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)C ! , ; , d ' d !6 6C X 4# # d
X & )Z @ 4= 7 [ _ M7d & d 5 , ): &
@ 7 6C X 7

/8C H <' I J

H ; ! J ~ •$ @: = `# 6C X # ): _ #
\ C ) ) X _ #

$ B G E< + - K ~ •$ @: = < ] "# # &I )T


> # "# 7 X @: = < ] "# 7 4# ! )T > # "#
# ~ : &' @: ) •

) H ; 3 " ~ •$ : = `# 6C X #
): _ # \ X F

0G
H ; +7< - ~ •$ : = `# # )< &, @ I 7 =
X F 4# ! )T > # "# 7 # 4# ! @ # d \
7 5 ) ) C &! 7
?
L M - N~ •$ : , 4^ C 4+ F ) @ A #
a X C &! 7 6) C : # ~ • ˆ 4 ˆ 6#•

O I 3 J# : < ] "# @ Q F ^ ) X
# # & ! 5 )< # %^ ! F , &# n7 w %^ !
F : 6 ): I 5 ( , &# n4

778 ) %

C8/ H ' 3 J &

H ; ! J 67 I FP E< + -# c] = 6 # # d
] = # 7 /d I 4h / 4^ @ # @: , 2

K # d I 4h / C 4+ F ( d 5 - )
@ A & ! @ # 8 C 4+ F = J &2 @
@( Fd 4 2 F ): & ! € d ^ : "# 6<
d7 = # 6D ?÷ @ #

b# 6 ! 27 B ÷ 3 A ( 6J ÷?@
# 8 C 4+ F 7 / ! ): ! , ; d ): !6
6C X d & )T e ÷B K # 6D # @ Q
F 7 / ! ): I , ϕˆG) @ A # @ d ' C
4+ F 6< 6 ! 6C @ Q F 7 / # 7 / ! ): ! 6C "#
= A7 K # I l 2 =@ A & !
@ #

$ B G E< + -# K l @ A # I ws ` ^
4# + $ I !6 6C Xd ! ^ & ! "# ^ •
• # d ! 6C )` = # /d ! 6C )` ): 4 2

0
&< @ A # A ): ] &# & 6= 7 / @/

A # 9 \ 6= # 7 = ] &# !
6C = A7 d ! , ; # ): ! 6C 5 2 &

H ] &# @ A # _ 9 \ ! 6C = A7 d '
7 = , @( F y - *‘ - ) @ A # _ 9 d 4# 4
4 ) @( F 7 M7 J C # 2 < & 6= B
H @( F ( @ 5 &< 7 M7 '@ A # 9
w d A @ = @ A # K] &# @ A # \ !
6C + # " @: ! 6C ^ ( *‘ \ ! 6C + # ; <
\ - $

B.H 2 .[σ ]u
Pz = KG
6l
c^ ) + # ) ~ ˆ f•

B 3 [σ ]u
Pz = KG
6l

% + # &T $

πd 3 [σ ]u
Pz = KG
32l
> :

f @: C &! + # ~ •

• C # + # ~ •

@• %# T ~ •

•c , + &T ~ •

[σ ]u • - 4 2 ^ 7 M7 "# )Z @ + # ~Kbn ?

K + # 6D M7 2 6C σ bp = 60 ÷ 70

0?
] @2 [σ ]u = 20 KG / mm 2

f= B A # X : ): F - 6D # M7
): # A7 -

8 C 4+ F
c , 7
0 E ? G
~ •
A # a n )T

≤ 18 ≤ 0,2 • •

> 18 ≤ 30 Gd? • Gd0 Gd • Gd3 •

> 30 ≤ 50 GdB • GdE Gd0 • dG •

> 50 ≤ 80 Gd3 • d? GdN • d Gd0 • dG

> 80 ≤ 120 dG • d3 d • dE GdE • d0

> 120 ≤ 180 dB • ?dG d0 • ?dG d • ?dG dG • d0

> 180 ≤ 260 dE • ?d3 dE • ?dE d0 • ?d0 d • ?dG

> 260 ≤ 360 ?dG • d? ?d0 • dG ?dG • dG d0 • ?d0

> 360

2 :)# - ? '# +% -5 * + 7 > $> @ * + ! $ >g


h> U :iN j O %K % > h> K U :iN j @ 8 & \ k T * + 7
l @ + . * + 96 * k -5 A <

K] &# @ A # \ ! , ; # ]; 2 7 e
C $ c! )} # ) A > Gd?0 4# "# @

0
# # : ( F , * ] ! , ; #
; < \ - ~ : &/ „ •$

f= B? A # : M7 6D # A7 -
?
b 6C σ bp ~Kbn • c! - U8 A # a~ n)T •

3G BS Gd • Gd

EG 0B GdGN • Gd?

?GG 0E GdG0 • Gd 0

% ^ # + $

70 EJ
Py = f KG
l3
t! ^ + # X7 ): + X7$

140 EJ
Py = f KG
l3

K u W7 & + X7$

3EJ
Py = f KG
l3
J + $

•• c! )} ~ •

@• 8 C : ~ •
?
V• t : 6D ? GGGKbn ^ ) M7
B
—• t \ > , # "# ~ • 6D
πD 4
≈ 0,05 D 4 ) € @: , "# ~ ^ # + d !
64
X7 # ^ + • X @: , 7 ~ X7•

0B
K ] &# ! 6C 5 2 \ @ A # d7 = ; <
@( C &/ *; a 4 *; ) @( 7 M7 )C ! 6C 5 2

Y 2 7 e @( *‘ ): , # #; < A
\ ; F M \ $

Pz .D
2M k = KGm
1000

1 $ *‘ † @( F y - ~Kb•

€• c , # ~ •

2 t \ ; F M7 )e# , 4 4 ) t \ 7 M7 "# 5 2
& ] ! ,

b &< @( ): t \ ; F M7 , ) @ A # _ 9 :
) A > &< 4^ 7 M7 '7 = = @ A #

A # 7 M7 & & A7 # @ )Z @
# 6D @ # # A & 6= J7 7 / @/
Ž \

) B% J #8 - , @( F J 6= B - ) # ϕ •GGd
) @ # F ): @ )Z @ I/ F 9 # & 6=
J7 7 / @/

f= B 8 - , @( F ϕ1 > 00

( F 8 -
% 7 ~ y x pz y pz n pz
Pz = C pz .t .S .V .k M pz ( KG )
- • *‘
x py y py n py
, * Py = C py .t .S .V .k M py ( KG )
( # x px y px n px
Px = C px .t .S .V .k M px ( KG )
~ &/ • *;
87‘d 87 d 87; @: 4^
00
• 8 C 4+ F ~ •
a• A # ~ n)T •

• 4^ 7 / ! )Z @ # k ;7d 7d 7 • a^ p

)• 1Z ^ F ~ n7 w •

%& 4^ ): 4^ p = C 4+ d @ A # d )Z ^
F A ; < 6D (

K # )Z @ ) 6= B ?d # T ): 4^ '
9 # i d @( F , \ 6= B ): B B 7 = + ) 4^ & 6=
B0 K # )Z @ 7 = &# - ): 4^ 5 -
& 6= &# J 7 7 / @/

Q ; + -# % i 6C # 7 / ! C ^$ : # d
4^ @ : @ # T : : d : : 6 ): : 4F d
# # # d : 4h / d - != J "# )Z ^ F
i 6C # …

%&e # 6: d # F &\ d # < ' ] @2 i 6C # % ˆ 3G


7 w

c^ ) # 6: d # F &\ d # < ' @2 % ˆ ?G 7 w T #


@ Q F 7 / ): ϕ ˆ GGd % ˆ G ÷ B0 7 w K # 6D C # !
@w d ` &< 4^ : I . ‚@ ) # # # F

L I 3 J#K # # 6D # M7 d ^ ! F , \
- & 6= ? d ?B %& A7 &! @Ld ^ ! F , \
- : 7 = + ) 4^ GdS

03
f#& BB 4^ ): 4^ p & - 6= B
4^ ): 4^ p
1Z @ € # 1Z @
( 7 ( , ( #
# 7 F
87‘ P7‘ Y7‘ H7‘ 87 Y7 H7 P7 87; Y7; P7; H7;
% A7 •
GG GdN0 ?B GdS •Gd Gd3 S Gd0 •GdB
:d - Gd 0
% M7 ):
&! % M7 ?GE GdN0 G B GdS G GdN0 33dE d? Gd30 G
)Z w
% A7
6D BGE GdE GdN? G N? GdN G Gd3N • • • •
&_ d -
M7
F
% M7 ?BN dG G • • • • • • • •
-
% A7
S? GdN0 G 0B GdS G GdN0 B3 GdB G
:d -
&! % M7 E GdN0 G 0B GdS G GdN0 0 dB d? Gd30 G
b#
%
;
&_ d
% M7 0 dG G ?S • • • • • • •
F
-

0N
f= B0 4^ C u , @( F 7 / ! )Z @ #
4^ & -
( 7 ( , ( #
1Z @ #
A7 A7
% M7 A7 - % M7 % M7
- -
0 , 35
σ bp
σ bp ≤ 60 KG / mm 2
k Mpz =
σ bp
0 , 35 75 σ bp
1, 35
σ bp
2
σ bp σ bp
1, 5

% M7 k ppz = k Mpy = k Mpy = k Mpx = k Mpy =


75 0 , 75 75 75 75 75
σ bp
σ bp ≥ 60 KG / mm 2 k Mpz =
75
0, 4 0 , 55 1, 3 0 ,8 1,1
HB HB HB HB HB HB
b# ; k Mpz = k Mpz = k Mpy = k Mpy = k Mpx = k Mpx =
190 190 190 190 190 190

0E
f= B38 - , ^ ! F # 6D # M7
€ # 8 - , Ks
Cv 13G $ %^ ! F - ) ˆ3G7
% : V60 = m/ p
t .s yv
xv
1 $ %^ ! F ˆ ?G7
?G
Cv
% &_ F - V60 = m/ p $ 8 C 4+ F ~ •
.s yv
a$ A # ~ n)T •
Cv 8)$ 4^
% < ' V120 = m/ p
.s yv
;)d $ a^
) p

f= BN b &< 4^ 8) ): 4^ p ;)d )

cC #
K
8 <
#

1Z @ # <
n)T
#

4^ ): 4^ p
A
~

8) ;) ) 8) ;) )

% a ≤ Gd?0 BSdS Gd GdB Gd0G


Gd?0 Gd?0
: a • Gd?0 d3 Gd33 ?Bd Gd33
% M7 M 2 % &_
• 3dNN • Gd33 • • •
σ bp = 75 KG / mm 2
F -
c<
• 0dB • Gd0 • • •
'
% a ≤ Gd?0 30dG Gd?0 • • •
Gd?
b# ƒ : a • Gd?0 B3dG Gd0 • • •
f 0G % &_
• dB • Gd0 • • •
F -
b# ; % a ≤ Gd?0 • • • ?BdN Gd G
Gd 0
f SG : a • Gd?0 • • • ? d3 GdBG

0S
% &_
• • • • SdNE • GdB
F -
c # f a ≤ Gd?0 • • • SS Gd?0
Gd ?
ˆ GG ÷ BG a • Gd?0 • • • 3 Gd0G

f= BE 4^ = . # "# )Z @ #

4^ =
1Z @ #
. #
% M7 6 8 Œ Gd3‰ dG
8 • Gd3‰ GdE0
% M7 ( ! d?
% M7 & k & • \ k . # k & • @7 \ k
& • \ • @7 \ k & • k & • @ 7 \ • GdE
k & • \ •) •&#
% M7 & • . # k & •4@ k4@ • . # GdN
% M7 Gd3
H 0÷3
c #•&# B÷3
Y@ ): A7 w B÷0
f= BS 8 - , 4^ Kµv
1Z @ #
% M7 b# &Ž b# ; c #

n
n n n
75 150 190 120
8 - k µv = k µv = k µv = k µv =
σ bp HB HB HB

1Z @ # a^ p
% M7 ( ! d 6 d & dN0

3G
% M7 & • \ d # # d & • # # d & 4@ •
# # d & • 4@ d 4@ • # # d & • \ • d0
# #
% M7 & • @7 \ d & • \ • @7 \ d & •
d?0
@7 \ • d M7
b# ƒ d # ; ): # dN

f= B G 4^ , ^ ! F
H + ^
= 4^
J
c] I H @
%&
8
% : ^
KM ! 8 !
7
d GdS0 GdS GdE
P ^ b I
G B0 3G SG
= , ϕ
J
^ 4^
! F
% M7d )Z w
b 6D M7d A7 ?3 GdEB Gd33
I O@ ): t
, ϕ b# d? GdEE GdN
A7 • d GdE
b b ϕ G 0 ?G G B0
I
4^ GdSN GdSB GdS GdEN
7 /ϕ
f f , &
? B
, ~ •
u

3
4^ GdS dG0 d ?
G; G 3; 3 ?G;?G ?G; G G; G G;B0 BG;3G 3G;SG
% % + φ G ?; ? ?;?G 3;?0 ?G; G ?0;BG BG;BG
# ~ • φ ? G; 3 φ 3 φ?G φ G φBG
+ φ?0
# b# GdEN GdS GdS GdSN dGB dGE d ? d S
4^ % M7 GdS GdS0 GdSN GdSE dG? dGB dG3 dGS
c! T & X E ~ •
#
1Z @

Gd0 d0 ? d0 ? d0 B
#

4^
X

GdS GdS0 GdSN • • • •


&!
%
%

%
% M7d #

&_ F GdE0 dGG • • • • • •


-
%
• • • GdS GdSB GdS0 GdSN
"# #

:
%
GdSB GdS3 GdSN • • • •
&
X &

%
;

&_ F GdE0 GdS GdS0 • • • •


T
c!

