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Semester 2, 2008

Name:

Student ID:

Group Number:

Lab supervisor:

1

OBJECTIVE

variety type of target vanes.

while it is subjected to the impact of water jet.

force

APPARATUS REQUIRED

W e ig h t C a r rie r

P o in te r

B ra ss W e ig h ts

W e ig h t P la tfo r m

I n te rc h a n g e a b le

T arg e t V a n e

In te rc h a n g e a b le

N o z z le

D ra in h o le s in b a se

W a te r S u p p ly

C o n n e c tio n

2

120º 60º

Ø 30 Ø 30 Ø 30 Ø 30

When a jet of water flowing with a steady velocity strikes a solid surface,

the water is deflected to flow along the surface. Unlike the impact of solid

bodies, there is no rebound and unless the flow is highly turbulent, there

will be no splashing. If friction is neglected by assuming an inviscid fluid

and it is also assumed that there are no losses due to shocks then the

magnitude of the water velocity is unchanged, the pressure exerted by the

water on the solid surface will everywhere be at right angles to the surface.

Newton’s second law of motion states that a mass that is accelerated

required a force that is equal to the product of the mass and acceleration.

In fluid mechanics, whenever fluid are forced to go through a restriction or

change direction. The analogy to Newton’s second law in fluid mechanics

is known as the momentum equation.

FX

3

Vi Vi

Impact Velocity, Vi V i c oθ s

Vi

Height, h V i s θin

Vi

Exit Velocity, Vn

direction of the jet to be changed through and angle θ as shown in Figure 3

above. In the absence of friction, the magnitude of the velocity across the

surface is equal to the incident velocity Vi. The impulse force exerted on

the target will be equal and opposite to the force which acts on the water

to impart the change in direction.

Force = Mass × Accelerati on

= Mass Flow Rate × Change in Velocity

.

- FX = M ∆V

.

= M (VX, out - VX, in )

.

- FX = M ( Vi cos θ - Vi )

.

FX = M Vi (1 - cos θ )

. .

But M = ρQ therefore

.

F = ρ Q V i (1 − cos θ)

.

And dividing trough by ρ Q V which is the incident momentum

i

4

F

.

= 1 − cosθ

ρ Q Vi

water from the surface so that the exit angle is parallel to the exit angle of

the target.

a) Effect of Height

The jet velocity can be calculated from the measured flow rate and

the nozzle exit area.

.

Q

Vn =

A

However, as the nozzle is below the target, the impact velocity will

be less than the nozzle velocity due to interchanges between

potential energy and kinetic energy.

Pn Vn2 P Vi 2

+ + ( Z n ) = i + + ( Zi )

γ 2g γ 2g

Pn Pi

− = 0

γ γ

And

( Z n ) − ( Zi ) = h

Therefore,

Vi 2 = Vn2 − 2 gh

For the normal plane target θ is 90º. Therefore cos θ = 0

F

.

= 1 − cos θ = 1

ρ Q Vi

5

c) Impact on Conical and 30˚ Plate Target

The cone semi-angle θ is 120º. Therefore cos θ = 0.5

F

.

= 1 − cos θ = 0.5

ρ Q Vi

The target exit angle is 180º. Therefore cos θ = - 1

F

.

= 1 − cos θ = 2

ρ Q Vi

experimental of force value of target with different angle.

Theoretically,

F = mg

Experimentally,

.

F = ρ Q Vi × (1 - cos θ )

6

Figure 4: Impact of a Jet Apparatus with Hydraulic Bench

The Impact of Jet (Model: FM 31) is supplied ready for use and only

requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:

Hydraulic Bench with the left hand support feed of the Impact of Jets

Apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs of the Hydraulic

Bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel.

2. A spirit level is about to attached to baseboard

and level the unit on top of the bench by adjusting the feet.

3. The feed tube is connected from the Hydraulic

Bench to the base of the Impact of Jets Apparatus by using a hose.

4. Water is filled into the volumetric tank of the

hydraulic bench until approximately 90% full.

5. Fully close the bench flow control valve, V1

then switch on the pump.

6. Open V1 gradually and allow the piping to fill

with water until all air has been expelled from the system.

7. The actual flow of water can be measured using

the volumetric tank with a stopwatch.

7

Objective:

water on to various target vanes.

2. To experimentally determine the force required to keep a target at

a datum level while it is subjected to the impact of a water jet.

3. To compare the experimentally measured force with the

theoretically calculated force

Procedures:

platform. The spring tension adjuster is adjusted to a distance of 20

mm between the nozzle and the target, then record this value as h. The

pointer is to be moved so that it is aligned to the weight platform that

is floating in mid position.

2. The pump is started and the water flow is

established by steadily opening the bench regulating valve until it is

fully open.

