyelepha.nts, was Y i k ram A d i t Y a-S a. t y A 8 ray a, favourite of earth a.nd fortune, great king of kings. supreme lord and sovereign.

His dear son, in youth well instructed in the use of arms, parfect in subduing the six kinds of passions, who through the joy which his father felt on account of his good qualities had obtained. the l'&Dk of Y'WIJUIl"4ja, praying for an order saying." Send me to subdue the king of K a. ii chi, the enemy of our race," immediately on obta.ining it marched forth a.nd goingagainat him broke the power of P a II a v a, who unable to ma.ke war on a large scale took refuge in a hill-fort, a.nd capturing his lusty elephants, rubies, and treasury of gold, delivered them to his own fa.ther: thus in due time obta.ining the title of SItnJ"tlbkawma" the lotus of his. feet covered with the pollen the gold dust from the crowns of lines of kings prostrate before him through reverence or fear, K t r t t i.. va r m m a, favourite of earth a.nd fortune, great· king of kings, supreme lord and sovereign, thus commands all people:-

Be it known to you from us, that,·the 679th Saka year haling passed and the 11th year of the increase of our victorious reign being current, from Our victoriQus camp stationed at the village of G a v i ~ ~ age, on the northern bank of the Bhtmarathi river, on the full-moon. day of BhAIhapada, on the application of Srt-DosirAja, is given. to lUdhava-'armma, the BOn of Krillh:q. ..

JANUAlI.Y, 18711.j



====================----_.- - B ar m m a, and grandson of S d· Vis h J}. u-I And by the adorable V y a s a, arranger of the

8 arm m a, of the Kamakagana gotra, versed in Vedas, hath it been said: The earth has been the ~ig and Yajur Vedas, together with i enjoyed bySagaraandother kings; accordN e it g i Y u r and Nan d i, the village named i ing to their [gifts of] land, so was their reward. S n U i Y u r, situa.ted in the P An n it g a I dis- '\ To make a gift oneself is easy; to maintain triot, on the southern bank of the A r ado r e another's, that iri the diffioulty; but of making river, in the midst of the villages of T a. m a.- I a gift or maintaining one, the maintaining a ram-age, Panuitgal, Kir.uvaHi, and gUt-is the best. Whoso resumes a. gift made B U a. v 11 r n. by himself or by another shall assuredly be

This let future kings, whether of our own or born a worm in ordure for sixty thousand of any other race, reflecting that life and weaJth years.

are fleeting, preserve as long as sun, moon, By the great minister for peace and war, earth, and ocean. endure, as if a gift made by S rt m a d·A n i v ar ita- D han a iij a yap n-

themselves, and thus perpetuate their glory. J}. Y a-v a II a b h a was this iD.saw.a, written.


PARS! SAGRiS, NASASALARS ... &c., oil lamp should pass into the inner part of the

To the Editor 0/ tke .. In.dian, Antiquary." tower, in the manner described. .attention is

Sm.-With reference to the letters of Mr. paid by the officers in charge of the compounds SorA.bji KAvasjt KbamMt& and~Professor Monier or enclosures of the Towers of Silence to cutting Williams which appeared in the Indian. Antiq!WKY, and pruning the shrubs and the leaves of trees 4n~6, pp. 179 and 227, I beg to communicate to intercepting the passage of light from the Sagri you the result of my personal observation a.ud to the tower.

t}1e information obtained from authentio sources. 2. Corpse-bearers as a body are divided into

In Bombay, S'O.ra.t, Naos&rt, Pud, and several two classes, namely, NasaBdZdrs and Khdndli,idB . .other places inhabited by PArsts, Sagrfs ~ mdis- NasasdldrB are those privileged persons who can pensable adjuncts to the Towers of Silence, and enter the Towers of Silence, but t~ey are as much the objects for which they are constructed ~re as corpse-bearers as the Khdndkids are. In addition follows :-First, for keeping an oil lamp intended to to their duties as described by:Mr. KhambAt&, they throw its light during the night-time into the inner relieve the KkdntJ,hid.s at certain intervals on the part of the several Tower~ of Silence. The 8agr(s road, and carry the corpse themselves by turns. have holes or apertures so arranged that the light They also carry the dead bodies of infants, and .of'the lamp goes direetl.r into the inner part of the little children, independent of theKkd.ndhidB. But tower throngh a large hole made in the wall of the the N asasd,14,rB are better paid than the KltAndkid.8, tower for this special purpose. All the towers, on account of certain social disadvantages under without Ilo single exception, are provided with such which they lsbouc, Those disadvanta.ges are holes corresponding to the holes or apertures of correotly described by the learned Professor in his the 8agrlJl. Secondly, for keeping up the sacred letter to the London Times. His remarks are fire, which is fed with sandalwood by & priest or a evidently applicable to the NasasdZars, whom he layman. according as the oircumstances of the rightly calls bearers, and who are the only different towers allow. In Bombay, for instanoe, privileged few who can go inside the Towers. where the Parst inhabitants are CGmpa1'1i\tively Notwithstanding the advanced views of some of rioherthanin thellnfassal,theirfunds permit them our young men, the NaB4BdUrB generally are not to engage the services of 80 priest who officiates allowed to mix with the rest of the community in. in the SagrC, and takes the necessary care of the sooiaI gatherings. at public and private dinner sacred :fire. In tbis Sag''', which was constru.oted parties they are kept aside and served separ&tely, some three or four years ago, the brass vessel In Sfuoat, NaosAri, and other Mufasaal towns thev (a!argd.ft) containing the sacred fire is BO ar· are strictly prohibited, aocarding to the tenets ~f ranged that the light from it passes through the the Zoroastrian' religion,:frorx,t coming in. contaot .pertures ef, the SagrC ate the inner part of with the rest of the community.

the towers, whioh ~e provided with' large holes, Why the dog is fed with bl'eBd is an open .. 8 I have stated above. It is not absblutely De- question, and I am unable to give my opinion one caSBary that the light from the fire shollld way or the other. So far as my information goetI, fall on the dead body; but it is desirable, aocord· it is 80 mere oustom of long atanding, and baa Jug to the olde~t 1;1Sag8. tl)at the light f;roJI) the .0 religions signifieance. The dog is never fed



[J!l1U!l!.Y, 1879.

at the time of the funeral, as has been stated, but the bread is ha.nded to the keeper, who feeds him at his leisure. It is a harmless practice, and ca.n be dispensed with.

In justice to the learned Oxford Professor, I must say that his papers on the Towers of Silence and on PArsl funersJ. rites and ceremonies show a remarkable fulness of information, and a complete mastery over the subject which he has handled. With triHing inaooul'jlcies, which are hanlly worth noticing, his informatio.n upon the whole appea.rs to be very correct.


Axo..'i& other questions put down for consideration and discussion a.t the Oongres des Oriental· istes at Lyons, on the 31st of August last, there was formulated a. subdivision devoted to "Les Djainas sont-ila d 'anciens Bouddhistes anterieurs a Sakia Monni, 011 des Bouddhistes modifies depuis lea persecutions brahmaniques P"

As I 1mve paid some attention to this subject,l though unable to' attend the (Jongress, a.n.d therefore unaware of the course taken in ~he disellssion, YOll will perhaps allow me to a.dvert· in your colu.mns· to a very important'item, bearing· ~pon the rela.tive priority of the oreeds of Jainism a.nd Bllddhism, which has not hitherto been noticed: that is to Yay, how their reputed dates baJa.nce aud adjust themselves wer.e within the boUJlds of reasonable probability.

The J &ins have a fixed and definite date for the Nin1Ii!la of "MahAvira.," their great saint, which is established. by the concurrent testimony of their two sects, whose method of reckoning varies in itself, thereby securing, .as itwere, a double entry. The ~vetamba.ras date in the era of Vikramlditya, 51 B.C.; the Digambaras reckon by the Sa.ka ,_at, 78 A.D., and both arrive at the same figures ofB.c. 626-7 for the death of Maha~. '!'his e&loulation is equally supported by the dynastic lists, which satisfactorily fill in tAe period hom the aooesaion of" PAWm, the lord of .A.vanti, [who] was anointed in that night in which .• _ . llabAvIrt. entered N~," "to the four years of Sab.," who immediately preceded VikramAditya.$

On the other Imnd, Buddha's date varies 1IOCOrd. ing to di!ertmt authorities from the extreme points of B.C. i4aO to 453, a.ud even'is red.llCed so low as 370 :B.c. : so that up to this time modern inquirers

.1' 1~~ jOl", the ~1rFlitb.oUSob.' (Triibllllr.l877), .- .... ~ Boc'l, vol. IX. P. 155.

: This "I'PflIZeO. in the Atherl_ of Nov.l!, 1878.

BlibJar, 1M. .4l1hol It p. 368; JOUt'. B. A •• Soc. ..... !L 11· iii. l1ot.e II.

~ filL Wi.1aaa. J_. i. A.. Soc. vol XVI. p. M'l ; see aIIo_IX. N. 8.:\1,1711; Ber.l, TfCluelr oj FM-Hit.l1I :-~ 21; IIId Hiwa.ThaD8 (PariJ, 1851). YOl. I:

have been unable to conour in the determinatioIl of this epoch' further than to ItllSpect, as we are taught by the Chinese, tha.t the period was· antedated from time to time, with the direct purpose' at arrogating priority over other samts.

Now, if the a.scertained Jain date will serve to' determine the era of Buddha,. nnder the theory that Buddha Mmself was a disciple of MahAvira, it will, in the fact, go far to establish the priority of the latter, and the pre-existence l)f the creed of which he was the twenty-fourth 01' la&t prophet.

The date of Buddha most largely accepted has been adopted from the Ceylon axmals, which supply the figures 548 B.O.$ But, 8S was :remarked. by Mr. Tumour, who first investigated the local tl'aditions, the acceptance of SUOD. a date involved an error, in default of the required period of sixty years (si;xty-six); or, to use his ClWIl words, "the discrepaney can only proceed from one of' these two so~es: viz. either it is an intentional perversion, adopted to &I!Bwer some national or religiolls object, which is not readily discoverable; or C1handragupta is not identical with Sandracottus."s .A. partial reconciliation of the error was proposed by the method of restoring to the dynasty of the Nandas the full hnndred. years assigned to them by some Paur&nik authorities, in lieu of the forty-four a.llowed for in the Ceylon lists; but if the local annals were 80 dependent for their acouracy upon extra-national correction their intrinsic merits could have stood but little above zero; and any' such summary introdllction of sixty-six: years from outside Sources could scarcely have been held to be satisfactOl")'. unless the IlIlW11ed total of 548 y~s s.o, were proved to be a jiiCed. gualltity by better extema! testimony than hitherto has been adduced.

To General Cunuingham belongs the merit of baving first proposed, in 1854, the fixing of Buddha's Nir"d!la in .. 477 B.C." '-a result which he obtained from original figure calculations ; while Max Miiller. in 1859, independently arrived at the same conclusion, from a more extended critical review of the extaut literary evidence.8

General CUJJningham has lately enlarged. the sphere of his observations, and in adopting Colebrooke's 'View in regard to the fact that Gautama. Buddha was "the disciple of Ma.hAvtra" hat materially fortified his early arguments-in reasserting that the N"lI"ud~a of Buddha. must be

• Lassen l st. Hila.ire ; M. Ba.rth, B8W6 Cn~'IH, 18th JUlle 1814; Prof. Weber, Hi-sto", oj l"diam. lilterattw, (London, Triibner,l878), p • .987 ; Oliilders,l'CLU Dii:~. I mJ!lelf am only .. l"8CeIIt convert, Jour. R •.... s. Soc • voll p. 468.

• The MIJ1il1!mmllo, CeyloD, 1837, pp. 2lriii., L.lli., &0, , JOVll'. Be7I!/. As. Soc. 1854, p. 704-

• AlICiMlt SlIIIIkr\t Literature, LoDdoD. l859. p. ~

J.oo1ARY, 1879.]



placed in" 478 ao.," or " forty.nine years"9 after the riJleas~ of MahAnra. the last of the Jinas. General Cunningham does not concern himself with the larger question of ancient religions, but confines himself to his favourite metier of working out SUD;l8 with equal elaboration, but with leas fanciful details than of old.

The passages relied upon by Colebrooke in 182610 have since been confirmed by important contributions from other sources. None, however, bring the question home so distinctly, and in so quaintly graphic a way, as Prof. Weber's translation of a passage from the B"aufl"att,ll wherei.n the C"ela," the holy MahAvtra's eldest pupil, Indrabhuti" -" houseless of Gautama's Gotl'a,"-begins to distrust the negative perfec· tion of J ainism, in the terms of the text,-" There· upon that holy Gautama, in whom·faith, doubt, and curiosity arose, grew and incteased, rose up. Having arisen, he went to the place where the saored Sram~ :MahAvtra was ...•.. After per·

fClrming these [salntations] he praises him and bows to him. Afber so doing, not too close, not too distant, listening to him, bowing to him, witb. his fsoe towards him, humbly waiting on him with folded hands, he thus spoke ... ."

In conclusion, I JIJJJ.y recapitulate certain deduetions, which I have suggested elsewhere. The juxta.position of the last representative of the one faith with the first Bl:ponent of the other, which took over so many traditions that it retained in common with the parent creed, is a point of marked importance. Eclipsed for a time by the energy of the reformers, whose missionaries carried the Buddhist doctrines over so large a section of the globe, non-proselytiaing J&inism has survived in its simplicity-as the natural outcome of the ideas and aspirations of a primitive race-still undisturbed in the land of their common birth; while Buddhism, with its fantastic elaborations, retains scant honour, and no place within the limits of its nid", in India. proper.- EDW A.~n THOMAS .•


The POBTICAL WOBltS of BERA·ICD·DiN ZOBJIIa, of EGYPT, with a. metrical English '1'ra.nsla.tion, N:>tea, a.nd Intro. duction, by E. H. Palmer, M.A.., Lord Almoner's Bea.der a.nd Professor of A.ra.bio in the U Diversity of Ot.mbridge. Vola. I. and n. Ot.mbl'idge University Press, If!l7.

Abu'lFaq.hl.Zoheir ibn Muhammad el iHohal·lebi el' Ata.kt, surnamed BellA.ed·Din, Was secretary to the Sult§.n EI Malik es SAlih, N ejm-ed·dtn, greatgrand-nephew of the Sul~a.n Su.Iadip.. The adventures of this prince in sea.rch of a throne, and his rule in that of Egypt, which he ultimately got possession of, filled up some ten yea.rs of the middle of the 13th century A.D. and 7th of the Hijra, and during the whole of them. our author was his faith. ful and efficient serva.nt in good and eVil fortune. After the' death of bis master, in A;S:. 647 (A.D. 1249), BehA·ed-Din lived in retirement at Cairo, where he died of the plague in A.D. 1258, tufa Ebn KhallikAn, who knew him well, and to whose memoir 01 him, embodied in Professor PaJmer's work, we are indebted for the above.

Behf...ed·bin was a remarkable man; and his character, or rather that of his poetry, was the result of strange circumstances of time and place, The Cmsades were over, and the ·spirit which prompted them had ceased to show itself hut In desultory and abortive adventures. The instinot of J eha.d was as decrepit among the Arab races, and though the wave of Ottoman conquest was yet to rise over Eastern Europe, its true character was little more religious than that of any other migration of warlike TAtars.

• 0"","" IMCt'lptiomlm I~, Oalouttr., lB'l7, p-, T. so Prof. Oowell's editiou of Oolebrooke'. EIBGy8, vol n.

"The intercourse between Eastern and Western nations," says Professor Palmer, " had become greater than at any previous period of modern

history· • • • • • • In poetry Alexandria. seems to have been, what it certainly was in philosophy and theology, the meeting-pIa.ce of Easli and West. These caaaea, more exhaustively discussed in the translator's Preface, acied so strongly upon our author that his poetry reminds Professor Palmer of the English lyrists of the 17th century, and particularly of Herrick. For our own part, whether Beh&-ed·Din or the Professor be responsible, we findin many pieces a strong resemblance to the thought and manner of the late Mr. Praed.

- The apt wit and polished diction which produce this effect are combined with modesty and clearness of thought and expression. Zoheir's mountains do not invade the sky; nor do the sun and moon run to earth when his lady unveils. When he has to describe a garden, instead of' a lot of nonsense about Pa.ra.dise and PeristAn, we have the following verses, deservedly singled out fOf especiaJ praise by his translator:-

" I took my pleasure in a garden bright-

Ab, tha.t our happiest hours so quickly pass!

That time should be so rapid in its flight.Therein my aonl aCcomplished its delight,_

And life was fresher than the green young grass.

There rain-drop~ tricklo through the warm still air The cloud-born firstlings of the Bummer skies ; Full oft I stroll in early morning there,

p. 278; 1'9'1£111. R . .A,. Soc. vol I. po 1i.2O.

11 ~t der BMglWatA, Berlill, 1867.



[JJ.Nll"ARY, 18'79-.

.. My wrath is kindled. for the sake or Oourtesy, whose lord thou art :

For thee, I take it so to heart, No umbrage for myse]£ I take.

But be thy treatment what it will, I cannot .this a.ffront forget;

I am not used to insult yet,

And blush at its remembrance still."

He is less merciful to' a ridiculous old coquette • to whom he says :-

-u I see you walking in the street in veils of muslin dressed,

Like an old and worthless volume with a new

'When, like a pearl upon a bosom fair, The glistening dewdrop on the sapling lies.

There the young :flowerets with sweet perfume blow; There feathery palms their pendent clusters hold, Like foxes' brushes waving to and fro;l There every evening comes the after-glow, Tipping the leadets with its liquid gold."

.Another piece is a farewell, full of quiet pathos Bnd truth; some of our readers must have often

witnessed the groves without the gate used as the halting and starting points of caravans, amid the bustle of men and bea.sts :and handsome back ;

Good-bye. When I ask what is beneath them, people set

" The came1men were on the move; my mind at rest,

The fatal hour was d,rawing nigh; For they say it is a lot of bones put in a leathern

But ere we went away my love sack."

Came up to bid a last' good-bye.' And scorn and courage are !,oth well shown in

She dared not breathe the word' farewell" the vigorous lines which one would willingly sup-

Lest spiteful folk should overhear.- pose to have been written while his master was

When lovers have a. tale to tell, captive in Kerek to a treacherous kinsman, his

There always is a listener near. adherents fled or rebellious, and the faithful

I wept, and watched her as she took poet struggling to maintain the cause that seemed

Some paces onward weeping sore, hopeless :_

Then turned to give one longing look "Shall I linger any longer where at merit men

And whisper a ' good-bye' once more." demur,

l£anyof the pieces in this volume are mere frs.g-. Where they deem I!ocur a lion, where a. lion's like

menta, a.pparently impromptu, or a.t, least compos- a cur P

ed on slight oecasi.ons, suoh as a.nswers to lettiers, Many a precious pearl of poetry in their honour

invita.tions to dinner, and the like. The thought, had I strung;

though not very deep, is almost always happy, as By my life, the gems were wasted which before

in the following acknowl~gm.ent of a note :- such swine I :flung.

"Your letter came. and I declare Well I the world is not so narrow but a man his

My longing it expresses quite; way may win,

:Methinks my heart was atanding there, And the doors are open widely, if he choose to

Diotating to you what to write." enter in.

The volume, however, is not entirely filled I have that within my bosom tells me that

with these gracet'ul t~fles. Sympathy and manly success is near,

oonaolation find :6.t expression in the short poem And Ambition gives me earnest of a glorious

r.ddresaed. to his friend Sherif-ed-din upon the career."

death of a, younger brother. We regret, however. The extracts given above are all tak&ll, almost

thai Proleasor Palmer should have headed it " In at haza.rd, from the few :6.rst pages of FrofesBor llemoriam," and adopted in his translation the Palmer's translation, which contains about 350 metreBofTennyson's Iamouspoem. The compari- pieces. .our readers can judge from this of the acmpruvoked is, ifnotodious.at least unnecessary; &moet and value of his labours. If one may ~h the Arab poet; baa DO cause to ~ear it, the draw any augury from the extraordinary though - that his grief is &%pressed within the moderate tardy suocess of a much less important work limit o£sevenstanzaa. Zoheir 'could write sharply, (:Mr. Fitzgerald's trans1a.tion of 'Umar Kbayyam's tbo, when he pleased. thQugh his stern moods are B'libailgyat), they ought to meet; with some reoog. few. and bis wrath tempered. by the dignified. self-. nimon from the general public; and to the l'I!IItraint of an Eastern gentleman, as in the Orientalist, and especially the sliudent of Arabic, 1WIaII&tI:1WOEI a&lressed to a minister at whose these two volumes, the one containing the Arabic aoue he had been rudely :repulsed. and to whom. text, and the other the English version, will prove

-1I!l1Bt in COZtD1naion =-- .as usefUl as interest\nS'. S.

, !l'he ~ iI to 1'fIIIIeM fox-tailB used to decorr.te oapuisOJll of ohargera.





IN some notes of a missiQnary tour in this part

of the country written by a. friend of mine, the Rev. F. W. N. Alexander, and published in the Madra8 OhurchMissiona'I"JI Record for 1861, there are several mistakes which a tourist was quite lia.ble to make, but which have been copied into other periodicals, and therefore I think it advisable to notice them in this paper.

A K 0 i, whom Mr. Alexander met in &. nJ.. !age about two miles from Dummagudem, Cl&used him to infer that the' K 0' i s think heaven to be .. a. great fort, and in it plenty of rice to eat for those who enter it : that hell is So dismal place where a crow, made of iron, continus.lly gnaws o:ff the flesh of the wi!'.ked," &0. &c. This must have been that particular Koi's own peculiar beli~ for it certainly is not that of any of the K a i s with whom I so frequently come in eontact; and a native friend of mine, whom they a.ll most highly respect, and who knows more of their customs a.n.d beliefs than anyone else here, h&!! inquired of them several times, and each time they have replied that they had never heard of such an idea. before. As I· wrote in a former paper, they either believe that the spirits of the departed wander in the jungle in the form of pisi1ckas, or they believe that at death they entirely cease to exist. A few who have mixed with Hindus have some faint belief in a kind of tmruq:nigration.

The mention of the iron - crow reminds me that about two years a.go & rnmour rapidly spread in some of the K 0 i villages south of Dummagndem that an iron cock was abroad very early in the morning, and upon the first village in whioh it heard one or more cocks begin to crow it would send a grievous pestilence and a.t least deci.mate the village. In one instance at least this led - to the immediate exter. l)lin,a.tion of a.ll the unfortunate oocks in that village. How the rnmour arose no one could tell, and when I asked the chief executioner what ground he had.for believing such a taJe he only replied, "I do not know; they told me."

Last year t~ inhabitants of a village on

(O(yn,f7ittw,6iJ,jrom voz. tr. p.l98.)

the left bank of the Goda:varl, about a mile to the north ofDummagudem, were startled by the Talll1ris (village peons) of the neighbouring village bringing about tw..enty fowls'and ordering-them to be sent on to the nex~ village sonth of Dnmmagndem. On being asked the reason of this order, they replied that the cholera goddess was seleoting her viotims in the villages further north, and that to induce her to leave their parts some of those villages had seE.t these fowls as o:fferings to her, but they were to be passed on as far as possible before they were slain, for then she would follow them in anticipation of the feast, and so might be tempted quite ont of these regions. The polioe however interfered, and' they were passed baok into the Upper Godavari Distriot, C. P., but I could not find out wha.t eventna.Ily was the fate of the fowls. I ought to add that the villages on the banks of the Godavari are chiefly inhabited by Hindus, and they were the people who were passing on these o:fferings,

There is generally one vD-pu. for each g6m, and in a. certain village, whose name I cannot get hold o~ there is the chief veZpu for the whole tribe of K a i s. When any of the inferior vepus are carried about, contributions (in kind or in cash) are collected by its guardians almost exelusively from the members of the ge-1IJ8 to which the dlp" belongs. "When the superior 'lJslpu is taken to a.ny village, all the inferior 'DlpU.S are brought, and with the exception of two are planted some little distance in, front of their lord. There are two, however, whioh-are regarded as lieutenants of the paramount; power, and these ILl:6 planted one on each side of their superior. As it was expressed to me, the chief vllpu is like the Raja of Bastar, these two are like his ministers of state, and the rest a.re like the petty za.mindi1r, under him. The largest share of the offerings goes to the chief, the two supporters then claim a :fair amo1lllt, and the remainder ir:. equa.lly divided amongst those of the third rank.- No K 0 i s from this part ever gO on any Bort of pilgri.mag~, &c., to the village where this highest; 'IJ~u is kept.1

The Koil.

.' -


[FEBJI,UA.B.T, 1879,

.At the present time Koi bridegrooms and brides are not" distinguished" from the rest of the wedding guests." by a piece of cardboard on the forehead of each, marked with a triangle."

It is scarcely correct to say that the K 0 i s worship the ".spirits of the mountains;" they scknowledge that they worship the deuatalw or the dayyamull' (demons) of the mounta.ins, and those who " know well that the gi-eat God is the creator, preserver, and punisher of the hlllD.lm race" are very few and far between.

The K 0 r ra. R h n is supposed to be the deity who has supreme control over tigers, and the above-mentioned friend of mine once sa.w , a small temple devoted to his worship, a' few miles from the large village of Gol1.a.palli, Bastal', but it did not seem to be held in very great respect.

The names most revered are those of the pa~Qa.va family, and ihe name B h 1 m a is generally pronounced a.t the commencement of all marriage ceremonies. The1 say their dance is copied from. B h ima's march a.fter. a certain enemy.

There is no Koi temple in any village near here, and the K 0 i s are seldom if ever to be found near a Hindu temple. Some time ago there was a small mud temple to the goddesses Shlamml and Komma.lamma at Pedda NaUapaUi, and the head Koi of the village was the pujtlri, but he became a Christian nine years ago, and took to cultivation immediately, and the temple fell into mins and. soon melted. away.

Tn every Xci m7n4tu there are two leading men who fill the poets of advisers and helpers to the samatu dina,; they are called P e ~ ~ a n ad i r u 1 a, and in fW6r'1 Tillage there are one or more Pe~~anandA ruIn who assist in like matmer the head man of each vi1la.ge.

The CI1Stom of oaJlingthe K oi s 4oraZ'II (4ora= lord. T~.) has been traced by BODle (Oe'lttraZ p~ Gtuetuer, p. 500) to the ending tor in the 1f01'd Koitor. This has always seemed to me to be mther do!lbtfol, as this honorific a.fh is DOlI 0IIl1 eonoed.ed to the K 0 i a, but also to amnl· ot.her oastea; e.g. the (true) VeDamma cadet &lid to aU the most inftnent:ia1. natives in ~ independent ar llElmi-independent neigh_ bomrmg ..... AD. the petty .tJmiwd4,.. in .... In ih1J8 ~ .... hatever may be ..... .. the X oisH" SO much apart,

a.nd a.s the only other people who usually reside in their villages are their MaZa and MadJiga serva.nts, to whom the Kois a.re rea.lly doraZu (lords), it seems to me more probable that theseserva.nts conceded to them the same title as the lower Hindus concede to their Vellamma. masters. Whether the derivation from-tor would account for the K 0 i, women being honoured with the full title dora 8anuZu (ladies) seems to be me to be a little doubtful. Many of the K 0 i s on the Ba.st&r plateau, and more pa.rticularly those who are Saivites, call themselves the B h 11 m iRa z u I u, i. B. the kings of the earth.

The ma.ternal uncle of any ,Koi girl has the right to bestow lier hand on anyone of his sons, or any other sttita.ble candidate who meets with his approval. The 'father and the mother of the girl have no acknowledged voice in the ma.tter. A similar cnstom prevails amongst some of the K 0 m a ~ i (VaiSya.) caste.

At present the K 0 i s around here have very DtW festivals except one at the harvest of the lonna (Borgh1l/lll, wlgfVIB). Formerly they had one not only for every grain crop, but one when the ippa flowers (Bassia Zatifolia) were ready to be gathered, another when the pumpkins were ripe, and so on with reference to all their vegetable produce. Now at the time the lonna crop is ripe and ready to be cut they take a. fowl into the field, kill it, and sprinkle its blood on any ordinary stone put up for, the occasion, after which they are at liberty to partake of the new crop. In ~y villa.ges they would refuse to eat with any K 0 i who has neglected this ceremony, to which they give the name Jrottalu, which word is evidently the plural of the Telugu adjective kotta = new. The Hindus seldom put the sickle to any field without similar bat rather more ela.bora.te ceremonies.


I ha.ve severa.1 vocabularies which I hope to oomplete and send to the .fudia,,. kl.tiq'IJary some time during the next few months, but thinking that some Tamil scholars will be glad to see at once a. ahOi'!; vocabulary I :ha.Te sent the f()llowmg. The K u langaage menticmed l7y Bishop Oa.ldwell in his GrMlll11l4f' of the Dravidiar. Larr.guagetl seems to be the langaage or the people whom we here deaigDa.te K 0 is; whatever may be the name they give to themselves in on-, they an caB tbemaeJ.T811 K 0 I. here.


As, witb the exception of ~ rry few words,

TamiJ is an unknown tong ) me, I have re-

£rained from attempting to '" the similarity

of some of the Koi words tt .mil words. In these parts the K 0 i s use a. grtlat many Telugu words, and cannot always olearly understand the K 0 is who come from the plateau in Bastar ; and a. few years ago when Colonel Haig travelled as far as Jagdalpuram the Kois from the neighbourhood of Dumma.gudem who accompanied him were frequently unable to carry on any conversation with many of the Kois on this plateau. There are often slight differences in the phraseology of the inhabitants of two villages within a mile of each other, as last year when two of my teachers living not more th.a.n a. mile apart were collecting vooabnla.ries in the villages in which they lived they complained that their vocabularies often differed in points where tbey expected to find no variety whatever. Until my vocabularies are a little more complete I must refrain from noticiug the sounds of the Koi alphabet. It will be noticed how all the words borrowed from the Telugu take the purely Koi terminations in the plural.

ENGLISl[. Ket.


Tappe Tapperu

A vva. (grand- A. vvAnku

!'II other, Tel.)

Elder brother Anua. (Tel.) A.nna.lOru

Younger brother Tammudu (Tel.) Tamm11nku

Elder sister A.kko. (Tel.) A.kkanku

Younger sister Alli.cj.i Alasku

Grandfather 'l'8.ta (Tel.) TA.ta.lOru

Grandmother J{8.ro KAronku

{ M&.amA.m!lu MenamAma-

Maternal uncle (Menama.mi, Tel.) lOru

Father's young- ~ Slldayya SlldayyaJ.Oru

er brother S

:Mother'syoung. ~ Chinni

er sister 5

Fa.ther's sister ~ Men.aporu

l (Menatta., Tel.)




l1lru (rwer, Tel.)

