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EL- Amin Omda Mohamed Akoy a, Mohamed Ayoub Ismail b, El-Fadil Adam Ahmed c and W. Luecke d. a Dept. of Agric. Eng., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zalingei, Zalingei, Sudan. b Dept. of Agric. Eng., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. c Energy Research Institue, Ministry of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan d Institute of Agric. Eng.,University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany key words: Solar dryer; Design; Construction
Based on preliminary investigations under controlled conditions of drying experiments, a natural convection solar dryer was designed and constructed to dry mango slices. This paper describes the design considerations followed and presents the results of calculations of design parameters. A minimum of 16.8m2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch of 100kg sliced mango (195.2kg fresh mango at 51.22% pulp) in 20hours (two days drying period). The initial and final moisture content considered were 81.4% and 10% wet basis, respectively. The average ambient conditions are 30ºC air temperature and 15% relative humidity with daily global solar radiation incident on horizontal surface of about 20MJ/m2/day. The weather conditions considered are of Khartoum, Sudan. A prototype of the dryer is so designed and constructed that has a maximum collector area of 1.03m2. This prototype dryer will be used in experimental drying tests under various loading conditions. 1-Introduction Sun drying is still the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical and subtropical countries. However, being unprotected from rain, wind-borne dirt and dust, infestation by insects, rodents and other animal, products may be seriously degraded to the extent that sometimes become inedible and the resulted loss of food quality in the dried products may have adverse economic effects on domestics and international markets. Some of the problems associated with open-air sun drying can be solved through the use of a solar dryer which comprises of collector, a drying chamber and sometimes a chimeny (Madhlopa et al., 2002). The conditions in tropical countries make the use of solar energy for drying food practically attractive and enviromentally sound. Dryers have been developed and used to dry agricultural products in order to improve shelf life (Esper and Muhlbauer, 1996). Most of these either use an expensive source of energy such as electricity (El-Shiatry et al., 1991) or a combination of solar energy and some other form of energy (Sesay and Stenning, 1996). Most projects of these nature have not been adopted by the small farmers, either because the final design and data collection procedures are fequently inappropriate or the cost has remained inaccessible and the subsequent transfer of technology from researcher to the end user has been anything but effective (Berinyuy, 2004). The total cultivated area and production of mango in Sudan , year 2003, was estimated to be about 51926 feddan (21,809 hectares) and 442,330 tonnes, respectively(Ministry of Agriculture, 2004). Mangoes are popular fruits on the world market because of their unique and attractive flavour, colour and nutritional value. In spite of its excellence, the perishable nature of this fruit and its short harvest season severely limit utilization, consequently mango has not been developed as commercial and export crop. Drying may be an interesting method in order to prevent fresh fruit deterioration. There is spoilage of fruits and other fresh foods that could be preserved using drying techniques in Sudan and other developing countries. Seasonal fruits like mangoes are not presently dried for export, or for local consumption during period of scarcity. Large quantities of the mango fruit spoil under parent tree in remote areas in spite of the
The outlet vent is at higher level. respectively. b. solar drying facilities are economical for small holders. Natural convection dryers do not require a fan to pump the air through the dryer. Khartoum North) the mean average day temperature in April is 30ºC and RH is 15 %. especially West Darfur state. when the the dryer is placed in the path of airflow. The angle of the slope of the dryer cover is 15º for the latitude of location (Sodha et al. (1991) dried grapes. 1980). tomato and onion using solar energy.To construct a prototype of the dryer for drying mango slices Design Features of the Dryer: The solar dryer has the shape of a home cabinet with tilted transparent top.. Therefore research efforts will be focused on designing and constructing a simple natural convection dryer. The dryer is set on casters to make it mobile.The amount of moisture to be removed from a given quantity of wet mango. Since the rural or remote areas of Sudan are not connected to the national electric grid and remote areas of Sudan facing energy crisis.Wind speed for the calculation of air vent dimensions. okra.Shiatry et al. Shambat. envisaged that the design of a simple solar dryer could contribute greatly in solving this problem. From the psychrometeric chart the humidity ratio is 0. the optimal drying temperature was 70ºC and final moisture content of mango for storage is 10% w. The drying temperature was established as a function of the maximum limit of temperature the fruit might support. 