-
b#

H + ^
= 4^
J
8 )r - -
K
%& % 8 ;u6[
)r
6C A7 A7
- % M7 b# % M7 b#
X
GdN0• GdE0 GdN • GdE GdS • GdS0 Gd0 • Gd3 Gd0 • Gd3 GdN • GdE
% M7
1Z @ % M7 SGt a 8€ GO 8€ ?GO
#
Gd3 Gd0 ): Œ

3?
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#
@
G 3G SG ?G ?BG 3G

M7d 1Z
#
4^

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dGS GdS0 GdS? GdE0 GdEG

&!
%
6D

F
d S GdS GdE GdN Gd3B
w

-
&_
% M7d )Z

%
w

c<
• • dGS GdE GdN?
'
#

dGN GdS3 GdS GdEN GdEB


X

d GdSB GdSG GdE GdN3


b#
;
=

d 3 GdS GdEB GdN Gd33


@
A7

= %2

d? GdEE GdE Gd33 Gd0E


O@|t

@
A7

%2

€ € &
* y 8 1
& X
X 4^ dG0 d 0

H # M7 # d # ): A7 d
&< ^ ! F , A 7 = + ) 4^ = . # J 6= B

%& A7 5 , )Z @ # & 6= B Ed ^ ! F
\ 6= BE†BS7 = + ) 4^ Kt) \ 6= B H ]
^= J ^ ! F 7 = + ) 4^ & 6= B

8 - , ^ ! F # 6D # A7 - J
6= 7 / @/

H 5 , )Z @ # & 6= ?Ed &< ^ ! F 7 =


3
+ ) 4^ Kt) & 6= 7 / @/

H : &#d - ) e @ )Z @ # d ^ ! F 7 = + )
4^ = . # & 6= BS

%&I ( )Z ^ F 9 p A &# & 6= & ): 4#


@2 \ 4 )T > # ( =@ _@ 9 H
2 7 = , &< = )Z ^

$ $ C 7-

B G E< + -# f= @ A # 6: d 6: 6
& 6= N

I 3 J # %, ^ ! F 6: &I 6: ^
: ~6= ? • G• %, ^ ! F 6: # p ^
: 7 = + ) 4^ & 6= ? 8 4 2 /
, &I

R " # ^ # A7 - fK3 ): 7 = + ) 4^
? %^ ! F # 2 ƒ 2 @2 4# $

• €# 6D M7 / / ) ˆ N0÷ GG n•

•K # 6D # M7 1 ≤ GG n7

•b# 6D # A7 - 1 ≤ EGG n7

8 4 2 F / , \ - 4# $

Pz .v
Nθ = KW
60.102
*‘ @: @( F y - ~Kb•

1 @: )+ ^ F n7

K # C # / ' 4 2 / 6D i
3B
4 2 "# e #

f= B A # 6:
b 8 C 4+ F ~ •
1Z @
I ≤0 ≤ ? ≤ ?G ≤ G • G
#
, ϕG A # ~ n)T •
G d0 • 0d0 d0 • 0dG ?dE • BdG ?d • d0 •
% M7 B0 • N0 ?d0 • B ?d0 • d0 ?dG • dG d0 • ?d0 d? • dE
SG • ?dG • dG d0 • ?dG d? • ?dG • d0
G BdG • 3dG BdG • 0d0 d0 • 0dG ?d0 •BdG •
b# B0 • N0 dG • Bd0 dG • BdG ?d0 • d0 dE • ?dE dB • ?dG
SG dG • Bd0 ?d0 • d0 ?• dB • ?d d? • dE
8 w , $ : ? '# +% % V l .5 m 9 .k l [ +
* 9 .k l $ c F ÷ GH
U + 6n < +% T -? '# +% . ! 6 L I% <
h L %> +%

f= B ? 4^ , ^ ! F &I 6#T # ): ;9
8 C : : &' # ~ •
t
0G GG 0G ?GG GG 0GG
4^
f:
GdSB GdES GdE GdEG GdNN GdNG
#
Y9 GdN Gd3N Gd3 Gd3G Gd0N Gd0?
7778K 6 * 1L
D
8 C 4+ # )Z @ X ˆ ~ • ): # &! ˆ
2
D−d
~ •
2
€†c , # ~ •

30
•c , @L _ # & ~ •
A # # ) $
tp # 6D M7 / / : M7 J f= B
tp # F = A7 - J 6= 3
A # # &! $
tp # M7 / / 6= 0 † tp # F A7 -
6= N
B A # # 6D p # : M7 6D M7
/ /

c H 1Z @ #
, % M7 σbp kg/mm2 b# f
# c EG %e EG %e GG c ?GG %e ?GG
~ • # GG
8 # a~ n )T •
GdGE÷Gd E GdG3÷GdG B GdGB÷Gd G Gd B÷GdG GdGE÷Gd?G
c 0 GdG3÷Gd GdG0÷Gd G GdGB÷GdGE Gd G÷Gd? GdG3÷Gd 0
GdGB÷GdGE ?dG ÷GdGN GdG?÷GdG0 GdGN÷Gd 0 GdGB÷Gd G
Gd?G÷Gd N Gd 0÷Gd?E Gd ÷Gd? Gd 3÷GdN0 Gd??÷GdB
%e 0 Gd ?÷Gd?N Gd ?÷Gd? GdGE÷Gd 3 Gd?B÷Gd00 Gd 3÷Gd
G Gd G÷Gd E GdGN÷Gd B GdG0÷Gd Gd E÷Gd 0 Gd ÷Gd??
Gd E÷Gd3B Gd G÷GdBE Gd?B÷Gd E GdNB÷ d? GdB0÷GdNN
%e G Gd?E÷GdB0 Gd? ÷Gd ? Gd 3÷Gd?3 Gd00÷GdE? Gd B÷Gd0E
?G Gd E÷Gd ? Gd ÷Gd? Gd ÷Gd N Gd 3÷Gd0? Gd? ÷Gd N
Gd33÷GdE? Gd0G÷Gd3? Gd S÷Gd0G d?÷ dN GdEG÷ dG0
%e ?G GdB3÷Gd0E Gd ?÷GdBG Gd?3÷Gd B GdEB÷ dG Gd3G÷GdN3
G Gd ÷GdB? Gd? ÷Gd?N Gd N÷Gd?0 Gd00÷Gd3E Gd E÷GdBE

33
GdS÷ dG GdN÷GdE Gd3÷GdN dB÷ dE d ÷ d?
%e G Gd3÷GdN Gd0÷Gd3 GdB÷Gd0 dG÷ d GdEG÷GdSG
3G Gd0÷Gd3 Gd ÷GdB Gd ÷GdB GdNG÷GdN0 Gd0G÷Gd00

$ [ < h * %+ -5 A ,N - ? '# +% J > @ Va h


& .5 > ! % % V ,3
DB & k > g * %+ J - R* > g * %+ J %& * k -o ]L '#
+% 0 6 . U +% Va +#
: ? '# +% 5 $ % % 5 ' 6 > V % 6 V< % 7 1+ > g * %+
B B 4^ C u @ A # 7 / ): C 4+ # ~ ^ )
! # •
%u 4^ `# C 4+ # )
L 0 N G
, p # x
D

4^ a GdS GdE GdN0

B 0 A # # &! @L l p # 6D M7 / /
: M7
1Z @ #
c
% M7 ): w 6D M7 b#
, p
H # a~ n)T •
# ~

H #
GdN÷ d
GdB÷Gd0
G GdN÷ d d0÷GdN Gd ÷GdB d ÷ d0 G
c ?0 GdB0÷Gd
0 GdE÷ d? Gd3÷GdE GdB÷Gd0 d?÷ d3 GdE÷ d
3

3N
GdN÷ d
GdB÷Gd0
G GdN÷ d Gd0÷GdN Gd ÷GdB dG÷ dB
%e ?0 GdE÷ d GdB0÷Gd
0 GdN÷ d Gd3÷GdN Gd ÷GdB d ÷ d0
G ? 00
?G GdE÷ d? Gd3÷GdE GdB÷Gd0 d?÷ d3
GdE÷ d Gd0÷Gd3
?
GdN÷ d

0 GdE÷ d? Gd0÷GdN Gd ÷GdB dG÷ d3 GdB÷Gd0


%e BG GdE÷ d
?G GdS÷ d? Gd3÷GdE GdB÷Gd0 d ÷ dN Gd0÷Gd3
0G ?
G GdS÷ d Gd3÷GdE GdB÷Gd0 d?÷ dE Gd3÷GdN
GdE÷ d

GdS÷ d

%e BG ?G GdS÷ d? Gd3÷GdE GdB÷Gd0 d?÷ dE Gd0÷Gd3


dG÷ d
0G G dG÷ d GdN÷GdS GdB÷Gd0 d ÷?dG Gd3÷GdN
B
BG dG÷ dB GdE÷GdS Gd0÷dG3 d ÷?dG GdN÷GdE
dG÷ d
B
GdS÷ d
? Gd00÷Gd
G GdS÷ d? GdN÷GdE GdB÷Gd0 d?÷ dE
%e 0G GdS÷Gd 3
BG dG÷ d GdE÷GdS GdB÷Gd0 d ÷?dG
3G Gd3÷GdN
0G dG÷ dB GdE÷GdS Gd0÷dG3 d ÷?dG
dG÷ d GdN÷GdE
B
$[ & 9> '# +% J I% 0 S ^ 6! .5 * %+
8 9 @ A # # # ~f= B † B 3• A #
@ 2 ~ • l # @^ & 7 - $
#• K 4# X 4# 27 , ; 0

3E
6• a# T # 6D ! 4^ / /
A # & 6' ~ • l # @L &
7 A - )` !7 : r $
#• K 4# X 4# 27 , ; 0
6• a# T # 6D ! 4^ / /
• %&-5 F &\ 6D #&

f= B 3 A # # 6D p # F A7 -

% M7 # 1Z @ #
c
6 M7 K # l < K l <
,
A7 ! @ I• •; ! @
p
% M7 ! - U8 b# ! -
#
σ6700÷E0 c BG BG 00 3B f NG f> NG
~ •
?
n A # a~ n)T •
Gd ?÷Gd 3 Gd?0÷GdB0 Gd?G÷Gd 0
G
? Gd B÷Gd?dG Gd ÷Gd0 Gd?G÷Gd 0
3 Gd 3÷Gd?? Gd 0÷Gd3 Gd?0÷GdBG
?G Gd?G÷Gd?3 GdGB÷GdG0 GdG GdG?0 GdG? GdB÷GdN Gd?0÷GdBG
? Gd??÷Gd?E GdB0÷GdE Gd G÷GdB0
?3 Gd?B÷Gd ? Gd0÷GdE0 Gd 0÷0G
?S
Gd?3÷Gd 0 Gd0÷GdSG GdBG÷G 3G
$
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V ,3
q g * %+ - ? *> [4

3S
f= B N A # # &! @L 6D p # F A7
-

M 1 #

8 <
K < !
! @ I•
@
•;

% M7 # 6 ): b# ! -
M7 A7
f NG f> NG

A # a~ n)T •
G Gd G÷GdB0 Gd3G÷GdS GdBG÷Gd3G
?0
0 Gd G÷Gd0G Gd3G÷ dGG GdBG÷Gd30
Gd 0÷Gd00
G Gd30÷Gd G Gd0G÷GdE
Gd 0÷Gd00
G 0 Gd30÷Gd G Gd0G÷GdE
Gd 0÷Gd3G
?G Gd30÷Gd G Gd0G÷GdE

A # r 2 ~ • # @L , ; d 4# #
@ `# 6D p M X p # ): 7 ! )` M d X (#
i < A # = 6= ! 6C "# p # , \
- $
D 0.81
c^ ) M7$ a ˆ BdB3 0.94
~ n)T •
δb

D 0.81
c^ ) # $ a ˆ Nd B ~ n)T •
HB 0.75

NG
?
δb $ b 6C "# M7 A # ~Kbn •
f$ c! - "# # A #
% \ @ A # "# p # 9 & 6= ; < A
@( F C &/ d :4 ) @( F 5 2 # "# = 6=
8 9 @ A # # # &! @L$ ~6= 0 ): 6= N• @ A
# @ ~ • l $
#• K # &! @L 4# X 27 , ; 6Z 0
6• K # &! @L ] 4# T # 6D ! 4^ / /
~ p M X # & ): p # X #•
• K # &! @L 4# T F &\ 6D #& X 6D # F
9 ) C @: # 4# # 6D # M X
6D @ Q # #
A # ~ • l $
#• K # @L &! 4# F &\ 6D #& # &
6• K # @L &! 4# # @ `# 6D p M )
C 4+ F 6' X ?@
8 # r~ • l # @L 27 , ; B ): !
6 ∇0 ~) M7•d∇3 ~ ^ ) # •) C 4# # I
! @ `# 6D p M ) C 4+ F rd X ! @ 6D p
#
%^ ! F $ tp # 6D / / %^ ! F # ): #
&! @L , \ - &
f= B E %^ ! F p # 6D 7 / /
K # M7 2 d M7 A7 d C v D zv
1% ˆ K Mv n7 w
# ; d # ƒ T m S vy

K # &! M7 2 d M7 A7 C v D zv
1% ˆ K Mv n7 w
d # ; d # ƒ T m t xv .S vy

N
f= B Sb &< "# 4^ ): 4^ p "# -
1Z @ # € # 8 # 4^ ): 4^ p
a 81 P1 ”1 Y1 %t˜
n)T
% M7 2 # K # Gd? EdS GdN GdB • Gd?
6 ): M7 A7 %e Gd? ?dB Gd0

?
δ b ˆ N0Kbn K # • • Gd0 GdB Gd? Gd?
fˆ? 0 &!
b# ; K # G Nd3 Gd00 Gd?0 • Gd ?0
f ˆ SG %e Gd Gd GdB
K # • • GdB Gd?0 Gd Gd ?0
&!
b# ƒ K # Gd ?3d? Gd00 Gd?0 • Gd ?0
f ˆ 0G %e Gd Gd GdB Gd?0
K # • • GdB Gd Gd ?0
&!
% M7 &u ): K # • • GdB0 Gd0 • Gd ?
M7 <
˜ Y\ f= B?

f= B ?G 4^ C u ^ ! F ) C @: ) # id
7 / ! ): $
#• 1Z @ #
1Z @ # t1 M7 )

%( ! S 8 !
δ bp
1, 05
d
% M7

N?
% M7 # 6 GdG? δ bp 0,9 8
?
δ b ≤ 00 Kbn

% M7 # 6 BE N %
?
δ b • 00 Kbn δ bp
0,9
GdSG

% M7 A7 BE N
δ bp
0,9
GdS

b# b# ; d # ƒ S N ^ GdE
f
6• ' : ): )Z @ #
' : 1Z @ φ) 1Z @ / / )
# ~ _ M7•
t: M7 ∏ % M7
b# *S
t: % M7 GdEN Gd3
b# GdEN SY8
• % i 6C "# p #
1Z 8 u 4^ %‚ @ φ

`# i 6C ( ): i 6C I [
TH
@ "# !
Gd?0 Gd0 dG ? B 3 E ?
# 6C
5 b &< 4^ %1

^
% M7 G ?G d ? d B GdEN GdN3 GdNG Gd33 Gd3
b# Gd ?0 d?G dGS GdS GdEB GdNS GdN3 GdN

• 8 C 4+ #

%u @ `# C 4+ @L B 0 3 E G
# ) ,
# n€

N
b &< 4^ @ dG GdE0 GdN0 GdN Gd3 Gd0

4^ C u ^ ! F & f= B ?G
1 p # A7 - $ %^ ! F # ): # &! @L ,
\ - & 6= &# & 7 7 / @/
( F ): \ ; F $8 - , @( F * ~Kb• ): \ ; F tK
~Kb • ^ ) p # 6D M7 ;\ f= B ?? † B ?B T ) p
# A7 - ;\ 6= 7 / @/

f= B? 4^ C u ^ ! F 7 / ! ): C 4+ #
%u 4^ `# C 4+ "# @L ): , p ?d0 Nd0 G
# n€
4^ @ GdS GdE
8 w , $ [ * %+ - > -' .5 \ GH $> ( [ - > -' Va
\ 5 % + GH -% +V+ % $> H A+ + @ 6 L % % V r
h $> .5 @ G
[ > L > g * %+ @ V< > K - > . . -s L * 6 ? 9 .U 5
. V+ . +
, D >8 % 7 C + V< > K + δ t @F ÷ @ > >

8 4 2 F / , \ -
tK H
H ˆ Kb
SN? GGG
tK \ ; F ~Kb •
4^ ) > # p # & ! 7 w
B ?? - , ^ ! F ~ n7•
1Z @ # A # € #
# K # K # @L &!