Nela. (Tel.) NeIku Gocj.cj.u (oatt~9,Tel.) Gocj.ku

Konda Kona.ngu

Na.i Naiku

VerkAw VerkAnku

Father Mother

Son Daughter Fire

Water Earth Qow

. Bullock Dog Oa.t

Chatty Tree Man Woman Husba.nd. Wife Buffalo Fowl Oock Tiger Elephant Da.ytime

Night River

Well Oloth Tongue


Hand Nose Ear Eye Foot Belly Loin Hair Knee Back Day

. To-morrow Day after morrow


Month Moon Sun House Hut Star Leaf Flower Stick


'Bandy' Road Field Crop


BingttZar. Ku~QA (Tel.) yam

:M.aJ?ustJJtcj.u Na.~nva. Mutupa.1 Mutte


PZural. KUI].Angu MArAngu M~usku NA~uvakll Mlltupaloru Muttenku Ponku KorJ..-u GoggOcj.ingu J;luvvu.ugn Enagengu wanting.

Korru Gogg04i Duvvu tnaga.

Payyeln (PagaIu,

Tel.) Sarka

S'Vangu(Vll.gu=!l. V"inku ~ naZla, Tel.)

Nuyyi lTel.) Nuyyinku

Chile Chilengu

. Nt1.lik(NA.lnka,Te1.) NAJikengu

~ Netti (Tel.) Nettingu.

Ta.la. (Tel.) TaJangu

Pnrre Parrengu

Ka.i Kaikku

MosOru Kevvu Kal;lcj.u

Kalu (Tel) J;lokko.. Mucj.uslu Kelu Bo~~umenda MMolu Nendu

ROza (Hind..) Nf.di

to- } Ma.nn81;ika.

~ Niruda.n (Nira- Nirudanku • du=lastyear Tel.)

Endu hdku

Nela. (Tel.) Nela.ngu

Nels. (Tel.)


Loou Ketal Ukka

!ki (An, Tel.) PangAri Du~cj.i

S Goodell f(GoddAli, Tel.)


Arri OMnu(Tel.) ~~a(TeL)

MosOnku Kevvuku KaJ?ku K&lku J;lokkangu Mucj.uslllingn 'Kelku BoHumel].a M&1lllingu


LOnkIl ~tnlingu UkkAngu !Jdngu Pangll.ku DuQ.9tngu Gocj.4,elingu

~gu .A.rra.ngu

OMnku P&a:LVangu

36 THE INDIAN ANTIQU~Y. [Fl!llRUAJ1.1, 18.79.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
Bush Potke Potkengu Fever Eg.ki E4kingu
Root Vaku Flesh .A.vungu no pluraZ.
Finger VlI.\Lusu Vanusku Name Pedderll Peddeku
Low ground LOl1-kB. Lo~k;tngu Mouth Parnm Panku
~BOru Borkll Skin Tolu (Tel.) Tcilku
Elevatedground Mi~~a. (Te1.) MiHa.ngu Tail Taka. (Tel.) TciIotngu
Sleep Unzorn ,,0 plural. Tooth PaUn (TeL) Palkll
Dust DumIll&I'!lmu " Bone TS"1l1a. Tstll&Ilc<7U
Food D04a. " Knife Ka.s~ru Ka.seku
Cup Ginne (Tel.) Ginnengu Forehea.d N udnm (Tel.) Nuduringn
Vegetable Kusstri Kussirangn In Februa.ry I hope to take a tour in the
Bird Pi~~a (TeL) Pi~~~u B is ta r country, when my vocabularies can be
Fish sn Kilengn.
Stone Kalln (Tel.) KaJku . enlarged and compared with the words used in
Body OUu (Tel., Olku the very hea.rt of the tract' inhabited by the
Bean C-ul1-4e (Tet) GUJ?e Kois. CUSTOMS OF THE KOMTI C.ASTE.


It is generally believed by other castes that figure of a cow is made of flour, and into its

"hen a marriage takes place in.the family: of a. stomach they put a. miXture of tarmeric, lime,

K 0 m • i some member of this family is obliged and water, oaJled wolcals. This is evidently

to go through the form of inviting the M 11 d i- meant to represent blood. After the cow has gas of the place. If the Mad i gas were to been worshipped in due form, it is oJ!.t up. and hear the in \'itation the K 0 m t i would oertainly to each different &mily is secretly sent that be assaulted and treated roughly i for the portion of the oow which according to onstom Y a dig a s look on the invitation as an insult they are entitled to receive. For example, the a.ndunlucky. InordertopreventtheYUiga.s familyoaJled Komhla.varu receive the hu.ring the invitation, the K 0 m t i takes care horns, the Gun t 1 a the neck, &C. I need hardly to go to the back ofa. M a. diga's house at say that tho Kom ti s stoutly deny having any a tUne when he is not likely to be seen, and such customs, whioh they say they have, through whispers, into an iron vessel commonly used the ill.will of other castes, been credited with. for mea.snring out grain, an invitation in the I cannot discover the connection between two foUowiIig words :-" In the house of the small such di1ferent castes as the K 0 m tis and ones (i.e. Komtis) a. marriage is going fu take M a digas, who belong to dift'erent divisions.

place j the members of the big house (i.e. Madi- The K 0 m tis belong to the 18 pana division,

gas) are to come." whiletheMadiga.s are members of the 9ptma.

The light to kindle the fire used during 'the One reason has been suggested. The caste

K 0 m t i'a marriage ceremoIlf must be obtained goddess of the K 0 m tis is the virgin K a. r-

iroPl a :M i dig a's house; bllt, sinc& the n i kA Am m a, who destroyed herself rather lIi dig .. ~ object to giving it, some Ilrlifioe has than marry a prince becanae he was of another io be used m. getting this fire. caste. She is usually represented by a. vessel

I Iilso find that it is the oustom to obtain the full of water, and before the marriage cere:fireiQr bnming K l m a.-the Indian Oupid,-at ~onies are commenced .she is brought in state , the.d of the Holi feast, from a. M taiga's from hel'tempIeandpIa.cedin the seat ofhonollr '

house. The III dig BoB do not object to giving in the hOuse. '

iIe iD-in fact they are paid for it. The lUdigas claim K.a.rn tH as their

'!'hare is aid to be another queer custom gOd~ ; worship her under the name of M a h aIilllCllDglbeKomti So and one from which some tangi;. and object to the K 0 mtis taking

tI. u. fromilies deriye their distinguishing name. their goddess. .

, ~ tbe maaiage has been oompletetl, t.he Bllff9rilore, Oatobw 1878.

FmLUA.1I.Y, 1879.]





In the story of the Widow's Son, aN orwegia.n few drops caused the horse to stand far out in We, found in Thorpe'S Y'Ul~itle Stories, the fol- the water; nevertheless he at last swam to the lowing incident occurs :-" A youth found him- shore. When the Trolls came to the waber, they self'in the house of a Troll, and entered a room lay down to drink it all up, and they gulped which he had expressly been forbidden to enter. and gulped it down till they burst. 'Now we In it he found a horse, who warned him that are quit of them,' said the horse."

if the Troll returned he would certainly kill A very similar incident occurs in the story of him. The horse then gives him the following Prince Sri n gab h '0 j a in the Kathll Sarit directions :-' Now lay the saddle on me, put Sd.gara, lan~baka vii. tarait.ga 39. The prince on the armour, and take the whip of thorn, the is to marry the daughter of a Rilkshasa. named stone, and the water-:8ask, and the pot with A g n is i k h 8., on condition that he performs ointment, and then we will set out.''' The various tasks. All these he executes successyouth does so, and the swry 'COntinues:- fully by the help of his intended, R 11.p a-

" When the youth had mounted the horse it s i k h A. At last the R A k s has a. A gn i ~ i k h a set oft' at a ra.pid rate. After some time the said to him, "Go hence to the south only two horse said, 'I think I hear lit noise; look round, 1/ojlJ/Tl,aB' distance, and yon will find an empty can you see anything P' 'A great many are temple of Siva. in a wood. In it lives my dear after us, certa.inly a score at least,' answered brother D h 11 mas i k h a. Go there now, and the youth. 'Ah ! that is the Troll,' answered I say this in front of the temple :-' D h ft m 80- the horse, 'he is" coming with all his com- I Sikhs., lam sent by AgniSikha. to invite panions.' They travelled for a long time, until you and your retinue; come quickly, for totheir pursuers were gaining-on them. 'Throw morrowthecereIllOnyofRnpasikhA'smarria.ge now the thorn whip over your shoulder,' said is to take place.' Having said this, come back the horse, 'but throw it far away from me! The here with speed, and to-morrow marry my youth did so, and at the same moment there daughter R 11 pas i k h A." When the treaspra.ng up a large thick wood of briars. cherous Rlkshasa said this to S ! i n g a-

u The youth now rode on a long way, while b h uj a., he consented, and went and told the the Troll was obliged to go home for something whole to Rftpasik!J_l. The good girl gave him wherewith to hew a. passage through the woad. some earth, some water, and some thorns and After some time the horse said, , Look back, ca.n. some fire, and her own fleet horse, and slLid you see anything now P' • Yes, a whole multitude to him, "Mount this horse and go to the of people,' said the youth, 'like a church con- temple, and quickly repeat that invitation gregation.' , That is the Troll j now he has got to D h 11 mas i k h a, and then return on this more with him ; throw out now the large soone, horse at full gallop, and you must often turn but throw it far from me.' When the youth your head and look round. And if yon see had done what the horse desired, 11. large stone D h 11 mas i k h a. coming after you, you must mountain arose behind them. So the Troll was throw the earth behind you in hia way. If, in obliged to go home a.fter something with which spite of that, D h 11 mas i k h a still pursues you, to bore through the mountain; .. nd while he yon must in the same way fling the water behind was thus emplayed the YGuth rode a eonsidee- you in his path. If in spite of this he comes, yotl. a.ble way. But now the horse a.gain bade him must in like manner throw these thorns behind look back; he then sa.w a multitude like a whole you in his way; a.nd if in spite of that he still army; they were so bright thaI; they glittered pursues, throw this fire in his way. And if you in the sun. 'Ab ! that is the Troll with all his do this, yon will return here without the Daitya : friends,' said the horse. ' Now throw the water- so do not hesita.te, go; you shall to-da.y behold bottle behind you, bul; take care to spill nothing the power of my magic." When she sa.id this to on me!' The youth did as he was directed, him, S ; i n gab h u j a took the ea.rlih and the but, notwithstanding his ca.uti~ he happened other things, and said, " I will do so," and mountto iIpilla. drop on the horse's loins. Immediately ing the horse went to the t ..mple in the wood. there rose a vast lake, .and the spilling of the There he saw that Siva. had a. figure of PAr-vatt



on his left, and of Ga~eSa. on his right, and a.fter bowing before the lord of the universe he quickly a.ddressed to D hum a. s i k h a the form of invitation told him by A. g n i s i k h a, and fled from the place at full speed, urging on his horse. And he soon tnrned his head and looked round, and he beheld D hum a s i k h a coming after him, and he quickly threw the earth behind him in his way, and the earth so flung immediately produced a grea.t mountain. When he saw that the Raksha.sa. had, though with difficulty, climbed over the mcnntain and was coming on, the prince in the same way threw the mter behind him. That became a great river in the Riikshasa's path with rolling waves j the Rlkhshasa 'with difficulty got across it, and was coming on, when the prince quickly strewed those thorns behind him, They produced a dense thorny wood in his pa.th. When the Rukshasa emerged from it, the prince threw the fire behind him, which set on fire the path, the herbs and the trees. When D hum a s i k h a. saw that the fire was hard to cross like K hAn d a v a, 1 he returned home tired and terrified. For on that occasion the Rikshasa. was so bewildered by the magic ofR up a. S i k h a. that he went and returned on his feet -he did not think offl.ying through the air"

While I am dealing with the story ofR 11 p aSikH and her 10verStingabhuja., it seems worth while to mention a Scandinavian paraJlel to another incident in bhe same story.

One of the tests whlch the father of the Riklhasa set the young prince was to pile up in a hea.psome sesame seeds which he had already sown. R e. pas i k h A got this done for him in the following way. She created innumerable loUts, .ud by hermagic power made them gather together the sesame seeds. When Sri n g abh uj a saw that, he went and told the Riksb.a.sa that the task bad been accomplished.

Now in a Danish tale called " Svend's ex. ploits," aJ.eo found in Thorpe's Yuletids Stories, there is a very similar incident. Svend is in love with a princess whose father requires him to separate seven ba.ITelS of wheat and seven he.rrels of rye which had been mixed together in one het.p. This was to be done in the course

l .A. bee in K~ 1nn:nt by .Api, the god offire, 'db the helpof Al;ilUl& ItoIId X;ialma:

s~~inm.O_pcnJ"ve)fytAoJogll ".. ~,. lit ... that it is not &Il1lll00llUlWD incident u: ...... 1iIms fartJta hero &Dd heroiDe to reoeire froJn a ~ p""" ~ &i!rJ the gift of & -11. of auch a

. . I .., ... _ tbown em the II01IIld, it -u.

of one night. "Just as Svend was most sorrowful he heard a. rustling in the heap of grain. The moon was shining in ,the granary. and by its light he sa.w that the wheat and rye were gently separating each into its own heap. Here were all the ants for whom he once ernmbled his bread when he first set out on his wanderings, and which had promised that they would return his kindness when the time came. They had all now crept up into the granary, and each, taking a grain on his back,went from heap to heap. Some stood and loaded the others. while others received the grains. And thus they continued working all the night long, until in the morning the wheat lay in one heap, and the rye in another. When they had finished their task, the little ant-king placed himself on the top of the heap of wheat, and asked Svend in a small voice if he were content now."·

I may mention that I have seen a tale taken down from the lips of an Indian servant in which there was an incident mu.ch more nearly resembling the Danish version than that in the Kathd. Sa'fit Sliga'fa. In this latter the ants work because they are compelled, not out of gratitude, as in the tale to which I refer.

To the classical scholar these stories recall the tale of Psyche in the GolaB'll, AlB of A.puleiilB. Venus gave her some wheat, barley, millet,. poppy, vetches, lentils, and beans, and told her to sort them. Psyche sat bewildered in front or the promiscuous heap, when a tiny ant ran busily about and summoned all the ants in theneighbourhood, crying out tothem," Take pity. ye active children of the all-producing earth. Take pity, and make haste to help the wife or Love, a. pretty damsel, who is now in ~ perilous situation." Immediately the six-focted people"came rumring in whole Wa'Ves, one upon "another, and with the greatest diligenceseparat"ad the whole heap, grain hy grain." The resemblance between the second set of incidents may be a.ccidental, being based upon the real or supposed habits of the ant, but the first parallel is' of a far more striking character. It is impossible to doubt that here we have MOUS fOrIll& of the same old-world &ble.

FmmUllT, 1879.]





A :facsimile and analysis of the inscription transcribed and translated below have been published in Messrs. Fleet and Burgess's FaZi, Sa;nskrit, and Old Oano:rese Inscriptions, No. 283. 'l'o the details mentioned there it may be added that the characters are ancient Dev~ilgari, closely agreeing in form with those used in the documents of the Y ! d a vas of Devagiri. The only noteworthy peculiarity occurs in the case of the initial i, which in our inscription consists of three dots joined by a. horizontal line a.nd a slanting one, and of a. curved line below.

It must also be noted that lines 10-23 are slightly mutilated on the left-hand side, and have lost one or two letters eaoh. Most of these Iaeunes, as well as those in the middle of 11. 3, 17" a.nd 22, can be eaSily :6.lled in conjectu~y.

As Mr. Fleet has already stated (Zoo. oit.), the inscription belongs to a chieftain of KhAndes, name~ Go V So n a, an ancestor of the ruler of 1600 villages, S onha da.deva, who. according to Dr. BMft Daji's paWA. inscription of Sa.ka. samvat 1128,1 made a grant of la.nd and money to the oollege established for the study of the astronomer BhAskarAchA.rya's works. It records the consecration of a temple of Siva, which had been begun by In d r a r A. j a, the father of G 0 van a, a.nd Mod been finished after his death, as well as the grant of a village, called D e vas a m g a. m a, made by Go v,a.n a. on that occasion.

From the wording of v. 19, which states that Go v It n a gave the village with the permission of his mother SrI d e v i, and from the f8.ot that v. 11 oontains a eulogy of that princess, it ma.y be inferred that Go v a. n a. was a. minor at the time when the grant was made. Sri d e v i seems to have carried On the government of the province with the assistance of the Pradhtns. Changadeva, to whose praise vv. 13-15 are devoted.

The peaJogy of the fa.mil.y is carried back

aU"Pr: ~ II atNrU ~ ~i"a(Uft ~: cncr<fi: I ~ ~-1-

four generations further than in Dr. BhAd mji's inscription. .As our inscription is dated Saka 1075, or 1153-54 A..D., and as In d rar ilj a, Govana's father, and sixth ruler of the dynasty, must have died shortly after that time, the commencement of the reign of the first prince, Kris h l}. ad j a L, probably fa.lls in the beginning of the eleventh century A..D. The description of the seven chiefs is made up of the platitudes nsnally found in snch 'P'asa.stis, and contains hardly o.ny historical facts. From the expression in v. 6, lJ'1}t1midevagut"lJ.oo bhaktilj. " (his) devotion to his master, to the gods, and to his Gn.rn.s", which applies to K:ri s h J}.araj a IL, and from the epithet pariv'(i,dhadridhabhaktil}., "strongly devoted to his SllZ6- rain," which ocenrs (v. 8) in the description of In d r a raj a, I, however, conclude that these two, at least, like their successors Son had a.d e va and Hem it did e v a were feudatories, either of the Yildavas of Deva..~, or of some other dynasty which at that time held the north-western Dekhan.

The pedigree of the Nikumbhavamh sta.nds. according to our and Dr. BhAft DAjt's inscriptions, as follows :-

Nikum bhavamsa.

1. Kris~ja. I. (about 1000 A.D.) I

2. GovanaI.

3. GoviddarAj&.


4. Govana II.

5. Krishhamj& II.

6. Indral.Aja., md. Srtdevt, of the Sagara race, regent a.fter his death. (SUa 1075, 1158·4 A.D.]


7. Gova.na m. .

9. Hem&didlva [Saka 112a, 1216-7 A.D.]

8. Sonhadadeva..

'lour. R. b. Soc., N. 8.,1"OL I. p.414, and Fleet a.ua. Burgess, loa. cit. No. _ LiDe 1, read ~ ~:.



[FEBRUAltY, 1879.

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:> FEBlI.UAlI.Y, 1879. J



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Om. A.doration to Siva!

1. Ma.y tha.tSamkara. protect you, whose eight formsl-the supporting earth, sun and moon, the givers of joy and light, ether which produces space, fire tha.t gives ripeness on earth, wind (whio7& in the body ads as) vital air, water, (the principle of) life, and the giver (and) increaser of sa.crificiaJ. oblations-have crsa.ted this world.

2. Ha.i1 to the entire great Solar race, from which king N i k n m b h a, best of princes, sprang, in whose line MAndMtA was famous, as well as .Saga.ra., Bha.giratha., and others. ·What greater theme can I choose for my song (than these d68IJPJniJants of the Sun), among whom the Lord of the world himself became incarnate as R a J.Ll. s, to save the world?

S. In that l'lice of king N i k n m b h a the illustrious K:rish:Q.araj a was born, who

Line 17,:read "{sf; o~'tj~i'Sti 0.

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Line 18, read ~ •

Line 110, lff: doubtful. In the facsimile tr is distinCt, and .. sign like e atands under the line; rea.d ~. ~51I.read~ •.

Line 5l8, l'8Bd ~.


reached preeminence in the pearl. garland of famed kings. To him was born a son, who is celebrated (under thB name) G a van a, on account of his protecting (Guana) the earth (go). His son was Govindlloraja,a Ga.ruga. (i,& rending) that serpent, the pride of (hostile) kings.

4. From Govin daaga.insprang Gov an a, best of rulers. His son was the illustric.us K ! ish 7J. a. rAj a., the chief ornament of, N ik u m b h a.'s race. In every region or the earth kings drink even to-day with their ears the nectar of his fame, nodding their heads and closing their eyes (with BOBtasy) on account of its flavour.

5. Han, who formerly desoended, to remove the load of the earth, the son of the enemy of the gods, in the lovely palace of Vasudeva and of Devaka's daughter, a dwelling of Fortune, was born again in the beautiful mansion of king

• For the eight m12rlis or forms of Siva. compa.re .!at. kuntal.il 1.1. The epithet' tha.tgivesnpeness',Jla.kClp!'Qda.¥, is intended to convey more than. one meaning. It indica.tes, I think, that fire causes all the fruita of the earth to ripen, is the principle of digestion, and :finaJ.ly will consume the world. Rega.rding the form. of Siva. named Ja.st _ BOhl;. lingk, note on S8.k. I •. 1.


(Tovana, conquered the foes, made I n d r A raj a protector of the earth, and returned to heaven. 6. Why shall I praise this king K ! ish l]. a. here on earth, as the eulogy of his 'rirtues is enzraved on the tablet of the moon-disc? (S7tall


I ''Pea/; of) his devotion to his lord pa.ra.mount,

to the gods and his gurus, of his high fame, of his exceeding truthfulness, or of his bravery or his nobleness?

t. "0 YIlJlla, say to KrishI}Do, 'Take thou tbis wealth (jor thyself) which thon daily didst give to Brahmans !'a 'No, 0 lord'! 'Why?' • How can I take wha.t (once) has been given? ~either I nor my kinsmen (ever) took that which in jest even had been given.''' Exceedingly rpjoicing at this honourable feeling, he assigned to him a high place in heaven.

8. From K r ish 1]. a. r II j a, endowed with great spiritual merit, was born famous In d l' Qraj s, who slew his enemies, who was firmly devoted to his suzerain, who possessed unthinkable strength in battle, and who ([Jladd.Jtwl) good men as the sun (ea~'-SeB) tbe lotuses (to open.). and (destroyed) the wicked ones as the wild-fire (burns) a forest.

9. His fame resembles a reed that sportively sways in the streams of tears brealdng from the eyes of the wives of very great chieftains, his foes, who, (confolent ,oJ) the strength of their arms, co.rried their heads high. Nowhere has a king been seen or heard of, nor' will one ever appear, who can be compared to illustrious In d ra. ra j a for liberality, trnthfnlness, for (b-raflery Ii,) battle, or virtuous conduct.

1.0. In Indraraja'B kingdom foes become friends, misers fulfil wishes like the Tree of Paradise; the Iron &01>'6 resembles the Golden age.

11. FaithfulBr id evi, sprtmgfrom Saga1'8.'s ra.ce, is his crowned consort, who, peerless among women, tea.ches (the king'B) masures a lesson in liberality. Shall I sing of her fame, ar of her beauty, or of her great good fortnne


or of her liberality, or of her virtue in keeping

her promises ?

12. Her son, forsooth, is Go van a, equal to l4ish1Ja in . . .t equal to .A.rj1lll& in battle,

[FEllRl}ARY, 1879.

a. Nagarjuna in liberality, whose prosperity gladdens the crowds of gods, Brahmans, and saints, just as the moon makes the night-lotuses rejoice, and whose sword, experienced in battle, (resembles) a lion who again and again eagerly desires to roll on the broad frontal globes of the elephants of his proud enemies.

13. His minister, a root of the creeper Fortune that delights in (Ms) wealth, the science of govemment . . • . • . . ., a true hero in ,ery dreadful battles, a learned Brahman, exceedingly skilful in pleasing good men, is the illustrious C h angadeva, who, by his wisdom,

, prostrated (all) enemies at In dr araj a's feet.

14. The kingdom prospers, good men are pleased, spirituai merit grows, all aims are at. tained, the saints rejoice, prosperity grows, while the illustrious Chan ga.deva is the good minister,

15. Regarding- him who possesses great power good men put these questions: "Is he ' Vachaspati or Usanas wearing the garb of man, or is he the treasure called Padma. (dwelling) in the king's hall, Or is he the philosopher's stone descended in consequence of (/£is mast.w's) merit?

16. When one thousand years of the Baka king had passed and seventy-five besides, and the year (oj the cycle oj J~piter was) Srimukha,

1'7. Then that store of all virtues, the illustrious In d r So r8. j a, ordered to be built this lofty temple of the Destroyer of Cupid, in order to ga.in spiritual merit, the exceedingly sweet reward for gifts of land, which is superior to the utterly worthless (happi7leBS of the) world.

18. 0' ye kings who will rule on earth, I, In d r 8. l' 8. j a., ad~ss to you, with folded hands, a fervent prayer :-" As the life of man is transient like a wave, as royalty is unstable like a water-drop on a. lotus-leaf; therefore do not :forsake your duty, firmly to keep faith, and protect what you, what others gave."

19. With the permission of S r t d e v i Govana. gave to the god the village caIled Deva.sa.mgama., (on'theM'!!) wheuhe celebrated the consecration (oJ the t871q!le).

to BrahJuaua by ~ the • 'tua.:! '1;, into which theY h&a. been ooiv~= m:to do this, as it iB aga.iu'st; his duty to ta.ke ~ sifts ; and Yams., pleued, br thia· 4~ or lumoumble dispoai,tion, allota to him. a. high pla.oe m heaven.




BY J. F. FLEET, Bo. C.S., M.R.A.S. rOon,tinued. from ",oI. VII. p. 80S.)

No. LIT. I In the word t·insati, 1.10, the orthography is

The sixth set of the Nerilr copper-plates, : peculiar, in the employment of the guttural spoken of at p. 161 above, is described by I nasal, 1i, instead of the Anu8vltra. With this General Jacob as having" two leaves, almost I instance, we have to compare,-8agatri11.1ilil= eaten away; the middle one wanting. The few : Hdl'itt, 1. 1 of the Badami Cave-inscription, words decipherable convey no meaning." I Vol. VI., p. 363j-JayasiiJza, 1.3 of the Aiho!e

The plates are very thin through corrosion, I stone-tablet, Vol. V., p. 67 j-'IJQi1.Ba, ll.14and22 the second one being almost broken in half; and of No. LID. below ;-iriilSan, 1. 3 of No. XXI. th~ end part of each plate has been entirely II of this Series, Vol. VI., p. 24 ;-Siit.l~a, 1. 8 of broken off and lost. The remnant of the first No. XXV., Vol. VI., p. 3:) ;-and 'lJansa, 1. 13, plate measures 6i'l by 2h"; and the remnant of viMatiuz.aJil,1. 18, and tri(tri)i~ni, 1. la, of a the second plate, 7t" by 2111. The edges of the (P) C h al ukya grant at Jour. Bo. Bl. R. As. plates are not raised into rims. The ring eon- Soc., Vol. X., p. 348.

necting them is uncut; it is about -h" thick and I find this to be another grant of the Western 21-" 'in diameter. The seal on it, circular, and C hal n k y a king P n I i k ~ 5 tn., who is here about 1" in diameter, has the representation of a called Sat y as ray a and Pol eke s i- Va 1- boar, facing to the proper left, in relief on a la b h a. The genealogy commences in 1. 4, the countersunk surface. The contex.t appears to first name mentioned, somewhere in the brokenme to run on from the first to the second plate, off parts, being probably thab of P n I ike s i I. ; and so to indicate that there never was any there is no space for the mention of any name middle plate at all. There are no traces of antecedent to his. His son, K i r t t i v arm a 1, writing on the outer side of either plate. is here called K i r t t ira j a. His son, Sat y ;l-

The characters are neatly formed, of the same Ii ray a-P 0 I e k ~ 8 i· Vall a b h a, is the donor. standard as those of the grant of Man g a1 a, In I. 3 he is culled simply 'Vall a. b h a'; for, No. XL. of this Series. The distinguishing forms in accordance with what was occasionally the of til and fba are that the formeris almost invari· custom in early inscriptions and became the a.bly written in this grant with a loop, and the almost invariable onstom in later times, the latter without a loop. InPoZekesi(si),l. B,and lcaU, name given there is that of the reigning monarch I. 9: the vowel ~ is attached to the la in rather an at the time of the grant, specified by name unnsua] way, and in a. similar way to that in which before the introduction of his genealogy. The it is attached to other oonsonants; it is usually name of the village bestowed, at the end of 1. l:!, made by a continuation of the upward stroke of is partly broken away; it might perhaps be the Za, brought round in a loop to the left so as completed by local inquiry and identification. to join the Za again at the point at which it starts The grant is not dated. Vat u. pi, or BI1dD.mi, from it, and it is hardly to be distingoished from though far away from N arm., seems to be spoken

the vowel i as a.ttaohed to the same letter. of in the last line.


First pZate.

[1] Svasti II Br[1] [U'] Jayati vi.mala-darilshPra.-ra.jitam IOka-bharttuq. II praSamitaripu.1 •• _ ••••• -[sn} [ I] r-ar6b, III avani.ta!a-vigbA(P)t-AbhiIlna-PAtAla-m1l1am II sva-bhuja-s •••••••••• o. [ 8] d=Urd.dhvam=ilrvvi(rvvi)n=:dadhanam II Tad=anu jayati nit yam VaIIabbasy=Api

bAhu[r]=t .••..•..•••••• _

[ '] harshsha-vichchh&c1a-h~ II dvija-va.ra-k~ta-Santi~ s&rVva.-l&kasya pA!a4s II

.A:D.6s• • • • • • • • • • • • .-

1 Seven letters are broken away here ; the last must be m., • E~ht letters are broken awa.l' here.

• In the original, this mark of punotua.tion is wrongly • This vme is one of OIIly three p4d.a.s.

pl&ced between the '1'4 aud the 11. 0 About Dine letters are broken awa.y here. The read-

s Five letters are broken awa.y here. iDg proba.bly WILlI A7Itkc-r40"'Pfriiay·8jlIi'l'jjila.


[FJ!:BRUARY, 1879.

[HA] 'to t A •• [.] 1clrtt1nam d&va.drija-[goru}' ••.•.••• ·•·•·•• , , , , •.. , •. a n l·pn rru:tam

:MAnavya.sa[gatrA\lAm JS. . . • . • . . . . • •

Second i,ZatB.