1987). the corresponding relative humidity is 51%(sorption isotherms equation). They also believe that as compared to oil or gas heated dryers. From the result of preliminary experiments on the crop.The quantity of air needed for drying. The use of solar technology has often been suggested for the dried fruit industry both to reduce energy costs and economically speed up drying which would be beneficial to final quality (Lambert et al.Harvesting period during which the drying is needed.To design a natural convection solar dryer for mango slices 2. Solar dryers are usually classified according to the mode of air flow into natural convection and forced convection dryers. f. They concluded that drying time reduced significantly resulting in a higher product quality in terms of colour and reconstitution properties. The movement of air through the vents. The following points were considered in the design of the natural convection solar dryer system: a. From the climatic data (meteorological station. El. 2 .6kg per m2 (tray loading).Daily solar radiation to determine energy received by the dryer per day. The size of the dryer was determined based on preliminary investigation which was found to be 2. It is . e. The specific objectives of this study were: 1.b. The source of air is natural flow.enormous potential for the utilization of solar energy for drying and other applications.(1996) for solar drying of mango slices. Design procedure: The size of the dryer was determined as a function of the drying area needed per kilogram of pulp of fruit. Solar Dryer Design Considerations: A solar dryer was design based on the produceure described by Ampratwum (1998) for drying dates (a cabinet type) and procedure described by Basunia and Abe (2001) for drying rough rice (natural convection a mixed-mode type). especially under favourable meteorological conditions. The sample thickness is 3mm as recommended by Bret et al.. It is provided with air inlet and outlet holes at the front and back.The daily sunshine hours for the selection of the total drying time. c.0018kg H2O/kg dry air . The vents have sliding covers which control air inflow and outflow. brings about a thermosiphon effect which creates an updraft of solar heated air laden with moisture out of the drying chamber. d. therefore .
kg/hr hf and hi = final and initial enthalpy of drying and ambient air. kJ m` = mass flow rate of air. final and initial humidity ratio. i. The result of calculations are summarized in Table 2. was determined from the mass of moisture to be removed by solar heat and drying time by the following equation: mdr = mw/ td (8) The mass of air needed for drying was calculated using equation given by Sodha et al. From the conditions. Mi is the initial moisature content. td = drying time. assumptions and relationships.5639lnM)] (2) Where: aw = water activity.0 +1552. ii-Final or equilibrium relative humidity: Final relative humidity or equilibrium relative humidity was calculated using sorption isotherms equation for mango given by Hernandez et al (2000) as follows: aw = 1. mdr.Mf) (1) Where: mp is the initial mass of product to be dried. decimal M = moisture content dry basis. the design conditions applicable to Khartoum are required. kg H2O/kg dry air 3 .Amount of moisture to be removed from a given quantity of wet mango slices to bring the moisture content to a safe storage level in a specified time. kg.exp[-exp(0.186*103(597-0. kg/hr wf –wi .ºC Moreover.. % wet basis. kg hfg = latent heat of evaporation. hrs The enthalpy (h) of moist air in J/kg dry air at temperature T (ºC) can be approximated as (Brooker et al. 1992): h = 1006. % wet basis and Mf is the final moisture content. mw. (2001) as follows: hfg = 4. The amount of amoisture to be removed from the product.9T +w[2512131. respectively. The latent heat of vaporization was calculated using equation given by Youcef-Ali et al. (1987) as follows: m`= mdr / [wf –wi] (9) Where: mdr = average drying rate. kJ mw = mass of water. in kg was calculated using the followig equation: mw = mp(Mi – Mf) / (100. the values of the design parameters were calculated.Design Calculations: To carry out design calculations and size of the dryer . the total heat energy. respectively. The conditions and assumptions summarized in Table 1 are used for the design of the mango dryer. kg water/kg dry solids (3) aw = ERH/100 iii-Quantity of heat needed to evaporate the H2O: The quantity of heat required to evaporate the H2O would be: (4) Q = mw x hfg Where: Q = The amount of energy required for the drying process. kJ/kg dry air.914+0.4T] (7) iv. E(kJ) required to evaporate water was calculated as follows: E = m` (hf -hi)td (6) Where: E = total heat energy.56(Tpr)) (5) Where: Tpr = product temperature.Average drying rate Average drying rate. kJ/kg H2O The amount needed is a function of temperature and moisture content of the crop.