3. The vane will now be deflected by the impact of

the jet. Weights are added onto the weight carrier until the weight

platform is again floating in mid position.

4. The flow rate is measured and the result is

recorded on the test sheet, together with the corresponding value of

weight on the tray. The form of the deflected jet is observed and its

shape is noted.

5. The weight on the weight carrier is reduced in

steps and balance of weight platform is maintained by regulating the

flow rate in about eight or ten even steps, each time recording the

value of flow rate and weight on the weight carrier.

6. The control valve is closed and the pump is

switched off.

7. The experiment is repeated with different target

vanes and nozzles.

2. The flow rate and the nozzle exit velocity are calculated. The

nozzle velocity for the height of the target is corrected above the

nozzle to obtain the impact velocity.

3. The experimental force and the theoretical force are calculated,

then to compare.

8

Discussion:

placement of the nozzle head is at the centre under the vane. The

displacement of it causing a loss in water velocity due to splashing by

the rebound water. If the vane and the nozzle shaft are placed in series

and centered, there will be no water rebound as jet water exerted will

be deflected to flow along the surface to the surrounding shield when it

hits the target vane. Due to this displacement also, it will cause an

uneven force impact on the target vane hence decreasing the reaction

force produced on the vane.

2. Higher water jet velocity will produce a higher force exerted onto

the target vane. The amount of weight can be supported indicate the

force exerted by the jet.

(g) (LPM) Q (m³ /s)

100 12.8 2.13 x10 −4

150 14.8 2.47 x10 −4

200 18.3 3.05 x 10 −4

Exit

Flow Rate, Velocity, h, Impact Experimental Theoretical Error

Q (m³ /s) Vn (m/s) (mm) Velocity, Vi Force, F(N) Force, (%)

(m/s) Fn(N)

2.13 x10 −4 10.85 25 10.83 1.15 0.98 17.23

2.47 x10 −4 12.58 25 12.56 1.55 1.47 5.44

3.05 x 10 −4 15.53 25 15.51 2.37 1.96 20.92

9

Graph for 120° Conical Target

= ( 12.8l x 0.001 m³/l ) / 60s

= 2.13 x 10 −4 m³/s

Area, A = ∏ D² / 4

= ∏ ( 5 x 10ˉ ³ ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= ( 2.13 x 10 −4 m³/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= 10.85 m/s

= Vn 2

−2 gh

= (10 .85 ) 2 −( 2 x9.81 x 0.025 )

=10 .83 m / s

10

= ρQVi (1 −cos θ)

=1000 x 2.13 x10 −4 x10 .83 x (0.5)

=1.15 N

= (100g 1kg/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s

= 0.98 N

Error (%)

Theoretica l − exp erimenta

= x100 %

Theoretica l

0.92 −1.15

= x100 %

0.98

= 17.23%

11

Table for Flat Surface Target

(LPM) (m3/s)

150 11 1.833 x 10-4

200 13 2.167 x 10-4

250 14 2.333 x 10-4

Rate, Velocit (mm) Velocit ntal ical (%)

Q y, Vn y Vi Force, F Force,

(m3/s) (m/s) (N) Fn (N)

1.833 x 9.343 25 9.333 1.71 1.472 16.2

10-4

2.167 x 11.036 25 11.025 2.39 1.962 21.8

10-4

2.333 x 11.88 25 11.87 2.73 2.45 11.6

10-4

12

Calculations for Flat Target surface

= ( 13 x 0.001 m³/l ) / 60s

= 2.167 x 10 −4 m³/s

Area, A = ∏ D² / 4

= ∏ ( 5 x 10ˉ ³ ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= ( 2.167 x 10 −4 m³/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= 11.036 m/s

= Vn 2

−2 gh

= (11 .036 ) 2 −( 2 x9.81 x 0.025 )

=11 .025 m / s

= ρQVi (1 −cos θ)

=1000 x 2.167 x10 −4 x11 .025 x (1)

= 2.39 N

= (200g 1kg/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s

= 1.962 N

Error (%)

Theoretica l − exp erimenta

= x100 %

Theoretica l

1.962 − 2.39

= x100 %

1.962

= 21.8%

13

Table for Hemisphere Target

(LPM) (m3/s)

150 8.4 1.4 x 10-4

250 10.3 1.717 x 10-4

300 11.2 1.867 x 10-4

Rate, Velocit (mm) Velocit ntal ical (%)

Q y, Vn y Vi Force, F Force,

(m3/s) (m/s) (N) Fn (N)