[.] t ••••• sham ba.hu.[s]u[va1'l;lJJ?[aJlO ..•••..... da.kshi\l.t1pAta-gn(?)ll ••..•••. - ['] Ga(mJg_a.va.bhfitha..snan..Odaka.-pa.vitrlkp.[t&.Sa.]riraQ. [II*J TaBYa.' pntral}, Sn·Kirtti-

• rlja.l}, [II.] [Tasy=atma.jBl1. Sri. Sa 11]_

[5] tyASraya.l;l Polek8si(si).VaUabha-ma.hAraja.l;:. Kuva.!a(?)la(P)hasu18 .•••.•...•••.• [ I) ma.b.a..d!nam viprebhya.Q. datta.va.n II Tada. kAle idam=api sasa.Dam ll Varchcha(?). sagotra-1fl • • • • • • • • ~ •

eO] r.8ohAryya.sya. pa.iicha-vi:ilSa.15ti.nivarttanam(nam) raja..man&la, ksMtram dattam [11-] Ta.tra pa 15. • • • • • • • •

Ell] 17 • • • • •• VA(i')tA(?)pl.grAm&ls........ . • • . •• • mahG..patha.-lD• • • , • • ••

Tr~nslatio7f,. His son, S r i·8 a. t y A s ray a, the Great

Hail! (Ma!l there be) good fortune! Vic- ,King P a I e k U i-Va..J.l a b h a, gave to the torious is [the form, which was that ofa boar.] Brahmal}.s a. great gift, [the village named) of the lord ofthe world, who a.llayed. '. . • ., (?)K u v a ] AI a h &8 U • • • • • • •• At that ..• the hostile ., ...•.••.•. enemies same time, also, this oharter (was gi'IJBf&).

of the gods,-which was adorned by spotless A field, (of the mel181M'e of) twenty-tive "wartusks; which had the unbroken foundations of ta~as'by the royal measure, was given to ..•• he~l. . , . . • • • . . . the surface of the earth ; •. r A 0 h h Y a. of the (P) V 1;\ r c h a. gM:ra.

which. . • . . . • . • . . . . . . • • by its own There..................· at the

arms; and which lifted up the world on high! village of (?) V A tAp 1 . ; . . . . . . • • . . .

After that, victorious for ever is also the arm •...•• the high-road .••.••••

of Vall a b h a, -which is the canse of the No. Lill.

mtermption of the jato ... , ....•... , General Jacob's pa.per on the Nerdr pla.tes is

..•.•• , and whioh effects the tranquillity supplemented, a.t JO'IJIf'. Bo, Br, B • ..4a. Soc., Vol. of the best of the twice·born. and which is the Ilf., Part II.,p. 211, by's. transcription, tra.ns]a.protector of aU mankind ! tion, and ha.nd-copy, of a. oopper-pla.te grant

[In the lineage of the C h a I n k ya. s ],-who from Kbchr& or Kbch~m. This plaoe is someat'!: possessed of fame [acquired by defeating] whe~ in the VeilgurlA PA~A of the RatnAgiri many [Icings] ; [who meditate on the feet of] the District; bd I cannot find it on the map. The gods and the twice-born and spiritual preceptors; ancient spelling of the name was 'K a 0 h eh u - wnoarethedescendantsofHbiti.;whoareof raka.', as.shown by the grant itself. Ndr theline&.ge of MAna v ya;[who sacrifice]. •. is in Long. 73" 42' E., and Lat. 16°1' N: The

• . • . • • • . • • • • . .; and who. • • • . .: ancient name is given in just the same form 'in

• • • • • • • • • • . . . which cost much gold another of the grants to be published hereafter ;

• • • • • . • • • • . • • • • endowed with dona.- there is nothing to indica.te whether the, vo~el tiODS •••••••••••• ,-(there was). . •• of the first syllable is long or short, but it has • • • • • • • • 'J whose body was 'purified by the appearance and sound of a DrAvicJian word, the water of the (tWBf') G a. il g A which was with the shorb vowel 6.

used for his purificatory bathing. His son was The plates, which bve been obtained through

S r t-K ir t t i r & j a.. the, Politica.l Superintendent of SA wantwA4i

13 A.bout six lett.ers are broJam away here. Part of the :6.m is mb1e.l.. and th,! ~at 1Il1I.8t be c1l., is, Ii, P, PA, m, .11, or 11. 'J:J1.8 %8IIIIIiIIDlII syllablea were pGQ1'bly ~ dMyG-gf'4mam •

•• Six or Beven lett.ers are broken away here. 11 Bee para. 4 of the intzoduotory l'elDllol'b •

.. One letter is illegible here, ud about six others are

broken away •

• i One letter is broJam a.way here, ad 0119 is illegJ.'ble. It A.bout twenty ~ 1.1'8 broken away here.

U Aboa.t six letters are brokm away here.

., There is evidently a pIIIIJliug alltlllion here to the eon. ,ql8l; of lWaha or lWahatatdlui.Da.



FEBl!.U.!l!.Y, 1879.J




for me to reedit the inscription from them, t y a. No date is given, beyond the twelfth day belong to WasudAva Rimkrishl}&. Tengse of of the bright fortnight of V a. i sA k h a,

Kochre. They are three in number, each In my remarks on No. XLI., I hazarded the about 1tll long by 3kll broad. The edges of the conjecture, equallyapplicablehere, that the wordplates are not raised into rims. The ring con- ing of the grant indicated that Vi jay a b h a vnecting them is unont ; it is about ill thiok, t i ri k a. continued to reign after her husband's and 311 in diameter. The seal on it is circular, decease,-probably as regent during the childabout Ittl in diameter; it has. raised in relief hood of a son, whose subsequent death led, to on a coantersunk sarface,-at the top, the the aecesaion of VikramidityaI. Iclidnot sun andmoon] in the middle, the words Srf- know then of the seal of the present grant, which Ohandraditya; and at the bottom, a lotus. fuDy jllStifies my conjeotnre, If C han d l' a-

Except that the letter tlta is not so clearly d it Y a had been still alive at the time of these formed with a loop on the bottom stroke,' and twO grants, he would hardly have been described except in the form of the ~, the characters are merely as the elder brother of Vi k ram Athe saJ:ne as those of No. XLI. of this Series at ditya I . .And, on the other hand, ifVikravol.VII.p.163. TheyareearlyWesternChalu- madityaI. wason the throne at the time of k y a characters, but somewhat influ,enced by these two grants, then his name, and not that the northern forms; this is observable in,-I, of C han d l' a. d it Y a, would 'certainly have the vowel a, which,-whether by itself, or as been engraved on the seal of the present part of ai or a,-is usually written above the grant.

linc;-2, the vowel ai, which is expressed by The name ofVij ayamahAdevt is followtwo strokes above the line ;-3, the triangular ed, in 1. 18, by rather a curious word, for which shape of the va, ;-and 4, the form of the !la, I cannot offer any very satisfactory explanation. which is exactly the same as, for instance, in the It is evidently a Dl'iviQjan word, and may be V 0.1 a b h i gJ.'8.D.t of D h r n vas ~ n a II., at perhaps some title, or the household-name, of 'Vol. VI., P: 12. Except in the form of the -tla, V i j So yam a had e v i. I can find no word the characters are also the same as those of in the Dietionaeies approaching to' pudht or another (P) C hal u k y a copper-plate grant path!.. But, as regards the first two syUa.bles. from the Konkal}, at Jour. Bo, Br. B . .As. 800., we have in Canarese, boddi, 'tpe name of a Vol. X., P: 348. Contrary to the practice of certain shrub'; and boq,if,i, 'a harlot', which. t~e preceding grant, No. LIT., and of No. occurs, in the form poiJ.q.i, in the names' Ga.. XL.,-the ta is written without, and the na yin d a po IH i', and ' Bad i p 0 Q q. i ' or with, a loop. ' B a ! i P 0 q. q. i', in the First .Arahl1!ological

It is a Western C hal n k y So grant. The .Report, Pl. XLIIT., No. 25, 11. 4-5. .And I have genealogy commences with Pu Is. k ~ s i-Va 1- an Old Ca.narese inscription, from a pillar in the 1 a b h a, or P u 1 ike s 1 I., and reaches down porch of the temple of the god 11 a h A k -ft ~ e s: to Chandra.ditya, the son of SatyA- vara at Badami, which records agrantbya ha y 8., or Pu Ii k ~ at II., and the elder 8'11.[8, or' harlot', named Vi nAp tI t i, who was brotherofVikrama di ty a I. In No. XLI. the daughter of K n c hi p~~i and the grandof this Series, this king's name reads at first sight daughter of R ~ v a m a Ii c h a ~ and was ~e as 'Indraditya'j but I gave reasons there prd:!la-vaHabhe, or 'heart's darling', of the for correcting it into' C h e nd 1'1 di ty a', and Western Cha 1 u ky a king Vij a y a.d i tyathe reading is undoubtedly' Chand rD. di tya.' S ... ty8:81'8.ya. But Vij ayama had A v i in the present grant, both in 1. 15, and on the is called mahiahj, 'the queen-consort, the first seal. or properly consecrated wife of the king', in

As in the case of No. XLI., the grant is made both of her' grants; and it is hardly poslill"ble by Vi jay a m a had h ~ or V ij a y a b h a v- that a quesn-conscrt should be selected £rom H r i k A, the queen-consort of Chan d r8. d i- the harlot class ..


Fi;rBt pZate.

[1] Svasti.

[ '] sa.gotraJ;l&m

SrbnatAm mrltt-putr~&m

sa.kaJa...bhu"V&llllo-SIllbstaya.mAna.-lUnavya.. sapta-Iaka-mitri(tri)bhis=sa.pt.&.


[FBl!.B.UAlty, 18'79~

[1I1 matri(tri)bhir=abhivarddhitanAm Karttik~ya-parirakBbs.l}&-prApta.-kalyA~

i-i I}ll-para"Iilpm\lam bhagavan-Narayaq.a.-pra.sadBt-sa.masa-

[.] dita,.varlha_Iaii'chha.n_~ksha.l}a-kshal]a-vaSiJqi.t-as~~ha-mahi?h:ritihh '. .

[ • J ChaInkyanAm kuIa.m=a1aiJka.rish~or=asvamMh-avabh~tha-sdna-'paVltri-

[ , J k[r ]i(k~)ta-gatrasya Sri-PuIakMi- ValI.a.bha.:i:na.ha[ r8.]ja- Sl

Second pZate; forst side.

[ .] sya p1'8op&utra.I;J. parAkram.AkrAn~ V ~na.~~y.adi-para-n~(nri)pati-ma.J?Qa.-

[.] la.pr8; .. tiba.ddha.viSuddha-ktrtti.Srt-Kirttivarmma-prl(p!l)thiVlvallabha.-~hl1- .

[10] rajasya. pautraB::sa.m.a.ra.-sarllsakta-sakal-ottarapath-Mvara..Srt-Harshsbs.-

[11] varddhana-pari.jay_apaJa.bdha.para,mesvar-apa.ra-nama.dh~

[IS] ya.sya Saty8.Sra.ya-Brl~pri~.~)~vtva¥ab~maharAj-adhiz:aja:-

ell paramASvarasya priya-t.a.naya.(yO) ra.J?&-Sll'8S1 rlpu-na.r~drm=[d]l-

Second ptate; 's8cor&a Me.

[16] 8i. diBi jitvA sva-vailBa-1S jAm laksbmtm prapya· obs. paramASva.ratim=a..

[15] ni.vArita.- Vikra.madityas=ta.sya. jyAsh~hO bhrAta Sri-Ch!mdrAditya-

['S] pri(p~)thivi vallabba-maMraj-adhirajas=tasya. P1'8o(pri )ya-ma.hi-

(1'] sM Ka.li-kaIa-p1'8otipaksha-b~ftt8. Srt-Vijaya.maha(hA)dA-

eSJ vi boddie? iJgi.)pildh1(? ~ht) sarvvan=a.jii3.pAyati [I·J. Vidlta.m=a.s~ va VaiSAkha..

[11 snkla.-dvadaSyam sopavisa. i.(? a)sya Vatsa-ssa(sa)gotr8ya KAkha-

[IOJ n •••. va(?)gOla-sv8.min~· Kochchuraka-gtAmA Vakul&ka.-

Tlcirii prate.

rlJ chha.(chchha)-ksMtra-nRma~khajjalla.-Bamhita.m udaka-pllrvva.n=datta.mllfo a.para-pd.

[RS] rvven6(rvvatal}) s~tuna nivArITate [11*] Yo=smad-vansa-jO=nya v::Anupala.-

[--:I yati. sa. pUIJ.Ya-bhRg=bhavati yas=ch=-il.paha.rtta .sa. _ pa.ii.cha.mahRpA-

[U] tAk::a.-ea.(sam)yuktO bhavati [II·] Shash~im. varsha.-Bahasra~i svargge

[16J m6dati bMmi-da(daJ;J.) nohchMttA oh=humant8. cha tauy=eva. naraka(ke) va-

ee] s&[t.] I (II) Sva-dattam pa.ra-.dattil.(ttam) va yo brats. vasundhar!m Bhash~-varsha[U'] ~ vish.~hAyim jayatA kri(kri)mi(miq.) II Pa.mg&ihikbal]iJik!dro(?)sa(?) [11.1


Hail ! The great-grandson of the Great King S r 1-P n 1 a. k & &i-Vall a. b h a, whose body was purified by ablutions performed afi;er celebrating horse-sacrifices, and who adorned the family of the C hal uk y a B, who are glorious, and who are of the lineo.ge of M 4 n a. v y a which is praised over the whole world, and "Who are. the descenda.nt.e of H a. r itt, and who 1a-n; been preserved (&c., as in No. XLI.) jibe grandson or the Great King Ih "l-K i r t t iT&rml, the fa'.ourite of the world, whose ~ mme (&0., as in No. XLI.) i-the dear son of. tlI8 favourite or-the world, the Great King,

... 'r..e t- 1ett.ent are wry fa.int., the t'4 bema almost IIdi:reJ;y I!IIIlIMd I ud they are spaced out 80 -.Me as to ~-ny. thUd of the "Whole line in the original..

.. See ,... 4 of tile i:aa:oducbory remarb to No.


. .. 0.. Wbw ia hRe1J c1iaoInible hare, &lid is a.lt.ogether ........

.... W. II ,..,:r.ma. It; IIIIIIII; :Uft ~ muoh

the supreme, lord, Sat ya B r IL ya, who was posaessed of the second name of 'Supreme Lord' (&c., as in. No. XLI.) j-(was) Vi k r am a d i t Y a, the unrepulsed, who, having conquered the hostile kings in. country after country in the van of war, and haVing acquired the ("egoI) fortunes of his fa.mil.y, (attained)1ff the position of a supreme lord.

His elder brother (was) S rt·C han d lAd i t Y 8, the favourite of the-world, the ~t King, the supreme king.

His dear queen, Sr1.Vij ayama.ha dA vi, ••••••••••••• ,5IG, who was opposed to (the "ices oj) 'the Kali age, commandS all

more distinct when the plates were esamined bJ General Jacob's P&l}.Qit; for it is aholllll. in the ha.nd·copy amr.axed to his paper.

IS lJ:i the origiDaJ. text there is no verb to complete this

- HJltence and to govern p~t4m. We have to

'"Tkrt{tl ~lltrmMl, L 18; mea.uiDg 11lIknoWlL

Bee the mtrod.uotory remarkS. GenenJ. JacOb'8 P&\I.p.t

aIran no'splematiml Oi this wold. .



FE:BRUUY, 1879.]



people :-" Be it known to you! On the twelfth day of the bright fortnight of (the month) Va is a k h a, at the time of a fast •••..••.•. ", the a.ggregate of khajjanasls named Va.kula.kachchha-kshHra.", at the 'Village of K 0 C h e h n r a k a, has been given, with libations of water, to (1) K e k h 80- • • . vag & 1 as v A m t of the V a. t sa. gatra. On the west and the east it is protected by an embankment. He, who preserves this, whether of Our lineage, or another, enjoys (the

I reward oj) religious merit; he, who confiscates it, incurs the guilt of the five great sins."

The givel' of land dwells happily in heaven for the duration of sixty thousand yeal'S; the confiscator (of a grant of lan,l), or one who connives (at 8uck oonfiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell I He is born as a worm in ordure for the duration of sixty thousand years, who confiscates land that has been given, whether by himself, or by another!

• • • .. • • • • • .. • .. •.. 80




Dr. Ca.ldwell i.n p. 452 (conf. Preface, p, vii.) of the second edition of his Grammar (of A.D. ISiS) states as the result of his valuable researches .. that the Dravidian idioms exhibit traces of an ancient, deep-seated connection with Pre-Sans()l'it, the assumed a.rcb,aio mother-tongue of the Indo-European fa.mily,-whilst a.t the same time the traces they exhibit of relationship to the ~guages pf the Scythian group, especially the Ugrian tongues, are, on the whole. closer, more distinctive, and more essential" ;-whereas Dr. Pope's contention, in his .. Notes" (p. 158). is ., tIia.t the doctrine that the place of the DrAvieJian dialects is ro.ther with the lryan than with the Tur&nian family of languages is still capable of defence." My intention is not to write in favour ot either of the opinions. but to recommend the use of additional and a.t the same time plain and convincing arguments. Let me add that a quite astonishing number of Dravi4a roots (or st~ms) and nOUD-B has been incorporated into Sanskrit-a circumstance which, to my knowledge. only too little notice has hitherto been ta.ken of. Suoh roots generally terminate in a cerebral. .

Of the fourteen words adduced by nr. Pope to point out the re1a.t.ionship of the so-called D r av i Q. a languages to . those of the A r y 9. group, nine,ha.ve already been used by Dr. Caldwell for the very same purpose. In his Grammar Dr. Caldwell compares p 6. 4 ~th Sanskrit p~lJ (p. 472); pal t i. with Sk. palli (p. 459) and 'll'c!}."r (p. 485); P e:Q. with f~m~'4Q. (p: 486); P a g a. i .

If A.sya" or t£Sya" L 19; meaning not a.pparent.

~. General Jacob's Pazy}it tra.nslates khD.jja,na. by 'saltmarsh.' The only _ ILJ?Proa.ch I C8.n find to it is, in the Comp6!1.cZivm. of Molesworth's Ma;l'u,tM-EngliBh Dietiona.ry, kMjllill, 'oultura.ble mud, lying along the ooast or aJong inlets, a.u.4 liab~e to be overi1owed by the tide.'

with Sk. bhaj, bkdpa (p. 459; con]; 4'73. (94); po gu with .Sa", and tlddo (p. 48i); P 301 a with Sk. pulu, P""' (p, 4(72), phal (p. 494), and pars, porti.o, p!w. '!roM, Gothic and Old German lilu (p. 484; p.485 also pi r i with Sk. p~al,1rop6), porti.o, pars, and p. 486 also adjective per u with Sk. pul", P""'; barTl, '!larA); p tl. with Sk. phulla (p. 4i4); PO!;U (theporru of Dr. Pope) with Sk. bhri, !/llpo>,flro, Gothic b!liram.lJdr, Mram, Old High German Mrall, peran, Old English bearn,' 0. child' (pp. 4i3, 486); and paT. u (Dr.Pope's perru)withpario,frw (p. 486). Nos. 3, 5, 6, and12 in Dr. Pope's lis~ he has associated also with Skythian and partly Semitic terms, so that for this reason they are somewhat out of place in the" Notes."

Dr. Pope's words that; I have not observed in the lists from Dr. Caldwell's Grammar are five in number, viz. pull u (or pul), p u 1, P tH h a i (or pJdai), paHam,andpulai.

Is it a foot that the nine words of Dr. Caldwell, and others introduced by him with the same view, a.re ultimately related to the terms of the Indo-European family, with which he has compared them P He rightly cautions his readers a.ga.i.nst such a supposition (p. 509), and himself argues cautiously. It is worth while to examine the said nine words and the rest in Dr. Pope's list, and to see 'Iv hether their relation to the Indo-European languages is real or not, or at least doubtful.

1. P§.q.,' to sing', is not. connected with Sanskrit !)ad, but, as Dr. Ca.ldwell has stated, with Sk. p~A, • to recite' (in a singiug way). Pat" does not appear to be Vedic; it seems to be another form of Sanskrit p~, OIItlF, 'to ~peak (bll4sM,). The three roots are apparently borrowed from Dravi<Ja" wherein, e.g., pa~ (pa~).pag, pay. pa~, pal, bag, ~a!, val, mean' to sound, to speak, to sing.' I may remark that the change of consto.nts in thiti

•• Se. 'the :6.e1d of the ma.tl!hy ground where there a.re

a.kula..trees. .

30 The :final nine letters &.l8 quite mUntel1iglole. Per. haps they contain the na.me of t.he engraver, or the pro. m1Jlga.tor, of the grant.




Dravidu line oft"rs no difficulsv whatever. Dra'l"i~ ; Bopp, for the sake of comparison, thought of a ad, 't; read, to recite,' as to f~rm could be derived i Sk. root with final ty, nz. of "V ewe ",",p1y, 'confrom Sanskrit t·ad or rach, but there is no necessity ! vitiarl', 'to abuse', 'to scoff," Vedic piyurll, for doing so. I p1Yllka, p1yatnlI, P1Y1l, mean' a sco:fl'er.' P1y ouri-

2. Pap i, the palli of Sk. dictionaries, is a. II ously reminds one of Draviga. pey, ' a demon' ; com.

DraTi4n term of •• '/pa,!, poy, pal', pa!., 'to lie Sk. phi, 'a rascal.' Prof. Benfey ccnfers p£jur down', 'to settle', 'to go down' (conf. No. 13). (referred by Prof. Bopp to p(y) with papa. It P!l,lJj, i.e. PQ~i, means' a house; a settlement or I seems unnecessary to remark that 'to hate' does Tillage.' From tbe same root p a 4, amongst I not coincide with ,'" pag (hag), but with Sk. ",",sad. others, Sk. paf~IJ, lIaf!a, hatt~, pattana. are derived, 5. P og, 'to go away', or 'to go! ~alll6)and VentO Pattaaa has also the form of pattana, but it arc generally compared with 8k. "'gam or gao wo~ld not be adriseble on account ot'this curiosity ! The archaic form of pog or hog is pog (looy), to identify Sk. pat in the meaning of' to descend" I which presupposes a form po~ or ko~. This with Draviqa 1'"1, as tlieir meaning does not quite form, 'iz. ko\l, 'to go', occurs in Sk. dictionaries, coincide. For my own part I suppose that rilla into which it bas been transplanted from Dravida.

or "ella belongs to Sk. "o/I:ri, 'to surround, to 6. Pal a, 'several, many.' .As the root of this

enclose: the pag of No. 4 may be taken; or one may think

3. PSJ;l. This belongs to",",pi~l, 'to come in- of the Draviqa, pa,! (pUt]), pal, pag, pay, pal, pa!l, te close contact; to seize.' A secondary root is batl, I:al, 'to increase', b(l,~, ba!:, 'to grow, to ,e~, pU'!-. pill, 'to unite.' The .femnIe elephant is thri.e' ; par, 'to grow esbensive, to spread.' With Jlq,i. pei!1. pe#fa, pe,!, pu'!, pp,!~i, p;:~I\la, p~tl~lll, pe\!u, regard to form and meaning thet;e exists a notice~J"eyya, 'female'; p{!]1~i, p;:~H (i.e. pe~li), 'a. able connection between Nos. 4 and 6; con£. also ma.tch or mar.riage.' Regarding the meaning com. No.7, Sk. 1'kal, 'to burst; to expand, to bloom' Sit. p4~igra1aal]a, 'marriage'; ptl7Jigrd.ka,' a. hns- (p.p, plwlla); 8pkf4, spka7J#, 'to burst; to open, band.' The beginning of a popular song of the I to expand' (p.p, -sphl4ita); 'further compare Sk. Ba4agas on thtl Nilagirj. is:" To~adamma. of twelve I sphar, 'to spring up, to swell, to spread' (p.p. years, timely married, and quickly seized ("pi!!) , sphurita)' Conf. Sk. pa~ala, , a heap, a. multitude' ; the hand" (of the great king Liilga). If this ",",pi~ palla va, 'extension, a sprout, a shoot.' I cannon C&1ID.ot be shown to be an original household but believe that the three Sk. roots adduced word of the Arya.a, either p~t} has been borrowed under this head are of DraviQ_a. origin; but fail by them, or 'hen', 'bean', belong to a ditl'erent to see that Dl'aviqa, paZ bea.rs a direct affinity root. For the present I recognize pi~ only in to'll"OAE' A.S.feZa, German'IJOeZ, viJeZ (pUls = prdyas; theobecureSk. roots pis, pilij, 'to seize' (dddlut), paTS = prithak). These are related to Sk. roots pri. wh\ch are regular modifications of it. PiJ~I,' to prt, and pur, 'to be full or :filled', which complex unite', occnrs as PnJ. lSZeaha.) in Sk. dictionaries. of bases might rather be connected with the n.ilIl.I bas been .connected. with Sk. bkll (bhd- DmvicJa. themes pul, piJl, 'to increase' (see No. ",,,).1 i think I am not mistakeu' in doubting 7) ; but the root of these is pu~.

eveu the radical nature of the initial in pe~. 7. P 11, P 11 v u or p u v v u, 'a bloom or blos-

4. P aga i, hag e, or p age, 'variauce', 'dis- som.' Shall it at once be said that p4 and cjiAOor, cord', 'eumity'; C an opponent', belongs to "'pag, fl6s, ~a blossom', belong to the same root P I think 'to be severed by an intervening space'; 'to we have at least to seek fora. medium. The ancient separate or divide'; the root appears also as pang, DravicJa. "'1'~l or J1u~ that Concerns us here, and ,~, P"'_. pGl, pa •• p~, bag, "ag. and "lIiig. Its initial that bears also, e.g., the forms plftl, Pf4, pug, purl, lett.er',is not exactly radicaL Sk. pat, 'to divide: put. pul, pun. PU?:, pil!, plll, pug, pUs, pul, pijn, pi1r., p4 ; ioaplit. to break'; "t4, tla!l~,TJaJ}.4. 'to divide'; Ipha#. po~ po~,pog, pot, pod, POI', POB,' bas among others "h,,~,·' to burst, to break,'; 1'1&01, ' to burst'; 1Ial, the following meanings :-' to burst, to open, to c to divide, to di~, to plough', are more than pro- expand, to come or brea.k forth. to rise, to increase, ba.bly botT01Fed from Draviqa. pag (com. No.6). to swell; to Hash, to glitter, to burn.' Sk. VedicSk:.61aj, 'to divide;' bhllJij. (bhang), 'to 'plit', ,lPlit4. Ilphl&!.1~, ~ph:u.,!~, • to burst, to open, to exthough related as to Bound, mayor may not be palld;'to become manifest, to appear' ; 811""'" radically connected with it; with bkalY, LB.t. 'to break forth, to swell; to glitter'; 'pool. • to / .... , C-oth. lirikcra, &0., have been compared. collect; to appear'; ~, JlII~#, 'to shine', accordW~her kS. ~t09ec,:,flfl1l, 'to hate' ;/dk, ' a foe' ; ing to my opinion .are Sanskritized forms of Gothi;Jlltha,. feud ; Germanf~hde, eroconnect- ~ These so-called Sk. themes in a slightly ed, 'Iflth p4g, IS more tha~ doubtful. =:ro£. Fr'j ~erent form have appeared already under Nos.

t. = ~ .d::::: of Ji atn'Ung 1IIIotme, 'VlI. a. tadbha~ of Sk.patnt, 'a wife', is pa n n i, and this

w reprd to J'~ certainly reminds the ea.r of J'~ or J'~I4, 'a female.'

FEBRUARY, 1879.]



4 and 6. Pkalla, 'blown; all expanded flower' (= pkalya), is taken as the past participle of pkal. Another spurious Sk. root that is to be mentioned 'here is pul, 'to be or become great or large'; compare also the similar pfll, 'to accumulate'; and pola, a (heap'; pulin!lJ, ~ an alluvial formation'; &c., &0. PkulZ,' to blossom,' also an obscure root, is still to be adduced.

As Vpu~ means 'to expand, to increase', &0., and 'to shine', the question arises, to which of the meanings p4 is to be referred. I leave the question undecided, Here follow a few of the many derivations from p n 4 :-p". 'to bloom'; p4"al, • blooming', or 'reddish oolour'; pill, • grass' . or 'a tiger'; pun, pun, 'any metal', or 'gold' ;pIIlari, 'the dawn'; palle, 'yellowish colour', or (a doe'; pugar, pugar, 'a. tawny colour', or ' lustre' ; puga"!:. pugal, 'to extol'; pudal, ' grass'; pud1£, , conspicuous, remarkable, new'; pula, pula, ' gold' (conf. spurious Sk.pura~a, pIIl'llaa,' gold'),' beauty', or 'a cornfield'; puli (also pol), 'to shine'; piili, , bloom', or 'freshness' ; pu!, pu~, ' to shine'; p~sa = puelll; pOpll, 'grass.' Sk. pusJzpa (which occurs in the .4.tkarva, V djasaneya, and TaitZiriga Sain.kitd.). 'blossoming' (vikltsa); , a flower; the menses; a topaz', etc., used to be written P"r.P!lJ in Draviga (in Tamil.plI~pa); both forms can easily be derived from pu~vu, i.8. pwvu, 'a flower.' Of course flUB, &0. are rightly compared with pkulla, &0. i but how is it that old Sauslq-it, at least to my present knowledge, offers no indisputably genuine root wherewith flus aud its sisters are plainly connected, whereas Dravi4a. is so rich in pertiuent terms P Is the besutiiul 'flower' primarily a SQdra word P

Under such circumsta.nces it may not be rash if I offer the conjecture that Sk. pask, 'to thrive' (from which puskpa is generally derived); puskkala, 'much'; puska., piiskan, 'the sun,' may belong to Drsv, pu~; Drav. po1; means 'sun, time: As very interesting, I adduce still Drav. pumpul:i, a reduplicated form of puJ, 'to extend. to rise', as it exactly coincides in meaning with the simple form pula in Sk., both being rendered by , extension, greatness'; 'erection of the hairs of the body.' Sk. sp'l.iliilga or pkuliii.ga, 'a spark of ~re', is also here in its proper place.

S. P u 1 (pallu), ' grass; straw.' For this word see No.7.

9. P u 1, 'smallness. a trifle, a defect' (particularly also in gems), may be the pul, 'grass', of Nos. 7 and 8. used, like Sk. tri~la. to show the insignificance of something or somebody. Conf. Sk. pIIlaka, 'adefect in a gem'; and Sk. pulcU:a, 'abridgment, taking away' (conf No. 13). If one assumes a probably radical connection between jl.ds, &c. and pul. he does not appear to be entitled at the

same time to compare "~lis, lfJavNor with the metaphorical (P) signification of p"l. Regarding this pal I have to remark that it most probably is a form of Drav. P'-4 (pl5~, par.), 'to be small', that with e:s:actly the same meaning has been inserted in Sk. dictionaries.

10. Pedai, pede, 'a timid, simple, poor, or ignorant person; an hermaphrodite.' The root of this appears to be pii, pir., pey, pel, peJ, beg, beck, oe~, bed, bem, ber., bel, hill, "id, '!lir., v6(1, tier., "iiI, 'to tremble, to be agitated, to fear, to be amazed, bewildered, or confused.' Ped",' confusion, bewilderment'; pern, 'fear'; hela, 'simple, ignorant.' The spurious Sk. pilija, 'agitated. disturbed' (vydkllla); hkesk, bkresh, bklesh, ' to fear' ; Mela, 'timid, ignorant'; bMru, lJMZ1£, 'timid,' probably ha~e been taken from Draviq.a., in spite or Vedia Sk. ont. 'to fear' (con.f. .A.. S. Ujial., &0. &0_). That j5,t"U,U8, 'silly, foolish', is related to this vPiif., &c. is more.than doubtful to me.