NB
% M7 # a ≤ Gd? N0G € Gd 3
1= Gd S
): M7 2 ~ n)T • % Gd ?0a Gd δ 67 N0G € Gd 3
1= Gd S
# 6 M7 a • Gd ? BSG € Gd3 % Gd ?0a Gd δ 67
1 = Gd?0 Gd0 GdS
& M7 \ ~ n)T • % a δ 67

@: @ 6D
I ;
b# ; d # N0G € Gd3
1= Gd S
ƒ l BGGGG € Gd3 % Gd?0a Gd δ 67
1 = Gd B Gd0
< ! % a fd

B? 8 - , @( F ): \ ; F # ): # M7 &! @L
M7 •6 d M7 A7 d # 6D p M7

€ # 8 - ] ,
( F C &/ * ~Kb• t \ ; F t ~Kb •
K # * ˆ 8*€‘7a 7
t* tK ˆ 8t€?dGa t

K # &! * ˆ 8* ‘7a 7
t* t ˆ 8t€ ;a t

f= B ?B b &< D 4^ ): 4^ p & - , @( F ):
\ ; F ^ ) p # 6D M7
1Z @ # € b &< "# D 4^ ): 4^ p \
€ : -
# "# ( F \ C t \
p &/
# 87 ”7 P7 Y7 8t Pt Yt
K # % M7 ): Π SEdE GdN • S GdE •
M7 A7 Π 3N GdE GdS •
σ 6 = N0Kb n ?

N0
b# ; f ˆ Π 3? GdE • ? d3 GdE •
SG
b# ƒ f ˆ Π 3 GdE • ? d3 GdE
0G
K # % M7 8# 6 ): Π B3 • GdN d S d0 GdE GdS
&! M7 A7 d f
ˆ ?0d
σ6 = N0Kb n ?

b# ; f ˆ Π ?EdN • GdB d? EE GdE GdN0


SG

B ?0 4^ C u @( F ): \ ; F & C @: )
# i 7 / ! ):
#• 1Z @ #
1Z @ # % M7 b#
4^ t* ˆ δ67 f
t* ˆ tt ˆ~ − •GdN0 t* ˆ tt ˆ~ − •Gd3
tt N0 SG

6• ' : ] #
€ : Πd Πd Π
H Π
1Z @ # % M7 b#
4^ ] , @( % M7 d •
C &/ φ* b# d Gd33
4^ ] , \ % M7 d
; F φt b# dG
•€ @ Q F "# p #
Q F p # aF 8l
4^ ] , @( C &/ K δ7 Gd3?

N3
4^ ] , \ ; F K δt GdNN
8 w , $ & ' > 6 ? .U I% *R
> @ Π> . > -s L + @ Π> 9> -s L
+ . ' . < @ ΠΠ > *7 . - s L + @ Π> *7 9-s L + .
' .< Πq *7 9-s > L + I% A &

B ?3 4^ C u ] , @( F ): \ ; F 7 / ! &
F p #
Q F p # aF 8l
4^ ] , @( C &/ K δ7 Gd3?
4^ ] , \ ; F K δt GdNN
8 w , $ K : p # @: 4 6C X @: ) ): @ Q F
? c! T 7 M7 "# 6C X 4# p # δ ˆ dG ÷ d?

8 & A7 &# 6= 5 - & 7 7 / @/

K N
8 C 4+ F M ): #$ A ; < \ @ A #
D−d
t= mm
2
€• c , p M X p #~ •
•c , @L 7 ~ •
B G E< + -# K M 6D p M M7 ', \ -
a ˆ 84 €Gd3 n)T
8T ) # A7 # &# 6=
%& - &I 4^ 84 7 / ! , 2 "# )Z @ # ):
^
€• c , p M ~ •
%&< 4^ 84 7 / ! ): , 2 )Z @ # ): # ;

NN
< ^
A # $@ A # @ ~ • M @L . - ): $
#• K 4#
6• a# T # 6D ! ): / /
f= ? ?N %&< 4^ 4^ 84 M
1Z @ #
% M7 b# K @
H
b 6C σ67 ~Kbn ?
• c! - f K @
#
%e 03 %e EB 8-
c 03 %e G0 c NG %e NG
EB G0 C
Gd SG Gd BG Gd G0 GdGE0 Gd?0G GdG 0G Gd G Gd?0G
Gd BG Gd G0 GdGSN GdG3 Gd SG Gd Gd?0G Gd SG
GdGS0 GdGNG GdG0? GdGB? Gd ?0 GdGN0 Gd NG Gd ?0

f= B ?E %&< 4^ 4^ 84 #
1Z @ #
% M7 b# K @
H
b 6C c! - f
#
%e 03 tC 8-
c 03 %e EB c NG %e NG
EB
Gd?G Gd 3 Gd ? Gd Gd?G Gd?G Gd
Gd 0 Gd ? GdSG Gd?0 Gd 0 Gd 0 Gd?0
Gd G GdGE GdG3 Gd 3 Gd G Gd G Gd 3

• %& F &\ 6D #& X 6D # &\ @L _ A M


6D # M d # # # #
A # & 6' ~ • M @L$
#• c! , ; 27 0

NE
6• %& F &\ X # 6D # p #
•b# 45 6! ~K # X M • @L & #
A # r~ • l M @L 6D ! p M
C 4+ F r X 6D p #
€ #$ A # # 6D p # M7 , \ - $
a ˆ 84 €GdN n)T
84 $ 4^ 7 / ! ): , 2 )Z @ # ): ^
~6y ? ?B• c^ ) p # 6D A7 - ;\ 6y ? ?3
8 9 @ A # $ A # @ ~ • l # 45 6! ~ #
• @L 4# # X M ): & #
• A # & 6' ~ • l # 4g ! , ;
27 ? a# # # 6D # # # 6'# I
• A # r~ • l # 4# 6 X
: # ): # @L 6D p # ! , ; 27
8 w , $[ * %7 . %+ -o * 6n + 6&# -o@ - ? '#
+% -)# % 5 ' u F@ ÷ F@O > > i.8
[ * %7 . %+ Y -o > < -5 A 6 * -o ]- ? '# +%
6 +. % !6< S % V G,

H 2 FG E< + -#
K M @L 6D # A7 - 8 9 @ A # @
M @L 4# ): # @L 4# M # X 6# @
6D ! 4^ / / F p M X # ): # 6D =
# #d M @L _ A # 45 6! 6D p # X #
): 4# T # # @ `#
K M @L 4# F &\ 6D #& X &\ ) C #
@L 4# M 6D # M d # X # 6'#
A # & 6' $ M @L , ; 27 0
•K M @L 4# F &\ • M @L 4# # # @ • M 4#

NS
_ # 45 6! 6D p # X M @L 4# T # ! @
A # r A l # @L , ; 27 B 1
!6 ∆3 ) M7 ∆0 ) # ) C 4# # 6D p
M C 4+ F r X ! p #
8 9 @ A # # 6D # A7 $ ~ &# 6= • •
A # @ # 45 6! ~ # • 4# # X Md ^
l #
A # & 6' $ K # 27 , ; ): !
6 &# d?0 Gd3 d 4# _ # d 6D # 6'#
A # r$ l # 4# 6 X :
# € # @L 6D ! # 27 , ; ? ): ! 6 U#Gd3 ÷ Gd ?
f= B ?S 4^ C u 9 @ A # 7 / ! ): C
: "# @L
%‚ 4^ `#
, # ): C 0 N G
: @L
4^ GdS GdE GdN0

I 3 J & & -S 67 +- # %^ ! F M ): # 6D #
\ ): # # 6D M7 , \ - J 6= 03 8T M ):
# 6D A7 - ;\ 6= 0E
B% J 67 / "/ T U-J # ( F M , c]
5 = ] L @ Q M ! # 8 ] 4h /
- ^ ) # ] , @( 7 ): @( # L ! &.
\ ; F ): 4 2 F # # A I - " ):
- , ) # 8 ] , \ tK ): H M
f= B ?S A # # @L 6D p # A7 - ' &/

EG
€ #
% M7 @: @ 6D I• •
c , p b# @: @
;
#€
% M7 % M7 f ≤ NG f ≤ NG
A # a n)T
G Gd 0 • Gd0 Gd? • Gd GdE0 • d Gd30 • dG
0 Gd 0 • Gd00 Gd?0 • Gd GdSG • dB GdNG • d
?G GdBG • Gd3G Gd G • Gd N Gd G • d0 GdEG • d
?0 GdB0 • Gd30 Gd ? • GdBG d • d3 GdE0 • d
G Gd0G • GdNG Gd 0 • GdB d? • dE GdS • dB
0 Gd00 • GdN0 Gd 0 • GdBN d?0 • dS GdS0 • dB0
BG Gd3G • GdEG GdBG •Gd0G d • ?dG dG • d0
0G Gd30 • GdE0 • dB • ?d d • d3
3G GdNG • GdS • d3 • ?dB d?0 • dE
NG GdEG • dG • dE • ?dN d 0 • ?dG
EG ): @ 5 GdSG • d? • ?dG • dG d0 • ?d?

f= B G 8 - , ^ ! F M ): # 6D # M ): #
M7
b# M7 @ b# # ):
): A7 #
€ #
8 - ^ ! F )T n7 w

C v D 0d 3 C v D 1d 2
K M v= v=
T 0d 4 S 0d5 t 0d 2 HB 0d9 T 0d125 S 0d 4 t 0d1 HB1d 3

C v D 0d 3 C v D 0d 2
€ # v= v=
T 0d 4 S 0d 65 t 0d 2 HB 0d9 T 0d 3 S 0d5 t 0d1 HB1d 3

E
f= B %&< 4^ 8)
K M 6D p M
1Z @ # 8 @C 8 @F7 € #
%&<4^ 8)
% M7 2 6 $
% M7 ƒ f 00 GdG??3 Gd?G Gd 0?
% M7 ( ! f BG • ? G GGG ?NGG S3G
% M7 6 & 6' f 00 •
?GGG EGG G
?30
% M7 A7 2 $
% M7 & d M7 & \ d M7
& \ @,7 \ d M7
@,7 \ d M7 \ @,7 \ d M7 NGG 0 0 G
& )#@# d M7 & @,7 \
)#@# f 00 • BG
% M7 # # d M7 4 @ # # d
M7 & d M7 &
@,7 \ d M7 & 4@ @,7 \ d
M7 & # # d M7 & BGG ?3G S 0
# # @,7 \ d M7 &
# # # d M7 & \
) 7 5&# f 00 • BG
% M7 6 / /d M7 6
GdE 0G SEG
# f 00 • BG
% M7 ) 7 5&# f ? G • ?BG 3dB Nd? 0d?0
% M7 A7 / /d M7 4 5 , d
M7 &ud M7 / d M7 0dN0 Bd?
7 f ? G • ?BG

E?
c # BE B
c &# A7 4@ d EG N?
™ @I 5& S3 E3
b# bf BG • ? G N GG 0BGG B0GG
b# ƒ f ?G • ?GG ? BGG SGG E GG
c # ! - & 6' 03 0G
c # ! - # ? ?0

8 - , @( *” ˆ *” ” ): *Yˆ *Y ”
” @: 4^ &.
*” €
8 - , \ tKˆ d € @: , M K #
?
6D p M A7 - d \ ; „ ] , \ 6= 0S
8 4 2 / F$K M ): # , \ -
tK
H\ˆ KŠ
SN0 GGG
tK \ ; F Kb d 4^ )T > # "# / / F

7B 8= O P
8 C 4+ F 7 # ~ • ' ?• & X 7 y y )
&/ # 7 # 8T C &! 7 # f~ • \ 7 5 &/ # 7 #
A # 7 # 6D # 7 # M7 & 6= 3B 8T
7 # 6D # 7 # A7 - ' & 6= 30 † 3S
f= B ? A # 7 # 6D # 7 # X A7
- $
1Z @ # b I , ϕG
H _ %I 85 , 3G B0 G 0
A7 9 ~Kbn ?
• 8 C 4+ F ~ •
• ? •E •0 •
-
E
A # &I ! &. a‘~ •
% 0K G δ bp 60
Gd?B•Gd 0 Gd?E•Gd?B GdBG•Gd3G GdNG• d G
δ bp ˆ3 •EG
Gd 3•Gd?B Gd S•Gd?E Gd?E•GdB? Gd0B•GdEG
δ bp ˆE • GG Gd ?•Gd E Gd 0•Gd?? Gd? •Gd ? Gd E•Gd0E
δ bp ˆ G • ?G GdGS•Gd B Gd ?•Gd E Gd N•Gd?0 Gd ?•GdBE
% M7
% 0K3 δ bp 60
Gd 0•Gd? Gd E•Gd?N Gd?0•Gd E GdBE•GdN?
δ bp ˆ3 •EG
Gd ?•Gd E Gd 0•Gd?? Gd E•Gd?3 Gd ?•GdBE
δ bp ˆE • GG Gd G•Gd Gd ?•Gd G Gd 0•Gd?? Gd?0•Gd E
δ bp ˆ G • ?G GdGN• dG GdGE•Gd ? Gd ?•Gd N Gd??•Gd N

fKE f 180 GdB3•GdNG Gd0?•GdEG GdNG• d? d?•?d?


HB=181-200 GdB?•Gd30 Gd0G•GdN0 Gd30• d d?•?dG
HB=201-220 Gd 3•Gd3G GdB0•GdNG Gd3G• dG dG• dE
HB=221-240 Gd G•GdBE Gd E•Gd3G Gd00•GdE GdS• d0
fK3 b# f 180 Gd G•GdB3 Gd 3•Gd0E Gd0?•GdEG GdS• d0
HB=181-200 Gd?E•GdB? Gd B•Gd0 GdBG•GdN0 GdE• d
HB=201-220 Gd?B•Gd E Gd G•GdBE GdBG•GdNG Gd • d
HB=221-240 Gd?G•Gd ? Gd?N•GdB? Gd 0•Gd00 Gd00•GdSG

8 w , $ \ !-? '# +% $ T 6B + * +% h V! 6! (l
.5 [ .\ 1+ +% * & 6 @ - ? '# +% % V J c -$ 6U ,F H
: ? '# +% k T * + $ > &# ) k 8 -? '# +% -5
A T * + $ > &# ) -5 . 6 l .Y 1+ ! > &# v U
v +% +%
, 4+ * (& 6\ -? '# +% % > 2 4 -? '# +% $ > o c
4w . 6 < S I% ) % 7 1+ > &#

f= B A # 7 # 7 M7 6D # 7 # X
A7 - $
b 6C δ bp ~Kbn ?