1.4 x 7.13 25 7.11 1.71 1.4715 35.29

10 -4

10-4

1.867 x 9.51 25 9.50 2.73 3.55 20.63

10-4

14

Calculations for Flat Target surface

= ( 13 x 0.001 m³/l ) / 60s

= 2.167 x 10 −4 m³/s

Area, A = ∏ D² / 4

= ∏ ( 5 x 10ˉ ³ ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= ( 1.717 x 10 −4 m³/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= 8.75 m/s

= Vn 2

−2 gh

= (8.75 ) 2 −( 2 x9.81 x 0.025 )

= 8.74 m / s

= ρQVi (1 −cos θ)

=1000 x1.717 x10 −4 x8.74 x ( 2)

= 3.001 N

= (250g 1kg/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s

= 2.45 N

Error (%)

Theoretica l − exp erimenta

= x100 %

Theoretica l

2.45 −3.001

= x100 %

2.45

= 22.5%

15

Table for 30° Plate Target

Volum

Weight e Time (s) Average

(g) (L) T1 T2 T3 Time (s )

100 12.5 60 60 60 60

150 13.0 60 60 60 60

200 16.1 60 60 60 60

Exit

Flow Rate, Velocity, h, Impact Experimental Theoretical Error

Q (m³ /s) Vn (m/s) (mm) Velocity, Vi Force, F(N) Force, (%)

(m/s) Fn(N)

2.0830 x10 −4 10.6090 25 10.5870 1.10263 0.981 12.40

2.1667 x 10 −4 11.0347 25 11.0125 1.19304 1.4715 18.92

2.6830 x10 −4 13.6670 25 13.6490 1.83101 1.9620 6.68

16

Calculation for 30° Plate Target

= ( 60 + 60 + 60 ) / 3

= 60 s

= ( 12.5l x 0.001 m³/l ) / 23s

= 2.083 x 10 −4 m³/s

Area, A = ∏ D² / 4

= ∏ ( 5 x 10ˉ ³ ) / 4

=1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= ( 2.083 x 10 −4 m³/s ) / 1.9635 x 10 −5 m²

= 10.609 m/s

= Vn 2

−2 gh

= (10 .609 ) 2 −( 2 x9.81 x 0.025 )

=10 .587 m / s

= ρQVi (1 −cos θ)

=1000 x 2.083 x10 −4 x10 .587 x (1 −cos 60 )

=1.10263 N

= (100g/ 1000g) x 9.81 m/s

= 0.981 N

Error (%)

Theoretica l − exp erimental

= x100 %

Theoretica l

0.981 −1.10263

= x100 %

0.981

= 12.40%

4.0 O BSERVATIONS AND D ISCUSSION

17

• When the graphs of Theoretical Force vs Experimental Force were plotted all the

vanes except the hemispherical one gave a gradient very close to 1. The

hemisphere gave a gradient of 1.92

Therefore we can see most of the experimental results were very close to the

theoretical results.

Type of Vane used Maximum experimental error

%

120 Conical 20.92

Flat Plate 21.8

Hemisphere 35.29

30 Plate 18.92

• Most of the experimental errors above are below 25% which although are not

within the usually range of about 10-15 percent are not totally unacceptable.

• It was also observed that the experimental force was at all instances higher than

the theoretically required force.

1. The height between the nozzle and the target of the spring tension should

be a constant value - This value can fluctuate due to parallax errors and

also inaccuracy of measuring instruments

2. The height between the nozzle and the vane can also change due to the

change of vanes as all vanes do not have equal heights.

3. At all instances the nozzle and the vane have to be concentric – In practice

this does not always happen as there is a slight play between the weight

platform and the cylinder that holds it and it can move around slightly due

to the action of the force of the water.

4. There could also be a frictional force between the weight platform and

where it is fixed – This could be one reason why a higher force than the

calculated was required to support the vane.

5. The reason the hemispherical vane gives a higher discrepancy than the

others could be because once the water hits its center the only way it can

travel is downwards and hence come in the way of the water coming from

the jet

6. Bubbles present in the water can be a reason to get inaccurate readings as

well.

7. The water which hits the Vane could flow downwards and hit the jet again

which will give a momentum in the opposite direction and hence give

false values.

5.0 C ONCLUSION

18

• For orifices having a sharp edge, A, has been found to be approximately 62% of

the orifice area (pg 117, Kundu) – Therefore the area used for the calculations can

be one reason for the discrepancies.

• Although assumed as uniform throughout the jet during calculation, the velocity

of the water in the jet is not. To account for this a Momentum-Flux correlation

factor(Beta) has to be used where

• The elasticity of spring acted on the weight platform is one of the main cause to

the errors occurred in the experiment when weight is been added. To obtain a

theoretical force, a suitable formulae is:

f = mg – kx

• The experimental results and the theoretically calculated values are similar within

experimental error and proves the law of conservation of momentum.

R EFERENCES

19

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