11. P 11 t, 'to sustain, to tolerate; to earry.' The original meaning of this verb seems to be somewhat dubious; in Kannaga, about seven hundred yea.rs ago it was explained by 8irodkdra~a, 'to hold, sustain, or bear on the head.' In Tl!lugu and Tn~u the verb does not seem to be used in this form.. In Tu~u pudi! (conf., e.g., bere of other dulJects with Tu!u bet!!), 'a pack 01." burden', is in use i this and Tilluge. pot!a (conr., e.g., pll!tu or putta of other dialects with Telugn. puHa), piJtake, pilla, piittare, < a. packet or bundle', may belong to pur.. Its r. bears a ra.ther indistinct and changeable character, which is also observed in the Kanna4a past participle, this being 1luitl!. Chiefly on account of such an r. and the uucertainty as to its original meaning. I refrain from strictly comparing i~ with Ohar. ¢EP and/Jr. At the same time I have to hint at a doubt that in this instauce I entertain about the radical nature of the initial s- Conf. also pe?: 2 under No. 12.

12. P Ii t, P e d, be s, 'to bring forth.' Its final 1: exhibits the same natllre as that of piir.. The intransitive is pi?:, 'to be born.' Besides the forms of the root already given, there exist, e.g., the following :-pid, p'l~, ,,~~, p1J, 'P~y, p"r., pJ,,z, pur., all of which are connected with 'forth, over, out' (conf. No.7). The obscure Sk. Fas, 'to bring forth'. has been formed from this complex root. Dr. Caldwell compa.res Sk. pra, 'before; forwa.rd; o.way; excessive', with P~r.; but as per. does belong to the themes of No.7 his comparison cannot well be right; and I for my part see no radioal connection between hear, oeir, bairn, pa.rio, and per. In Tamil. Maley&la., and Kanna4a, pilr. means also' to cbtain, to get, to gain'; I consider this to be a. form connected. with Drav. pa~, pa~, pay, par, the meaning and use of w:hioh



[FUll.U.llty, 1879.

However the meaning 'lowness' ~ vileness", &0., appears radically to belong to theme pul or piJI, a curious and most interesting theme indeed, as it further means also 'to die' and' to join' (com. Nos. 3, 7,and 9). These different meanings a.t least partly rest on the change in the final letter of the root. In the instance that oOl!.cerns us here, we ha.ve Drav. pu.lr:, puck, 'to decay, to rot'; pi6l-, 'to become mouldy' ; pilek, punch,' to become nauseous, 0).' mouldy'; pilch or pl1.a, • to fart, to stink'i pusffi, 'foul, stinking'; btlgara, Mju, btl,., , monld, dirt.' All these themes seem to presuppose a root P'4 or pu1, 'to decay', etc., that up to this day I have not yet met with; but "pu.~, or po{l( the P"~ of Sk. dictionaries),' to be powdered; to b~ destroyed', may be connected. At all events Sk. f1il;y, 'to become putrid, to stink'; pl!ti, 'stink' ; PUB, 'matter' (coni. A.S. f'4l; Goth. fils. &0.), that occur in the .&thar'I1aveda and BrdhmalJ.aB, come before the mind i are these terms DraviQ,a, or.A.rya P Or is there here also simply a case of accident P If puk, &0. and p(r,y are essentially related to one another, pfJ.y, like p4k, &c.~ is a derivative. .

At present I conjecture that pule, piJle, piJlasu, when conveying the meaning of' defilement', are radically connected with theme '[1'Uk, &c., but that poleya (also poleyafJa, piJl;!fJa, pollaha) on acconnt of some unknown historical events, hat! got the meaningof'an outcast'-pole, 'defilement', being maliciously used for the purpose. P u 1 a h a and Po. I a sty a are mentioned as great ~ishis in the Manal1azlkarmaBd.sira. In these' two names the meaning of p"Z. 'to shine' (or 'to be-great'), appears to .be preserved. The P u 1 e ya, however, as thePulkasa, or Paulkasa. in the White YojufT/eda, appears as a person of low position, but is still different from the C h' n dA 1 a. ThePul k a s s, PUJ.:kasa(Pushka.saor p~kkasa.) of the dkarmaltZstra$ is a mixed caste, but not yet identified with the C hAl]. 4. Al a. According to the .&itareya Brdkmatla, the P u 1 i n d a s, together with the .A.ndhras, or Telugus, form a barbarian tribe descended from Vi B v Ami t r a.... The A lIIa,.akos4a identifies Oha:!].4Ala., Pukkasa.,and Playa, which three terms the oldest Ka.n.naQ.a commentary on that work explains by Pal e Y8o. That Pal Ii y a. (pole",l.I) and PIa. va (Pla!1aka with HalAyndha) are the same words I hardly need to Dy. The Pallava (~f the Tri1c4ll}i!a§SBha and Hemachandra.) and

are the same; it is not; impossible that also the por. of No. 11 is a. modification of this per., &c.; conf. No.3.

IS. Pa 11 a., 'low land, a hole, a ditch, a. nnllah:' The rooti or this is p a cJ., 'to go down, to sink', and its original form is pa J1a. (conf. pa1Ji, No.2; and p£Ri, No.3). Oonf. Sk. pallala, palvala, • a small pond'. which, though reminding one of Latin peU"" • a pool', may have been borrowed from pa~~a.

Po ~ Iu (Au"",), pU~!", pa~i!, po~re, pol. par, pIal, 'a hole, what is hollow', belong to a' different root. PuUu" p;;~1If, pulll~ 'empty grain, husk', !lilly be compared with Sk. p!(utka, pillya, , empty grain', and also Sk. p1t.#a,. p!4a.ka, 'a concanty, 8. hollow'. are to be taken notice of here. English 'hollow, hole', probably is related to Sk. '\I .iri, • to swell'; conf. 8~nya, ' a va.cuum.'A

14. Pu l a], pule, pole. In Iooldng at No.7 it will be observed that theme pul, &c., to which these words belong, does not convey the meaning of 'lowness' or 'defilement', but of 'brightness' and

• freshness.' The instances adduced there a:re clear; pulati, pUlli, 'the fair she, a woman', is another one. Nevertheless, pule or pi5le signifies' a low condition or manner, defilement'; a.nd its masculine form puleys. or paleya denotes a. vile man, an outcast, and its feminine piilati commonly a woman of the ontcasts; in the same manner pula is 'beauty, gold', s.nd 'evil.' Some may . endeavouT to remove this seeming inpongruity all at once by having recourse to pul in Hs metaphorical sense (No.9). Others might refer to pula, (pals,,", ptIldl, puld, Ta.mi!l and piilCUlu (Taluga),

• flesh' (coi:lf. BP~US S~. pala, palala, 'flesh'), and explain ,~leya by 'a. fiesh-he, an eater of flesh', and thus for his well-known flesh-eating habits make an outcast of'him'; but as p/jZ~ya (puleya) is a. term common to all the Dravi4a tribes known to me, whereas pull! (p1ilasu), ':Resh' is not; on D.CC01lll' or this circumstance I cannot agree to Inch an opinion. Pull has a.pparently got; the meaning of 1lesh simply from the colour of this (conf. """pa, 'the menses', &c.), and :8.esh was not originally something unclean either with the lrya.s or .A.n&ryasi and also many Slldras eat flesh. If where puU, 'flesh', is used, we could explain ,Illy- to denote an eater of raw fiesh,a they, in their case and ,place, of course would not be wrong in oalling him an outcast.

• Compare further the names of Palinaj Nama (YaM. bh6n-am),.Pulima.nt(~), and Pnlushs. (~thaBr.), s.ll ~ whIch ~ to bear, m their first; ps.rt, the term of Dmw.r}s._pul. EI&'ht~agoDr. H. Gundert,in thaJ01£maJ of. til. G_ 01'UJL~ Society, pointed out that there ~ht be a. counection between Piil.!ya. IIlld Sk. Pnlinda, Pal.kaatI., IliDd Puloma.n.· Prof. Benfey, who in his Sam.scr\t- 1l!'-Olis1r.DKtio7l!'''V (1~?r::s.ll the above proper names mth the mception of • t a.nd Pnluaha., b&a tried td explain only Pulaatya, viz. by "PUf'CIB + tyo. ...

FDl!.VARY, 1879.]



tbePalllJllaka(ofHal&yudha), 'alibertine,a gaJJ.a.nt,' I do not hesitate also to connect with P"'ega; and who knows whether the ancient P a I IR va dynasty wa.snota dynasty of certain PiS layas when still a powerful tribeP Rottler's Tamil Dictionary has ".Pullar (the plural of Pulla), a low tribe: probable aborigines of the Peninsula of India; Plt.lliyar (the pl. of Pulliya), So tribe of low people."

The first part of Dr. Pope's rule," Initial P of the Tamil and Telngn is often H in Kanarese", is a weU-knownfact. BntiD:whatCanarese P Cana.rese has its own established H period, in which it often uses 11, instead of p, a oircumstance to which I have already alluded in the preface to N4gavarma's Pro80cly (p, xxv. note 1), and whioh appears already pretty clearly in the writings of the 14th Christian oentury. In the Merora plates of A..D. 466,5 where, in plain Canarese prose, the boundaries of the land grant are stated, no Cenarese words with " occur; but we have there the terms of pund4u, pati, piri. p4nti. and per, in which nowadays either p or "is employed. It will be very interesting indeed if Dr. Pope can proile the second portion of his rnle.

Dr. Oaldwell., in the Preface to his Grammar (p. vii) says: "One desideratum at present seems to be a Comparative :Vocabulary of the Dravidian Languages, distinguishing the roots found, say, in the four most distinotive languages-Tamil, Teluga, Canarese and MalayA!am-from those found only in three, only in two, or only in one. An exoellent illustration of what may be done in this direction has been furnished by Dr,_ Gnndert whose truly scientific' Dictionary of Ma.layA!am' has given a fresh stimulus to Dravidian philology." I believe that such a desideratum cannot be satisfactorily accomplished before in each of .. the four most distinctive languages" an Etymological Dictionary has been prepa.red.· The writer has been requested to compile a Kanna4.80 one; for Tamil and TeI.ugu also similar works must soon be commenced.

With Dr. Gundert's Dictionary I find one fault, and this only a formal one, namely, that it (probably against the author's own wishes) is on the old plan of mingling Dravi<Ja, Samskrita, Tadbhava, and ~oreign words, which of oourse in some measure is desirable for beginners, but is likely to lead them t6 a merely mechanical. stndy, and to hide the truth from them with regard to the Ianguage they may hsppen to learn. To more advanced students such a mingling is, to Bay the least, unpleasant. There ought to be two parts,

one for the pure Dravi4a, and the other for the (by the by almost unlimited) Samslq'ita, Tadbhava., &0. In Kanna~a and Talugu the ancient form of words also as to letters should be ca.refnlIy attended to and restored.

Eunllgen (Wiirttemoerg), l~th Nooember I8i8.


With respect to the native processes of fusing and smelting iron ore, as detailed at pa.ge 196 <rfthe I1Idilm Alltigllary, supra, there is a very remarkable similarity to the modes found practised in Central Africa. by Mr. Stanley. In his work, T"rough the Dark Oontine!lt, vol. II. p. 141, he wribes:-" At Wane-Kirnmbu, in Uregga, on the Luaiaba, we found a large native forge and smithy, where there were about a dozen smiths busily at work. The iron ore is very pure. Here were the broad. bladed spears of Southern Uregga, and the equally broad knives of all sizes. The bellows for the smelting furnace are four in nnmber, double-handled, and manned by four men, who by So qnick up-anddown motion supply a powerful blast, the noise of which is heard half a mile from the scene. The furnace consists oftamped.olay raised into a mound about four feet high. A hollow is then excavated in it two feet in diameter and two feet deep. From the middle of the slope four apertures are excaVlloted into the base of the flll'llaCe, into which are fitted funnel-ahaped earthenware pipes to convey the blast to the fire. At the base of the monnd a wide aperture is excavat"d penetrating below the furnace. The hearth receives the dross and slag." This might very well stand for a. description of a Hindu forge, and is a. curious instance of two primitive raeea employing the slime modes .

It may be added that the use of old European sword-blades, as described in the same artiole in the Alitiquaj'Y' is not limited to India: ~or Oaptain Burton in his recent work, The Gola. Minll8 of Midian, mentions, at page 150, that among the Huway-tA.t at Ws.dy Aymunah, on the Red Sea, .. even the boy~ are armed with swords, often longer than themselves, and on So good old blade I read the legend I Pro Deo et Patria.''' Also with regard to ancient arrow-heads, Sir W. Ouse1ey, in his TraveZs in Persia, &c., vol. II., gives a plate of a. number of arrow-heads, chiefly dug up near Persepolis, which exar.tly correspond in shape with the more ordinary Boush Indian forms.


• roo. Ant. rol, I. pp. 860 seq.

• Compare Dr. Burnell's Note 1 in p. viii. of the Introduction to his Solllll.IniUan Paicsography.



[FEBRUARY, 1879.


recent times and to such an extent, that it was necessary to pass special laws to repress it. The murder of Mr. Conolly (Collector of Malabar) is & well-known instance.

In the Malayalam language amarkml (from amar, , fight, war') signifies a warrior, and some of the extracts given below will show both forms and applications of this word so near to its MaJ.a.y use that we can hardly doubt the latter to have been derived from India. De Gubernatis suggests that the word is derived from the Sanskrit amoks"-ya, 'that cannot be loosed.' and in confirmation of this it will be seen that, in several of our quotations, the idea of being bound by a vow underlies the conduct to which the term was applied both in Malabar and in the Archipelago. But amokskya is a word unlarown to :MaIayAlam, in such s. sense at least. We have seen a·muck derived from the Arabic akmaq, ' mad;' but this is etymology of the kind which scorns history. The phrase has been thoroughly naturalized in England since the days of Dryden and'Pope.

Circa 1440, Nicolo Conti, speaking of the islands of the Indian Archipelago, under the name oftha Two Javss, does not use the term, but describes a peculiar form of the practice:r" Homicide is here a jest, and goes without punishment. Debtors are made over to their creditors as I'Ilaves; and some of these. preferring death to smvery, will with drawn swords rush on, stabbing all whom they fall in with of less strength than themselves, until they meet death at the hand of some one more than a match for them. This man the creditors then sue in court for the dead man's debt." (p. 45.) Oirca. 1516:-" There are some of them (the Javanese) who if they fall ill of any serere illness ,ow to God tho.t if they remain in health they will of their own accord seek another more honourable death for his service. and as soon as they get well they take a dagger in their hands, and go out into the streets, and kill as many p-ersons as they meet, both men, women, and children, in such wise that they go like mad dogs, killing until they are killed. These are called .t1lnuco. And aR SOOIl as they see them begin this work, they cry out saying Anmco, A11V1100, in order that people may take care of themselrea, and they kill them with dag~r and spahr thrusts." (Stanley's Barboea; 1" 1114.)

This pa.ssage seems to show that the word mnst have been in common use in the Malay countries before the arrival of the Portuguese in 1511 • 1586:-"Their forces (at Ooehin) consist in a kind of soldiers whom they call (JlllU)cchi, who are The ¥ubammarlan 1UP47tB of llillabar con- under obligation to die at their king's pleasure,

tiJmed the practioe Off-.U);ltia.l murd~" dQWD. to a.nd all soldiers who in a. war lose their king or

1 In pil'IlJ,18ott.tl.1lI1 furo publieation by John Murray, London.

By II. Y . .!.. ... D .A.. C. B.

A.ln:CK, To 1'11n, v.

There is no doubt, we believe, that, to us at least, this expression came from the :Malay countries, where both the phrase and the practice are still familiar. The word is by Cra~urd ascribed to the Ja,mese, and this is his ex-

pl.aJlation :-

"Amuk (J.). An a-mllck; to run a'1nlICk; to tilt; to run furiously and desperately at anyone; to make So furious onset or cbarge in combat." (.lfalay Diet.)

Marsden says that the word rarely occurs in any other than the verbal form ll1,£,llg-mnuk,.' to make So furious atiack.'· plein. oj cl J.1aZayalb Fa.miZy. p. 66.)

A. curious monograph on the phenomenon, as prevalent amoug the Malays, was contributed by Dr. Oxley to the Journal oj the 11Idial~ .A.rckE. pila.go,

There is reason, howe;er, to ascribe an Indian origin both to the practice and to .the term which describes it.

Thus, as regards the practice, Tod (though not using, the eXp'ression iu question) records some !lotGb1e instances in Ra.jpllt history. In one of these (1634) the eldest son of the Raja of Mdrd,q. ra.n • a-uluck' at the Court of Sh§.b. Jah8.n, failiugin his blow at the Emperor, but killing five courtiers of eminence before he fell himself. .Again, in the last century, Bijai Singh. also of ~rvG.q.. bore strong resentment against the Talpllra prince of lIa.idaribAd, Bijar KhAn, who had sent to de-mand from the 'R&jpdt tribute and So bride. A Bhatti and a ChondAvs.t offered their services for vengean!lll. a.nd set out for Sind as envoys. Whilst :Bija.t Khf.n res.dtheir credentials, muttering. "No mention of the bride I" the ChondAvat buried a dagger in his heart. exclaiming; ., This for the bride!,' ".And this fortha tribute!" cried the other envoy, repeating the blow. The pair then plied their daggers right and left. and twenty·six per. 8OQ8 were slain. before tho envoys were hacked in pieces. (Tad, vol. IL pp. 45 a.nd 315.)

.A. strange castom once usual in Malabarmay be .Iso ment.ioned bere. After twelve years So great assembly W'a8 held at 'l'irunf.riyi. when the Zamorin sat BDltOWlded by his dependants, who were fnTI-.' armed. .by one might then attack him, and often the Za.morin waR killed in this '\V'J::', and his ...uaut got the throne. In 1600, tl.il'ty such were killed.

FEBBUABY, 1879.}



their general lie under this obligation. And of such the King makes use in urgent cases,.sending them to die fighting."-Letter of F. Sa.ssetti to Francesco I., Grand Duke of Tuscany, in De Gubernatis, Viaggiaiori Italiani, p. 164.

1566 :-" The king of Oockin • • . . . • hath a great number of gentlemen which he caJleth ..I'I.mocchi, and some are caJled Nairi: these two sorts of men esteeme not their lives any thing, so that it may be for the honour of their king."Master Cresar Frederike in Purchas, vol. II.

p.1708. .

De Barros, speaking of the capture of the isle of Beth by Nuno da Cunha (158n, sa.ys : "But the natives of Guza.rat stood in such fear of Sultan Badur·that they would not consent to the terms. And so, like people determined on death, all that night they shaved their heads (this is a superstitious practice of those who despise life, people whom they call in India..l'l.ma,ucoB), and betook themselves to their mosque, ead there devoted their persons to death .... and as an earnest oHhis vow, and an example of this resolution, the Ca.ptain ordered a great fire to be made, and cast into it .his wife, and a little son that he had, and all his household and his goods, in fear lest anything of his should faJJ. into our possession." Others did the like, aad then they fell upon the Portuguese.-Dec. IV. !iv. IV. cap. ::rii.i.

1602 :-De Couto, speaking of the Javanese:" They are chivalrous men, and of such determination that for whatever offence may be offered them they make themselves G91<OU,COB in order to get satisfaction thereof. And were a spear run into the stomach of sach an one he would still press forward without fear till he got at his foe. "-

Dec. IV. liv. m. cap. i. .

In s.nother passage (ib. liv. YD. cap. xiv.} he speaks of the OIIlWUC"8 of Malabar, jnst as P. della Valle -does in the quotation below. In Dec. VI. (liv. vm. cap. viii.) he describes how, on the death of the king of Pimenta, in action with the Portuguese, nearly rourthoilsandNayrs made themselves am-ouCOB with the usu.a.1 ceremonies, shaving their beards on one side, and swearing by their pagods to avenge the king's death.

1624 :-" Though two kings may be a.t war, either army takes great heed not to kill the king of the opposite faction, nor yet ~o strike his umbrella., wherever it may go ..... : for the whole kingdom of the slain or wotmded king -would be bound to avenge him with -the complete destraction of the enemy, or all, if needful, to perish in the attempt. The grea.ter the king's dignity among these people, the longer period lasts tbis obligation to furious revenge •... this period or method of reVenge is termed '&moao, and so they

say that the '&1lI0CO of the Samori lasts one day; the .&moco of the .king of Oochin lasts a lifetime; and so of others."-P. della Valle, vel, II. p.745.

1672:-Padre Vincenzo Maria says of the :Malabar Ch-ristians: "Every community, e.ery ohurch has its OW'll J.mollchi, which are people who take an oath to protect with their own lives the persons and places put under their safeguard, from all snd-every harm." (p. 145.)

And again of the :Malabar people in general:

"If the prince is slain, the '&mollClli, who are numerous, would a.venge him desperately. These are soldiers who swear to defend the king's life with their own. If he be injured, they put on festivp raiment, take leave of their parents, and with fire and sword in hand invade the hosrile territory, burning every habitation, s.nd slaying man, woman and child, sparing none u:ntil they themselves fall." (pp.23,.8.)

" Derriere ces palissades s'estoit cache un counin de Bantamois qui estoit revenu de ls lIecqu~ en jouoit a Jloqurl .•• il court par les rues et tue tons ceus-qu'il rencontre" ..... -Tavernier, V. des InrltB. liv. iii ch. 2-1.)

1698 :-" And (the :Mohe.mmeda.ns) are hardly restrained from running a mllck (which is tq kill whoever they meet, till they be slain themselves), especially if they hsre been at Hodge, a Pilgrimage to Mecca.."-Fryer, p. 91.

1687 :-Dryden assailing Barnet:"Prompt to assault, and careless of defence, Invulnerable in his impudence;

He dares the world, and. eager ph name.

He thrusts about and justles into fame. FrontlesB, and satire-proof, he scours the


And ruM an 1ndilZll ,mllik at all he meets. "

The Hind and the Panther, 1. 2417.

1727 :~" I answered him that I could no longer bear their Insults, and, if I had not permission in three Days, I would run a Muck (which is a mad Custom among t.he Jfallagas when they become desperate)."-A. Hamilton, vol. II. p.231.


" Satire's my weapon, but I am too discreet to run a mllCk. and tilt at all I meet."

Pope, 1m. of Horace, bk. II. Sat. i. 69.

Circa 1750.60:-"!tu=ingwhat they call a-muc.t, fariously killing every one they meet. • • .• But by ;¥I accounts this practice is mnch rarer in India ths.n it formerly was."-Grove, vol. I. p.128.

1792 :-" When Oomte d'Estaing took BencoolB1 in 1760," Forrest says: •••• ';the'Counli, afraid of an insurrection among the Buggesseil ••••. invited several to the-fort, and when these had entered the



~UJJl.Y, 1879.

wicket was shut upon them; in attempting to di'::rm them, they mrmgamoed,l that is, ra.n a mucic; they drew their cresses, killed one or two Frenchmen, wounded others, IU!Q at lai't suffered themselves. for supporting this point of honour."V(J1age to JIergui, p. 77.

.. These acts of iudiscrimma.te murder are called by us mtlcks, because the perpetrators of them during their frenzy continually cry out all~oTc, t! .. tOk, which signifies .~m, kill."-StIloVOrinUS, r"lltl!lfiB. trollsl. by Wilcocke, .01. I. p. 291.

P. Paolino (VoiJfl:Je, p .. 407) says that the • Amouchi' took opium dissolved in lemon-juice or other acid solvent,

lS73:-"They (the English) ...••. crave governors who,. not ha.ving bound themselves lJefore-hand to 'nm alll!!c1.',' may give the land some chance of repose."-BlflCkwood's JIaga;;i7ze, June 1873, p. 71)9.

1875 :-" On being struck, the Mu.W.y at once stabbed Arshad with a k"iss; the blood of the people who had witnessed the dced was aroused, they ran al/wk, attacked :Mr. Birch, who was bathiug in a floating bath close to the shore, stabbed and killed him,"-.Lt!tt~r fram Sir W. D. Jer1Jois to the Earl ojCarnaroml, Nov. 16, 1875.

18i6 :-" Twice over, wbilewe were wending our weary way up the steep hill in Galata, it was our luck to see a Turk ' 'l'U1~ a-muak' . . •• Nine times out of ten this frenzy is feigned, but not always, as for instance in the case where a priest took to l'1llUling a-lnl!ck on an .A..usf:ria.n LloyWi' boat on the Black Sea, and, after· killing one or tWQ passengers and wounding others. was only Stopped by repeated shots from the captain's pistol" • :. , .. -Barkley, Five Year, in Bulga.ria., pp. !MO-!4l.

1817• (Here follows a passage from. the Times of l'ebraaxy 1877 describing rnnning a muck in London, also an extract from the Overlo.nit TimB8 ~. IMia describing a similar seene at Meerut, dated .A..ugast 31st, 1877.)

(To be tontinued.)


The great gun at Lo.hor, called ZlJIJU'amd or the Billtgia_ati top, wo.s cast A.D. 1761 by SMh Wa1iR::b!n, Vazir of AhmadSh&hDivi8ni After the depKture of .Ahmad ShAh the gun was left in thepossession of the Sikh sa.rdArs of the Bhangi .. (whence ita Dame, B1itmgitmDati top). It ca.ma to be ~ loS a ta.lisman of supremacy among the SiJtIia. EventuaJ.1y Ranjit Sing possessed lrim. Ie1t ot it. and ill W8B used bylrim at the siege of

MultAn in A.D. 1818. From that date it used tostand at the Delhi Gate of Lahor, until removed in 1860. The gun now stands near the Central Museum, facing the Sadr Buar, in which position iii was placed on the occasion of the Duke of Edinburgh's visit to Lahor, in February 1870. The inscription on the gun is as followa-r--«

By order of the Emperor (Ahmad. S~) Dur-iDuran

SMh Wall Khan, the Wazir, made this gun,


Znmzamah, the taker of strongholds. The work of SMh Nazir .

In the reign of the Emperor possessing dignity like Feridun,

Dispenser of Justice robed in Equity-

(In the reign oI) his. present Majesty Ahmad 8Mh Dnr-i-Duraa.

.A Prince occupying a throne mighty as Jam-


There was issued unto the Chief Vazir, From the threshord of His Highness,

.An order to ha.ve cast, with every possible skill A gun terrible as a dragon and huge as a.

mountain. .

[Yea, the order was g:'\'en] to rus heaven ..

enthroned Majesty's devoted servant, ShAh Wali KMn Vazir.

So in order to effect thiB weat achievement

The Master-w~rkman called up his endeavours, Till with consumma.te toil was cast

This wondrous gun Za.mzamah,

A destroyer even of the strongholds of heaven, Under the a.uspicea of His Majesty.

I inqUired of Reason for the date of this gun ; Reason a:Lgrily replied,

" H thou wilt give thy life in payment, I will repeat to thee the date."

I did so, and he replied,-" What a gun is this P The form of a fire-raining dragon."

The last lines give the chronogram of the date of the gnn-1174 A. H. or 1761 A.D. The letters in the words have a numerical value aecoTding to the "A.bjad" system.-Correspondent; of Statesman.

Ga.v.etia VenkateBa. Joshi, of NAsik, appeals to our contribuflors, espeeia.lly in southern India, for ma.terials for the historyofHindnism. "Haccesi coald be secured to the archives at Sringiri {on the Tungi.bhadra)," he is informed, ~'ample information might be obtained on the snbject,"

1 See ~ from lWBden aboTe.

FBB1l.tTARY, Ui79.]




, Dr. Biihler, in his Introduction to the Vilr!ronna.M.u, Ohan1ra, (p. 2), mentions the Hammiramardana or ,. The destruction of Hammtra.," as an historical SansJqit poem that wa.s extant some ninety years ago in the Jain library at J~sa1mtr. I have reoeIitly obtained a work, written in the Ja.in character, styled The Hammira Ma,hd.kafJYu" which, notwithsta.n.ding the diJference of the title, I presume is a. copy of the ~e work as that which was once in the J&a.lmir S~vati Bhaq,4Ar, since it ends with thedeatliofHam m ir aa.nd a lamentation over the event. Colonel Tad, indeed, mentions in his BdjasthIJn a Hwmmf.ru, ·Kd.vyu, and a Ham/tn,tra Bd.sd, both composed, he says, by S a r a it g adhara, whom he makes the bard of Ha.mmlra ChohanofRaJ}.athambh6r. Wehavethe authority of Sa rang adha r a; himseIffor stating that he was not contemporary with Ham m ira o h a han of RarpLthambh&r, and tha.this grandfather, R So g h n nat h a, was that prince's Guru. or spiritUal tea.oher. S Ilr a it gad h a r a in his Paddhati,andGa.d ldhar a inhisBasikaJtvan, under the head of "imonymous," quote some verses rela.tingto Ham m t r a that ha.ve no place in the present KdfJlIa. .A. p P a. Y y a D i k s hit a, also, in his K'IJII)alayiJ:MSMa, cites a. verse a.s an insta.nce of the' AkramlltiBayokti AIlJllilkaru, of' which the subject is Hammira, and which is not to be found: in the work of our author. 'rlus shows that there must be some other poem in Sanskrit bearing the name of Hammfra Ki1 "'ya, ; but it may be doubted whether it has a.ny reference to the history of the hero of our poem. Colonel Tod does not inform u~' in what language the Honnm(ru, Kdttya and the Hamm(ra Bd.sd were written, though he says he possessed both, and mostly trs.nslated with' the assistance ofhis Jain Guru. He does not IIottem.pt anything like a. connected,narrative ofRa m mira. Indeed, what he says incidentally of Ha.mm1ra. does not at a.ll relate to anyone individual oftha.t name, but is a jumble of anecdotes relating to several distinct pemons.ges bea'ring the same name.

I obta.Uied· the Honn_a Mahdkd."1Ia through Mr. Govinda Sbtri N"ll'&Dtar of'Nasik, who got it £rom a. friend of his.

The colophon rea.ds-" The -present' oopy was

made for the purpose of reading by Na.yahalilsa, a pupil of J~yasimha SOri, at Firozpur, in the month of Srava1pL of the SarovaG year 1542" (s,o. 1496). Possibly this was ms.de from the poet's original copy, and, as such, possesses an interest of its own.