Mi Final moisture content (moisture content 10 % w. RHam Maximum allowable temperature. in m2 can be calculated from the following equation: AcIη = E = m` (hf -hi)td (10) Therefore.From the total useful heat energy required to evaporate moisture and the net radiation received by the tilted collector.The length of air vent . Vw wind speed. m/s.2kg fresh loading rate (mp) mango) Initial moisture content (moisture content 81. m .b. 1987). Wind speed 2m/s Thickness of sliced mango 3mm Vertical distance between two adjacent 15cm trays 4 . m. P is the air pressure. at harvest).81m/s2.2 kg/m3 v-Air vent dimentions: The air vent was calculated by dividing the volumetric airflow rate by wind speed: Av = Va/Vw (12) 2 Where Av is the area of the air vent. 1998).00308 g(Ti.b. Volumetric airflow rate. 100kg sliced mango (195. Table 1. I 20MJ/m2/day (average for past 30 years) Collector efficiency.. Pa. The prototype solar dryer was sized to have a minimum area of 1m2 to be used in experimental drying tests.4 w. m vi-Required pressure: Velocity = Va/A Va = volumeteric flow rate m3/sec. the solar drying system collector area Ac. I is the total global radiation on the horizontal surface during the drying period. Va was obtained by dividing ma by density of air which is 1. m. Design conditions and assumptions Items Condition or assumption Location Khartoum (latitude 15º N) Crop Mango Variety Kitchener Drying period April to June Drying per batch ( 2days / batch). Mf Ambient air temperature. Tam 30ºC (Average for April) 15% (Average for April) Ambinet relative humidity. area of the solar collector is: Ac = E/Iη (11) Where E is th total useful energy received by the drying air. kJ. will be equal to the length of the dryer. Tmax 70ºC Drying time(sunshine hours)td 10 hours (Average for April) Incident solar radiation. η 30% (Ampratwum.Tam)H (14) Where: H is the pressure head (height of the hot air column from the base of the dryer to the point of air discharge from the dryer). The width of the air vent can be given by: Bv = Av/Lv (13) Where Bv is the width of air vent. 30 to 50% (Sodha et al.. Air pressure can be determined by equation given by Jindal and Gunasekaran (1982): P = 0. for storage) . Lv. C. The pressure difference across the mango slices bed will be solely due to the density difference between the hot air inside the dryer and the ambient air. 9. Tam is the ambient temperature. kJ/ m2 and η is the collector efficiency. g is the acceleration due gravity.
hi. air density (ρ) Equation (6) Equation (11) Va. ma Volumetric airflow rate.562MJ 16. Av Air pressure. mw Average drying rate. RHf Final enthalpy. 1 Isometric view of the constructed solar dryer. mdr Air flow rate.0018kgH2O/kg dry air 34.Table 2. hf Final humidity ratio.032m Data or Equation used Tam.1kg dry air/hr 270.0376m2 0. Values of design parameters parameter Initial humidity ratio. wind speed Equation (14) Equation (13) Construction of Prototype Dryer: A natural convection solar dryer of a box. Va Total useful energy. P Vent length Vent width value 0.1.94m3/hr 201.8 m2 0. Equilibrium relative humidity. wf Mass of water to be evaporated.76m 0.type (cabinet) was designed and constructed.967kgH2O/hr 325. wi Initial enthalpy. Ac Vent area.33kg 3. 76 cm 50 cm 70 cm 103cm 100 cm Fig. RHam Mf and isotherms equation (2) wi and Tf RHf and hf Equation (1) Equation (8) Equation (9) ma.5kJ/kg dry air 51% 65. The constructed dryer (cabinet-type) consisted of drying chamber and solar collector combined in one unit as shown in Fig. RHam Tam. E Solar collector area. 5 .014kgH2O/kg dry air 79.5kJ/kg dry air 0.54Pa 11.
54cm x 2. Glass wool was used as insulator with a thickness of 5 cm and placed above the bottom mild metal sheet.2 Side view of the constructed dryer.54cm) was fabricated. The glass used was low in iron content (water. The hinged door was constructed from galvanized metal sheet (0. The frame of each tray was constructed from wood with dimensions of (97cm x 94cm ). For loading and unloading of material to be dried . 3cm thick cork was used as insulator. Aluminuim foil sheets were glued to masonite and used as moisture barrier.a hinged door was made for this purpose.54cm) were welded in such away to hold tray inside drying chamber.54cmx2.white glass) because of its good transmissivity for solar radiation.1cm thick). In side the drying chamber there were two movable wire mesh trays that can be placed on their holders. Sheets of mild metal sheet 0. The corrugated metal sheet then painted in black as absorper plate.5cm x 99 cm) was glued to the top part of the frame with silicon rubber sealant. with effective area of 91cm x 84cm. The glass was inclined at an angle of 15 due south . Two tray holders made of angle iron (2. 100cm wide and 76cm high at the back and 50 cm high in front made of angle irons (2.3cm thick were used as insulators and fitted to the three inner sides of the frame. One panel of a 4-mm thick transparent glass (102. Each tray was made of wood and galvanized wire mesh. which allow the expansion of glass at high temperature.1cm thick were welded onto three sides and bottom of the fabricated frame. Masonite sheets of 0. A 98cm x 99cm corrugated galvanized metal sheet was placed above the glass wool and fitted to the bottom of the box by nails and rivets in addition to wood. The door was sealed to prevent air leakage between the surroundings and the drying chamber. prevent moisture from masonite and to reflect incident solar radiations to absorber from sides.5cm ) and 7cm deep. 6 . which is the angle of the latitude of the experimental site. The lower holder was 15cm above the absorber plate and the upper was 15 cm a part.103 cm Exit vent 76 cm 50 cm Inlet vent 10 cm 13 cm 10 cm Fig. A simple box frame 103cm long. while the tray had a surface area of (91cmx87.