827 ! 6 NG EG SG

EB
A # a ~ n)T •
c! 27 0 GdEG • Gd0G dG † GdN d? † GdS
c! 27 3 Gd00 † GdBG Gd3G † GdB0 GdN † Gd00
c! 27 N Gd?0 † Gd?G Gd G † Gd?G Gd 0 † Gd?0
c! 27 E Gd 0 Gd 0 Gd? † Gd 0

8 w , $ : ? '# +% $ Q 6 ? % 6< * + 6 6 % > K 6J


1+ +% +# F@F > > M 9 $ ϕ 1 t GF M 6 > 8 > K 5 1+ c δ t F@W ÷
>> [ ϕ1t F
-? '# +% 9 B c ) 6

[ 6 > 8 V+ 6J 1+ +% +# 0,2 ÷ F@, > > ] 6 V9 +


> 6 * % > )

I 3 J # 7 # 6D # 7 # M7 , \ - $
C v .D qv .K u .K.kϕ
V= m / ph
T m .t xv .Sz yv .Z vn .B z
%& $ 8) @: D 4^ k
€ @: , # 7 # ~ •k
K @: 4^ ] = J "# )Z @ # k
K7 @: 4^ ] , 2 )Z @ # k
K ϕ @: 4^ X & = J "# I , ϕk
% @: i 6C # 7 # ~7 w •k
@: C 4+ 7 # ~ •k
a‘ @: @ A # &I ! &. ~ •k
” @: 4^ &. # 7 # k
f @: C &! 7 # ~ •
b,# &< "# 4^ ): 4^ p & - , ^ ! F 7 #
& f= B B•B 0

E0
f= B B b,# &< 4^ 8) & - , ^ !7 # $

% M7 6 b# ; b# ƒ
δ bp ˆN0 Kbn ? f ˆ SG f ˆ 0G

a‘ 8) a‘ 8) a‘ 8)
€# 7 # &/ • Gd 0dB •Gd 0 ?N •Gd BGd0
0,1 00dN Gd 0 0Nd3 Gd NNdG
€# 7 # &/ { BS { N? { 3Ed0
-
€# 7 # X • Gd B { B? • Gd 0NdB
0,1 BdN 0,1 SGd0
€# 7 # R# { 3Ed0 { N? { S0dE
@ C ): y
€# 7 # R# • Gd BEdB { E0 • Gd 3E
&. F7 0,1 N0d0 { { 0,1 0GdE
€# 7 # &_ { 0 { G { NB
): F -
€# 7 # < { 0 { { { {
' 6 ,
&T
€# 7 # <
' † &T @} { BB { { { {
†7 #

E3
8 w , $
x + \ . %* +# ? @ -? '# +% % 7 . + @ 9 \
-' @ 9 9 $ ϕt =F% . * 6 > 8 % 7
[ + S> -J L . * #$ J 6 V9 V< > K + +% & \ .
% V J h .5 * t F@W
, [ + * 9 \ -' & \ . % V J h .5
* t F@G
3 [ +# -5 .k l & \ . % V J h .5 * t F@G 6! .5 + 7
. .5 * t F@G 6! .5 + +
G [ +# I% 5 '# +% & \ . % V J h .5 * t @G
O y +# 7 J 9 \ -' ,÷GH 5 $> ( * - -? 1+ 9
k A F i x+ ] +#

f= B 0 b,# &< 4^ p & - , ^ !7 # $

1Z )
@
# € 7 # >) ) ;) a‘ Gd a‘•Gd ”)

% M7d * # X Gd?0 G? G G 0 G? GB G

# ): * # R# d 7 # G ?0 G? G G G G? GB G
A7 &_ ): F -
* # &/ d 7 # G B0 G G G G G? GB G
W ): 7 #
< '
b# * # X G? G 0 G G GB GB G
):

EN
* # R# G? G 0 G G0 GB GB G

* # &_ ): G? G 0 G G0 GB GB G?
F -
* # &/ d 7 # GN G ?0 G G0 a‘ G 0 a‘>0.1 G
): 7 # G? 5
< ' G3

f= B 3 b,# &< "# 4^

H _ @: # % M7 SG 8&a 8€ GGO P ?O
* E d *S

b,# &< G3 Gd0 Gd0

4^ µ , = J "# , 2 )Z @ # ^ ) ^
! F 7 # d A ; < 6D - $
σbp nµ
c^ ) # M7 µ ˆ 8µ ( )
σ ' bp

HB
c^ ) # # µ ˆ Cµ ( )
HB '

%& 8µ @: 4^ , # &< "# & 6= N


kσ bp @: 6C "# M7 : , # "# @2 5 )< ~ 6= N • @:
?
Kbn d
σš bp @: 6C "# M7 # ~Kbn ?
• f @: ! - "#
?
# d , # "# @2 5 )< ~ 6= N? • @: Kbn d fš @: !
?
- "# # # ~Kbn •d µ @: u 4^ - ! &< "#
7 # M7 2 d M7 6 ): M7 A7 6D d 7 #
M7 6D ?
EE
%^ ! F 7 # 6D # 7 # A7 - , \ -
C v .D qv .K u .K.kϕ
$V = m / ph
T m .t xv .Sz yv .Z vn .B z
( F 7 # $ A , \ - $
P = Cp.t xp .Sz yp .Z.B zp .D qp ~Kb•

%& 87 @: D 4^ d ` s T @ = , J & -
^ ! F
f= B N 4^ , # 8µ "# @ M7 #
6C σ bp ˆ N0Kbn ?
): # $

%I @ )Z @ 4^ 8µ ^ ) # 7 # M7
% M7 6 2 8 0,6 % dG
% M7 6 8 • Gd3 ‰ GdE
% M7 . † # GdN0
% M7 & GdE0
% M7 & † \ GdS
% M7 d M7 / / Gd3
b# ; f SG dG
b# ƒ f SG dG

f= B E b,# &< ϕ ] = J "# I , $


€ # 7 # b I , ϕ

SG 3G B0 G ?G

* # X GdS3 dGG dG3 d E d G


* # R# ? X ): 7 # dGG dG0 d G ?d? d N

ES
f= B S b,# &< "# 4^ 8) ): 4^ p & - , ^ ! F 7 #

€# 7 # b,# &< 8) ): u4^ p


#

K] f a‘

K8
~ • ~ • ~ • 8) >) ;) ) ) ‘
1Z @

Ks
* # X { { { 03 Gd? Gd? Gd GdB G Gd?
?
ˆ N0Kbn

* # R# ŒGdG3 SSG Gd ?
bp
7 # Gd GdB
% 0K3
σ

&_ ≥GdG3 SG0


* # R# { { ŒGd ? BG Gd ?
2 ): M7 A7

7 # Gd? Gd 0 GdB G G
X GdB
7 y ): ≥Gd ? NBG
7 #
≥ 0 2 SG Gd S
6

Œ? BB Gd E •GdG0
% 0K3

* # &/ Œ0 2 Gd 0 3 3 Gd N d Gd S Gd?E Gd
% M7

Œ? NGG Gd E GdGE

SG
% M7 6 * #
2 σ bp ˆ { { { B0

N0Kbn ? &. GdBB Gd N Gd?B Gd?3 Gd Gd G


)T
* # { { { ? B
: % 0K3
&.
% M7 2 * #
): M7 & { { { ?GG
\ σ bp ˆ &. Gd30 Gd0 Gd ? Gd?E Gd? Gd E

N0Kbn ? )T
* #
: { { {
&.
* # X { { {

b# ; fK3 Gd? S? Gd S
f SG
S
Gd? 0EE GdBN
Gd? EG Gd S
?d0 Gd? N0G GdBG GdBN
b# ƒ f * # X { { Gd E E?0 Gd
0G fKE Gd E 0NN Gd?? Gd Gd N Gd ? G Gd??

S?
f= B BG b &< µ

1Z @ #
€ # % M7 b#
7 # σ bp SG σ bp • SG Y b# &Ž
? ?
Kbn Kbn
v # ] , µ
* # X 75 190
1, 75
150
1, 75

σbp HB HB

* # R# 75
0 , 65

σbp

* # ' 75 75
1, 5
190
0 , 75

σbp σbp HB
&/
* # 75
0 ,8

σbp

c^ ) M7 8& † \ 75
Kµ =
σbp

f= BB b,# &< 4^ K $
%& 6C X K @ 7 )r 8 @ 7 )r -
- X 7 UŽ d Z7 cw

4^ K GdS GdE

f= B B? b,# &< "# 4^ 7 / ! ): _ A7 - $

1Z @ #
% M7 b#
€ # H _ A7 -
7 #
S
% 0K3 %0K G fK3 fKE
b,# &< 4^ K
* # X +l Gd30 GdNN
d7 # R# d GdN0 { {
7 # <
' &/ 7 #

f= BB b,# &< 4^ ϕ 7 / ! I , "# @ Q F #


7 # X $

b I , 0 G B0 3G SG
ϕ

4^ ϕ d3 d?E d GdE3

f= B BB b,# &< 4^ 87 ): 4^ p & - , @( F 7 # $

1Z
@ K] # 7 # 87 ;7 7 ‘7 >7
#

* # &/d 7 # d
7 # X F 3E GdE3 GdNB dGG • GdE3
^ ;-
* # X F
^ ;- 7 # R# ): E? d G GdEG GdS0 • d G
% M7 F -
SB
* #
S GdE3 GdNB dGG • GdE3
* # < ' @ ):
@} BN GdE3 GdNB dGG • GdE3
* # &/d 7 # d
b# 7 # X F BE GdE Gd30 dGG • GdE
^ ;-
* # X F
^ ;- 7 # R# ): N3 d B GdNG GdSG • d B
F -
8 w , $
x + \ 1+ ! $ 6h# l .5 * +# 9 ! 6 L Va GF > i M T
+% +# c .5 9 5 γ t z FF 6< S ! . %
. γ (I> V W :2 6 > 8 1+ c +% +# 6' 6U 5 ' % 7 ]
-0 L * + 7 + c -$ `G ÷ =F H @ * + 7 l @ 7
V] . + c F ÷ 3F H
? :0 .8 y* + ? *> > S J Va GH * + 7 @* +
6n + J Va `G H -0 * + +

f= B B0 4^ C u ) ): γ ] , 87 $
%^ ! F 0G N0 GG ?0 0G N0 ?GG ?0G
1~ n7•

K) GdSE GdS3 GdSB GdS? GdSG GdEE GdE0

b &-5 γG | 0 | G |0 G •0 • G • 0 • ?G

γ GdS dG d d? d dB d0 • d3

S0
8 4 2 > = 7 # , \ - $
P.V
Ne = (kw)
60.102
%& * @: @( F )T ~Kb• k 1 @: ^ ! F ~ n7 •
B8 J @ %H 1 Q R

A # $ I l @ A # &I ! &. a‘ &


6= E d F - ` )Z @ &T d ' ) ): ' `
Z d C # 7 ;w @ 2 "# R# # 4g 5 - ) , d
) ) ): C # ' ` Z K F ! 6 7 d C
# 7 ;w @ 2 ; < \ 6= EB
f= B B3 A # &I ! &. a‘ F 6D @ Q # R# $

?
%‚ 4^ `# 6 b 6C "# M7 F σb K n
&. "# ) BG Œ BG † 3G • 3G † EG
C # "# X A # &I ! &. # a‘ ~ •
F
• Gd 0 Gd ? † Gd? GdGS † Gd 0 GdG3 † Gd G

Gd 0 † GdG? Gd G † Gd E GdGN † Gd GdG0 † GdGS

Gd ? † GdGS GdGE † Gd ? GdG0 † GdG GdGB † GdGN

GdGS † GdG3 GdG3 † Gd ? GdGB † GdGN GdG † GdG3

Œ GdG3 GdGB † Gd G GdG † GdGN GdG? † GdG0

x + \- ? '# +% -5 * + $ > &# ) -5 A W *{


K F M7 # `% # M7 `› C # 7 ;w @ 2 "# R#

S3
#; < \ - $
ˆ 1 |? 2

& $ 1 ˆ 2 S1 (D − S1 )
%^ ! F $ I l ^ ! F & f= B BE %^ ! F : l
# < ! @ ™• †; ^ ) @ @ A G † BG
@, n 7 w
He 4 2 "# @ d ^ ! F 7 = = ; ^ d &< 4^ ^
! F 1 : 4 2 "# 7 M7 ; < \ - $
20001N
V= ~ n7 •
C.Sz 0 , 75 .h.t
%& @: 6 &. "# R# #~ • k H @: 4 2 ! 5
# k 8 @: 4^ 7 / ! )Z @ R# # ~ f= B BS • k a‘ @:
@ A # &I L &. ~ •k @: C # "# )Z @ F ~ C
# 7 ;w @ 2 "# R# #4 ) )Z @ F •~ • k @: C &!
R# #~ •
f= B BN %, , F ! 6 C 7 &T $

c a^ & ! 6
, 3 E G 0
&T K, "# 6 ~ •
)Z 6 6 6 6 6
@
~ •
G E ?G ?N G 3 G 3 BG B0 0G
? ?? ?B ? 3 B 3 B BE 0B 3G
0 ?E G BG B0 0B B0 0B 3G 3N N0
E 3 BS 0B 30 0B 30 N? E SG
?G N BG 0B 3G N? 3G N? EG SG GG
?? BG BB 0S 33 NS 33 NS EE SS G

SN
?0 BN 0 3S N0 S N0 ES G? B ?E
G 00 3G E SG G SG GE ?G 0 0G
0 3B NG S0 G0 ?3 G0 ?3 BG 0E N0
BG NB EG GE ?G BB ?G BB 0E EG ?GG
B0 E SG ? 0 3? 0 3? EG ?G? ??0
0G S? GG 0 0G EG 0G EG ?GG ?? ?0G
00 G G B 30 ES 30 ES ? G ?0N ?NG
3G G ?G 3? EG ? 3 NG ? 3 ?BG ?EG GG
NG ?E BG ES ? G ?0? ? G ?0? ?EG B 0G

EG BN 3G ? 3 ?BG ?EE ?BG ?EE ?G 3G BGG


SG 30 EG ?B ?NG ?B ?NG ?B 3G BGB B0G
GG EB ?GG ?NG GG 3G GG 3G BGG B0G 0GG
G ?G? ??G ?SN G S3 G S3 BBG BS0 00G
?G ??G ?BG ?B 3G B ? 3G B ? BEG 0BG 3GG
G ?BG ?3G 0G SG B3E SG B3E 0?G 0E0 30G
0G ?N3 GG BG0 B0G 0BG B0G 0BG 3GG 3N0 N0G

f= B BE %^ ! F F 6D @ Q # R#

1Z @ &. #
% M7 % M7 6 / /
%^ ! F 1~ n7 •

SE
% M7$ σbp ˆ G ÷ BG Kb ?3 † G E † ?G
n ? E † ?3 3† E

σbp ˆ BG ÷ 3G ″ 3 † ?? ?† 3

σbp ˆ 3G ÷ E0 ″
3† E ?† 3
B† 3 G† ?
% M7 w < ' C
† B E† G
″ ″ -
E† ? G
% M7 ): M7 6
G† E†S
/ /
3G • ?GG 3G † 3G
% M7 &u ): M7 <

b#
c # ): #

f= B BS %&< 4^ "# 4^ 8 & - , ^ ! "# @ Q # R# $

1Z @ # 4^ 8

% M7 ): M7 w σbp ˆ G ÷ BG Kb n ? E0

″ ″ σbp ˆ BG ÷ 3G ″ G
0G
″ ″ σbp ˆ3G ÷ E0 ″
N0
b#
0G
c # ): #

J @ *- S
%^ ! F # # 7 / ! ): )Z @ F d @: )
< ! @ & 6= EN ): F 6D @ Q # )T &
6= EE
SS
f= B 0G %^ ! F &I # #
1Z @ # %^ ! F 1~ n7 •

?
% M7 σbp BG Kb n G

% M7 σbp ˆ BG ÷ 0G Kb n ? ?0
?
c # σbp 3 Kb n

% M7 σbp ˆ 0G ÷ 3G Kb n ?

?
% M7 & † \ σbp < 45 Kb n
b# f 0G
? ?G
c # σbp G Kb n
c # σbp • 3

% M7 σbp ˆ 3G ÷ EG Kb n ?

% M7 & † \ σbp = 50 ÷ 80 Kb n ?