Nay a chan d ra Stir i' s work, as a poetical composition, has considerable merits, a.nd deserves publication as a. specimen of the historical poems so rarely met with in the range of Sanskrit literature. Though the author did not live, like B a fJ. a and B i1 h a 'J. a, in the reign of the hero whose history he eelel:1rates, yet his work is not of less historical importance than theirs. The information that the poems of Ba\l& and Bilha.\I& conta.in has been made accessible to English readers through the labours of two eminent European Sanslqitists. The present attempt to place the English reader in possession of tbe historioal information conmined in the Ha1nm£ra Kd.vya will, I presume, be acceptable to $ose who a.re interested in the advancement of our knowledge of Indian history.

Following the ollSto~ of other writers in Sa~ktit, who have attempted historical compositions, our author devotes the greater par~ of one entire cha.pter, the fourteenth ~d last, to an acoount of his lineage, and the reasons that led to the production of his work. Part of this will b~ar reproduction here in an English dress :-

"Hail, Ktish1}.a. Gachha., who gladdened the whole -eB.l'th, the bea.uty of whose person was like that of a blooming bunch of the NaIJaj6ti :!I.ower, and whose praises were celebrated by orowds of learned men, who might well be oompared to so many black humming-bees ;-he. whose feet we~ ever borne on the eroWDli of the followers of the Ja.in r8ligion!

" In the circle of the Sm, whose actions are the homes of wonders, in time, Jay a s i m h a S ft'r i was born, who was the crowning ornament of the wise; who easily vanquished in displltation sara il g a, who was the leading poet a.mong those who were a.ble to write poetical compositions in sit Ia.uguages, and who was honest a.mong the most honest; whe wrote three works,-(l) Nydyo. 86:ra!ikd, (2) A New Grammar, (3) a poem,on.x:llInAra.N~pati,--r.ud who hence .



[FRnu_AB.Y, 1879.

became known as the chief of those who knew the three sciences of logic, granuna.r, and poesy.

"To the lotus-like Gadi of J So Y 8. S i m h 8., Naya e han d r a is like the life-giving sun j who is the essence of the knowledge of the sciences, who is the exciting moon to the sea of tb.e races of the poets. This poet, his spirits raised to tbe height of the subject by a revelation imparted' to him in a dream br the king Ham m ira himseU', has composed this'poem,l which is gratifying to the assembly of the kings, &Ild in which the heroic (rasa) is developed.

" The author in lineal descent is the grandson of Jay a s i m haS ti r i, the great poet, but in that of poesy his son.

" Let not good readers take into much account the faults of expression that I may have faJIen into. How can I, who am of mean capacity. escape stepping into tbat·pa.th whioh even poets like KAlidAsa,1 were not able to avoid P Bnt a poem that is replete with good matter' 1OS8B none of its value for a. few commonplaces of expression."

The poem begins, as is UBllal with Sa.ns1qoi.t Bllthors, with invocations addressed to several deities, and the author has been a.t the pains of making the invocations seem applicable to both the mnau gods and some of the Tirthail1mras of the JmBI!. This proced1l1'9 oalls for remark. N ayachan dra Stir i, as his na.me implies, is a. Jain by persuasion, and his seeming to invoke blessings at the hands of the most prominent members. of the orthodox: Hindu pe.ntheon is to be expla.in.ed either by the freedom of thought so characteristic of the age in w~h the author lived, when the narrow and bigoted inroleran6e even of the MllBltm had begun to appreaiB.te the beauties o~ the . a1l.egorical lan~ of the liindu popul&r

religion, or by the strong desire of writing d'/Jfr yartka (' having two meanings') verses, with which the a.uthor seems poseessed."

The hero of the poem is Hammira ChohAn of RalJ.astham.bhapura (RSolJ.8.t h a. m b h 0 r), a name celebrated. in Hindi song. H a ~ m ira. is one of those later heroes of India. who measured their swords with the MnbBJDmadan conquerors and fell in the defence of their independence. Even the history of the conquered is not without interest. The man who fights against hope,-:-fights because he thlnks it his duty to do so,-who scorns to bow his neck before the oppressor, because he thinks such a. course opposed to the ways ofbis ancient house, deserves our sympathy and our admiration. Ram mira is such a character. The pOet places bini. on a par with Man d h 1 t a, Yu d his h t h i ra, and Ram So. Tliis is poetioal exaggera.ti~" but we have no mean measure ~f pra.ise iu the following verses; and the grounds of eminence mentioned are some of the proudest that a Rajput .can cherish, and a rigid maintenance of. whioh singles out the race of the Sisodya s of U dayap'ur and the RAris of' K 0 t A and Bun d i as the. noblest among tlre chivalry of RajasthAn :-

,cij~q 'fit ~, I%ti lft'I1 ~ r.r.mrr a:rftr ~ 'q I ~ ~ '41(viI·lrif;fj(.s~: r%' ~.s~ II'

Born in the noble house of the C h 0 hAn s, to whom, as ~od observes, "thepalmofbrs.very amongst the Rlljput races mtist be assigned," Ham m t r a tried to uphold the iiJ.depen~enoe 0 f his :race and to make its usages respected, and was for a time preeminently successful in . his wars a.gs.inst his enemies. Some of these were uuderta~eu to protect those who had sought refuge with him (B4Ta~, and so far were dis. interlisted. Indeed, he fell in a war nncI6rtaken

FEJ1l1.tTAlI.Y, 18;9.],


to protect a Mongol noblema.n who had fled to him. £rom the tyranny of 'AUn'd-din. CI In the third year of the reign of 'AJAn'd·dln, s. nobleman. whom he had disgraced took refuge with Ha.mmira, the Chohan prince of:&a\la~a.mbMr, one of the strongest forts in India. 'A 18 n'd-d i n dems.nded the delinquent of the Hindu mona.rch, who nobly replied that the sun would sooner rise in the west, and Sumera. be levelled with the earth, tha.n he would break his plighted faith to the unfortunate refUgee. The siege of R a If ~ t ham b h 6 r 'Was immediately commenced, a.nd the fort was at length captured, but the heroic Ha.mmira. fell in its defence; and the females of his family, determining not to survive him, perished on the funeral pile." This history of Ham mira supplies some informa.tion which the sentimental and enthusiastic annalist of RiijasthAn would have 'gladly interwoven into the pages of his work, and which sheds fresh Iighnon the eventfnl period in which the hero lived.

The Hamm£ra MahIJkavya is divided' into fourteen cautos, of which the first four are concorned with thehero'sa.noestors,--:-theC hohbs, many of whom were paramount lords of India. 'The empire belongs to the ChohAn' is 8.n admitted Indian historioal fiction, and the mere mention of the names of the old kings, many of whom were the lords paramount of India, accompanied as it is with much poetical nonsense, carries our knowledge of them. a step furliher than the researches of Colonels Willord and Tod.

The na.rra.tive .is, an through, very nneven.

The genealogy of the C h 0 \l ins, as given in the first three ohapters, though with some more names than are to be found in Tod's list, cannot be regarded a.s satisfactory. The.author really knew nothing about the more anoieut kings of the race; the names are simply brought in to give him opportunities of displaying his power for poetical conceits, and thus the aooounts of the prinees about whom he had no historical information are filled with fancifol conoeptions, i:n whioh some' of the natural phenomena are explained. with a.dmira.ble contempt of the teachings of the" prond philosophy" of Nature.

From Pfithvir!j a Chohan to the d~th

', The .. Cbatarbhuja" Cho1dn.. &I descr.i.bed~Tod, jssued., like the other tbzee"p-rogenitora of the - J>armArB.l'arihb, OhAl~ the.!.pi ~ the

of H a. m mira. the narrative.is fairly historic; bnt the a1lthor now and then, even here, relapses into rhapsody which a.mounts to a confession of his ignorance of the historical facts of the

reign in hand. . .

Cantos Yo-VII. of the poem are taken up. a.ccordin¥ to the rules of Sanslqit epic poetry, with descriptions of the seaaons, and the sports and festivities in which Hammira engaged. These cantos, as not possessing any historical value, f!JAY be ignored in this precis of the poem. I pass over a long lecture also on Nitis6iJtra which Jaitrasingh, the m.ther of Hammira, is made to deli ver to Ha.mmira.. C1.a.nd gives a similar dissert&tion on grammar in his Prith'Oirtlja Bdsau.

With these introductory remarks, I come to the Purl1aja Varatz'.uzmn, i. e., the account of tbe ancestry of Ham m ira; and, in order to give some faint idea of the author's style of writing, I shall, in the following, attempt some Bort of translation of the first few reigns. The style throughout is so ornate, infla.ted, and l"Mundant, and the tendeucy oftbe author to punning is'so persistent. that a longer translation is as difficult as the task would be tedious :-

"Once npon a time, Brahma wandered in search of a holy place where to hold a sacrifice, The lotus which he held in his hand fell on the ground, as if unable to bear the superior beauty of the lotus-like palm of the god. The god from this circumstance regarded the spot where the lotus fell as au a.uspicious one, aud there, freed from a.nxiety, commenced the sacrifice. Anticipating persecution from the D ~ n a v A s, the god remembered the thousa.nd-ra.yed one (tke Sun), when a being, his face surrounded by a halo of rad.ia.n.oe, came down from the orb of the snn. Him, the destroyer, Bra h m A appointed to the work 'of protecting the sacrifioe.

I. .. From that day the place where the lotull fell has been called Pushkara, and he who came down from the sun the C h 0 han.· Having obtained the paramount power from the fonr-faced Creator, he ruled over the heads of the kings, as his anceslior the sun rules over the heads of the.monnta.ins. B 0,1 i, mortified at; seeing the glory of his charity eclipsed by the greater charity of this king, has hidden himself in the

IIoClrifI.ciaJ. fire fountain. But the geDAIIiJ is deaaribecl differently in dilferent boob. Pemaps "here there la ]11) trqth we lIl1I8I;:not ..xpeot to find coaccmL



[FnRU.ARY, 1879.

nether world; for what else could a man affiicted with shame do P The moon, ta.ken to task by this priaee for attempting to ri.al his glory, every month hides himself, through fea.r, in the sun's disk,' and comes ant as if desirous of propitiating the offended l-ing by presenting him with the brillian!; orb. The fire of the king's valour has so barnt the gardens of the fame of his enemies, that the smoke issuing from the aonftagration, ascending into the atmosphere, has to this day left its mark in the blue sky. The S e s han a. g a, when he heard of the fame of this prince, was tempted to nod approval, hut, fearing that the earth resting on his hoods might be thereby convulsed with pain, refrained from giving way to the generous impulse. Angry that his son shonld rival him in glory, the king deprived the ocean of his wealth of gravity. Are not sometimes fathers made to suft'er fo~ the faults of their sons? By the name of C h 0 han, this prince became the shoot of the family tree, served by the poets ; famous in the iihree worlds; the bearer in abundance of human pearls. In this family rose many a monarch surrounded by a halo of glory, whose lives, beantified with the triple acqnisition,· are able to desiiroy monniiains ofsins.

ll. Vasudeva.-"Inprooess of time Dfkr.h i ta Vi. sud e va was born, who conquered the world by his valour; who seemed the very incarnation of V A,S a 4 e v a. come down to this earth for the destruction of the demon IS a k A s. He whetted his sword. bh;nt with striking doWn the heads of his enemies, jn the fire of his valoar, and then cooled' the steel in the water of the tears gushing from the eyes of the wi ves ot'his euemie!l. The goddess of ~otory, as if enamoureq. of this prinoe, shone in his hand in the battle-field in the disguise of his sword red with the blood of the necks of his enemies that he had severed. In the field of ba.itle, while the III&ltiaJ. bands were playing, and the gods in the hea.l'~ viewing ~ performance, the king caused the goddess of victory to dance in t.he guise of his quivering sword. Does Dot the mn, surpe.aaed by this prince in brilliahcy, drown himael! in the deep, and-aJas I for the pUn of dying-come every day above the waters

in his stru.ggIea P" .

In.N ua d e va.-" V As ad BVa. bega.t N a-

I r a 4 e v s, fit to be praised by Bra.hmil himse1£.; the delight of the eyes of women-his body.snrpassing in beauty that of Cupid himself. When the king weni. out into the world, the o~er chiefs, to protect their possessions, did not take the sword out of its sheath, but only took wealth from their coffers. In the battle-field his arms, bearing the brilliant white sword, bore the beauties of the Eastern Mounta.in,desiiroying the freshness of the lotuses of the faoes of his enemies, 'It is but natural that the fire of the king's valour should have burnt down the forests of iniquity, but it is strange tha.t the same fire shonldhave 6.lled his enemies with cold shalcings. Methinks the sun, with his progeny, in token of submission, had fixed his abode in the toe-nails of this prince.

IV. "Chan dr a raja. by his fame and the beauty of his countenance, achieving a double conquest over the moon, vindicated the appropriate significanoe of his name, which means , Lord of the moon.'· Strange was the power of the :fire of his valour,' for it burnt bright in the en~y in whom the stream of bravery flowed, while it was extinguished in that enemy who was destitute of this stream," &0.

The abovt! paragraphs may suffice' to show the style of fulsome eulogy used by the poet in disposing of those princes of whom he had no historical information to give. The same similes ocour again and again, and often the language is stiff and artifioial.

I subjoin a list of the C h 0 hAn princes up to Hamm ira as given by our author, and below that given by Tad in his Baj(1,8tkdn.

(1) ChA~ (Canto I. ll. 14-25).

(2) VAsudeva (ib. 26-80).

(3) Naradeva (ib. 81-36).

(4) Chand~ja (ib. 37-4LO).

(5) Jayapala Chakri (ib. 41-52). (6) Jayarfrja (ib.li8-57).

(i) S&ms.nta. Simha (ib. 58-62). (8) Guyaka (ib. 6S-08).

(9) Nandan (ib. 67-71).

'(10) Vapra 'BAja (,0.72-81). (11) Hari RAja. (w. 82-87).

(12) Simha RAja (ib. 88-102)-killed Hetim, -the . Mnha.mmada.n general, andoaptnred four elepha.nts in the battle).

(13) Bhtma (nephew of Silhha, adopted by him) (Canto L ll. 1-6).

• ~ of IJI't1Icl (lI'eaJI;h), lcGmG (loft), and mokaho (IIIIolvation).

FElIl!.u.U!.y, 1879.]


(l4) Vigraha. RAje. (killed Mllla Mjaof Gujar&b,8

and conquered the country) (ill. 7-9). '

(15) GaJigadeva (ib. 10-15).

(16) Vallabha RAja C6·18).

(17) RAms. (19-21).

(18) CMm~q.a RAja (killed Hejama'd-din (ib. 22-24).

(19) Durlabha RAja (conquered Shahc.bu'd-din

(ib. 26-28). -

(20) DuSala (killed KaI~deva') (ib. !:~)·t.{2).

(21) ViSvala. (YisnJ.de.a), killed Sho.h&bu'd-dtn

(w. 83-37)".

(22) Pfithvi RAja I. (rb~ 38-40). (23) AlhaJ;l.8o (ib. 41-44).

(lK) .A.na.1a. dug a tank at Ajmer (w. 45-51). (25) Jagadeva (ic. 52-55).

(26) Visa.Ia (ib. 56-59).

(27) JayapAIa. (ib. 60-62).

(28) GangapAla (ib. 63-66).

(29) Somes'I"am (married Karpur& Den, or, according to Tad, RuJddeTi, daughter of .A.uangp41 Tunar of Dehli) (ib. 6'7-74).

(30) Prithvi Mja II. (Canto m. n. 75-90). (31) Had BAja.

'(32) Govinda. of Ra:Q.a.tha1hbhOr, £'l.ther of-

t33) B8.lha:Q.a-had two sons-PrahlAda and

Va.gbha~a, or VAkbha~a.

\34) PrahlAda, Bon of BAI~.

(35) ViranAr&yaa;JB.. son of PrahlAda.. (36) VAgbha~lL, Bon of BAlh!I:Q.IL.

(37) Jaitrasingh, son of VA.gbhata.. (38) Hammtra, son of Jaitrasingh.

Genealogy of the Ohokd.ns as given by Tod:-

Auhala or AgnipAla (the first Chohb; probable period 650 before Vikrams., when an invasion. of the TurushkAs took .. pla.ce; established .M6.kA.vati Nagri (G1I.rha Ma.l;lgIa,); conquered the Koil· kaJ].a, Aser, GolkondA.

SuvAcha. Malla.na. Galan Sftr.

Ajip&1a. Chakrava.rlti (universal potentate; founder of .Ajmer -some amhorities say in 202 of Vikrama; others of the vtra.taJ,l Samva.t; the latter is the most probable).s

Dol.&. BAya. (slain, and lost Ajmer, on the first irruption of the Muha.mms.dans, S. 741, A.D: 685).

Manikya. RAya (founded SAmbhar; hence-the title

8 According to the GujarAti chroniclers M -BJ.s. RAja. reigned from 998-1053 A..v., i. e. 55 years. Soon after h:is succession to the throne he 'II'lIS lLIIBILiled by two armiasthat of the Ba.pAda.J.a.kshl:ya, RAja. of Sa.kAmb1ia.ri (SAmbha.r), 6ud that of BAra.pa., the genllr.\l of Tailapa of KaliyAtj : sea 1'IId. A'II.t. vol VI. p. 184.. Sa.pidaJaksh1ya might be a. IJiroda of Vigraha. RAJa.. [Bhaga.v&nlAJ. InihiJi points out to me that SapAdaJa.kss or Ss.vAl.a.kha. is the IlSme of the BivAlik hills, a.ud t.hat tbe ea.rly rAju of Ka.ma.uil caJ.led themselves SapAds.J.a.ksbllDiipstis ; a.ud that the Sa.kAmbba.ri r~8B ma.y have origioall.y come £tom that oountry.-ED.]

of Sil.mbhari BAo borne by the ChohAn princes his issue: slain by the Mosque invaders under Allu'l Aas).9

Harshar&ja. or Harihara RG.i. (defeated N a.ziru'ddin [qu, Subaktegin P], thence snyled 'Sul~&ngrAhn.').

Btr Blllandera (Balianga RAi or Dharmaga.chha ; slain defending .Ajmer against Mahmud of Ghazni).

Bisa.Ideva (classically Yisaladeva); his period, from varioua inscriptions, S. 1066 to S:1130 .• l:larait.:,aad6va, his son, (died in nonage).

!na Deva (constructed the Ana. SAgar at~jmer.

which still Dears his name), his sonsHursap8.l (Hisp&l of Ferishtah), father ofJa.y'apala. or Jayasimha (A..D. P77).

Aja.yapAla or Anandeva; son of JayapAla (A..D. 1000); Bijya.deva. and U dayadeva were his brothers.

Somesvara, son of A.jayapAla, married RukiMi, the daughter of AnangapA! of Deh1i. His brothers were KanharAi a.nd Jaitra.siilha. KanharAi.'s son !svarad4s turned Muhammadan,

PrithviRAja(A. D.ll76), son of Somesvam, obtained DehIl; slain by ShahAbu'd·din,S. 1249, A..D.ll9S.

Re:Q.asi (A..D, 1192), son of PrithvirAja, slain in the sack of Dehli.

Vijaymja, son of Ch§.hagad.eva., ~he S6C01id son of Somes'I"ara (adopted successor to PrithvirAja; his name is on the pillar at Dehli).

LAkhansi, son of Vijayar&ja., had tWI'.nty.one sons; seven of whom were legitimate, the others illegitimate, and founders of mixed tribes. From La.khansl there were twenty-six genera.tions to Nonad Siilha, t1!e chief of NimrAnA (in Col. Tod's time), the nearesii lineal descendant of Ajayap&1a m:'d Prithvid.ja).

As observed before, up to the time of P !i t h v iraj 8., the last ·great Chohan, the poem is made np mostly ofpoetioa.l bombast, m whioh, a.t intervals, 8r grain of historical matter may be found concealed under bushels of poetioal ohaff. It is therefore useless to give a further analysis of this part of the poem. I begin with S 0 m e SV a.r a, the father of ~rithvi Raja..

After the death of G a it gad e v a, who was brave like Bhtshma. of old, So m e B v 8r r a be-

, Is this Kal'llalieva. the a&me with the KarJ;wl.eva of Gu,ia.rit, the fifth ill descent from M11la. RAja. I.P Ris date, as given by Dr. BUhler, is 1068-1093 A.D. Du.iaJ& is sixth in descent from Vigra.ha., the memy of M'6la RAja.: sas 1nlt Ant. vol VI. p. 186-

• Wilford inserts here'SAmanta. Den, :Ma.hAdev&, Ma,... simha. Vl:ra.simha., VindAsnra., aIid Va.iri Vihauta:-Eo.

8 'I'od, Bad. vol. n. p. 44.4. Ten more na.mes are given in Bombll'!/ G01lsmment SeZemom, vol III. ~ 193; and. ·l'rinsep's .d~,tW, b;y ThoDlll" vol. n. U •• Tab. p. ~b. -ED.



[F.!!BRUAlty, 1879.

came king. He was'married to Ka.rpurA D ~ v i, who ga.ve birth to a. son as the ea.st gives birth to the cold-rayed bealltiful disk of the moon. This son was named P:rithviraja. by the king his father. Day by day the child throve, and grew up a strong and healthy boy. After he bad acquired proficiency in letters and arms, So me 8 va. ro. installed him on the gaili, and himself retiring into the woods died in the practice of the yoga. As the eastern mountain sIrlnes beautifnl by the rays that it reoeives from the author of day, so did P! i t h vi rAj a. shine in the royaJ insignia obtained from his mther.

While P ! it h vir! j a.. was ruling over his subjects with jllBtice, and keeping his enemies in terror, ShahAbll'd-din was vigorously trying to subjugate the earth. The kings of the West, su1Fering greatly at his hands, chose Sri Cha. ndn r iij a, son of Go v i n d arAj a, as theirspokesll)&I1, sad in a body ca.me toP :ri th v irAj... After the cnstomary presents had been offered, the suppliant kings seated themsel ves in the presence of P! i t h vir a j s, who, seeing the settled gloom oftheiP countenances, asked the :rea.son oftheir sorrow. C han d r a r ii j a replied to him that a. Muhammadan aamed ShaMbu'ddin bac1 arisen for the destruction of kings, and that he had pillaged and burnt most of their cities, defiled their women, and reduced them altopher to II. mi.sePa.ble plight. "Sire," said he, "there is _reely a. mountain-pent valley in the country but is £lIed to suiFooa.tion with ltljputs who have iled thither for protectiop. from JUs tp&nny., A. Ri.jput bas but to appear Wore him in a.rms, when at once he is transforrad to Yama.'s gloomy realm. Methinks ShaUbu'd-dh. is P&l'a.'urama come down to this eal'th q.ga.in for the extirpa.tion of the 'W&l'l'i.or caste. The people are 80 panicsbricke~ that they abstain from rest;, and, not bowing from what quarter he may, appe&r, QircomspectJ.;y raise tbeir eyes in every direction. The noblest of the RAjput fa.milies have disappeared befo1'6 him, and he has now established his C&pital at M 0.1 tan. The Rajas !lOW come to _ the protectioll of yoll1' llaj-.r against this unrelenting enemy and Jris Cl&'I1IIeleI!B pemacntion."

l' ti th v i rlj a was filled with anger when

he heard this account of the misdeeds of Shah8bn'd-dm, his hand was raised to his moustache by the vehemenoe of his feelings, and he declared to the assembled princes that he would force this She.h8.bu'd-dln to beg their pardon on his knees with his hands and feet heavily manacled and fettered, else he were no true Ohohan.

.After some days, P ri t h v i rA. j a, with an efficient army, set out for M n 1 tan, and after severa.! marches entered into the enemy's country. ShahAbu'd.dhl, when he heard of the king's approach, also advanced to encounter him. In the battIe whioh ensued, P~ithviraj& took ShabAbu'd-d!n captive, and was thus ena.bled to fulfil his vow: for he obliged the haughty Muhammadan on his knees to ask fol'giveness of the princes :whom he had despoiled. His vow now fulfilled, P r i t h vir A j & gave :rich presents and gifts to the suppliant princes. and sent them to their respective homes. He also allowed Shaba b u'd-d l n to go to Mu It a n, bestowing on him like gifts.

S h a h a b n'd-d 1 n, thougb thus well treated, felt bitterly mortified a.t the defeat he, had sustained. Seven times after this did he advance on P ! it h vir A j a to avetlge his defeat, each time with greater preparations than before, but each time was signaJIydefea.tedbytheHindumona.rch.

When Shaha b u'd-d i n saw that he could not conquer P tit h vir a j,. either by the force of his 8il'IIlS or by the ~~uity of his stratagems and tactics, he communicated an. ae.. COllnt of his succesllive defeats to the king of the G h a. ~ a i k 11,10 country IUld splicited his aid, This he obtained-in the form of ma.ny horses SolId men from the king's army. ThUs reinforced, S h a hi b n'd-d in rapidly advanced upon De h 1 1, which he at once captured. The in~ habitants were panic-stricken, and tied from the city in 'every direction. P ! i t h vir a j Ii. was greatly surprised at this, and said that this ShahAbu'd.dfn was acting like a. nanghty child, for he had already been defeated several times by him, and as often aJIowed to go uninolested to :tris capital. P r i t h v i r8 j a.. elated wit:q, his former viotories over the enemy, gathered the sma.ll force that wa.s about him, and wit:q, this handful of men advanced to meet the in. vader.

MA.ROR, 1879.J THE HA.MM1:aA. M.A.H.!K!VYA. OF NA.Y.A.CHL··~1JR,A. SUR!. 61

Slightly attended as the king was, Sha.h8bu'd·dm was greatly terrified at the news of the approach of the king, for he remembered too well the former defeats a.nd humilia.tions sustained at his hands. In the night, therefore, he sent some of his confidential servants into the Iring's ca.mp, and through them, with promises of large sums of money, he seduced from their aJ.legia.nce the king's master of the horse and the royal musicians. He then sent a large number of his Mubmmadans secretly to the enemy's camp, who entered it early in the morning, when the moon in the west had scarcely reached the horizon, and the sun was but beginning to illuminate the east.

.A.ll was now uproar and confusion in the king's catnp. Some cried out, "Oh, brave oomrades ! up and to your arms! Haste, haste I the enemy has approached and taken us by surprise. Let us fight and return conquerors to our homes or to heaven !" While the king's followers were thus preparing to meet·their &'3sailants, the disloyal master of the Iring's horse, as advised by his seducers, saddled and brought forth as the king's charger that day a horse styled N A ty A. l' a m b h II. C leader of the dance'} ; and the mnsicians, who were waiting their opportunity, when the king had mounted, began to play upon their instruments tunes that were the king's favourites. At this the royal steed 'began to dance proudly, keeping time with the musicians. The king was diverted with this performance for a time, and forgot the aJI· importa.nt.business of the moment.

The Muhamma.da.us took advautage of the king's indolenoe and made a. vigorous attack. The Rajputs, under the circumstances, could do little. Seeing this, P r i t h vir a j a alighted from his horse and sat on the ground. With ·the sword in his hand he cut down many Muham· madans. Meanwhile, a Muhammadan taking the king unawares from behind, threw his bow round his neck and drew the king prostrate to the ground, while other Muhammadans bound him captive. From this time the royal captive refused all food and rest.

P ~ i t h vir a j a, before he set out to encounter Sha.Mbu'd.din, bad commanded U d eyarAj a to follow him to attack the enemy. U da y 80r 1 j a.ll reached the ba.ttle.:6.eldjust about

the time when the Muhammadans had sacceeded in taking P:rithvirAja captive. But S h a. h a b n'd-d i n, fearing the consequences of further fighting with U day a raj a, retired into the city, taking with him the captive mon.arch.

When U day a raj a. heard of the captivity of P ~ it h V' i ra j a. his heart throblied heavily with pain. He wished himself in the place of P r i t h vi ra. j a.. He was unwilling to turn back leaving the king to his fate. Such a course, he said, would be detrimental to his fair name, in his own country of G a. u ! a. d e Sa. He therefore laid siege to the city 9f the enem1 (Yo. ginipura. or Dehli, which Sha.habu'd. din had taken possession of before t~ battle), and sat before the gates for a whole month, fighting day and night.

One day during the siege, one of Sbahabu.'d· din's people went up to him and remarked tb.a.t it wou.ld be becoming on his part for once to reo lease P! i t h vir A j So, who had several times taken him captive and th~ dismissed him with honours. ShahAbu'd·diu was not pleased with this noble speaker, to whom he replied sharply that councillors like him were the sure destroyers of' kingdoms. The angry ShaMbn'd-dln then ordered that P:ri t h vir aj a should be taken into the fortress. Whan this order was given, all the brave people hung their necks with shame; and the righteous, unable to suppress the tears gathering in their eyes, lifted them towards h.eaven. P r i t h v ir Ii j a a few days after this brea.t.b.ed· his last and went to hea.ven.

When U day 9:r a j a. learnt olthe death of his friend, he thought that the best place of abode for him now was that only whither his late friend had sped. He therefore gathered together all his followers.a.nd led. them into iihe thickest o£ the battle, and there fell with his whole army, seduring for himself and them eternal happiness in heaven.

When H' a r ira j a lea.rnt the sad news of the death of Pj-i t h vi r lj a, his BOrrow knew no bounds. With tears gushing from his eyes, he performed the funeral ceremonies for the deceased monarch and then ascended the throne. He had not rnled long when the king of G n j a rA t, in order to secure Lis

11 This must be the famous Uda~ PuiW.-·:of!UlwA, mentioned by Ohanda III the greIIt friend a.nd ally of PJithvirAj ..



[lWtc:s:, .187'.

favour, sent to him some dancing women from his country &8 presents.u These girls were e:rceedingly beautiful and highly accomplished, and they drew to themselves the king's heart so much that all his time was U8'1mlly spent in their company, in listening to their mllBic and seeing their danoing. At last matliers came to such a pass that most of his revenues were squandered OD musicians and dancers, and nothing was left with which to pay the salaries of the servants of the state, who naturally were disgusted with the lOng and his ma.nners. His sultjects also were dissatisfied.

Apprised of these circumstances, S h a h a b- 11 'dod i n thought this & favourable opportUnity for destroying H a r i r aj a a.r..d his power. He therefore marched his a.rmy into the country of Hari rAj a.. Everlrinoethe death ofP ri th vi. d j a, H a r ira j a had vowed not to see even the f'a.ee of the hated MusUm, and he passed his time. as described, in the company of women. He was therefore ill prepared to meet Shahlbu'd-din in the battle-field. As a last resource, H ari r aj a determined to perform the • Bale.' He gathered together all the members of his family. and ascended the funeral pile along with them, and 80 went to the other world.