M. (1997). Bansal. Jindal.. (1982). J. S. Muller. Inlet air hole (front air vent) located above the base of absorber plate. The outlet vent (rear air vent). AMA. J. Cited by Berinyuy. 29(3): 59-62 Basunia. (1998). A. C. Brett. W.M. Sesay. A. A. and Muhlbauer. Vol. Producing solar dried fruit and vegetables for micro and small-scale rural enterprise development. J. And development. Journal of food engineering.. Drying and storage of grains and oilseeds. B.. USA. Drying fruits and vegetables with solar energy in Egypt. and Gunasekaran. N. M. Kumar. El-Shiatry. Solar crop drying. . A prototype of the dryer with 1. A. W. 4(2): 1-9. K. V. M.E. D. Esper.. Avi. S. The constructed dryer to be used to dry mango slices under controlled and protected conditions.Two air vents for ventilation were provided. S. (2001)..8m2 is expected to dry 195. (1996). Hand book3: Practical aspect of processing. Abene. 27:27-37. AMA. Estimating air flow and drying rate due to natural convection in solar rice dryers. The designed dryer with a collector area of 16.B. and Stenning. Simmons. Australia. and Garcia.A. C.D. and Anstee. USA.A. B. Conclusion: A solar dryer was designed and constructed based on preliminary investigations of mango slices drying under controlled conditions(laboratory dryer). (2000). Cox. P. 44(4):1664. Department of Horticulture. K. M. (2001). References: Ampratwum. Lambert. (1996). Florida. (1992). and Muhlbauer. 7 . and Le Ray. Solar tunnel dryer. Messaoudi. and Hall. D. University of Melbourne. Solar energy applications in agriculture. H. D. (2002). Y. Journal of food engineering. A. P. and Kalenga Saka. Youcef-Ali.2kg fresh mango (100kg of sliced mango) from 81. F. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (2004). UK. Khartoum. 48(2): 95-101. A. provided with adjustable cover that has tow level of opening. M. A solar tunnel dryer for natural convection drying of vegetables and other commodities in Cameroon. and Abe . (2004). 35(2): 31-35. 22(4): 61-64. Jones. 100cm x 10cm was located 10cm below the back top edge and provided with adjustable cover for dryer temperature control.T.. Determination of the average coefficient of internal moisture transfer during the drying of a thin bed of potato slices. G.4% to 10% wet basis in two days under ambient conditions during harvsting period from April to June. Madhlopa. Brooker.. desmons.. A solar air heater with compositeabsorber systems for food dehydration.03m2 solar collector area was constructed to be used in experimental drying tests. M. Plant Res. Analytical solution of mass transfer equation considering shrinkage for modeling food-drying kinetics. S. W. A free-convective fruit and vegetable hybrid tray dryer for developing countries. J. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Sudan..G. Angus. CPR press. Sodha. J. The dried vine industry. R. Natural Resources Institute. full and half opening. 32 (3): 54-59 Berinyuy. 45(1): 1-10. I and II. (1987). A. Renewable energy review. J. 70cm length and 4cm width.. (2004). W. Pavon. K. D. AMA. The dryer was set on four casters to make it mobile. Bansal. (1980). A.. A. AMA. K and Malik. J. Boca Raton. E. and Reid. Design of solar dryer for dates. Renewable energy. (1991). Bakker-Arkema. Chatham. full and half opening for dryer temperature control. E. it has two levels of opening. Design and construction of a simple three-shelf solar rough rice dryer.J. Hernandez.R.
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