0
b# f ˆ 0G÷?GG
?
c # σbp > G Kb n

?
% M7 σ bp > EG Kb n
% M7 & † \ ): M7 / / σbp > EG Kb G
?
n
b# f •?GG

8 w , $ %^ ! F & 6= - ) @ Q F @: e M7 6
@ Q F 6D M7 &<4^ ^ ! F ] . ?0 ÷ BG ‰

GG
f= B0 %^ ! F ): @ A # & ! 7 w F 6D @ Q
# )T $

1Z @ F % M7 b# c c # c
#
%^ ! F
1~ n7 • 3 † ?G 0† ? 0† G 0 † BG ?0 † 0G
A
# 0G 90 110 140 200
7 w
a~ •

B 7 : J ) T U!
A # $ F &\ 6D # F &\ &I @ A
# @œ @ A F )œ 4# L œ &' @œ )<I ~@ A #
# • a^ œ &' ] A *& • w "# &\
# ( # M7 & 6= ES S d )œ 4# l #
A7 - & 6= F &\ 6-5 a ≤ ?d0 @œ 7 5
, k F &\ 6 aŒ ?d0 7 5 # @2 @œ 7 5 F
)œ • &\ T 7 5 # @2 @œ 7 5 ,
f= B 0? a^ @ F &\ &\ M ) M7d # d
, &\ ~ • f a a @
~ •
8 8
{ { 3 { GdN0
3dN { E• { dGG
EdS { ? { d?0 B
Gd { B •?? ?B• d0G B
? { { { dN0 0

G
Bd 3 { ?B• 3•0? ?dGG 3
Ed?G {
?? { { 03• GG ?d0G 3
B?d?N { 3•0? dGG 3
Gd { { { d0G N B
3d S { 03•BGG { d0G N B
B?d0 { { { Bd0G N B
BEd0? { { { 0dGG E B
03d3G { { { 0d0G E B
3Bd3E N?•3GG { { 3dGG S B

f= B0 a^ @ F &\ &\ O ) M7 d # d
c , F &\ 8 C 4+ f &. a^ )T a^ @ F
~ 2 O • 8F a~ • U\ &I 8F 8F
″ ~ •

G?
{ nE G 0E G SGN ?E B N
n 3 { G3 G0E ?B ?
nB { GN S ?NG ?G ?
{ nB{ nE G E03 N S B N
0n 3 { G E?B B E
nE { GS B 0EE 3
Nn 3 { GN E B B B
{ n?{NnE 3? E B B B N
n?{Sn 3 { ?00 ? N ? B
0nE { 33 ? GS 0
{ {3 BNS ? GS B N
nB { 0G3 ? 0BG G 0
NnE { 3NB ? E?? S 0 B
{ EEE N0 E 0 B
nE nB
{ ? 3G 3?S N 0 B
nE n?
d { ? 0?E B? 3 3 B
0nE nB
d { GBG 0 GEG 0 N B
NnE
d? { N3 0 3BB B0 N B
? nBd? n?
{ EG 3 0G B N B
? nBd { B 0? N ?0N 0 E B
nB n?
d { B 3EB NE 0 ?0 E B
nB
dB { 0 GN E B3N S B

f= B 0B 4^ @ F &\ F &\ ' #


i &\ f 1Z @ #
U. % M7 6 % M7 w d \7 b#
a~ • 8& ): & % # d
\ #

G
, F a^ @ F
&\
% % % %
{ { G{?E ? B 3 0 ?? G
{ G{ G{3G B 3 0 ?? G
{ 3{?G 3?{E? B B 3 0 ?? G
{ ??{?E E0{ 0 0 B 3 ? 0 ?G G
{ G{B? ?G{ 0G 3 B 3 ? 0 ?G G
??{?E BB{3G 00{ SG E B 3 ? 0 ?G G
G{B? 3?{E? S0{? G G B 3 ? 0 ?G G
BB{3G E0{ 0 ?BG{ GG ? B 3 ? 0 ?G G
3?{E? ?G{ N0 { 3 0 E ? 0 ?G G
E0{ 0 EG{? G { ?G N G N G 0
?G{ N0 ?BG{ GG { ?B ? 0 E 0 E
EG{? G { { ? ?N ?G G BG ?G
?BG{ GG { { BG ? 3 ?0 ? B0 ?G

f= B 00 &< 4^ & 6' "# @ A # # &I L &. = # 7 # &\


@ 7 # &\ # M7
f-5 &. 4~ • 827 , ;
A # a‘ n &.
G N0{ BG GG G G0
0G{? G GG 0 G G3
? 0G{B ?G G G? G GN

f= B 03 a^ @ F &\ 6D # A7 - F &\ M d &\ '


# 27 , ; N ! NžE M7 6 2 7 > M7
?
& \ σ 67ˆ00• E0 n
%, 2 f &. U.
5 9 "# 4~ • M ' #
M7 # a^ @ F

GB
% % %

00{N0 ? ? { {
E0 {
00{N0 ? ? ?
E0 B
00{N0 B B ? ?
E0 0 B
00{N0 0 0 ? B ?
E0 3 0
00{N0 3 3 ? 0
E0 N 3
00{N0 E { { N
E0 { S
00{N0 G { { E B
E0 { G
00{N0 { { G B
E0 { ?
00{N0 { { B
E0 { 0
8 w , $ + * \ -'
* L I ] + % ! -J L J c -$ FH 6! .5
I V 5 L . F| GH 6! .5 I V 5

G0
f= B 0N a^ @ F &. "# # &\ A7 - F &\ O
88YNd ! 27 NdE M7 8# 6 2 d M7 8& d M7 8& •
H \ σ bp = 55 ÷ 85 KG / mm 2

85 , "# 00• E0 00• E0 00• E0 00• E0 00• E0


M7 # N0 N0 N0 N0 N0
σ bp ( KG / mm2 )

a^ )T &I ? E 3 B ?
&.
a^ @ F ? B B 0 3 N E G
8F ? ?

8 ws$
x + * 9 \ A -'
[ L I % ! -J L J c FH 6! .5 I V 5 L . F} GH 6!
.5 I V 5
f= B 0E 4^ @ F &\ "# # &\ K8 F &\ 88YNd !
27NdE M7 8# 6 2 d M7 8& d 8& •H \
σ bp = 55 − 85 KG / mm 2

t "# ? B 0
&.
a^ @ F B N G 0 E
F ? 0 E G

8 ws$
, x + * 9 \ A -'
[ L I % ! -J L J c FH 6! .5 I V 5 L . F} GH
6! .5 I V 5
f= B 0S 4^ @ F &\ "# # &\ K8 )5, • @: ) ( !
F &\ 88YNd ! 27 NdE M7 8# 6 2 d M7
G3
8& d 8& •H \
85 , M7 f &\ 4~ •
# d0 ): ? B 3
σ bp ( KG / mm 2 ) a^ @ F
00 B 0 3 E
30 B 3 E E ?
N0 0 E G ? 3
E0 3 G ? 3 E

f= B 3G A # &I &\ "# F &\ > #


85 , "# M7 A # &I &. a”~ •
σ67ˆ00Kbn ?
k fˆ 0 • 3 • d?
σ67ˆ30Kbn ?
k fˆ NS• S? GdE• d?

σ67ˆN0Kbn ?
k fˆ? G•??G Gd3•GdE
GdB•Gd3
σ67ˆE0Kbn ?
k fˆ? 0•?0G
8 w , $: ? '# +% -5 A * T L I $ U l .Y . -?
'# +% k A T * L I $ U *7> l .Y A
[ L I Va + . V I @-? '# +% Va V 5 I ~- ? '# +% Z

K F &\ 6D 6! # 7 # &\ d @ A # &I &. a” ; <


\ 6 &\ ): 88Y "# # 7 # &\ b &< a” & 6= S?
K F &\ ' # 6D # 7 # R#d @ A # &I &. a” ;
< ] F &\ 88Y ? @2 6D GdG n&. d 88Y @2 6D
GdG3 n&. a^ @ F &\ & 6= ES•S @: - ) 88Y K F &\
88Y # 5 & 6= d 4^ @ F @2 I • : &' F ) ^ !
F B n7 K F &\ & d 4^ : &' @2 27 @I d0• dN0 @
I 3 J & J T K &\ I l ^ ! F # 5 NG n7
K F &\ &I ) # ): 7 = C ] 6D # '
^ ! F , \ - $
GN
πDf
v= ~ n7 •
1000TS
& € @: , # R# "# &\ F~ •
‡$ @: C &! &_ # ~ •d a @: 4^ 6 &\ F ~ •d % @:
# # d J A d %ˆGdG •GdGB7 7 / ! ): ):
# C "# +
8F &\ # 7 # &\ ): #& 4g . 4 2 ): , # $ ^ ! F
@ 2d 4 2 F @ 2 : C 7 M7
K F &\ 2 @ A # 6D 6: &\ &T ] l ^ !) ≤ B n7
8F &\ 2 @ A # 6D F &\ ( J ^ ! F )ˆ B• 3 n7
%^ ! F F &\ 6D # M7 , \ - & 6= SE
8T ) # K8 ', \ - & 6= GG
f= B3 ^ ! F F &\ 6D # M7

K] # H _ 1Z @ # € < 8 - ;
"# M7 &5 ! < !
/ / F ~ n7 •
%#& % M7 % M7 8B0 a @• & 53 d 1 , 2
v = 0 ,9 5 ,5
%#& I * E ‡&I‘ T S
a@ 20d 1, 2
v=
T 0 ,8 S 0 , 5
%#& I ( % M7 8B0 a @• & 41d 1, 2
v=
! ‡&I‘ T 0,9 S 0,5

%#& % M7 8B0 K\& 4 64d 1, 2


v=
T 0 , 9 S 55,5
b# ™ ; 8,5d 1, 2
v=
fˆ BG T 0, 6 S 0,5

f: &\ &T % M7 / % M7 8B0 a @• & 2,7d 1, 2


v=
/ 8€ ?GO ‡&I‘ T 0,5 S 0,5

GE
c F &\ % M7 % M7 8B0 a @• & 7,4d 1, 2
v=
( J * E ‡&I‘ T 0,5 S 51, 2

€# F v=
14,8
0 ,11 0 ,1
T S 0 ,8 S Z
6 &\ ≤
?
8F 6 v=
30
0 , 08 0, 6
T S 0, 25 S Z
•?
8F v=
41,8
0 ,13 0 , 45
T S 0,3 S Z

% M7 % M7 8B0 ™ ; v=
257
0, 6 0 , 65
T S .S Z
8F * E
€# 7 # &\ b# &Ž v=
24500
0,5
T .S 2 .S Z

~€ˆ G •

GS
f= B3 &< 4^ "# 4^ C u , = J "# 2 @ A )Z @ # ^ ! Fd \ ; F ):
4 2 I # F &\
K] # 4^ H _ M7 c c b# b#
C 8 G 8?G 8 0 8B0 BG8& ?G8&H # # ƒ fˆ ?G• fˆ ?G• fˆ ?G•
u BG BG BG
%#& I 1 GdN GdE GdS ? ? • • •
t d d • • GdN
HV GdS d GdE GdS • • d?
%#& I ( 1 GdN GdN GdN ? ? • • •
! t d0 d0 d d • • GdN
HV d0 GdS GdS • • d?
%#& I 1 GdN GdN GdN ? ? dN GdN Gd0
t dN d d d • • GdE Gd? d0
HV GdS d GdS GdS • • dB GdS GdN
f: &\ 1 Gd3 GdN GdN GdN ? ? dN • • •
&T t d d • • GdE
HV Gd3 GdN GdS GdS • • dB

G
c F &\ 1 Gd3 GdN GdE GdS ? ? dN • • •
( J t GdN GdE GdS d? d? • • GdE
HV GdB Gd3 GdS GdS dB • • dB
€# 7 # ) • • Gd0 GdN • • ?d0 • • •
&\ ~ •
8 4 2 / F &\ 6D > # A ; < \ -
0,5
SS Z V 0,8 Z
$K F &\ # $ H8ˆGdG E ( KW )
D 0, 7
1, 75
SS Z V 0 ,8 Z
K F &\ # $ H8ˆGdGGN? ( KW )
D 0,7
”$ 4^ @ Q F
8 w , $ ) C 6h# A l .5 ? L I Va -J L@
* L I Va > ! -J L %K L I $ _ \ ! ) 6 ? I%
l 6p % h .5 !
6h# f - - s L
2 ) C 6h# A l .5 & ? L I Va -J
L@* L I Va ! -J L %K L I $ _ \ ! ) L r6 ?
I% l 6p % h .5 ! Va • ! Y+ < +% 0 U
. < +% 1+ I I% ΓΟ Τ
) 6p % .5 6 T 1+ +% δt F@`> > } * δt F@3> > J
6 + !6< S *t @
3O t \ ; F ): 4 2 / F &\
K] # H _ 1Z € t \ ; F 8 4 2
"# @ # < &5 tK~Kb •
)Z @ !
#
%#& I % M7 % M7 a @• & M K = 0,41d 1,7 S 1,5 0,071d 1,9 S
Ne =
* E 8B0 ‡&I‘ T 0,9

K\& 4 M K = 0,22d 1,8 S 1,5 0,014d 2 S


Ne =
T 0 ,8
%#& I % M7 % M7 a @• & M K = 0,25d 2 S 1,5 0,033d 2, 2 S
Ne =
( ! * E 8B0 ‡&I‘ T 0,9

%#& I % M7 a @• & M K = 2,7 d 1, 4 S 1,5 0,0573d 1,6 S


Ne =
* E ‡&I‘ T 0,9

f: &\ % M7 a@ K\& 4 M K = 1,3d 1, 2 S 1,5 0,044d 1, 6 S 0,9


Ne =
T 0,6

?
&T * E
c F % M7 % M7 ™ ; M K = 4,5d 1,1 S 1,5 0,044d 1,3 S 0,3
Ne =
&\ ( J / / 8B0 T 0,5

8€ ?GO
€# 7 # % M7 % M7 a @• & M K = 4,6d 1,1 S 1,5 0,0111d 1,3 S 0,3
Ne =
&\ ~ • * E 8B0 ‡&I‘ T 0,5

B 78
a# _; < A 7 5 7 7 # ): X #
: 9 8 9 7 / ! ): ! , ; ): ! 6 6C X
#
H I : A = _ 6D C @ #
'@w # 9 ! / ] \ ` I 4# + $
- K, 7 l A7 ) , "# # ):
7 ) X 7 &I
- t 7 = = 6= A . 4 2 #
- t 7 = = . @: ) ) ! F ^
- HI 9 ` ) . d I l 7 l A7 ) C
4= ; 2 ( ): &' !7 &] # 9 q Z "#
1 H#
%& 4= ; 2 @ d L I I l > ?
H C : A = _ ' I 9 ` .
4 2 # d ), / @ C &/ , d C )< &,
O <

< T V O$

8 C # + ?GG

K = + 0GG

% @ 2 "# # ?0; ?0
c , @ 2 "# 7 # A # 3

8 4 2 ! 5 ~ “• NdE

4 2 η ˆ GdN0

( M @ 2 "# 5 2 # ~H•

€9 0GG

H # 0?GG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , & ! 7 w$

d0k Bd0k Sk ?Bk Gk Nd0k B3k 0Ek N3k S3k ?Gk 0Gk E k ? Gk G0k
EGk BEGk 3GGk N30k S3Gk ?GG

A # 9 ~ n) •

GdGE?k GdGEEk Gd k Gd k Gd ?k Gd k Gd Bk Gd 0 k Gd 3k Gd Ek Gd?Gk Gd? k


Gd?Bk Gd?0k Gd?Ek Gd k Gd k Gd 0k GdBGk GdB0k GdBEk Gd0Gk Gd00k Gd3Gk Gd30k
GdN k GdEGk GdS k GdS3k dGGk d k d? k d?Ed B3k d0S

A # # ~ n) •

GdG?Nk GdG?Sk GdG k GdG Ek GdGBGk GdGB?k GdGB3k GdG0Gk GdG0Bk GdG0Ek
GdG3Nk GdGN0k GdGNSk GdGE k GdGS?k Gd GGk Gd k Gd ?k Gd k Gd 0k Gd 3k Gd Nk
Gd Ek Gd?Gk Gd??k Gd? k Gd?Nk Gd Gk Gd ?k Gd k Gd Nk GdBGk GdB k GdBEk Gd0?