HarirAj a. bad no son, and Shahabu'd.din preaaed his followers hard. In the utmost con. fusUm and misery, therefore, they aasembled in eouncil to deliberate on the caarse they had lIest adopt. They were now, they said, without a leader, while their army was 80 disorganized that it could not look the enemy in the face. SbalIAbn'd-din was a grea.t warrior and they 'Were weak. It was impossible that they should be able to protect themselves and their capital. They therefore resolved to abandon the country io its fi.te, and go and live 1ID.der the protection of GOTindar&j a, thegrandsonofP! i th vi. r 'j ... "ho, having been banished the kingdom by his lather, had by hit b1'&very acquired a new kingdom and esiablished his capital at Rs.~. t ha. m b h h. They a.ccordiDgly gathered in all the l'I!IDlla.Dts of Haririja's power and nalth and started for R a I]. a t ha. m b h &r. Aj mer, vacated by Harirlja's party, was now pillaged and bamt by SbahAbu'd-din, who took: p'. 'Fpon of the city.

The followers of H a r irA j a were well received by GovindarAj a, and appointed to suitable offices in the kingdom. G 0 vi n d 81- rAj 8r was paralyzed at the sad news of the fa.ll of Aj mel', and the dea+,h of Har i r aj a, to whom he paid the last rites. For some yea.ra after thisG ovindaraj a ruled weHandjustly. At lasthe died and went to heaven.

After Govindaraja., :B a 1 h a J,t a. succeeded to the throne. B AI h a J}. a. had two sons-P r a. 11- U d a, the elder, and V A g b h a ~ a, the younger. Being brought np and educated together, there was between them very great brotherly aft'eotion. When they came of age, their father, who had grown old and feeble, placed his elder son,. P r a h 1 A d &, upon the gdilti, and appointed the younger, VAgbha~a., to the post of prima m.i,. nister. The old king did not long Slll'Vive this arrangement. P r a h 1 A d a was a just king, and, as he ruJ,d • mildly, his subjllCts were contented.

One aa.y, hQwever, as fate wonld have it, he went out to the forest to hunt. The hunting party was a grand one. There wete many dogs with them, and the party was dressed in blue clothes. Merrily they went that aa.y over hill and dale, and the prey was unusuaJIy heavy. Many a mighty lion was made to bite the dust. While the par~ was thus engaged, the king 88011' a big lion lyDg at his ease in a patch of taU reed grass, end, being dexterous with his bow, aimed an arrow at the lion and killed him. The attendants of the king raised a shout of joy at this feat of royal archery, which had the effect of rousing from his slumbers another lion that was hard by, but of whose presence they were not aware. In an instant the brute rushed on the king with the swiftness of lightning, and seizing one of the king's arms in his mouth tore it from the body. This sad accident' put a stop to the sport, and the ~ bore the wounded monarch home, where the effects of the poison of the anima.l's bite terminated. his life.

The death-bed of the king was an a.ft'ecting scene. He placed on the gild;' his son Vir a.n A ray aJ}. a, and ca.lled to his presence V A g. b b a ~ a., his brother and minister, and said to him that the three qualities of bravery, pene-

chmllin.r Kirla. The profeaaional da.ncing girls of Persia &l'8 II&id u.ve been the deacenchnta of thi. atoclr: I V'1d~ AI. Bu. v4L IX .. "Biolaa.m aud SAlibAhaD."

Muaa:, 1879.] THE HAM:M:tRA lIAHAxA:VYA OF NAYAOHANDRA snar, 63

~tioD, and oircumspection were the main stays of a monarch,; but that these were acquisitions to which people attained in their ma.jority. Rarely were they possessed by inexperienced youths. "My son," said he, "is yet a. child, and he knows ODly how to sleep and rise again to play. Be thou, therefore, such a. gnide to him that he may not come to rain."

V Ira. nA l' i ya ~ a from his very ohildhood was a IIIlughty and unmanageable boy, a.nd Vi g b h a ~a, oonvinced of this, could not find it in his heart to hold out the language of decided hope to hiiI dying a.nd beloved brother. "My dear brother," said he, as the tears l'IlShed down his cheeks," yon know tha.t no one is able to avert what is to happen. As for mysel1; I will serve the prince as faithfully and as diligently as ever I have served you." Scarcely had V i g b h a va finished his speech when the king breathed his last.

When ViranArAya~a came of age, a marriage was amm.ged between him a.nd the daughter of the Kachha.vAha prince of Jay apn 1', andhe set out for Amarapur {Amber}, the oapitaloftheKachbavAha. On theway Viran h & Y a I). a and his party were pursued by J e U 1 u' d-d i n, and had to torn back to B a I).atha tit b bar without beingableto lIIIll'rytheJayapudm. Here a great battle ensued, bpt neither party obtained the advantage. J eUI u'd-d in saw that it would be difficult to conquer Viran A l' i Y a f!. a in the field, and therefore deter.mined to entrap himinto hispowerby stratagem. For the present, therefore, he returned to his country; but after some days hesenta very flattering message to V t 1'8 n h i y a J1. a through one of his most trusted servants. The messenger represented to V ir a nilr a .,80 9 a that he andJelAlu'd-din werethe suna.nd moon in the surrounding starry hsaven of kings, a.nd that his master, extremely pleased wi&b. the gallantry displayed by the prince in the late War, sought 'his friendship. He also represented how good it would be if they both lived in harmony and saw each other frequently; how strong they both would be by this alliance, which would be like the union of wind with fire, a.nd whioh would enable them to bear down all their many enemies. J ell 1 n'dd t n, said the envoy, now looked, upon V t l' an A r a. y a I). a as his brother, a.nd called upon the Almighty to witness if there was aught .of deceit in his heart. The envoy OOlI.cluded by invitiDg

the prince, in the name of his master, to be the guest of the latter in his capital. "Should yOUl' Majesty have any objection," added the wily man, "to acoept of JeIAlu'd·dtn's hospitality, JeI&I. n'd.dtn himseI£will come to Ra, a thatit bh 0 r and pass a few days with you."

At this time there was pending some feud between VlranhAyaJ1.a and Vigra ha, king ofVakshasthalapura. Bentuponohastising Vigraha, VtranhAya~ a gave a willing ear to the ambassador, a.nd resolved upon an alliance with J eUl n'd-d t n, Va gb hata disapproved of this alliance with the wicked Muhammadans, sought a.ninterview with V i ran Ar A1 a J].aand spoke against it. "Anenemy," said he, "is never changed to a friend, do what service you 11JJf.y to him; a.ud if you have any wish to live a.nd govern the kingdom, you must listen to the advice of yOUl' teachers and elders, and avoid having aught to do with J e I A I u'd·d i n a.nd the MusUms."

V Ira n hay a ~ a was incensed at his uncle's advice, and contemptuously asked him not to think: olthe oa.resofthe state, as they were now i1l-suited to his old and weak mind; tha.thehlmaelf was'tlqual to the task of government, a.nd hence. forth would do and act as best pleased him.

V A g b hat a, stung to the quick by this answer, left the palaqe and departed for MUwl. Other courtiers, too, after VAg. b h a ~ a had left, tried to dissuade the king from going to his enemy, 'bat all failed. Viranhly8.f!.a at lengthw811t to Yogi. nip u ra. The wily Muslim oame alit to receive him. a.nd treated his guest apparently with the 'greatest respect. The prince was delighted

with his reception. a.nd became much attaohed to JelAlu'd-din. After a few days' hospitality, however, the prince was lloisoned and died.

The joy of the Mnhammadane at this event was excessive. They exclaimed that now the whole tree was prostrate at their feet, and they could help themselves to a.ny part of it.

As the king was no more, a.nd V & g b h a ~ a had let't fOr MUwi, RaJ;lathatitbh&r was without defenders, and easily fell into the ha.nds of the enemy. Once in possession of R a J;l a.. thambh&r, JelUu'd-dln .enta message to the king of 11. 8.l w & to 880Y that Vi. g. b h a ~ a should be put to death.

The kingof M Al wit itappean, lent. ~ ear to this nefarious propoea1, bat V A g b h a ••


diseovered the secret. He mmdered the king of' 'MAId, and possessing himself of hls throne, soon gathered round him many of the distressed BijputB. Possessed thus at once of a country and 80ll mny, he made a league with the K h a. rp4r6a,1I who were already in arms against the :Muhammadans. Vag b h a 1&0 conducted the combinedarmytoRa.J1. ath ambh& r a.ndreduced its lfulim ga.rrlspn to such a plight that they Tacated the fort. Th1lS VB g b h a ~ a and the Raj p 11 t S once more beCll.me masters of RaJ}.athambh~r.

It was V A g b h a ~ a's policy to station large forces at differenb posts along the frontier and thus to keep off his enemies. He died after a happy reign of twelve years.

Vi g b h a. ~ a. was succeeded by Iris son J a. itrasingh. Hiaqueen wa.sn8omedHidDav~ who was very beautiful, and in every way qualified for her high position. In course of time, Hid D A vi was found to be with child. Her cravings in this condition presaged t1ie pr0- clivities and greatness of the burden she bore. .At times she was possessed with a desire to bathe herself :in the blood of the MusUms. Her husband satisfied her wishes, and at last, in an a.uspici01lS hour, she was delivered of a. son. The four quarters of the earth assumed a. beautiful appea.rs.n.ce; beJmy winds began to blow; the sky besmne clear; the sun shone graoiously; the king .testified his joy by showering'gold on the Bri.~, 8iIld by making thankofferings. The ~logers predicted, from the very favourable conjunction of the SM tha.t presided. over the ohild'snativity, that the prince 'Irould make the whole earth wet with the blood of'theenemies ofhis country, the Muha.mma.dans.

'.H It m m t ra (for that was the name bestowed on the ohild) throve and grew up a strong and handsome boy. He easily mastered the sciences, and soon grew an expert in the art of war. When. he attained a proper age, his father had him married to seven hea.utmu wives.

J ,. i t r& Bin g h had two other sons also, Sur a fit r a ¥ a. and V ir a. m a., who were grea.t warnOlS. Finding that IUs sons were now able to reI:ieY'e him of the burden of government, ;1. i t r a 8 i D g h one day talked over the

" J1rishta .,. Ie~" & )(oilgol tribe who eJ.ao

- to aye mftdec1. haia at this 1iJDe. '

~. tm JIEUI II fo1Iows~ ~ '~-

~ "" .... ,,' 1 ~ ftrt?r~~ a:cU~?J.

[MAB.CB:, 1879.

matter with H a. m m ! r a, and, a~ter giving 1rlm excellent advice as to how he was to behave, he gave over the charge of the state to him, and himself went to live in the forest. This happened in Samvat 1830 (A.D. 1283).1.

Being endowed with the six: gUt/aB and the three Bald;", H a. m m ira now resolved to set out on a series of warlike expeditions. The first place which he visited was S a r a. sap 1\ r a., the capital of RAja A r j u n a. Here a. battle was fought, in which A r j una was defeated and reduced to submission. Next the prince marched on G 8. 4. ham a J1. 4. a Ia, whioh saved itself by paying tribute. From G a 4 h a. m a J}. 4 81 a Hammira advanced upon D h a r a. Here was reigning a Raja. B h 0 j a, who, like his :famous namesake, was the friend of poets. After defeating B h 0 j a., the army arrived at U j j a i 11, where the elephantS, horses, and men bathed in the clear waters of the K s hip r A. The prince also performed his ablutions in the river and parid his devotions at the shrine of M ah A k Ala. In a grand procession he then passed through the principa.l streets of the old oity. From U jja.in, Hamm!ra marchedtoChitrakota (Chito4), and ra.vaging Me d a p A ~ a (MewA4), went on to Mount A b ft.

Though a follower of the Vedas, H a. m m tr a here worshipped at the temple of ~ ish a b h a De va.-for the great do not make invidiollB dis. tinctions. The king was also present at a recitation in honour of V a. Btu pAl s. He stayed for some days at the hermitage of V a. sis h ~ h a, and, bathing in the MandAkint, paid his devotions to A o h a l A s v a r a.. Here he W&f much astonished a.t seeing the works which A rj una had executed. .

The king of ! b 11 was a. mmollB warrior, but his prowess little availed him at this juncture, and he was obliged to submit to H a. mm ira..

Leaving A b 11, the king arrived at V a rd d h ana p u ra, which city he plundered and despoiled. Cha.ngAmetwiththesa.memte. Hence, by way of Aj mer, Ha.mm tr a went to Pus hk a r a. where he paid his devotions to A d ivarUa (thepriI!l.eval boa.r). From Pushkara;the prince repaired to Slkambhari. On the way the tOWllll of MAn d a tAla

lUBOJl, 1879.]



K h a J1. Q. iII a, 0 ham p A, and K a ii k r 01 t yet completed the MUlfl,ifJraia, was unable to take were plundered. T rib h u van ~ n d r a carne the field in person. He therefore despatched to Bee him at K a D k r 0 I I, and presented to him his generaJs, B him a sin g hand D h arm amany rich gifts. sin g h, to drive away the invaders. The

After having accomplished these brilliant king's army came upon the invadel'B at a. place exploits, Ha.mmira returned to his {Spital. The on the Va r Jil a n a s a, and gained a decisive advent of the king caused a great commotion advantage over the enemy, great numbers of there. .All the great officers' of state, headed whom were killed. Contenting himself wi~h the by D h arm a sin g h, came out in procession ad vantage thus gained, B h t m a 8 i n g h began to receive their victorions monarch. The to retrace his steps towards R aJ?& tha. m b h or, streets were lined by loving subjeo~ eager to Ulngh KhAn secrefly following him wi~h the get ai glimpse of their king. ma.in body of his army. Now it so ha.ppened

Some days at'OOr this, Ham m 1 r a inquired that the soldiers of B h l m as in g h, who had (If his spiritual guide, V i Ii va r 11 p a, as to the obtained immense booty, were anxious to C&"y e:flioa.cy of the merits arising from the perform- it home safely, and, in their anxiety to do this, anoe of a sacrifice called the Ka!~'lIlljiia, and had outstripped their chief, who had around being answered by the high priest that admit- him only a small band of his personal followers. te.nce into Svarga-loka was secured by the When B him a sin g h had thus gained the performance of the sacrifice, the king ordered middle of the Hindavilt pass, in the pride of that prepars.tions should be made for the Kot,- victory he ordered the kettledrums and other lIaj6.a. .Accordingly, learned BrahmaJilS from musical instruments 'he had captured from all parts of the country were convened, and the the enemy to be vigorously sounded. This act sacrifice was completed according to the ordi- had an unforeseen and disastrons consequence. . nances ls.i.d down for its performanee in the U 1 ugh K hAn had ordered his umy to follow holy Sdstras. The Brahmal].s were sumptuously B h.t m 8. sin g h in small detachments, and: hail feasted, and handsome daksld'!las were given to commanded them to fall on him wherever lie them. To crown all, the king now entered on shonld sonndhis ma.rtial instruments, which.they the Munillrata, which he was to observe for an were to understand as the signal of 80me entire month. grea.t advantage gained over the enemy.

While these things were taking place at When the detached parties, therefore, of the R a :Q. a t h a rll b h a r, many changes had oe- Muham.ma.da.ns heard the sonnd of the ,IfIII.enrred at Dehli, where '.AUu'd·dtn was gttras,theyponred into the pass from all sides, now reigning. Apprised of what was pa.ssing at and Ul n g h K h It n aJso coming up began to Ra na t h a rab h 0 r,hecommanded hisyounger fight with Bhtma si n gh. The Hindugeneral brother U lug h K h a n10 to take an army with for a time nobly sustained the unequal combat, him into the C h a han country and to lay it ~ut was at last wounded and killed. After waste. " J IL it r a sin g h," he said, "paid gaining this signal advantage over the enemy, IlS tribute; bnt this son of his not only does not U 1 ugh K han r:...tnrned to Dehli.

pay the tribute, but takes every opportunity Ham m t r a, after the completion of the sscri. of showing the contempt in which he holds flee, learnt the details of the battle and of us. Here is an opportunity to. annihilate his the death of his general B him a. 8 i n g h. He power." Thus commanded, Ulugh Kh\in upbraided Dha.rma.singh for deserting invaded the R a. :Q. e. t ham b h 0 r country with an B h t mas in g h, and called him blind, as he army of 80,000 horse. When this army reached could not see tha.t U 1 n g h K han was on the the Var J1. an a s A river, it was found tbat the t:ra.ok ofthearrny. HealsocaUedhimimpotentas . roads which led into the enemy's country were 'he didnotrnsh to the rescue of Bhlmasing h. n~ practicable for cavalry. Ulugh Khan, Not content with thus npbraiding Dharma.therefore, encamped here for some da.ys, burn- sin g h, the king ordered the offending general ing and destroying the villages in the neighbour- to be blinded and castrated. D h arm a. 8 i n g h Iaood. was also superseded in the comma.nd of the army

The king at RaJ}. ~ th a m. b h &r, not he.ving by B h 0 j a De v a, a natural brother of the Y Malik Mtism'd-d1n Olugh Kh&D, ea11ed .. Alaf Kba.u" by Briggs i:a. hiJ tnmJl&tion of Firishtah. ED.


RAja., and a. sentence of banishment was passed upon him., but, at B h oj a's intercession, it wa.s not ca.rried out.

D h a. r mas i n g h, thus mutilated. and disgraced, was bitt:arly mortified at the treatment be ha.d received at the king's hands, and resolved to be a.venged. IB. pursuance of his determination, he contracted an intimat:a friendship with one R a d haD 11 v t, 80 courtesan, who was 80 great f'a.vourite at court. R A. d haD e v 1 kept her blind friend well acquainted every day as to whaJ; was passing at court. One day it so happened that R:idM Devi returned home quite cross and dejected, and when her blind friend asked her the cause of her low spirits, she answered that the king had lost that day many horses of the f1edha disease, and consequently paid little attention to her dan~g and singing, and that this state of things, in all probability, was likely toO continue long. ~e blind man bade her be of good cheer, as he would see ere long t.ba.t aU was right again. She was only to t.ak:e the opportuniliy of insinuating to the king that D h a1' mas i n g h, if restored to his former pqst, would present the king with twice the number of horses that bad lately died. It Ad h i. D av i played her part well, and the king, yielding to avarice, restored D h a1' m 80S i n g h to his former post.

D ha rma sin g h thus restored, only thought of l'8venge. He pandered. to the king's ava.rice, and by his oppression and exactions reduced the nyata to a miserable con~tion and made them detest their mona.rch. He spared no one from whom. anything could be gotr-horses, money, anytbiDg worth having. The king, whose trea.sary he th1l8 replenished, was much pleased with his blind minister, who, fiushea with suocess, now caJled on B h 0 j 80 to render an account of his depa.riment.· B h 0 j a. knew the blind man gru.dged hlin his office, and going to thekiJlg he informed him of aJl D h a. r m a. sin g h's acbemes, aud applied to him for protection from the minister's tyranny. Bat 1;[ 80 m m 1 r a paid DO attention to the :representations of B h 0 j a., teDiDg him that 80S D h 801" mas i n g h WBS entrruted with full powers, Blldcould do whatever he tbougbi; Prope1", it was necessa.ry others IIhoold obey hiA oniem. B h 0 j a, when he sa.w thai tba Jdng's mind was turned fro1n him, submitiecl to his property being CODfiscated and ~ iD.tD the king'a ooI'erII, u ordered by

D h arm a sin g h. As in duty bound, however, he still followed his chief wherever he went. One day! the king went to pay his devotions at the temple.of V aid y a n l t h, Blld seeing B h 0 j 80 in his train, scornfnlly rema.rked to a courtier, who stood by, that the earth was full of vile beings; bul; the vilest creature on earth wa.s the crow, who, though deprived of his ~t featBer by the angry owl, still clung to his habitation on the old tree. B h 0 j a understood the intent of the remark, and that it was levelled at him. Deeply mortified, he returned home and communicated his disgrace to his younger brother P t t a. m ft. The two brothers now resolved to leave the country, Blld the next day B h oj a went to Ha m m ira and humbly prayed to be a.llowed leave to nndertake a pilgrima~ to BanAras. The king granted his request, adding that he might go to BanAras or farther if he 'chose,-that there was no d.an:ger of. the town being deserted on his acconnt. To this insolent speech B h 0 j a. made no reply. He bowed and withdrew, and soon afteE started for Banaras. The king was delighted at B h 0 j a. De va's depa.rture, and he conferred the KotwA.lship vaca.ted by him on RatipAla..

Whea B h 0 j a reached Sir s a., he reflected on the sad turn his a.ft8.irs had ta.ken, and resolved that the wanton insults heaped upon lrlm. should not go unavenged. In this mind, with his brother PHam&, he went to Yo gin ipura, and there waited upon'A 18 u'd. d In. The Muhammadan chief was much pleased with :a h 0 j $. 's arrival at his court. He treated him. with distinguished honour, and bestowed upon him. the town and territory of Jag a rA 80S a ja.hAgir. Henceforth p tt a m a lived here, and the other members of B h 0 j a's family, while he himself stayed at court. '.A.l8.u'd-d in's object W80S to learn Hamm ira's affairs, and he therefore lavished 'Presents and honolll"S on B h 0 j a, who gradua.n,. beca.me entirely dB1'oted to the interests of his new master.

Convinced of B h 0 j a's devotion to Iris cause. , .A.1An'd-din one da.,. asked him, in private, if there were a.ny easy and pra.ctic&ble means of subduing Ham m t :ra.. B h oj a answered that it was no easy ma.tter to conquer Hammir a, aIring who was the terror of the kingaofKuJlo. hola, 11 ad hy a d e h (Ctmtral India), A. ia-


go. d eaa and the far K Ui c hi-a king who was master of the six gUrtrJs and the three 8alcti8, and who 'commanded a vast and powerful a.rmy-9. king whom all other kings feared and obeyed, and who had a most valiant brother in V ~ r a. m a, the conqueror of many princes-a king who'was served by the fea.rl~ss Jrtongol chiefs Ma.himUihi and others, who, after defeating his brother, had defied 'AI a u'd-d 1 n bimseI£. Not only had H a. m m ira able generals, said Bhoja, buli they were all atta.ched to him. Seduction was impossible save in one quarter. One man only had his price in the court. of Ram m ira. Wha.t a. blast of wind was to a lamp, what the cloud was to the lotuses, wha.t night was to the sun, what the company of women was to an ascetic, what a.varice was to all other qualities, that was this one man to Ham m ira-the sure- CAuse of disgrace aIld destruction. The present time, too, said B h 0 j a, was not ill suited for an expedition against Ham m ir a. There was a bumper harvest this year in the 0 h 0 han country and if 'A. U. u'd-d in oould but snatch it from the peasantry before it could be stored. l1IWay he would induoe them,' as they already suffered from the blind man's tyranny, to forsake the cause of' Ham mira.

'AlAu'd-dln liked Bhoja's ide:lo, and forthwith commanded Ul ugh Khan to in'Vade Ha.mmira.'s country with an army of 100,000 horse. Ulugh Khan's army now poured over the land like an irresistible torrent,-the chiefs through whose territories it passed bending like reeds before it. The army thus reached H i n d a v A t, when the news of its approach and intention was carried to H.ammha. Thereupon the Hindu king convened a council, and deliberated on the course they had best adopt. It was resolved that Vir a m a and the rest of the eight great officers of sb&te should go and do battle with the enemy. Accordingly, the king's generals divided the army into eight divisions, and fell on the :Muhammadans from all the eight points of the compass a.t once. V! ram e. cam-e from the east, and :M a him AS A hi from the west .

. From the south advanced JAj a d AT a, while G a. r b h 80 r 11 k a advancea from the north. From the south-east came R a iii pAl a, while Tic h a r ~ 0 n g 0 1 directed the atta.ck from the north.west.· Ba\lama.lla came from the

north-east, while Va. i c h a r a. chose the southwest for his db:ection of attack. The &jputs set to the:ir work with vigour. Some of them filled the enemy's entrenchments with earth and rubbish, while others set on fire the wooden fortification raised by the :Muhammadans. Others, again, cut·theropesoftheir·tents. The Muhammadans stood to their arms and vauntingly said they would mow down the .Riljputs like grass. Both sides f'ought with desperate courage j but the Muhammadans at last gave Vlay before the repeated attacks. of the Rajputs. Many of them, therefore, left tbe field and :fled for their lives. Moor a. time their example was followed by the whole of the Muhammadan army, which fled ignominiously from the battlefield, leaving the Rajputs complete masters of it.

When the ba.ttle was over, the modest Raj.! puts went over the field to gather their dead and wounded. In this search they obtained mnch booty and arms, elephants and horses. Some of the enemy's women also fell into their hands. Rat i p aI a. forced them to sell buttermilk in every town they passed thtGugh.

H & m m h a was exceedingly delighted at the signal victory over the enemy gained by his generals. He held a grand darbAr in honour of the event. In the darbAr the' king invested R a. tip a 1 a with a. golden cha.in-comparing him, in his speech, to the war elephant who had richly deserved the golden band. .All the other nobles and soldiers were also rewarded according to their deserts, and graciously ordered bt.ck to their resp~ctive homes.

All but the M 0 n g 0 1 chief's left the presence.

Ham m ira. observed this, and kindly asked them the reason of their lagging behind. They answered that they were loth to sheathe ~heir swords and retire to their houses before they had cbastised the m:grateful B h 0 j a, who was enjoying himself in his jahAgir at Jag a r R. On account of the relation in which he 'stood to the king, said they! they had IIp to this time allowed B h 0 j a to live; but he now no longer deserved this forbearance, as it was at his instigation that the enemy had invaded the RaJ]. at ham b btl r territory. They therefore asked permission of the king to march on Jag 80 r A and attack Bhoja. The king granted the request, and at once the Mongols left the pa.Iao& for Ja g a. r a. They toQk the town by 81iorm.t



[M.A.Rcx, 1879.

and taking P t t ama. captive, with many others, summons, brought their respective quotas to brought him back to R lit J? a the. m b h a r. swell the invading army. Amongst this mie-

n 1 ugh K h Ii n after his discom6.ture has- cellaneous host there were some who came tily retired to Deh1i a.nd apprised his brother of on account of the lo-ve they bore to the god_t had happened. His brother taxed him dess of war, while others were there who had with cowa.rdice; but U In g h K han excused been drawn into the ranks of the invaders his :flight by representing that it was the only by the love of plunder. Others, again, only ~urse open to him, under the circumstances, came to be spectators of the desperate fighting which could enable him to ha.VE! the pleasure of that was expected to take place, There was onco more seeing his brother in this world, and such a thronging of elephants, horses, chariots, have another opportunity of fighting with and men that there was scarcely room for the 0 h 0 h Ii n, Scarcely had U lug h K h Ii n one to thrust a grain of lila. amidst tbe crowd. done with his excnses, whim in came B h a j a, With this mighty concourse, the two brothers, red ~tb auger. He sprea.d the cloth which Nus rat K han and U lug h Khan, started he had worn a.s an upper garment on the for the Ral,lath-a.mbhar country.

ground, and began to roll npon it a.s one pos- 'A I a u'd-d ~ n with a small retinue stayed aessed with an evil spirit, muttering inco- behind with the object of inspiring the RAjputs hereutly all tbe while. 'Ala\u'd·dtu wa.s not with a dread of the reserves that must have a little a.nnoyed at this strange conduct, aud necessarily remaine4 with him, their king. inquired the reason of it. B h 0 j a replied that The numbers in the army were so great that it would be diflicult for him ever to forget the they drank up all the water of the rivers on the misforliane that had overtaken him that day i line of march. It was therefore found neoesfor M a him a SA hi ha.ving paid a nait to sary not to halt the army longer than a few 1 agarA, had carried it byassao.lt and dragged. hours in anyone place. By forced marches, his brother P t ta m a into captivity before the two generals soon reached the borders of H a. m m ira. Well might people now, said the R ILl,l a t ham b h br territory- an event B ho j a, point the finger of scorn at him, and which gave rise to conflicting sentiments in the "y, Here is the m8.n who has lost his all in the minds of the invaders. Those that had taken hope of getting more. Helpless e.nd forlorn, no part in the late war said ,-ictory was now he could not now trust himself to lie on the omain, 8.3 it was impossible the Riijputs should ea.rtb, as it all belonged now to Ham m 1 r a; be able to withstand sneh troops as they and he had therefore spread his ga.rment, on were. The veterans of the last campaign, which to roll in .grief whieh had deprived him however, took a different view of the matter, or the power of standing. and asked their more hopeful comrades to

Already the fire of a.nger was kindled in the remember that they were about to encounter breut of 'A lAu'd-d b at the ta.le of the defeat Hammira'sarmy, and that, therefore, they his brother had sustained, and B h oj a's speech should reserve their vaunting until the end of added fuel to the fire. Throwing to the the ca.mpaign.

ground, in the vehemence of his feelings. the When the pass was gained which was the iUl'ban he had on, he said Ha.mmira's folly SCeDe ofU I n gh KhA n's discomfiliureanddiswas like that of one who thought he could grace, he advised his brother not to place too iI'ead upon t.he lion's mane With impuility, and much confidenoe :in t.heir power alone, but, as TOwed be would exterminate the whole race the pJace wa.s a di:fRcult one, and Ham m iT a's of ilia Oh 0 h' ns, Then at. once he despatched army both strong and e:fRcient, to try stratagem letters to tlte kings oll&rious countries, eall- by seDding some one on to the courl; of H a miDs 1lpDIl ihem to join him in a war against mira., tbere to try to while away some days in Bammtn. Thakingso£ Auga., Telailga, negotiations about peace, while the army sbould X.g.dha., lhisAr, Kali itg&, B anga., safely cross the mountains and take up a strata,Bllot, lhdap It, Panch AI, BAngal,ll gica1 position. Nus ra.t Kh a n yielded to the 'f •• miDl, Bhilla, Nepal, DAhal, and superior experience of bis brother, and Sri ... BimAlaJ&D chie6, who also obeyed the Mol ha ~ a D e.v a was sent to propose the terms

at I.u ta.e II&IIIeI aa the, are in the oziBiaaL

M.uI.c:s:, 18'7ft.J THE HA.IDrtRA 'MARAKAVYA OF NAY.A.CHA...."IDRA. srsr, 69


'On which the Muhammadans would conclude a,' numerouBimpregna.bleforts,likeD~vagaQ.ha,

peace with Ham m 1r ft.. Paneling negotiations, whereas the fame of the god rests on the Ham m; r a,' B people allowed the invading a.rmy I sucoessful capture of the fort of Tripura. alone, to cross the dangeeons pass unmolested. The i Ham m ira., who had listened with impaKMn now posted his brot"lI:r on one side of the II tience to the ambaasa.dor's speech, was incensed road known fIB the :M a ~ 4 i Bosd, and he him- at the insulting mes~age delivered to him, and self occupied the fort. of Sri M a 1]. 4 a p a. The said to is r t Mol h Q,l}. a· D e va. that if he had

forces of the allied princes were stationed aJl round the tank of J ait ra S ',gara..

Neither party was sincere. The :Muham,mada.ns thought they haa artfully secured an a.dva~ous position from whence to commence their opera.tions; whilst the Rlijputs were of opinion that the enemy had so far advanced into the interior th8.t he could not now possibly escape them.

The Khan's amba1!se.dor &t Ra.l].a.thiLtilb h a r, admitted into the fort by the king's 'Order, from wha.t he saw thel'e, was inspired with a dread of Hammlra.'s power. However, he attended the darMr held to receive him, and, after the exchange of the 1lSll8l courtesies, boldly delivered himself of the message with ~hich he wa.s charged. He said tha.t he was deputed to the king's court as the envoy of Ulugh KhAnand NllBrat Khi n,th.etwo brothers of the celebrated 'Alh'd.d tn ; that he had come there to impress on the Icing's mind, if possible, the futility of &Dy resistance that he could oWer to so mighty 'a conqueror as , A,I , n'd-d t n, and to ad vise him to 'COllclo.de a. peace with his chief. He offered to Hamm ira, as the conditions of peace, the choice between pa.ying down to his chief 8. contribution of one kundred thousand gold' moharB, presenting him with funr elephants and three hundred horses, and giviDg his daughter in :marriage to 'AlAn' d-dtu ; or the giving up to him the f01l1' insubordinate M 0 n g 0 I ,chiefs, who, haviDg excited the displeasure of his master, were now 'liviDg nnder the protecti<ln of the king. The envoy added tbat ifthek:ing desired the enjoyment of his power and kingdom in peace, he had the opportunity at hand of securing his object by the, adoption of either of these conditions, which would equally secnre. to him

, the good graces and assistance of 'A I a u'd-d ! n, a monarch who had destroyed all his enemies, who possessed numerous strong forts and wellfurnished arsenals and maga.zines, who had put to shame Mahadeva himself by capturing

not been there in the capacity of an accredited envoy, the tongue with which he nttered those vaunting insults should ere this have been cut out. Not only did Hammira refuse to entertain either of the conditions submitted by the envoy, but on his part he proposed the acceptance by 'AlA a'd-d ~ n of as many

, sword-cuts as the nmber of the gold mohors, ,elephants, and horses he had the impudence to ask for, and told the envoy he would look upon the refusal of this martial offer by the Muhammadanchiefas tantamount to his (' .!lAu'd-din's) feasting on pork. Without 8oDJ'further ceremony, the envoy was driven from the presence.

The garrison of R a l} a t h a Jb b h &r now prepared for resistance. Officers of approved ability loud bravery were told off' to defend variOIlS posts. Tents were pitched. here and there on the rampa.rts to protect the defenders from the rays of the sun. Oil and resin were kept boiling in mauy places, ready. to be poured on the bodies of any of the assailants to scald them if they dared come too near, and guns were mounted on suitable places. The Muhll.rnmBdan army, too, at last appeared before Ra1}athaJbbhOr. A. despera.te struggle was carried on for some days. Nnsrat Khan was killed by a random shot in one of the engagements,18 and, the monsoon having set in, U I 11 g h

K h A. n was obliged to stop all further operations. He retired to some distance from the fort, and sent a despatch to 'A U. u'd-d in" _ informing him of the critical situs.tion he was in. He also sent him ina box Nusut Khi n's body for burial. Upon this intelligence reaching 'AI A n'd-d in, he started at once for'R a J;I. a-

t h a til. b h 3r. Arrived there, he immedia.tely marched his army to the gates of the for!; ad invested it.

Ham m t r a, to mark his contempt of these proceedings, had caused to- be raised, on many places over the walls, :Bags of light wiok8J-' work. This W80S as, much 80S to say that 'AI a:.


11 Elliot ILIld Dowson's History, vol. IU. p. 172.-ED.



[MA.RCH, 1879.

u'd-din's advent before the forL' was not felt to be a burden to, or an aggravation of, the sufferings of the RAjputs. The :Muhammadan chief at once saw that he had to deal with men of no ordinary resolution and courage, and he sent a message to Ham m t r a. B&ying he was greatly pleased with his bra.vsry, and would be glad to grant any request such a. gaJla.nt enemy might wish to make. Of COUl"Se this was bidding in some way for pea.ce. Ham m1 r a, however, replied that as 'Alau'd-dm was pleased to grant anything he might set his heart upon, nothing would gratify him so much as fighting wilih him for two days, and this request he hoped would be complied with. The Muhamma.d8.u chief praised very much this demand. saying it did justice to his adversary's courage, and agreed to give him battle the next day. The contest that ensued was furious a.nd desperate in the last degree. During these two da.ys the Muhammadans lost DO less than 85,000 men. A truce of some few days being- now agreed upon by both the belligerents, fighting ceased fora time.

On one of these days the king had. R a d h & 'D a v i ~ before him on the wall of the fo4't, while there was much compa.ny rQund him. This woman, at _ted and regular intervals, well understood by those who understand mnlie, purposely turned her ba.ck towar<1J.'.A.l&u'd,. dtn, who was sitting below in his tent not far from the fori;, and who could well Bee what was ~ on the fort wa1I. No wonder that he was incensed at this conduct, and indigna.nt- 11 asbd those who were &.bout him i{ there was any among his numerous followers who could, from that distance, kill that woman with ous arrow. One of the chiefs present answered. that he knew one man only. who could do this, and thahwltU was IT d dAn a sin g b, whoa th& king had in ca.ptivity. The, captive was at ODCO released and brought 'before. 'A 1 au'd-d l n, who commanded him to show his skill iJI azchery apinst the !air target. U d dan asin g h did as be was bid, and in an instant the faho :iorm. or the courtesan, being struck, feU down headlong from the fort wall.

TIWr incident roaaed the ire of lla him AU h i, who :req'O$b!d. permi.seiOD of the king • 'be aDowed to do the same service' to 'Alh.'41-db ~he had done to poor R&d hl D h·i. The king replied ~ he well

knew the extraordinary skill in archery possessed by his friend, but tba.t he was loth 'AIau'd-dln should be so kill.e<i, as his· death woold deprive him of a. va.liant enemy witll whom he could at pleasure hold pa.ssages of arms. :M 81 him A s ~ h i then dropped the arrow he had adjnst~ on his bowstring on U d d a-

n a s.i n g h, and k:i1led him. This feat of M a. h im as 8.h i so intimidated ' ~ U iii' d-d in that he at once removed his camp from the eastern side of the lake to its western side, where there was greater protection from such attacks. When the camp was removed, the RAjputs were able to perceive that the enemy, by working underground, had. .prepared mines, and had attempted to throw over a part of. the ditch a. temporary bridge of wood and gra.ss carefully covered onr with eal'th. The Riljputs destroyed this bridge with their cannon, a.n<l, pooring 11o.rniug oil into the mines, destroyed these that were working underground. In this ma.nner all.' AU u' dod in's - efforts to take the fort were frustrated. At the same time he was greatly harassed by- the ra.in~ which now fell in torrents. He therefore sent

a message to. H a Ill. m ira, asking him kindly te send over to his camp Rat i pal a, as he desired very muoh to speak with him, with a. view to au amica.ble settlement of tl:J.e. ditrerences subsisting between them.

The king ordered Rat i p' A I 8. to go and hear what 'illu'd-din had. to 8&Y:. Ra n am a l l a was jealous of R & tip al a's infl:nenC8" and did not at all like that he'should have been chosen foo: this service.

'A U. u'd-d in 'reCeivei R a. tip a 1 a with extmordina.ry marks of honenr, Upon his entering the darbAr tent. the Muhammada1;l chief rose from his seat, and, embracing him, made him sit on his own gad;', while he himself sat by hi& side. Be ca.used valuable presents to be pla.ced: before Rat i p A.I a, a.nd also made proIXRses of further rewards. Rat i pal a. was delighted with such kind treatment. The wily Muhammadan, observing it, ordered the rest of the company to lea.ve them alone. When they had. all left, he began to a.d.dress Rat ipUa. "I am," said he, "'AI A u'd-d in, the king of the Muha.mma.dans, and I have up to this time stormed and carried hundreds of fortresses. But it. is impossible for me to carry Ra J].atham.b h 6r by force- of arms.

MuCH, 1879.J THE H.A.MM.tR.A. M.A.H!xlVY.A. OF NAYACHL.'IDRA stEtI. n

My object in investing this fort is simply to get the fame' of its capture. I hope now (as you have condescended to see me) I shall gain my object, and I may trust you for a little help in the fulfilment of my desire. I do not wish for any more kingdoms and forts for myself. When I take this fort, what better can I do than bestow it 'on a fri~d ~e you P My only happiness will be the fame of its capture." With blandishments such a.s these, Rat i p A I So was won over, and he gave 'AU n'd-d t n to' understand so. Thereupon' AlAu'd-din, to make his game doubly.snre, took Rat i pil.I aintoliisharem, and there left him to eat and dri:nk in private with hisyoungestsister.lO Thisdone, R ati p ala left the Muhammadan camp and came back into the fort.

Ra ti pAl a wa.sthusga.inedoverby' AU n'dd i n. Therefore, when he saw the king, he did not give him a true account of what he had.eeen in theMuba.mmadan. camp, and of what 'AIAn'd· din had said to him. Instead of representing 'A U u'd-d in's power as fa.irly broken by the repeated .aud vigorous a.ttacks of the RAjputs, and he himself as willing to retire upon So nominal surrender of the fort, he represented him as not only bent upon emoting the most humiliating marks of submission on the part of the king, but as having it in his power to make good his threats. 'AUu'd.dJn confessed, said R a. tip 11.1 a, that the RAjputs bad succeeded in killing some of his soldiers; but that mattered little, for no one could look upon the centipede as lame for the loss of a foot or two. Under these circumstances he advised Ham m ira to call upon RaJ}. am &1180 in person tbatnight, and persuade him to de his best in repelling the assaila.nts; for RaJ}. a mall a, said the traitor Rat i p A I a, wa.s an uncommon warrior, but that he did not, it appeared, use his utmost endeavours in chastising the enemy, &8 he w'as oft'ended with the king for something 01' other. The king's visit, a.lleged Rat i p AI Il, would make

matters aJl right again. ,

Afterthis interview with the king, Rati pUa hastened to see RaJ}. a mall a., and there, &8 if to oblige and save from utter destruction an old comrade and associate, informed him that, for some unknown reason, the Iring's mind. was

,. At &rat Bight this statement might seem to bo! a fancy of the author, intended to bW:ken the ch&raoter of the victor. But we rea.d th&t euch thinge were quite poesible in the tribe to which the oouqueror belongecl A

greatly prejudiced against him, and he advised him to go over to the enemy on the first alarm ; for he said Ham m t r a had resolved to make him a prisoner that very night. He also told him the hour at which' he might expect to be visited by the king for this purpose. Having done this, Rat i pAl a quietly waited to see the issue of the mischief he had so industriously sown.

Virama, the brother of Ram mira, wa.s with him when RatipAla paid him the visit, and he expressed his belief to his brother that Rat i p 11.1 a had not spoken the truth, but had been seduced from his a.llegia.nce by the enemy. He said he could sme1lliquor when Rat i p AI a was speaking, and a drunken. man wa.s not to be believed. Pride of birth, generosity, discern· ment, shame, loyalty, love of truth and cleanli. ness, were qualities, said Vir a. m a., tha.t were not to be e:r:pected to po the possessions of those that dri:nk. In order to stop the further progress of sedition among his people, he a.dvisedhis ~rotherto put Rati p Ala to death.

. But the king objected to this propossJ, saying that his fort was strong enongh to resist the enemy under any circums~; and if by any unforeseen accident, it should fa.ll into the hands of the enemy after he bad killed Rat i. p ! 1 a., people would moralize on the event, a.nd attribnte their fall to their wickednes,s in putting to death an innocent man.

In the mean time, R a ti pAl a caused a l'IIIIlO1Jl" to be spread in the king's RanawAs that' AlAn'd· din only asked for the hand of the king's daughter, and that he was ready to conclude a peace if his desires in thls respect weJ8 gra.nted, a.s he wanted nothing else. Henrapon the king's wives induced his daughter to go to her father and express her wil.I.ingness to bestow her hand on 'AlAll'd-dtn. The girl went where her father ria sitting, and implored him to give her to the :Muhamma.da.n., to save himself and his kingdom. She said she was &8 a piece of worthless glass, whilst her fa.th~'B life and kingdom were like the Mifl,tama,~i. orthe wish. granting philosopher's stone; and she solicited him to cast her away to retain them.

The kiug's feelings quite. overcame him as the innocent girl, with clasped hands, th\1l!. a1ipper lot the doOl" 9f hia wife's room is 10 eigu. well 1Illder. etOod by 10 hWlband in this tribe, lot Bight of which he immedi&tel;y t&kee C&l'Il to mue from the houee. See Too, ToL I.p. 56.



[MARCH, 1879.

8poke to him. He t4l1d her she was a. mere I child, and was not to be blamed for what she had been taught to speak. But he knew not what punishment they deserved who had the impradence to.put such ideas into her innocent hea.d.. It did not, said he, become a Rajput to mutilate females; else he should have cut out the tongues of those that uttered such blasphemy in his. fair daughter's ears. II Child," said Hamm1ra., "you are yet too young to understand these matters,.and there is not much use in my expla.ining them to you. But to give you away to the unclean Muhammadan, to enjoy life, is to me as loathsome as prolonging Mist.ence by living on my own flesh. Such

a coxmection would bring disgrace on the fair name of our house, would destroy all hopes of salvation. and embitj:er our last days in this wprld. I will rafiher die ten thousand deaths than live a life of such in&my." He ceased, aud ordered his daughter, kindly but firmly, to her chamber.

The unsuspecting king then prepared. to go, in the dusk of the evening, to RaJ}. a. m a l l a.' s qna.rt.ers, in. order to remove his doubfs, as ad"rised by It a ti p AI a. The king was but slightly' attended. When, however, he appreached R .. J}. a m a I 1 a' s qua.rt.ers, the latter remembered what Ra tip f.l a had said to him, a.nd, thinking his imprisonment was inevitable if he stopped there au! longer, precipitately left the tbrS wi.thhis party tmd went over to '.AIau'ddID. Seeing this, Rat i p AI a also did the


The king, thus deoeived and bewildered, came back to the palace, and sending for the ~blri (the o1Jioer in charge of the royal grana:ries) inquired of him as to the.state of the stores, a.nd how long they would hold out. The Kot;h&rl. fearing the loss of his inHu.ence, if he were to teD. tae truth to the king at that time, falsely answered that the stores would snmoe to hDld out for a oon.s:idera.ble time. But scat'Clely had this oftioer turned his baok when it beoalne generally known that there was no more 001'11 in the stata granaries. U pan the D8W1I reachlng the kmg"s ears, he ordered V tum .. to put the mJse ~ to death, and to tarow all tire wealth he posaessed Wo the 1ab4l:'.am.a Slgar.

Hu-.llail 1ri&h the numero1J6 trials· of that "t the.:Iaar in utier ezhaustioD. t1uew

himself'oD. his bed. But his eyes were strangers to sleep that drea.df'nl night. It was too much for him to bear the sight of those whom he had treated with more tli&n. a brother's aiFectioD., one by one, abjure themselves and leave him alone to his fate. When the morning came, he performed his devotions, .and came and sat in the darbil.r hall, sadly musing OD. the critica.l sitna.tioD.. He thought that, as his OWD. Rajputs had left him, no faith could be

I placed in M a him a. s 4 h i, at once a Muhammada.D. and an aJien. While in this mood, he sent for M a him a s a h i and said to him that, as a. true RAjpttt, it was his duty to die in the defence of his kingdom i but he was of opinion it was improper that people who were not of his race should also lose their lives for him in this straggle, an~ therefore now it was his wish that M So him a sa hi should name to hlm some place of safety where he could retire with his fa.mi1y, aad thither he would see him escorted safely.

Struck by the king's generosity, M a hi mas A h i, without giving any reply, went back to his house, and there put to the sword all the inmates of his zanAn.a., and returning to H a. m m 1 r tJ, said. that his wife and children were ready to start off, but that the former insisted on once more looking upon the face of the king, to whose favour and kindness the family had owed so long their protection and happiness. The king acceded to this request, and, accompanied by his brother V 1 r So m a, went to Yah imaBAhi' s house. ~u.t what was his sorrow and surprise when he saw the slaughter in the housel The king embraced M a him a sa h i and began to weep like & child. He blamed himself for having asked him to go a.wa.y, and knew not how to repay such extraordinary devotion. Slowly, therefore, he e&me back: to the paJ.a.ce, and, giving u.p everything for lost, told his people that they were free to aot as. they should think. proper. As for himse~ he was prepared. to die charging the eneDJ,Y· In preparation for this, the females of his mmily, headed by R a. n $ 8r D ~ v i, perished on the funera.l pile. When the Icing's daughter prepared to ascend the pile, ber :father was overcome with grief. He embraced her and. re£ased to sepa.n.te. She, however, extrica.ted herself from the paternal embrace, and passed through the fiery ordeaJ.. When there remained. :no-


ing but a. heap of asbes, the Bole remains aad K she t r a.s i n g h Par a. m Ii ra. followed of t~e fair and faithful Chohanie, B a. m m t r a them. Lastly fell the mighty H a. m mira., performed the funeral ceremonies for the dead, pierced with a hnndred sha.fts. Disdaining to and cooled their manes with a last ovation I fall with anything like life into the' enemy's of the tWll1jalt He then, with the remains i hands, he severed, with one last effort, his head of his faithful a.rmy, sallied out of the fort and I from his body with his. own hands, and so fell upon the enemy. .A. deadly hand-to-hand terminated his existence. Thus fell Ham mba., sbruggle ensued. V tram a. fell first in the thick- the last of the C h 0 hans! This sad event est of the battle; then M: a him a 8 a h i wM shot happened in the 18th yeal' of his reign, in the throughthehearl. Jaja., Gailgadhar Tn, moilth of SrAvaq.a1o•


BY :R. SEWELL, M.O.S., M.E.A..S.

The two plates of which I give the tran~ I It carries the list of kings from K n b j ascripts below were lately found in the vernacular Vis h IJ. n v a r d h a. n a, the first sovereign, record room of tho Collector's office in Masu- down to.A. m marAj a II., and is almost identilipatam. .As system is everything in these cal in style and expression with the grant pub. matters, I have adopted Ml'. Fleet's system of , lished by Mr. Fleet, Vol. VII. pp. ISff. That transliteration; and, in places where passages II grant is dated A.. D. 94~-6, Sao 867, and in his published grants and: in these new ones is given by one Vi j a. y a d i t Y a, whose relaare identical, I have adopted the very words ' tionship to .A m m a. raj a II. is not noted. of his translation,-believing that by so doing Now the present grant also 'is apparently giV'en I am aasisting best the work now being carried by this same V i j a, y a d i t Y a, and, as in out. This will serve to show how very simi- • Mr. Fleet's No. XXXIV., his relationship to Jar to one another are these C h A Ink y a 1 Am mar a j a II. is not mentioned, -though grants. kingly titles are a.wa.rded to him. This may,

Both the grants now published belong to the as suggested by Mr. Fleet, be .A.mmarAj a's eastern coast of the peninsula. near the KrishIJ.1t. grandfather, K 0 II a bigs. ~ Q a.Vij a y ~ di"river, and date from the period when the t y s, It is also possible that he may be the Eastern branch of the 0 h a I u k y a kings were Vi jay a d i t Y a mentioned as the SOl!- of l'Oling over the country they had conquered Am mar a j a I., who was expelled from from the S a I a. n k 8. y a n a sovereigns of the throne when an infant by Tar. a p a, and Ve ngt H s a. who was cousin to Am ma.raj a II., and

Dr. Barnell, in the 1st edition of his Sout'h,. probably about the same age as that sovereigD.

Indian Pa.ZfBOgrap1iy, had to be content with But I think it is more probably a title of five inscriptions whibh gave the consecutive .A.mmarAj IL himself (tJide my remarks on order and relationship of these kings and the inscription No. II.).

lengths of their reigns, I but we have now more The grant consists of some fields and lands than double that number to go by, and there is in the eastern delta. of the K :rishq.8. It is ~on to hope that dates and other particulars interesting to notice that one of the boundaries will soon be as 8CC1lrately determined. as those mentioned is the "large road," showing that of the K 1101 Y a IJ. a branch. commllnications were cared for in that part of

And although there is nothing important in the country at that period. The boundaries these two plates, I think those interested in the are noted in Teluga, the words cl~6n.u, 'a :field, ., subject will agree that the more the published Sru, "a river,' Che!"~l', 's tank,' being mixed

mscriptions are multiplied the better. up with the Sanskrit kshetra, &c. I shall be

No. I. very glad to receive information on the mean-

This inscription is, ntif'ortuna.tely, .undated. ings of the words pannaBa and flata, wbic~

10 The T4rCkh-i' AlAt of A.mtr Khull gives the da.te lioii ara 2M Ka'da A.B. 700 (July 1301 A.D.); the mere began in Rajah, fOUT months preViowy.-Elliot and DOWBOll'S H4riory, vol. III. pp. 75, 179, M9.-E».

, I 1188 the DIoIIl8 10 apelt lioii tba.t in 1188 in aevaml pIa-,

though it seems doubtFul whether it ought not to be writ.. ten with the short ",-Obalakya.

• Some, ()f co1ll'B8, more, IIOID.8 leu, according to their reapeotiY8 dates.



[.M.uI.CJr, 1879.

the moon over the animal'R head, in front 'Of the boar a §a,;,kkCJ, behind him an elephantgoad. Underneath the boar are the words Sri-Tribhu'Dat~d,lilkrda, but they- are mnch worn away. .At the base is some ornamental design, probably a lotus, but on this seal it is impossible to define it. It will thus be seen that the seal is one of those ordinarily in use among tho C h AI u k y IL kings of this period.

I cannob iDterpret; pa!1/. I could understand, bo.h the word is clearly pa!u.

The original consists of three plates, each measuring 8" long by 3i" broad, the writing being on the insides of both the ouber plates, a.ud both sides of the inner one. The seal altha ring on which they are strung is 2f' in diameter. It beers the usual C hal n k y IL de~-the bOIlo1' facing left, the snn above it,


L (1) Svasti ~rlmatam sakaJa.-bhuvan&-saritstftyamina.-MAnavya.-slLg3trAJ;lam nirtti-putrA(2) nil.ril. Ko(ka.u)Sild-va.ra-prasada.-labdha.-rijyanam m8.tri-ga.~paripalitanRm. SvAmiMahAsAna..pa-

(3) d-inndhyatBnim bhagavan-Nuayav-a-prasi1da-sa.m!sadita-va.ra-va.rAha.-lAiichha.n-

Aksha[~a-ksha.-]· (4) v.&o-vaSlkrit-M.ti.ma.\lQaIAnAm=>8.svamAdh-i'l.vabhp.ta-snAna.-pa.vitrn.."!ita-vapushAIil [9~a-' lu]kyA(5) nAm kulam=a.laIi1karish~ol} Satya&ra.ya.- VallabMndrasya. bhrAta Knbja- Visbv-uvarddhano=sh~ada.Sa. [va.rshay.i] (6) Vemgt-d~a.m:apAIaya.t I tad-A.lima.j3 Jayasimhas=tr&yas-trimsatam I tad-anuj.ja"ara raja-Iianda.n& Vi(7) sbJ}.uvarddhan$ :aava I tat-s1lnur=Mmaugi-yuvarija1}. pamcha-viJhSa.tim I tat-putr4 Jayasimha.s=tr&y3- (8) da.8a I tad-a.vara.jal.1 Kokkilil;t shal},=mAsan I ta.sya jy&b~h& bhratA Visb9uvardhanas= tam=nchchAtya sapta.·triJh[ 8atam]

nil. (9) tat-putr3 VijayAditya-b~qha.k:6=shqAdaBBo I tat-sutO VisbJ;l.Uvarddhanash=shat;-

. trimsatam. I tat-su.M

(10) Vija.yidif:ya-na.rAnd.ra.-mrigaraja.B=eh=&sh~. chatvArimSatam I tat-sutaq. Kali- Vishv-u-

varddhllon6=dh.y-a.(11) ~varsham. I tat-putra GUl}8ogAmka- VijayAdityaS=ehatuB-chatvirililBataIil. I tad-

bhrAtu(12) [t4] Vvikramlditya.-bMpaUs=sllnuS=ChAlukya.. [Bht]ma-bhftpilas=t:rimSataIil.1 tat-suta.1}. . (IS) Kollabigaq.4a,- Vijayi.dityash=sbaq.=m8san I tat-stm:ar--Am.ma.ri[ja. ]s=sa.pta- va.rshAy.i I tat -su(14) tam Vija.yadityam balam=nchohlwa. IilayA TAI.Adhipatir=Akramya. masam=Aka.m==a.pa(15) d=bhnvaIil I tam jitva Chlllukya.-BlWn&-ta.na.yo VikraInAditya. AkAdaSa mAsan I ta.ta.s==

A TAl-adhipa.[ti]-

(IS) s4nu[~] Yyuddhama.ll&(llal].) sa.pfa varsbAJ}i I Nirjjity=Arjuna.-sanniBM janapadat=ta-


ID. (17) dln=ina-bhinu'Una.:-bhaga1].-lk4rin=vidhAy=etarAn.= V ajr=lv=oIjjita.-niikam=Amma.-n!ipa-

~r=bhrAtA kantyan=bhu(l8) .... Bb!m3 B~=sa.mabhunak=saIil.V80tsa.r!n=dvadaBa. I tasya Mabesvara.-

mll.rtt~r=U ma-samAn.Ak:ri~:b (19) KtUDir-Abha, Lakama.h~il]. khaJu yas=sa.mabhava.d=Amma.-raj-Rkhya1;t I Kan-

gayaka·ka.lpata1'U[ r* J ddvija-muni(fb) dhl-A:ad1J&..bandhujana-sara.blql yAchak:a-jana-chintAma.q.ir=avanr8a-ma.~ir-mmaMgra.-,

. • mahasA dyumay.il)[II.J

(91) Sa BNDaefabhutana(1)Sra.;ya-Srt-Vija.yAditya-ma.hArAj6 rAjAdhirija-pa.rama.(m~)svlU'8ob



(22) ~~ara.kal}. GudravAra-visha.ya-niv8sin8 lish~raIca~-pra.mukh3.n=b~mbinas=;sa.rvvan= ittham=Ajnnpayati I Asya.1P)

(23) tasyaJ,J. paVVa-varddhinyal}. Pam.ma.v-Akhyaya1;t sutaya. Yuvarlija.Ballala.d~va-


(24) BMdiya-namne , Pam(P dAm)barrn-nama-gramasya. daksmQa.syan=wsi nem&:

ksM(?)tmpti.[ .....•..•• J. m. (25) kshetram Amma-rajo rAja-Mahendr8 dattavAn [11·] .A.sya kshe[tra~J-dvaya.sy= av.adhayal}. pftrvvata.l) [ . . . . , ',' ]'

(26) ch~vu I Da.kshil}.atal}. Ra.~di-cMnu [pa.scLimatal}. Sngnmma-'cMnn-garusn'l

'Uttarata.~ Velpur.jSnn'-

(27) tnrpllna.-pannasal 1 Pftrvvata.1.l Damadiya-pa.nno.sa I Dakshil}.ata.Q. Pedda-trOva [

Paschimata~ ye.

(28) rn 1 Uttara.ta\t Gail}.thasaIa.ya.[..... B]yyari_paIlllaSl\ I gpha.ksbetram, eha 1

- P(jrvvata~ Ba.dir8-

(29) Ia.-majjaya-pa~n 1 Dakshil}.ata~ Tel}.[ • • • . " lOJt80ma patu I PaSohima.taI}.

Jimvarakahapatu 1 (30) Uttara,tal}. rachcha,11 1 .A.sy=8pari na kenacmd=bMhA karttavy! yai}. jmroti sal}.

patileha.-ma.hil.pataka-;nt(31) kt6 bha.vati 1 tathi ch=6ktam Vyassna. 1 Ba.hnbhir=vva.sudM dattA ba.habhlS=eh=

inupaJitA Y&8ya y&-

(32) sya yadl bhUmia=tasya tasya te.dA pa(pha)lam I


Hail! Kubja-VishQuvardhana,-

brother of SatyA sra.ya-Valla.b hhdra, who adorned the family of the C h a'I u k y as; the gloriona; of the lineage of MAn a v ya, praised by all the world; descendants of H l r 1 t i ; they who acquired sovereignty through the holyfavourofKa II S i k! ; cherished by the assembly of Mothers; meditating on the feet of S vami-MaH s en a; who have the territories of their enemies made subject to them on the instant at the sight of the excellent sign of the Boar' whibh they acquired through the favour of the holy N a r Ay a {l a; whose bodies are purified by ablations performed after celebrating horse-sacrifices i-he (Kubja.VishJ;luva.reThana) ruled ovel' the country of V eng i for eighteen years.

His son, J ayas i'm h a, for 33 (years).

HiS yonnger brother Indraraja's son,

VishJ}.uvardh a n s, 9.

His Bon, the YUVQTtija Mangi, 26. HiB BOO., J aya s im h s, 13.

His younger brother, K 0 k k i 1 j, 6 months.

• Seveml.letters undecipherable.

• PIa.te injured. Two or three letters illegtole.

, The pIa.te is here injured, and the sylIa.ble 111 is c1ou.btfal.

His elder brother, Vis hlJ. u va.r dhana., having expelled him"87.

His son, VijayAditya.-BhaHhaka, 18.

His son, Vish:p. uvardh an s, 86.

His son, Vija.yAditya-Na.rhdra.m ti g a raj a, 48.

His SOD, Ka.li-VishJ}.uvardha.n,a, Ii years.

His son, GUl}.aganka-Vijay~ditya., 44.

His brother, the lord V i k ra mad i t Y a.'s son, king Ch!1 u kya-Bhima, 30.

His son, Kollabigav.q.a-VijayHityil., 6 months.

His son, .A. m mar aj a, 7 years.

Having expelled his son Vi jay Ad i t Y a (wl!ile) an ,infant, (and) having easily usurped (th8 throne), the sovereign lord T ala ruled the earth for one month.

Having conquered him, C h U u k y a-~ h tma's son, VikramAditya., 11 months.

Then the sovereign lord Tal ~'8 son, Y U d. dhamalla, 7 years.

l.ettf.r 2X' may be ~ but where the word occurs aga.in. it i8 clearly po..

D Two or tbree letters defa.ced. It looks like "t.I~.

"CIA-\. ' '

10 Two or three letters defaced.

, JInu probably written for ch.6m, 'a field.' 11 The 'Ba.tso. is th£ general 1illage meeting-place a.nd

• I ahaJl be glad of • traDsla.tiou for this word. The' ' 1ca.cMri.