< T : O$#

8 C # + ?GG

K = + ~ • BGG

% @ 2 "# # ~ • ?0 ; ?0

8 4 2 ! 5 ~ “• G

4 2 η ˆ GdN0

( M @ 2 "# 5 2 # ~H•

B
€9 3GG

H # 00GG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , & ! 7 w ~) n7 •

?d0k 3k ?Gk ?0k d0k BGk 0Gk 3 k EGk GGk ?0k 3Gk ?GGk ?0Gk 0k
BGGk 0GGk 3 Gk N Gk EGGk GGGk ?0Gk 3GGk ?GGG

A # 9 ~ n7 •

GdGNGk GdGNBk GdGEBk GdGSNk Gd k Gd ?k Gd k Gd Bk Gd 0k Gd Nk Gd S0k


Gd? k Gd? k Gd?3k Gd?Ek Gd Gk Gd Bk Gd Sk GdB k GdBNk Gd0?k Gd3 k GdNGk GdNEk
GdENk GdS0k dGBk d Bk d? k dBk d03k dNBk dSk ?dGEk ?d?Ek ?dB?k ?dEk d ?k
dBEk dEk Bd 3

A # # ~ n) •

GdG 0k GdG Nk GdGB?k GdGBEk GdG00k GdG3Gk GdG30k GdGNk GdGNBk GdGEBk
GdGSNk Gd k Gd k Gd Bk Gd 0k Gd Nk Gd S0k Gd? k Gd? k Gd?3k Gd k Gd Bk Gd Sk
GdB k GdBNk Gd0?k Gd0Nk Gd3 k GdNk GdNEk GdENk GdS0k dGBk d Bk d?Bk dBk d03k
dNBk dSk ?dGE

< T O)V

8 C # + GG

K = + ~ • 0GGd GGG

% @ 2 "# # ~ • G; G

8 4 2 ! 5 ~ “• G

4 2 η GdN0

( M @ 2 "# 5 2 # ~H•

€9 0E G

H # E BG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , & ! 7 w$

0
Bd Ed ?Bd Gk Ek BEk 3Gk N0k S0k E k 0Gk SGk? Gk ?SGk EGk BN0k
3GGk N0G

A # 9 ~ n)T •

GdG0k Gd Nk Gd Sk Gd? k Gd?Bk Gd?Nk Gd k Gd k Gd Ek GdB?k GdBEk Gd0Bk Gd3k


Gd33k GdN0k GdEBk GdS3k dGNk d?Gk d k d0Gk dNk dSk ?d 0k ?dBk ?d30k

A # # ~ n)T •

GdG0k GdG00k GdG30k GdGNk GdGEk GdGSk Gd k Gd k Gd k Gd Bk Gd 3k Gd Ek


Gd?Gk Gd??k Gd?0k Gd?Ek Gd ?k Gd 3k GdBGk GdB0k Gd0Gk Gd03k Gd3Bk GdN?k GdE k
GdS
O$ < 7-

< 7- WV )O

: &' @ 2 "# 6: ~ • NGG

: &' @ 2 "# 6: ~ • N0G

8 4 2 ! 5 ~ Š• G

b ^ ! @: ) ~ C u ) 27• n7 • N

b @ A # # n %K G•0

0t 6: # N 3

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• d0

4 2 Gd30

8 C : @ 2 "# : &' 6: ~ •• 30G

a^ : &' M7 "# 6: & ! 7 w$

?d0k NdSk ?0k 3d0k 0?d0k N

A # "# "# 6: - ) ! : &' M7$ n %K

G †0

< 7- W)O

3
8 4 2 ! 5 ~ “• d0

4 2 Gd30

8 C : @ 2 "# : &' 6: ~ • 30G

a^ : &' M7 "# 6: & ! 7 w$

?d0k NdSk ?0k 3d0k 0?d0k N

A # "# 6: - ) ! : &' M7$ n %K

GdSNk dGGk d? k d3Nk ?dGGk ?d k ?d3Nd dGGk d

f= ^ ! & 6' "# : &' @: ) ): @( * #; J 6:


7 M7 6J + 2 "# d • ! C : : &' 6:
~ N 3•
O) <& -

<& - X $V $L

c , @L # @ 2 ~ • ?0

* &# "# &/ , ~ • ?0G

: &' @ 2 "# &/ , ~ • N0

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• ?dE

4 2 GdE

( C &/ @ 2 7 M7 6J 5 2 # "# ~H•


SGGG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , & ! 7 w ~) n7 •$

SSd0k 0k SGk ?3Nk EGk 0BGk 33Ek S0Gk 3G

A # n) $

Gd k Gd k Gd Nk Gd??k Gd?Ek Gd 3k GdBEk Gd3?k GdE

Nt # - ?O 0

N
c , @L # @ 2 ~ • 0

* &# "# &/ , ~ • GG

: &' @ 2 "# &/ , ~ • ??0

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• Bd0

4 2 GdE

( C &/ @ 2 7 M7 6J 5 2 # "# * #; ~H•


3GGG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , & ! 7 w ~) n7 •$

B?k 3Gk ENk ??k N k ?0Gk Ek BE?k 3S3k SN0k SGk ?GGG

A # n) $

Gd k Gd k Gd Nk Gd??k Gd?Ek Gd 3k Gd0k Gd3 k GdE?k dG0k dB

t \ ; F @ 2 ~H •$

E0k ?3Gk E3k 0k S0k 30k 0Gk ?

<& - X $V LY

c , @L # @ 2 ~ • 0G

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• N

4 2 GdE0

( C &/ @ 2 7 M7 6J 5 2 # "# ~H•


?0GGG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , & ! 7 w ~) n7 •$

?k BNk 3 k ESk ?0k E0k ?BGk 0 k 0GGk N 0k SS3k BGG

A # n) $

Gd ?k Gd Sk Gd?Ek GdBk Gd3?k GdSk d Nk dEk ?d3B

E
O < <

< < X O )

fC X @: ) "# 6: ~ • BGG; 3GG

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• G

4 2 GdN0

a^ )T > # "# &/ , )T n7 w

Gk Nd0k BNd0k 3Gk N0k Ek 0Gk SGk ? 0k GGk N0k BN0k 3GGk N0Gk
S0Gk EGk 0GG

A # ~ n7 •$

? k Gk Nk BNk 3Gk N0k S0k ?Gk 0Gk SGk ?BGk GGk NGk BNGk 3GGk
N0Gk ?GG

A # @ 2 7 M7 6J 5 2 # "# * #; ˆ
?GGGGH

< < X O $

fC X @: ) "# 6: ~ • ?G ; ?0G

A < ] @ 2 "# 6: ~ •

% \ 7 5 9 NGG

H # ?3G

c- NG

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• N G

4 2 GdN0

A # 7 M7 @ 2 ~H• 0GGG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , )T n7 w

S
Gk Nd0k BNd0k 3Gk N0k Ek 0Gk SGk ? 0k GGk N0k BN0k 3GGk N0Gk
S0Gk EGk 0GG

A # ~ n7 •$

Gk Nd0k BNd0k 3Gk N0k S0k Ek 0Gk SGk ? 0k GGk N0k BN0k 3GGk
N0Gk SGG

< < O Z$

8 4 2 d 4^ )T > # "# &/ , d@ A # ): @(


# 7 M7 ^ 4^ @ "# 3 ?
< I

8 C %^ !
: : &'
%^ ! :
( : 8
&' @: )
M &' ~ n 4 2
K] a^ 7 ~ n7 •
# @: A • ! 5
R# ) n7
~%2 • "# H~KŠ•
& A H r 2 @ r
2
2 2

t & ^ D
NO0 G G
?0G d0 ?0 B
NO0?G ?G
3GG d0 ?0 ?
N0 Gt G
EGG 0 ?G 0 ??d0

t & ^ -

NON G ?GG Nd0 3d0 ?? Gd0 B

?G
NON?G G ?0G Nd0 ?d3 ?0
?0
?G

< < & 0 L)$

c , : @ 2 "# 6 &. A F ~ • 0GG t


@ 2 "# 6 &. A F$

fD M7$ ˆ0

fD # $ ˆ3

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• ?dE

4 2 GdN

a^ )T > # "# &/ , ~) n7 •$

0Gk 3?k EGk Gk 0Ek ?GBk ?0G

A # - "# 6: # ~ # # 7 # • 7 7 #
)T ~ n) •$ Gd?0k Gd0k GdN0k dGk d?0k d0k dN0k ?k ?d?0k dG

A # , ~ n) •$ GdG3k Gd ?k Gd Ek Gd?Bk Gd k Gd 3k
GdB?k GdBEk Gd3k GdN?

< < [ L )$

t @ 2 A F ~ •E

8 C &! @ 2 "# ): 6 ~ • ?N0

c , @ 2 "# 6 &. A F ~ •

f &. y EGG

U. I β = 30 0 @: 0GG

U. I β = 60 0 @: SG

a^ )T > # "# &/ , ~) n7 •$ BNd0k 3Bk NSk SNk ?Nk 00k S?

?
K, @ 2 "# # 7 # @. &. ~ •

c , ?G

8 C : 0

b @ A # - ) )T > # "# 6: ~ n) •

8 C &/ Gd?0 • dG

% y - Gd0 † Gd

HD # Gd †

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ•?dE
O < < +\

< U2 [ L

c , : @ 2 "# 6 &. A F B0G

t @ 2 ~ •3

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ•?dE

4 2 Gd30

a^ : &' M7 "# # ;9 & ! 7 w $ ?0k N?k ?0 k 0S

A # )T - ) : &' M7 "# # ;9 ~ n
%K•$

Gd Nk Gd? k Gd?Bk Gd k Gd 0k GdBB

< 7- [ L$O

a^ &. "# 6 &. A F G • ?GG

t @ 2 ~ •E

8 C : @ 2 "# &. A F ~ • SG

8 C : : &' "# # 6: ~ • † GG

??
8 C : @ 2 "# 4 ' # "# 6 &. A
F ~ • G0

a^ : &' M7 & ! 7 w$

E0k SNk Gk ?0k B k 0Ek NNk SEk ?? k ?BNk ?N3k GSk BNk S k
BB?

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ•$

< < T LO)

f &\ @ 2 A F ~ •

c , @ 2 "# A 7 # ~ • G

8 C : @ 2 "# &\ A F ~ • 0G

8 4 2 ! 5 ~KŠ• ?dN

4 2 GdN0

a^ )T > # "# &/ , 7 # ~) n7 •$ 3Gk ??0k ?Gk B0G

a^ )T > # "# &/ , - ) ! )T > # "# &/


, # 7 # ~)T n )T # 7 # •

GdGGG?3k GdGGG?Sk GdGGG k GdGGG Nk GdGGGB?k GdGGGBNk GdGGG0 k


GdGGG0Ek GdGGG3k GdGGGNk GdGGGEk GdGGGSk GdGG k GdGG k GdGG k GdGG Bk
GdGG 3k GdGG Ek GdGG?k GdGG??k GdGG?0k GdGG?Ek GdGG k GdGG 0k GdGG Sk
GdGGBBk GdGG0 k GdGG03k GdGG3?k GdGG3Sk GdGGNk GdGGE k GdGGENk GdG k
GdG ?0k GdG S
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$ 4^ # : & 9 A7 ˆ d0
$ 4^ ] @ A C
? $ 4^ ] # l @: @( F .
$ 4^ ] @( F @ I / @: @( F . ˆ
B$ 4^ ] 4 @( i <
0$ 4^ ] 4( Z "# )< &, # > # "# 5 2 W7
X
t •t \ F
* • ( F
U @: 6 , # T @( W7
%& & A7 = # ; ] ! &I ' @/
W7 i A7 4g 6D i @( W7 @ 2 ; < \ ! & #
- &I

B0
1 ` h " 3 6Z ( ! ] ! :
] ;= &#d @( W7 A , \ = . @Z > #
! + : %& & A7 : ] , \ - $
M cl = W . f .l ≥ k .M l = p l .h X
M cl = W .l ≥ k .M l = p l .h

%& $
t@ \ ^ @Z > # > # + : 8 - !
l & A7 \ ^ @Z @: @( #4 4 &# 6J @( W7
8 - # 4h / @( W7 , @: I + ^ @Z
t@ @: \ + @Z @( F # ! : 7 #T = @( F
+ &#
b &< "# @( F * ): \ F t A ; < \ -
/ ] • \ 7 5 7 7 # d _ A &' 6: & &'
I @s F @
( W7 7 = &< )e# "d 7 5 C ): X ] A7 @s (
W7 > @ @: 5 2 W7 C ): + 6

* 5 d C "# @( W7 X 7 7 / ! ): )< &, X [ <


)< , d 7 / ! C "# @( F ): C "# &9 @ A 6= + 7
* 5 "# @( W7 X 7 I ) ) X [ < )< , ]
, 7 ;w @ 2d = 7 @( ): = 6 "# 7
W7 X 8 C "# @( W7 X 7 I e : ): X [ <
)<d l C ) @( F ): &9 @ A "# 7 ] @A )C @( ): 5 2
W7 2 r 9 k p ] 9 7 5 d C "# @( W7 )
) @( F ): &9 @ 9 7
c] X "# @( W7 X 7 7 = J ): )< &, 4# ! - )`
"# 7 ): @ 2 ]7 r 6< 6 W7 X p
# c] X "# @( W7 7 = D & # + A

B3
I ] 7 ;w "# X [ < )< , ) X @: ) "#
< )< ): I X # ] + &# \ @: @Z 7
VZ A ) *€ K
85 2 W7 X 7 A 9 7 = = _ I 5 6= _
I J7 &I R# @: W7 X 7 = ` w )< &, "# 7 d &# "
@( W7d @: 6 7 d 2 5 = d r 9 d + &#
6 d , ( _ ^ d 7 l A7 ) 7 5 7 7 # d #
W : d Z @A d # : d 5 = d o 6= > = d # : 1 2
) . 5 2 W7 +( A @ 9 @:$

K ^ 1 !
tr W7 ~ 5 X @I ! •
1, •d f @ • &( 7
Z A ) -0
c] = 6 X 9 + &( 7 4= ; 2 d &
] l C @ 5 2 4 @( # ] / ): 5 2 W7
5 2 4 @( 6D M7d , M tL @ 5 2 4 @( `
I &I 4h / d T r &# 6< Ž \ @: 2
"# I 7 - 7d 4 : ) = W 4- @# !
# d T &# A @( W7 @ ): i < d C =
# Xd + # . 4 2 # 8 9 5 2 4 @( 7 = . -
): > 4= ; 2 d . @( 4= ; 2 ): u I q Z

H 7 &I _ &' 6: = 5 &' : I :


@ u Z7 & , ] &# 5 2 4 @( 6D &\ ),
B 78Z D 6 $# 9 % , M 6 *- :
+Z A ) ^ 5 . * B> + .\ L
c+ @: ! 6! 7 Z > # &9 "# d - . ; < &(
7 )< &, "# / / F ): . ! - )` "# & > &' #

BN
d = 6= # d = 4# 4^ # d l &
I # d #d Md ^ @L 85 2 ] &# )< &, / / F
u D ; < ~ C u • )< &, "# / / F & # ):
A l J @ d 7 # d 6: d ;9 d ^ X :
• ' ^ 5 * %+
K # @L # d # 4h / 5 2
6 @F7 &I 7 ): 7 @F7 &I % •
\ I # / ] : ] l @ 6 I [ $
6 ^ < 6 u 4h / > # ! 6 d6 #
A l ) 7 ^ < @L u> # ! 6 d 4#
L 6 7 = # 6 ): / / Fd6 # # ^
6 # 2 7 M7 &w 6 r 7 #
# ] = # I
K # &I #d l 6 > # ] ^ 6< W 7
F @: @L 6 T #
• y U ^ * %+ ] @: 7 ^ < d 7 d
7 6= @Cd 7 &\ d 7 &/ & A # &. *
A 9 • ! ): , 2 I d I )C ! , ; ):
. 4 2 #
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7 # d 6: d d : %&I 7 # d 5 2 M7 ' (# \
# d Q H 5 2 M7 ' )/ ; < )< &,
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"# / F D = 6= ' 6C X \ I # d =
6 # # d . . 4 2 # % • ! ): C #
): 2 "# / : ] @(# 9 ] 4h / @ 5
2 M7 ' # 5 2 M7 ' 5 ,d M7 ' ‚ @( d
5 X 7 ^ A7 , M ): M7

BE
• Y % +% A 4h / & # X 7 y [
6= , )C = d !) # !4 4 8`
4 # ] ( 4 ! , p ] l 4 C
,
VZ A ) h 6
% • \ I # d ' - ] ! 7 + ! :
9 5 2 7 + !@ : d7 + ! < # 7 + !> # d &/
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] ! ' l ] 7 # &_ I d &_ ; F &I
7 # -
85 2 7 + !> # l ] # ( C 6C X
^ # ): )< &, # C X &I ! X &I C
2 ^ # ): 6C X # #
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@F7 6! 7 Z "# @I d = 6= ! - )` d +
A 6D # d 6D M7 2 : 6D ! 4^
A7 : W % + 7 = A ! , ; ):
: A7 @s

! !" # $ %

a# 4^ 7 M7 = A ; < \ I "#
I d > < )C C q Z ): @F7 & 7
H R# @: 7 = ; < @ A 4#

˜ a# 4^ X 7 M7

ε ≤ [ε ]ˆ 1 1
÷ δ
5 2

ε ˆ ε c2 + ε K2 + ε gd
2

BS
ˆ ε ? + ε ?K + ε ? + ε ? + ε ?@

δ≥ ∆? + ∆? + ∆? + ∆? + ε ? + ∆

%& $ δ @: 4# 7 M7 "# I = 6=
˜ a# 4^
%e C &I # $

[ε ] − ε
?
ε c.t .l ≤ ? ?
− ε? − ε? − ε@

%& $
ε • a# 4^ W7 X 7 d & & A7 : @( W7 ) )
7 5 , (
ε • a# 4^ [ < )< #
%& & A7 [ < )< &l ) [ , 4# 4^
[ ] 6D 8 & A7 ] &# # @# ]
' 4# 4 \ 45 X 7 l A7
ε • a# 4^ T $ ε ˆ β× N
β ˆ Gd ÷ Gd0
H • 4^ 4= 7 [ A # &I
ε • a# 4^ C u
B 7778! A .# $ X :
H+ # . 4 2 X ): A7 @s # # F 9
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8 ^ &I @I > # X g) 4= ; 2 ): @^
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5 = J "# > &' X 7 &I / ] ^ ) . 4 2
X ): . 4 2 #

0G
c] + # . 4 2 X 7 d l 5 2 4# $
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K # rd X # 5 = d ] l 5 2
X C 7 d # C $
• KW7 X @I / $ : @( 6D # d & C e7 : 4# 7
l C ~ ' ?•
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/ @I # 7 X #
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W7 @ I /

] • 85 2 W7 @( W7 4 4

] , 3 85 2 W7 @( W7
4 4 A C

0
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0•

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VZ A ) *€ +

8 C @ 5 2 W7 # $
• 85 2 W7 # 6D # ~ ' 3•
• 85 2 W7 # 6D M7
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4J )Z 2 q Z d @( @ A 4= ; 2 ) )
a# 4h / 7 / )/ ! I 7 = (
# 4# + $
• cX 7 ): ): @2 7 &# r
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H ` # &I A @X7 d @X7 @ C @ L : :
I &I ! 7 % # ] ( # &I ,
@: : 7 "# # 7 / "# I
K d 7 = ws C
+ # A # : d Z d , ^ 4- d # d 9 d 77
+ # . 4 2 @# ! t ^ A I &I d
7 = 6^ &, )< &, "# 5 2 & ! A7 @s ] !
@: ) "# + A7 @sd e#d > . y d ^ 4-

c? ? > < %& ] 1J , # #

f= )g @F7 ) " ' d X Fd , d


! @F7 M7d C q Z K 2 i ] "# #
F 9 A ] &I 6= )g f= )g @F7 A
;+ ( &I I F )g e & &# : d )g J & # #
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@: & 4 ^ ~)g 6D r•
%&' ( ;+ ( 6= )g @F7 ] 4# $

0
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i ] C :d C &! d C # •
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): = . (
% • \ , ( "# : 6= )g @F7 ]
A ;+ ( &I ‚ @ , A7 $ k ?$ k B$ k $? ) )
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Y de & - #
c # A l " &I # 6: d # -
X # ]; < )< &, 5 ^ `# # ):
/ / Fd W7 X # ] @L I
, ; # ~ # d Md #• %2 = 7 / l ] W7 X
p # d p Md p # A 9 @: / / 7 / "# # d ),
/ W7 # d . &# d W7 # &
K 2 "# # 6# 6! 7 Z 4# $
{ 85 2 < )< # % 5 2 : 7 = e0
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0B
{ % + ):
{ 85 2 / / F 6# 6 ): 7
{ 85 2 7 + !

] ,Oc K #
Y$ de <#

] ,`c * #

00
cX ] > # &9 "# 7 # 7 = @ + @:$
{ ( F @
{v &' F I ; @( @: ^ 6<
& ! = J ^ 2 @ A #
1' )Z 2 "# 7 # 7 = = 6= " - )` d X
6 @: + ): 85 2 W7 X 7 = &# " @( W7 X
# d " - )` ): , ( _ ^
K 2 / ] "# 6# 6! 7 Z 4# $
{ 85 2 < )< ): W7 X 7
{ 85 2 < )< &I /
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03
c A 6F X ) &/ , "# # ):
] ! > # & > &' # d + @: ] !
F 9 , 1' )Z > # + I 6= ) d# :
@( @ + ; 2 8 7 = + 6D > # \ &/
, "# K 2 ^ ) &/ , "# 7 = =
6= " - )` ): = 6= # : # d A 4F
%& ( 4= ; 2 ] / ] 4# k
{c # @F7 ) &/ , "# d #
] ! > # l &/ , "# d / / F ] !
< l 6: # d ), / + X7d p + @: @
) . &# 6< \
{c # @F7 &I 4^ & A "# 6. d #
] ! < l 6: # d T / / F @F7 &I &/
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] ! > # l ) &/ , "# @ &/

K 2 / ] "# @ 6! 7 Z $
{c # @F7 &I &/ , "# 6#
6! 7 Z $ 5 2 < )< 7 d 5 2 W7 X 7 d + d 6! 7 Z
< )< ): W7 X &I &/ , "# d 5 2 7 + !
{c # @F7 &I 4^ & A "# 6. 6!
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K= e > #

0N
1 # @L φ ? : ) 7 = = 6= !6 ): , @L
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@L & ?0 ): 7 = ) ) X 7 y < )< 1' # < )<
6D 7 •7 y ^ 6Z ( d l ^ &/ F
): @L & ?0 ^ ? 6Z ( ): ^ & ): @L φ ?)
^ ^ 6Z ( ; # > # ^ &/ F "#
$ B E 2 ' > f
• 1' ' ): , 5 ^ 7 - 7 #@
9 < )< 4# $
• t! 7 •@ l < )< X 7 • : 6F X ) 6C
X
• t! ^ &/ F &( 7 @I X 7 y d) ) X
7 y 7 •
• t! ^ & ) ) X 7 y ): &/ ^ ;- @
) ) ^ + = # @L ? ): ?0
• %2 = : C A #9 \ , =
I ] @: I4 I [ d
) ? @ F% J
> &#
t K # - K 0
• , @L # @ 2 @: $ 0 ~ •
• = e &/ , 6: $ NGG 4 ?G ~ •
• L8 t 4^ B
• K, 6: @: E G 4 ?BG ~ •
• 4 2 @: $ Ht#; ˆ Hc8 × η ˆ 3 × GdE ˆ BdE ~ Š•
N+%
tp # & ! : @ Q F M7 @ F $
ˆ d3 ~ • ˆ 0G ~ • @ ˆ 3G ~ •
U6 L
• 8 C 4+ F $ ˆ dE ~ •
• A # $ a ˆ Gd30 ~ n)T

0E
CV × D q
• 1Z ^ F $ V= × KV
T m ×t x × S y
&# 6= 0 •?S # $ 8) > ;
? dB Gd?0 Gd GdB Gd ?0
% i 9 & 6' "# # F $ % ˆ G0 ~7 w •
4^ K1 ˆ Kt1 × K›1 × K 1 ˆ

190
K MV =
HB
f ˆ SG ˆ• Kt1 ˆ
K›1 ˆ ~ 6= 0•3•
K1 ˆ ~ 6= 0• •
23,4 × 31,6 0, 25
ˆ• V= × 1 ≈ 34,7 ~ n7 •
105 0,125 ×1,8 0,1 × 0,65 0, 4
1000 × V 1000 × 34,7
ˆ• n= = ≈ 349,7 ~)n7 •
π×D 3,14 × 31.6
9 \ ˆ ?SE ~)n7 •

298 × 3,14 × 31,6


ˆ• Vtt = = 29,6 ~ n7 •
1000

y A @ < @ 6 B> 6K @ > %> I (%L . -0 *€


K # p # ; / ): ! \ ; F
t; ): ! @( F *G e &I ; ^ c] ^ @ = J "#
\ ; F I q Z "# #7 = ! \ #4
+ 6D ) \ ; F 1Z # 7 = &# ! @( p C e &I
; ^ %# ] l , &9 @ A "# ): @( F @: @( W7
X H &9 @ A "# ] 4 ) @( F
ˆ ?d3 € #7 = , : @( W7 @( F 4 &# ): @( W7 "#
&# $
%# 45 , @( $
%& -0 L
( F "# # ? : 7 $ tY ): @( C &/ *G

0S
| t \ Y F $ \ a% 8H8%t # $
t; ˆ G × 8 t × €> × ;
× a × K7
&# 6= 0• ?$ 8t ; >
GdGE0 GdN0 GdE •
&# 6= 0 • S $ K7 ˆ Gd3
ˆ• t; ˆ G × GdGE0 × d3G × dEGdN0 × Gd30GdE × Gd 3 ˆ NdE ~H •

| ( F $ *G ˆ G × 8* × € > × ;
× a × K*
&# 6= 0• ? $ 8* ; >

3G
? d0 d? GdB •
ˆ• *G ˆ G × ? d0 × dE d?
× Gd30GdB × Gd3 ˆ ?BG ~H•

B %, @( W7 $
cC ] 4( + 6D )C \ $
tY K [tta–
# $ tta ˆ • U ~ “ | *G •
& $ tY • t \ ; F
“ • ( W7
• • 4^ #4 $ • ˆ Gd ÷ Gd 0 # 9 • ˆ Gd 0
U • = e + @( W7 + p # U ˆ 0G
~ •
K• 4^ # : $ K ˆ KG K K ? K KB K 0 K3
KG • 4^ # : & 9 & A7 @2 KG ˆ d0
K • 4^ # : , & A7 . @( F ! „ 6
# i ~@ A C • K ˆ d?
K? • 4^ . @( F # T K? ˆ d?
K • 4^ ] @( F @ I / K ˆ d?
KB • 4^ ] 4# 4^ "# 5 2 W7 X KB ˆ d
K0 • 4^ ] - ! W7 Z @A K0 ˆ
K3 • 4^ ] \ @: > # &I 7 • K3 ˆ
ˆ• K ˆ d0 × d? × d? × d? × d × × ≈ dB
K ×M X 3,4 × 17,8.10 3
1Z # $W = − P0 = − 240 ≈ 7866 ~H•
f ×R 0,15 × 50

& I : # 4h / r W7 @ I ! ) ? r W7 ? 7 ,# )
i @( W7 ? 7 ,# @: “ ˆ NE33 ~H•
W 7866
ˆ• ( W7 r W7 &# @: $ “ ˆ “? ˆ = = 3393 ~H•
2 2

0 K ] &# ! 6C = 5 2 4 @( $
€l 5 2 W7 @ I ! 5 = d W7 X 6D ^ M7 &\ d ( W7
e &I ; ^ > # r W7

3
%e 45 5 2 W7 X # 7 5 &' + 6D "# 7 ,# r W7 $
“~ | ? • ˆv× ?