Having conquered'him andha.viug driven him ouh from the country, and ha.ving made the other claimants to assume the appearance of .tars a.bsorbed in the rays of the sun, the younger brother of king A mma, (viz.) B him a., who was like A r j una and who was possessed of terrible prowess, ruled the earth for 12 years, just as the Wielder of the thundl:lrboJts (rules) the mighty (ezpa1UJ6 ojtha) sky.

To him, who was like lIaheSvara., from La kamahad~vi, who was like Um d, there was born killg Am m a, who was like K umAra. He was a very tree of plenty to poets md minstrels; he was It. very cow of plenty to the twice-born and holy men and the poor and blind and his relations; he was a very philosopher's stone to those who begged of him; he was a very jewel of a king; and a very sun by reason of his fierce brilliance.

He, lh't.Vij ay Aditye., the asylum of the UD.iverse, the great king, ~e supreme king, the supreme lord, the most venerable, tb.ns addresses a.ll the householders, headed by the chief's of countries, who inhabit the district of GudrAvara11:-

" King Am m a., the great lord, gave the fieid of • • . • . • • . • • . • .• .• which adjoins the south side of the village named PAm bar.. lUll, to one named Ynvarija-Ballala. dha-VeUbba.~a-BoddiyaU, th~ son of (the lady) Pam m a. v it. who is improving this tDwn (1).. The bounda.ries of these two fields a:te;-Ea.st,. • • . • . . • . . Tank; South, the :field (Mlled) Ra H 3d i; West, the • • •• 15 of ~ fieldcaJled Sugumma; North, theeasternlG

• ••• n of the field of V Alp il. r.ll (AlBo), East

• • • • • • . • • • • • • • .n j South, the great road i West, the river; North, the •••••• • ••••• 10 of G 80 l;,J ~ h 80 Bill a.11 Aud the field with tbe 1umse, (1I1ho,e boundaries are) i-East, the ••••••••• "ofBadirA.laIBj South,

the ••••••••••••••• S.; West, the .•

•.•••.••••.. 1'; North, the village pIaoe of assembly.

" No molestation is to be offered to this. He who offers it becomes guilty of the :five great; sins. And so it has been said by V ya s a.,, Land has been given by many, and has been preserved by many j he, who for the time being possesses land, enjoys the benefit of it.' ..

No. II.

This, also, is, unfortunately, uhdated j but a. comparison between it and Mr. Fleet's No. XXXIV. shows that it must have heen inscribed a few years earlier than the latter. 11; carries the genealogy down to .A m m a. raj a. I., and then narrates that Sri. Vis h l} U V 80 rd han a gave certain land in grant. But the context, very similar to Mr. Floet's, seems to show that Si:i.Yishl;,Juvardhana is intended to be an epithet or title of the eovereign.A. m m a,just as, in Mr. Fleet's, .Amma II. is called (r) "s r 1.Yij i Y 80 d i t ya." .At any rate, there is no Vis h \1 U yard 1'1 an a known from the lis~ already published belonging to this 'family within 75 years' of this king Amm a's reign, which began in Sab 867.

It will be noticed tbat the donor of this, whoever he may have been, was in the same district when be gave this grant that the donor of Mr. Fleet's grant No. XXXIV. wa.s iD, Pen n 3. ta v It q. i, wherever that may he,ve been. The grant is of the village of D r uj j tho, the boundaries of which are declared to be the lands oftbevillages of-E., T a!:u g ummi; S., GoHibr6lu; W., MaIka bham U; and N., .A d u p u. I think that this granted nllage is that now known as Dzuzzur, a village lying north of the KI;ishl;,Ja, about nine mOes from the river, and nineteen north-west , of B8zwA~a. But, if so, the writer of the grant has made the mistake of putting west fOl' east, and, east for west. West of Drnjjftr is the village of Tagigummi; east of it, on 'the east side of a range of forest-covered. hills, which would have tbus been included in the grantll, is the village of MalkAplIram. On the south is a

delta. It po88e88e8 a :Buddhist attlfJlI in mir ~ by all reports, but as yet unexplored •

• s mnJ_II!1~r

'0 Badir&la. ThD 'rill~ I have found no trace of • •• UfL (.r.r·?) tafM ~tv.!

.. ;iml).'lt'Q kth_a,plI)w. t

.. 0Jt these hills in subsequent yean _. erected a hudsome P&lace a.nd fort, built for defence and ~ by the Re4(}i. <P Rs.i!a.) chiefs, a.nd subsequently 8eisei1. b1 the M1IIlBlm&.a. 'lfJie fort and village go by the _ of K Ohdapal)l, and the hills are now e8Jlecl the ~cja. tJ&lli lIi1II~ The r1IiDa 1101'8 Yerf piclmeagae.

MA:&CH, 1879.]



villa.ge now called Got~ukknla, which may be the G 0 ~ ~ i b r 6 I u of the inscription. Br8Zu is a common termiD.a.tion oI villages in the eastern delta. of the ~. Ad u P n I cannot identify.

With regard to the subscription, common both. to Mr. Fleet's and this grant, "iljndpti~ Ka.laJw,..rl1.jril}", ,see Mr. Fleet's note to Ind. .AlIt., Vol. v.n."p. 19.

Th~ original of this grant consists of three plates, each measuring 81" long by 4jI' broad,

the writing being on the insides of both ontel' plates, and both sides of the inner one. The seal of the ring on which they are 'strung :is St" in diameter. It bears for device the 0 h A-, I n k y a Boar, _hove which is the elephant-goad, and a.bove that the crescent-moon. Under the Boar are the words "8ri-Tn7JkflA1Olll4tiiktl,8fJ." The ring on which the plates are strong is' 51"

in diameter. '

It will be noticed tha.t this gra.nt gives forty years to Vijayadi tya-BhaHaraka.


I. (1) ·Bivam.~ sa.rvva-ja[ga.]taQ[U·]Svasti SrhnatAm sa.k:a.la,.bhnva.na-:aa.tilstaya.m&na-MA.

(2) navya-saga~ HAriti-pntrA1J,&m K6(ka.u}Bik:hi(Jd).va.ra-pra.s&da..labd1la.-

rajyanAm..(l}Am) Ma-

(8) t~-gat].a-pa.ripAlitanam. Svami-MahAs&na-pad-AnudhyatAnAm. b~va.n-N8.rA.

(4) y&J;l8..prasA.c1a-sa.masAdita.-vara-var8ha-18Iilchhan.AkshlloJ].8rkshal}&-vaSik!i-

(5) t-bAti-ma.l}.QaJAn8m=aSva.mMh-Avabh:p.tha-snba-pa.vitriktita-vapushim.

(6) Oh8J.ukyAnilit kulam=aJamk~al;t' SatyASra.ya-Va.lla.bbasya.-bhrAtA Kubja-

VishJ}.uvarddha.n~= (?) sh~d.aS!Jo.~ I tat-pu~ Jayasimha- VallabM(bha)=strayas-trim.Sad=varshAl}i I , tad·bhrAtu-

(8) r=In.dra-rAja.sya. suta~ Vis1u}.u-rAj6 nava tat-putra Mamggi-yuva-rAja{t.

paIhchcha.( cha)- vUilSatim. (9) taii1Jutr& Jaya.s.imbaJ} trayMaSa I tad-[d·]vaimAtor-lnuja9 Kokkilil}. sha.l}.=

, mAsAn

II.a. (10) tasya jy~sh~ha bhrlta t&m.=uehchAtya VishJ}.uvarddbana......".pta.-trimSata.m. I ta.t-putrO

, VijayA-

(11) ditya.-bha~l}lra.ka.9 a.sh~1daSa. I tat-suM VisbJ;J.uvarddhana.1}. sha.~-trilh8a.tam I

, tat-st\n1U'=&Shtatia-

(12) ra.-JlIdndf..Mvar-A.yatanWm. karttl I VijAyadii;yaS=chatvArimBatam' I . tad-

t atmajal}. Kali-

(13) Vishl}uvarddb.a.no=sh~~ mAsan I tat-putrO VijayAditya-mab.ArAja8=cha-tad(14) tuS·chatvarimsat&rm. . I ~uja.~Ajad=VikramAditya.-nA.mna~ (15) pra.bhur=abbavad=arati-vrAta-W-AniJ.-6(au)gh.a.Q, . nirnpa.:ma.-nppa-Bhi(16) mas=tririiSa.ta.ri:J. vatsa.ranam. mri(l1i)ja.-~ga\l&-1drtti-VY'pta-dik-chak:rir.vAla.l1D1.]

, Tat-st\nu-

(l7) [~] V vijayAdityal}. ~=mAsBn:=VeDggi.ID9J}.~ Trikaliilgg-A~vi-yu!dam.

paripilya. ["di-] (18) vam yay&.(yau) I .Ajaya.ta sutas--t&sya bM-bhAr-Odv&ha.na-kshama. Amma-rA-

n.b. (19) ja.-ma.hlpUa~ pAJit..!SAsha-bht\~ [11*] Yasya pad-Ambnja.-cbchAyAm=i-

(20) 6rita.m. rAja.-ma.l}.g,Jam. daJ}.(Jit-lrati-k6da1].qa.m. ID9J}.Qi~ 1'Jl8J}.QaJa.-tray~-

kund-&ndu-dha I

(21) vala.m yasya ya.80 rs.rl:J.jita..bh1lta.Ia.m. I gaya.nti galit-ArA~[~] il'S,

, ' vvidyAdha.ryy6=

(22) pi vilJ&ya II Sa SB.l'V'y8.1.okASmya-Srl-Visb.J}.u~dhana.-mahArAja.q Pennata(23) v!'Qi-vishaya-nivAsin6 rABh~mldi~pram.ukhAn kntirl:J.(~mi1)binas=sarvvAn=Ahft(24) y=Attham=Ajnapayati 1(, Viditam=astu val;!. [1-] ChAlo.kya;-:Bhmia.-bhupAIa-dbA(25) ttrl(tri) dhitr=tva ch=apara kshamaya Kshatriya-prayA NAgipoVir=iti Brota II A

'If 1iWG1fI. Spa.ce i.e left at the d of line 8 for the eM, but it is omitted. III 'This :maorI!; of pllllOtuation is lUIlIeCl8If!Ilr1 •




(26) slt=tasy8s=8ut8. G!1XI8.ktmbA. n!m::::Amhlka-samA I mAtu[\t·] stanyam samilqitya; B~i. (27) ma-rij&n& yA papa.u II S=Ajlj anat=ku.mAra.Ih Sa.kti yukt:aIil KnmAra.-vt II BhJma...rAJa·

m. (28) sya s&n!nya.m. 1 :Ma.bAk!lam=mahA.lII8otiIit. II ·yu=eh.=!nekaSe4 anybny.a(A)str&samay&'.

(29) ga-sa.tiljAtaga~t mahAha.v3 svhniu&=gra.sa.r3 dhtr& ripu-sam,am::::a.ntn&(na.)sa.t [' (30) Kitilohoha(cha.) riip&1}& Manasija\t k3pAna Ya.m.a.\t &auryya~ Dha.na.mjaya.\t s!has81


(31) 811dra.kab " Tumai Drujjdru..~Ama-gr!m&=smAbhis=Sal'VVa.ka.l'IL-pa.rihA. (32) l."I!na. mbyikritya ds.tta.b [II *] Asy=Ava.dha.ya.1) Pilrvva.t'.Ib-TAr.ugo.mmi-st. (33) m~va simA J Daks.taI;t Go~"br&lu-stm.=a.iva stm.! I Puchima.tab MaJka.~&~u.


(84) sima Uttarata\t Adupu-sim=aiva stm.! [II·) Asy=&pari bAdhA na brtta.vyA tatha ,cha V yAs&n=Akta.m. I Bahubhir=vva.su(35) db! datt&. ~hubbiS=ch=anup8.1itl yssya yasya. y¥! bh11mis=ta.sya tasya. tad!

, pa(plla)Iam I SvadatiAm::para.datt8m

(36) va ya ~tu(t=tu) vasund.ha.rAtil sbaah~ V8ol'IIha-sahas;'AJJi vish~ay!m jaya.t~ krimib .AjqApti(Ptil) Kataka-l'aja\t II

His son, Vish l].Jlvardh ana, thirty.six., His son, Vij ayAditya, who became tb chief of eight royal dynasties, forty ..

His son, Ka.li· Vishl].uvardhana,. eighteen months.

His son, Vijay!ditya, the great king. forty.four yea.rs.

His brother the YWUh'd.ja Vi k l' a mAd i. tya's son, the unparaJIeled.Bhima, who be. came king, being as wind to the cotton of the crowd of (his) enemies, thirty. His general good quaJiliies and fame extended on all sides.

His son, V i jay a d i t Y a, having ruled ovel."

Ve:iJ.gi and Trika.linga for six months, died.

To him was born a son, king Am m a; ableto take upon himself the burden of the earth; protector of the world; governor of the entireglobe j the shade of whose lotus-feet is courted by a crQwd of kings; whose enemies have disappeared; whose fame heavenly songstresses sing to ~ lute, because he broke the ILlTOWS 01 his enemies. It (his ja:me) is glorified in the three worlds, and is white like the jessamineftower or tne moon, while it causes him to be beloved in the world.

He, the refuge of the whole world, Sri.

Vishl].uvardhana, having called together the householders, heJl.ded by the chiefs 01 countries, who inhabit the district of Pen. n At So v a (J i, thus issues his com.ma.nds j-

"Be it known to you! The wet-nurse of


(May t1r.mlle) prosperity of the whole world!

Hail! Ku. bj a-Vishl]. u v8rl'dhana,-the brother of SatyUraya-Vaflabha, who adorned the family of the C h a I u k y a s, who are glorious; who are of the lineage of MAn s.TY, which is praised over the whole world; who are the descendants of R a l' i ti. who have acquired sovereignty through the excellent :&'vourofKali si k 1'; whohave been cherished by the assemblage of (diMe) Mothers; who meditate on the feet of S v, m i-Yah As Sna; who 1Iave the territoriea of their enemies made SIlbject to them on the instant at the sight of the excellent sign of the Boar, which they acquired t'hrough the mvour of the holy N i· rt.yi.J}aj and whose bodies are purified by ablutioDs performed after celebrating horsesacrifi.oos,-(t'Uled O71ll'1'the OO'U/AUry oj Veng() for eighteen years.

His son, J aya.siJhha-VaUa b ha, thirtythree years.

His brother king In d rr/s son, king Vis h-

,U; nine.

His son, 1£& ngi, the Yucar4ja, twenty.five. His son, J a. y a s i til h a, thirteen.

His younger half.brother, Kokkili, six months.

H&-riDg expelled him. his elder brother~ Vi.h,J].uvardhana., thirty-seven.

ma son, Vij.yAditya-BhaHhaka, apiaan.

lL.Bmr, 1879.]



the king ChUukya..Bhima wa.s NAgipo~i, 80 who was, 80S it were, a second earth (in. 7'BBpect oj 1wr PO'llJfIf' oj giving floul'iBhment), and who W80S a.Im.ost like a Kshatciya. woman.in respeot of her endul.'anoe. Her daughter, equal to A m b i H (in. affection), wa.s GAm a. k A mba, who drank her mother's milk at the same time with king B h t m &.11 She bore a Bon, like K um! rSo for power, who wa.s king B h i ma' B general, M a h A k A 1 a., a man of great wisdom. He used to go in front ofhis master in the great war, brave, the deStroyer of the armies of tl;e enemy, bloody by rea.son of the striking of hostile arrows. Moreover he was in beauty Love,in wrath Yam a, in valour .A. r j una., in courage S 1\d;raka. To him, a.s a rent-free grant, is given by us the village of n r uj j 11 ru, II free of all taxes.. The boundaries of it are :-

Ea.st, the boundary ofT A!:ugumm~aa; South, the boundary of Go ~ ~ i bra 1 UNo; . West, the bou~:I.Ila.ry of M a I k a. bar a m UIS ; North, the boundary of .A. d n p U. aa

No molestation is to be offered to tbis. And it has been said by V Y A. s & :-' Land has been given by many, and has been preserve~ by many; he, who for the time being posses_ses land, enjoys the benefit of it! He is born for siJ:ty thousand years as So worm. in ordure, who appropriates land that has been given, whether by ~ or by another !'

" The speci:6.oation is K So ~ a. k So rAj Bo. "17

It remains to notice these grants from a paJeographic point of view. A compa.rison between the two becomes interesting from the fact tha.t though No. 1 wa.s granted at least twenty-five or thirty years subsequently to No. 2, the general forms of the letters of the former are more upright, stUl'er, and, it would be thought, more a.rcha.ic, than those oftha latter. This may of course be due to rough and fa.ulty execution, but the fact remains ~t the characters of the earlier grant are far more cursive than those of the later.

In No. I. the blunt heads of the letterswhich afte'rwa.rds, becoming in a sense disunited

so Co~. the names or V"mApI!ti aoUd K~p, given

by Mr. Fleet, ante, p. 45a.

.. i. ,., "wlro was the foater.sister of JDng EMma."

al Now D:IiUZZ"Br. •

aa This villa.ge, 1I!Ider the 1I&D18l1ame; lies to the weat of DZUHdr.

a. Now called Gbttimu1dmJ ...

U lfalkApuraa:u liS to the east of D~.

from the characters themselves, gave rise to the notion that they represented the shorl; vowel a-are more decided and developed than in No. n.

In No. II., the earlier, the amUlllirjl is placed, as in Sansk~t, a.bove the line. In No.1, the later, it appears in the place it occupies in more modern Telugu, on the level of the top of the letters and between them. There is a form of the an'UBl7ara which is worth noticing, seen principally in No. II., where, when it OOO1lrs at the close of a sentence, it seems to bave been considered more of the nature of an ordinary consonant requiring a. virl1ma to mark the absence of any following vowel, a.s in No. n. ii. (a), 1, the last cha.ra.cter of the word tri,ilAatam. In another plate noted by Dr. Burnell of the sa.me dynasty, bnt date cir. 680 A.D., the same peculiarity is observable. III

In modern Telugu, the vowel sound 6 is sometimes expressed by a combination of the forms of 8 and Ii, sometimes by a form of its own. In No. II. of the present inscriptions the single form is never nsed, the 0 being alwa.ys:represented by the a and I/. marks. In No. I. both forms are used. It may be assumed that the period of these inscriptions wa.s the period when the modern 0 forms wE!:re coming into fashion in the Telugu country.

The 4. form in No. II. is often remarkable from its extreme freedom and dash, oontrasting strongly with the primitive stiffness of No. 1. No. II., howsver, employs also the stiff' form in places. In No. I. the I/. form is never cursive. There is another form of it found in No. II., mostly towa.rds the end of the inscription, consisting of an upright stroke above the consonant to which it is attached. It may be th:. :. space had to be economized. I do not find the forin in Burnell's plates, nor do I remember having seen it in other published inscriptions.

I observe that the vowel form. for ri in No. l., and in all instances except one in No. II., is written with III CllrVe to the left, which appea.rs to have been in all centuries the most UBllal form (see Burnell's plates). But in Burnell's

a. Not now in emtenoe. .Adm in Te1ugu is 'jungle.'

a. This is probllobly of the SlIme purport as the state. ment rt'Fding the auta.kCl in the Cb. .. J:o.kJa grant or VijayarA,ja. (V 01. VII., p. 241) and in Dr. Blihler'a Chao lU1ty8 granta.-J. F. F.

.. See note to plate 4, B1I1'Dell'. Element. 01 B. IfIG..

Pa.1.CBo,rlllphy, date cirel IjSf) A.D.



[.MAltcll, 1879.

plate No. m. ofWestem CbaluJ..--ya. cha.racters dated J.. D. 608,811 one instance is given of the ri a.ttached to a 'k being written with a sweep to

. .

the right; and in No. II. of"tha present inscriptions there is one insta.Ii.ce also combined with a k (in II. i. 4).



Wuden of Bishop Cotton Ekhools a.nd College, Baugalor. (OontiMJ.edfrom v.oz. V.p. 361.)

No. IV.

I have made a selection of words I have met with in reading DrAviQjan authors, which have a resemblance to known Indo-Germanic stems. I dare say the identity is accidental in many cases; in others there seem to be traces of a. law. lit some' words the similarity is not great; but let anyone compare the lists, in Klaproth's Sprac1t, .. a.(ltu, of North-Asian dialects, and he will perceive DO resemblance whatever between those words and. any DrlviiJian forms, .;while here each word seems an echo of· some Aryan form.

1. tal [fa: f~. Kan. Mal.], endure; bear; (I jDO~, ataZI:; iolt.-thol, [.A.B.] dnld-ee, thowe1, thowl (of

• boat). L. tul .. i. Gr. '1").'1'

2. per; 1, put or., 'UJ8(J.r; 2, join battle; as a noun, batlZe.-{A.S.] w&- .. ian-1. 'UJ6IIr; 2, defe:nJ,; .,11,..

S. kat ka.Ji, joy. en,Pymfl'llt, 8timulur.-gle, , glee,' [..f.8.] gil-ian, f"Sjoice; gallant ; S. blAd, glail,.

4. viI" CJ bW.-bill,·CJny Wtrumetzt.

5. tuy-ar. tny-ar-am, 807TOID.-tre, trega [..4..8.1

L. mat-is, G. trau,·er, S. duro

6. 'Ver;L, vel. whitB.-..4..8. wonn., 'paIe,' Ga.eUt,. and Bras, bmL.

7. vet. v44-,KIJ&. W,VJCJ'IIt.-..4.;8. won = dssir,; , 'I'!aI1t.'

8. vir, hir, hitjaIL,jen.·-..4..8. feall-an, fail. L. fAllere. L. fer·ire.

9. Jl8ol1., ~ ao.-.A..B. fond-en, do.

10. tt, tt-mai. m1.-.A..S. teona, etJu..

11. Tin-u, aM; vin-Ai, pestitm; vin-appam.peti,-

tWa.-.d.8. bene, prayr.

12. mtq, mtI. nmaom. retum.-..4..B. bote, ran.aom. 18. ari. CIlGW, ~; urra.tiZeep.-.A..8. row,.'rest.'

14. eikilu [.d. Ktm.].-· ice,' • icicle~

15. kA, k&r. pard..-.A.,s. waerd-ian.

16. 1If, pIow;1t.-r.LB. eri-an, L. ar·are, Gr. dpo..


17. kurri-chi, "~"lZ-1n.1lage.-craig;crag. Gadh,elic, carraig.

18. komb-u, anything "oundeiJ,; komb-~, a 'lJaZZey

running 'Up into th.e kills.-combe, a valley.

]9. ~e [Ka",.], pain.-pm, pain. L.p£BfJ-a. po. Mq. [comp.7], pray, 'I.Oant.-bid-dan.

21. v&o, b&-, K. her, othM", 'lJario'UB.-L. various, 'various.'

22. 'Pur.uthi, mire.'-Gael. plod, plodaoh, puddlB.

23. vlIotha,jade, 'lDitker.-fa.de, Ih.&tck vadd-en.

24. onor-u (feZ.), elegame.-L. honor, omo,

26. olupn (TriL.),puZ; oli (Tam., &c.),kide, cover.-

hull, 'peel'-from Goth. hnl-iau, • cover.'

26. ollu (Tel.), wilZ.-L. vol-o, will.

27. remma (fill.), a sprig.-L. ram-ns. ,28. r~pn (Tel.), a bank.-L. ripa.

29. maga, child; magan. BIm; ma.ga!, maX (Tull. ) •

daughter.-A.8. maga, Bon.

SO. t&k .. , impinge ~on.-a.ttack. CO.N. ta.k.]

31. tan, put Im.-O.E. tir; a.ttire •

32. pAQ.i, bar.-ba.r, ba.rrier.

33. ma.rri, afoa't.-O.H.G. marab., 'horse.

34. knlir, coZd.-L. gelid-, gel-u, cold. 36. Mri, a su.rW,.pZaitn..-W. tra-eth.

36. tel. Mr, clear.-A.S •••

37. verri, 'l"abie8.-L. furo, Gr. 8u., ...

38. kil'a-I, old; 2,:Eemiliar to.-Gr. 'YEp-, Cage;'

'Y'lP', 're;wa.rd.'

39. ki4-, Zie.-Ind. GM". '\Iki, 8. ai.

40. he~~u (Ln.), hil.-hit.

41. hecohe(Kan.),paccha.i(Tam.),badge._ba.dge.

42. hejje (Kan.), trace.-vestigium.

48. hm;ta (Kim.), pil;ta(Ta'm.), corpBIl.-L. fun-us. 44. e:r-u, &Tn, riBe.-L. or-ior. ord-ior. Gr. thp-,

.up-, el- in eZementum. Ger. 'IW.

·K.1:i8r, 8L-Gr. v'Yp.-,

45. ta.rei, ermk.-L. terra.

46. talam, grollllliJ..-L. tell-us, 8. sta!.

47. tnvai. BOak, eteep.-dip, steep.

48. karuttu, Mih.-8. gdva. ga!a, th'Toat.-G. ~


'",1741 ill a.D.Dr&T.languages has the idea of betlcUng.

• 'o..brala' are mtez.cba.ugeabI ill DriT. di&lectI.

:M.ucK, 1879.J



49. nag, middle.-L. med-; 8. madhya., .4..S.midd,

G1-. I'f(3)r. .

50. p&!u, wperik. 8. bbAsh.

51. tir-i, wander.-S • ..,; tfN, V tll'k. -nmbu, return.

• nppu, } tN. -ngu,

52. mayir, Mi.r; mtsai, ~che.-8. sma.- 8l'11:

53, ga.1.i. (Kan.) gale.-gale.

54. mllti·(Te~.), m1lnji (Tam. vulgar)./ace, mout1,.

-mouth, .4..S. muth, Goth. munth.

55. chekku (Tel.), ckeek.-cheek.

56. ko!, kiU.-kilL

ai. $In. 8alt.-Gr. ~f, L. saL

5S. perm-l, obtain; 2, bring forth; porm, bear, en4uI'8; p~rm, K. her,wh.a.t isga:i.nea. borne.-bear, L. fer-, Gr. rpfP,-S. V bhar, bairn.

59. in.u, yean.-yean.

60. vathuva.i, a weclcling.-A.S. wed,pledge j weddian, 'fTWII"NJ.

61. paya.n, blYJl.-Gr. 7I"1Uf, L. pus-us, pUBio, pnsillns.

pasnkka.J, children.

62. palagai. p~nk.-Gr. '11"). __ , Fr. pla.nche.

Comp. bole.

oS. vethir,fear.-fe&r.

64. tag. tak,jU, rigkt.-(}r.311C-. -05. vir}, 7.ea.fJ6~- L. vit-o, atloid.

66. vi~.u, "kotise.-L. m-es, Cornish, bod, .4..8. btd-a.n.-bide, abide.

67. ney, weave.-(h. 1108-, S. n ah,

68. nak, lick.-Gr. ).f'}'X·, S. lib. nAkku, Wng'U8.-L.li.ngua.

69. vila.i, price.-tlaz.ue.

70. vila., shine, appeatf.-L. fnlg-, (1,0. rp).ry-. -ngu? I

-kkn S amp.

71. vif&. afair or feati.vaZ.-feri-l8.

72. pa.i, bag.-ba.g.

vayirru, stoma.ch.-balg-.

73. p'gq.i, foot, bottom.-foot, botll-om.

74. dwa.ni. (Kan..), toni (Tam.), ,ouM.-tGne.

75. ir, Tuq.a ersh, b8.-a.:re, er-a.m, 8.,,;& B. '76. i~u, gi"8.~8. dA, L. do.

77. iI', ~g, WJo.-L. re-, red-.

'is. ammAn,mot1aer's brot"her.-ea.me, oheim.

79 .. ka.ru, tndturs; karu-gu, eagle.-D. gail', 8.


80. ka.na.i., neigh.-neigh.

81. ka.nru, ca.lf.-MCUIC, ganin, gounagh.

82. kllr,poim.-L. acar, MCUIC gea.rr.

83. braIu, V §u, cmrl.-curL

84. nagar, Ta. Tel. creep.-;-Dan. sniger. b.

• ntc-an, E. sneak, 00. snake, S. nAg&.

• See L Ta.l'lor's WtriB tmd Pklces, p.1".

85. ntn- eU, B'Wim.-S. snA, L. no, nAtc?, Gr. IIf- 1I1ff", 1I1{3- (Bopp, I. p. 136).

86. pAl (Ta. K. TeZ. Thd. = ps-g-al), Kim.. hAl-u,- 1, a portio!~; 2, mil~.-S. bhAj = diVide, bh4ga. a division.-S. pA., drink.

Pel. pAln-. trim pale.-pale, L. pallidus •

87. pir-a.i-1, Zitls; 2, fatiLt; 3, eecaps.-Gr. fJ&-or L; vit-a, vito.

88. maru, marriage.-marry.

89. vangu, be1Ul-8. va.ka, S. bug, E. bow, W.


90. varai, Zimit.-3por, 6pos, sors.

91. vi!i(Oo. arai),hail,eaZZ.-hail, L. ap-pell-o,

92. v8, roat, bake.-ba.ke.

93. purnl, roU on, aB a volume of water.-purl.

94. ka8ir, 1'8oy.-GaeZ. ga.th.

95. ern8u, PsL vra., Tam. va.ri, m-ite.-Sa .. ·.


96. el, alZ.-a.ll.

9'7. ft.-lI-u, blow.-S. vA, vAti. vAts., vAyn.

gr. am, alarm, toeep.--eomp. 8. aSra.=tea.r. 91: A.r. ""er.-ar in L. a.ra.r. a

100 Benni, b,ead-GacIhe~ic. kenn.

101. tlrra., wpring forth--u:ra., , water. 56 llttu, fozmfain.

102. ma.la.i, mountai7l.- Welsh moel, Ga.lk. maol.

mula.i, breast.-mull.

103. kula.m, inoe.--e!.a.n.

104. ta.ggu (Comp. 30), deeli1lity.-dyke, ditch.

105. tagu! (Kim.), tOfJ,M.-L. tang-o.

l06. tanaka., tl.M1.-L. donee, donicum. [taIJai,


107. karai era.). Compo fZ!ai, aru., TeZ. ar-l&Cku, Ka5. bre, a.1u-caZl.-Gr. oJyap-, garri.re. yijpvr. cry. 108. manai, hou88.-man·eo, Gr. V /'0, maUBion.

The list could be extended almost indefinitely' By tracing these roots through the Cognate dialectS the resemb1a.nce-or identity-will appear more striking; but the limits or this paper will not permit this. I may add one 01' two remarks in conclusion.

1. These reRAmb1a.nces appear most frequently in. the more uncultivated dialects. In the more refined Tamil they are not seen so £requently 01' so clearly as in. the Old Kanarase.

2. The identity is most striking in names of instruments, places, and acts connected with a simple life. In a ~ture paper I hope-to C9usidar derivative words in the DriviQian dialects, and to show '.;hat the prefixes and suffixes aYe

Aryan .

• L 'hl'lor, 11.8. p. 160.

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