# $ ˆ 00 ~ •
? ˆB ~ •
3933 × ( 55 + 43)
ˆ• Q = ≈ 8964 ~H•
43
&# 6= $ v ˆ ES3B ~H• - ) 6 @ t 3

( )

' '

O : ' & J * & A )


%# l 7 ^ < ) + 6D 6 @ d ^ < )<
f @: @ 6 # # ): ! 6 @ ^ < 6 #
#
8 &_ ` › &I + ): ^ < ) 6: 6D
f @ d # ^
` d& 6\ & + ! % U '% 6n &

a# 4^ X $
1 1
ε gd = ε c2 + ε k2 + ε m2 + ε ct2 + ε dc2 ≤ [εgd ] = ÷ δ
5 2

3?
@2 [ε ] = 13 δ
gd

a &# ε ct = [ε gd ]2 − [ε c2 + ε k2 + ε m2 + ε dc2 ]
& $
ε • a# 4^ W7 X 7 d & & A7 : @( W7 )
) 7 5 , ( ˆ• ε ˆ G
ε • a# 4^ [ < )< #
%# 4# 4^ [ ε ˆ∆ #; ˆ Va • \
Va • a# 4^ &I "# @L < )< φ?0 3 ˆ φ?0|GdG
ˆ• Va ˆ GdG ~ •
\ • a# 4^ "# ^ < )< φ?0 0 ˆ φ?0•GdGGS
ˆ• \ ˆ • GdGGS
ˆ• ε ˆ ∆ #; ˆ Va • \ ˆ GdG?? ~ • ˆ ?? ~µ •
ε • a# 4^ T $ ε ˆ β× N
β ˆ Gd ÷ Gd0 ~ # 4h / ^ < )< •
ˆ• 9 ˆ Gd
H • 4^ 4= 7 [ A # &I ˆ 0 GGG ~ •
ˆ• ε ˆ 0,3× 5.000 = 21 ( µm) = 0,021 (mm)
ε • a# 4^ C u 2 ε ˆ E ~µ •

ε • a# 4^ X [ε ] = 13 δ
gd

δ• € 4# I @: 4# "# =
e + @^ < )< + @L # $ USG6GdG0 ~ •
ˆ• δ ˆ Gd ~ •
1
ˆ• ε ˆ × 0,1 = 0,33 (mm) = 33 ( µm)
3
ˆ• a# 4^ $
ε ct = [33]2 − [22 2 + 0 + 212 + 8 2 ] = 0,01 (mm)

Z g P &h 8 e #
%e 4# 4^ &I # I q Z "# $

3
• c! 4 4 `# X < )< ) [ GdG ~ •
• c! ) `# X 7 y < )< ) + ^
< )< [ GdG ~ •
• c! 4 4 `# ? ^ < )< [ GdG ~ •
• K, d ! "# ^ & F ) + @L # A ;
< ) 4# 4^ 7 M7 [ GdG ~ •
• %+ 6 7 = = 6= &l ) + @L # p
) 4# 4^ 7 M7 [ GdG ~ •

//8C - ' &' e & - F^ φ$a


4A 6n & 6K
8 A ^ 3 6Z ( $
|• ah / ?7 • ^ A 6Z (
|• ^ F ^ ? 6Z ( d
|• ^ & ^ 6Z A
}: ' & U ) '% 6n &
• + • w 6D #
• ! ^ &/ F
• ! ^ &
• ! 7 •7 y
• ! 6 @ W7 X
• # 7 `
• ! 7 6F 6 @
• ! W7

, -0 L
> &# t # ?O00
- 8 4 2 ! 5 H ˆ B 0 K“
- 4 2 η ˆGE
- a^ 27 ^ !$ ?
- * ) ^ ! B? ÷ ?GG )n7 w
+% ah / p # & ! :d &/d M7 $| p # ø?G

3B
ˆ?G kˆ03 ÷ ?0B d@ˆ ÷ 33
>
* ˆ G 87 € a dK7
%&# 6= 0{? a%8H $
87 ˆB?dN k > ˆ k ˆ GdE
ˆ• * ˆ G B?dN ?G G 0 G E ˆ0 E~H•

` -0 *€
• 1' @( W7 ) ) @( F * ): X [ , I # - $
Po.l.k
“ * @ ˆ• “ˆ
h
%& $ ˜ •* $@( F ~@( C &/ •
˜•@$ = e + p # ] @Z
@ ˆ EG
˜• $ = e + W7 ] @Z
ˆ GG
˜• $ 4^ # :
ˆ G ? B 0 3

$ 4^ # : & 9 A7 ˆ d0
$ 4^ ] @ A C ˆ
?$ 4^ ] # l @: @( F . ?ˆ d?

$ 4^ ] @( F @ I / @: @( F . ˆ

30
B $ 4^ ] 4 @( i < ˆ d ~)' W7
B

6D # •
0 $ 4^ ] 4( Z "# )< &, # > # "# 5 2
W7 X 0 ˆ d?
3 $ 4^ , M \ @: @Z 7 > # ] (# 3 ˆ d0
K ˆ d0 d? d d? d0 ˆBd?
5138.80.4,2
@( W7 “ ˆ = 17263 H
100
G [ B> + 6 V< A ) -0
ah / 5 2 W7 &\ ),

~N ?• , "# 6 @ \7 X $
W 17263
ˆ8 = 1 .4 = 20
δ 90
8ˆ B )' + @: &\ M
“$@( W7 I
δ $- 4 2 M d M ˆ~EG÷ GG•H

O• + ! U '%
•)' [ < )< &l ) ^ , I #
ε ˆG
•)' @( W7 7 5 ) ) 7 5 ,
( I # $ ε ˆG
•4# 4^ T $ ε ˆβ N

33
H$4^ @ A 7 A < )< && # `# ?
@ C u 5 2 "# Hˆ GGG
β $ W 4^ 7 / ! 2 < )< ): C 7
;w ) X 7 y [ ~6= 3? &# SG 4 , ):
•$ 9 β ˆGd?
ˆ• ε ˆ β N ˆGd? 1000 ˆ 3d µ ˆ GdGG3
1 0,037
•4# 4^ X $ ε ˆ .δ @ˆ = 0,0123 H
3 3
δ @$ 4# , #
•4# 4^ C u $ ε ˆ G µ ˆGdG
•4# 4^ $
ε ˆ ([ε ]
gd
2
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0 G BN |G N BS 0
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BG EG NN |G N SS BG
B? BG G B N |G N B S B?
B0 B G BB N |G N BB S B0
BE B3 G BN N |G N BN S BE
0G B0 BE G BS N |G N BS S 0G
0? BN 0G G 0 0 |G ?G 0 S? 0?
00 0 0 G 0B 0 |G ?G 0B S? 00
0E 0B 03 G 0N 0 |G ?G 0N S? 0E
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?GE
EG N0 NE G NS 0 |G ?G NS SG EG
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E0 EG E G EB |G ? EB 0G E0
EE E E3 G EN |G ? EN E0 EE
SG E0 EE G ES |G ? ES E0 SG
S? EN SG G S |G ? S E0 S?
S0 SG S G SB |G ? SB E0 S0
SE S S3 G SN |G ? SN E0 SE
GG S0 SE G SS |G ? SS E0 GG
G0 GG G G GB |G ? GB E G0
G G0 GE G GS |G ? GS E G
0 G G B |G ? BE 0
?G 0 3G S |G ? SE ?G
?0 ?G ? G ?B |G ?3 ?B E ?0
G ?0 ?E G ?S |G ?3 ?S E G
0 G G B |G ?3 BE 0
BG 0 3G S |G ?3 SE BG
B0 BG B G BB |G ?3 BB E B0
0G B0 BE G BS |G ?3 BS E 0G
00 0G 0 G 0B |G ?3 0B E 00
3G 00 0E G 0S |G ?3 0S E 3G
30 3G 3 G 3B |G ?3 3B E 30
NG 30 3E G 3S |G ?3 3S E NG
N0 NG N G NB |G ?3 NB E N0
EG N0 NE G NS |G ?3 NS E EG
E0 EG 3 G EB |G G EB E E0
SG E0 EE G ES |G G ES E SG
S0 SG S G SB |G G SB E S0
?GG SB SN G SS |G G SS E ?GG

?GS
? G ?GB ?GN G ?GS |G G ?GS E ? G
??G ? B ? NG ? S |G G ? SE ??G
?0G ?BB ?BN G ?BS |G G ?BS E ?0G
?EG ?NB ?NN G ?NS |G B ?NS E ?EG
GG ?SB ?SN G ?SS |G B ?SS E GG
?G B NG S |G B SE ?G
0G B? B G BS |G B BS E 0G
EG N? NN G NS ? |G E NB N0 EG
BGG S? SN G SS ? |G E SS N0 BGG
B?G B ? B NG B S? |G E B S N0 B?G
B0G BB? BBN G BBS ? |G E BBS N0 B3G
BEG BN? BNN G BNS ? |G E BNS N0 BEG
0GG BS? BSN G BSS ? |G E BSS N0 0GG
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? G
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t: 4# c GG G G GB G ? • •
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• GGG÷?GGG G0 G 0 G3 G 0 GN G 0
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• G•0G G 3•G E G N•G S G E• G •

? ?
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f= * 0 A : \ #

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.

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,
,

G 0G G GE • • • • G GE•G ? G GE • • •
3 EG G GE†G ? G ? • • • G ?0†G B G 0†G ?0 G GE†G ? • •
?G GG G 0•G B G •G ?0 G • • G •G 0 G •G 0 G 0•G ?0 • •
G 0G G 0• G G ?•G 0 G ?•G • • • G S• ? G 0•G N • •
BG ?GG • G ?0•G 3 G 0•G B • • • • G 3• G • •
0G ; 0G ?GG • • G E• G G N•G S G 0•G N • • • G S• G N•G S
0G ; 0G BGG • • G 3•G E G 0•G N G •G 0 • • G S• G N•G S G 0•G N
0G ; 0G 3GG • • G B•G 3 G •G 0 • • • G N•G S G 0•G N •
GG ; GG GG • • G• ? G S• G N•G S • • • 0 • ? G E• G
GG ; GG 3GG • • G E• G G N•G S G S•G • • • G S• G 3•G E

? B
f= * ?? A # @L &I # l &/ # # i Q
c , &/ #
F GG ?GG GG
#

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8 Il 4+

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1Z @

A # a~ n)•
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% M7 ): )Z w 6D

G G E• ? G N• G 0•G S G S• GdE• d? Gd3• dG dG• dB GdS• d Gd3• dG d • d0 GdE• d? GdN• dG


M7

0 • • • G 3• G Gd3• dG • GdN• d Gd3• dG Gd0• dE GdE• d? Gd3•GdS Gd3•GdS

?G • • • G 0•G E • • Gd3•GdE Gd0•GdE • GdN• dG Gd0•GdE Gd0•GdN

0 B• E • N • 0 0•? G dB• dE d?• d3 d3•?dG d0• dS d?• d3 d3•?dG dB• dE d • d3

G ?• 3 • 0 G S• • N d?• d3 dG• dB dB• dE d • dN dG• dB dB• dE d?• d3 d • dB


b#

0 G S• G S• ? • G• B dG• dB GdS• d GdE• d? d?• d0 dG• dB GdS• d? d • d0 GdS• d

?G • • • G E• ? GdE• d? GdE• d GdN• dG dG• dB GdE• d? GdN• dG GdS• d GdS• dB

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≤0 ≤E ≤ G ≤ ?

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7

c 8 C ?d •
≤? ≤? ?d •0 ≤? ?d •0 ≤0
7 7

, : BdG
* 5

A # ~ n)T •

dE • d • ?d? • d •
≤ GG • • •
?d0 ?dG dG ?d?
≤ BG
• GG d? • GdN • d? • GdE •
• • •
≤ BGG ?dG dB ?dG dB

dE • d • ?d0 • d3 • ?d0 • d3 •
≤ 0GG •
• BG dG ?dG d? ?d0 d? ?d0

≤ 3G • 0GG dE • d • dE • d? • dE • d? •

≤ 3GG ?d0 ?dG ?d0 ?d? ?d0 ?d?

dE • d • ?d0 • d3 • ?d0• dE ?dG •


≤ 3GG
• 3G dG ?dG d? ?d0 d0 ?d0 0dG
# +

≤ N0 • 3GG d? • d • ?dG • d • ?d? • d0 • dE •


≤ N0G ?dG ?dG ?dG ?d? dG ?d Bd0
8 ^

dE • d • ?d0 • d3 • dG • ?dG • ?d0 •


• N0 •
dG ?dG dG ?d0 BdG d0 0dG
W7
+

dE • d • ?d? • d •
^

≤ BG ≤ GG • • •
?d0 ?dG dG ?d?
t!
#

? 3
Œ GG d0 • d? • d0 • d? •
• • •
≤ BGG ?dG dE ?dG dE

dE • d • ?d0 • d3 • ?d0 • ?dG •


≤ 3GG •
dG ?dG d3 ?d0 BdG d0
• BG

≤ 3G • 3GG dE • d • ?dG • d0 • ?d? • d0 •



≤ N0G dG ?dG dG ?d0 BdG ?d0

dE • d • ?d0 • d3 • ?d0• ?dG • ?d0 •


≤ 0GG
dG ?dG d0 ?d0 BdG d0 0dG
• 3G

≤ N0 • N0G dE • d • d • dG • ?d • dE • dE •
≤ 3GG dG ?dG ?d? ?d? d0 dG Bd0

dE • d • ?d0 • d3 • dG • ?dG • dG •
• N0 •
dG ?dG d3 ?d0 BdG d0 0dG

d? • GdS • dE • d? •
• • • •
≤ GG ?dG dE ?d0 dG
8F7
• GG ?dG • d0 • ?dG • ?dG • ?d0 •
• • •
dG ?d0 dG d0 BdG

d •
%&I ≤ 0G • • • • • • •
d
&/
• 0 d • d0 •
; • • • • • •
≤ 0G dE ?d?

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% .8 @F } @G > > i.8

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g 6 l .Y ! > &# v +% v U !

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f= * ?B A # : 6 , ): 6: M7
σ bp 90 ÷ 79 KG / mm 2 6D # M7 ): # A7 -

8F ! 6 \ %^ ! F n7
f , p #
ΓOCT ?NES G • NG ≥NG
~ •
Ks A # ~ n)T •

Gd0 Gd G • Gd0? GdB0 • Gd00

c! 27 B dG GdBB • Gd3 Gd0N • Gd30

?dG Gd0N • Gd3S Gd3N • Gd3S

Gd0 Gd N • Gd?3 Gd? • Gd S

c! 27 0 dG Gd?? • Gd N Gd G • GdB3

?dG Gd G • Gd0? GdBB • Gd0B

Gd0 Gd • Gd B Gd • Gd??

c! 27 3 dG Gd B • Gd S Gd 3 • d G

?dG Gd 3 • Gd?0 Gd? • Gd E

8 w , $ U 7 9 5 ' V< & & \C $ ]- ? '# +% h .5


!* \ ! σ bp +

%e SG
? %e NG
σ bp ~Kbn • ≤ 0G %e 0G NG
SG
G

K GdN GdN0 d?0

? E
f= * ?0 A # : 6 , A7 w 6D
# M7 ): # A7 -

c! 6 \
A # a
ΓOCT ?NES • 0S f , p # ~ •
n)T
Ks

Gd0 GdB • Gd?G

c! 27 B dG Gd0 • GdB?

?dG Gd0

Gd0 Gd?N • Gd N

c! 27 0 dG GdB? • Gd??

?dG Gd0G • Gd N

Gd0 Gd N • GdGS

c! 27 3 dG Gd?? • Gd ?

?dG Gd N • Gd N

f= * ?3 A # F - ): &_ &I

1Z @ # $ % M7 ): )Z w 6D M7

σ67 Œ 0G σ67ˆ0G÷EG σ67•EG


f ≤ EG f • ES
# ~

? ? ?
Kbn Kbn Kbn
8 C &!

A #

? GdGN • GdGS GdG0 • GdGN GdGB • GdG3 G GS • G ? GdGN • Gd G

GdGS • Gd GdGN • GdGS GdG3 • GdGN Gd ? • Gd 0 Gd G • Gd ?

•B Gd • Gd GdGS • Gd GdGN • GdGS Gd 0 • Gd E Gd ? • Gd 0

? S
B•0 Gd • Gd 3 Gd • Gd GdGS • Gd Gd E • Gd?? Gd 0 • Gd E

0•N Gd 3 • Gd E Gd • Gd 0 Gd • Gd Gd?? • Gd?0 Gd E • Gd?G

N•E Gd E • Gd?? Gd 0• Gd E Gd • Gd 0 Gd?0 • Gd G Gd?G • Gd?0

E• G Gd?? • Gd?0 Gd E • Gd?G Gd 0 • Gd N Gd G • Gd 0 Gd?0 • Gd?E

G• ? Gd?0 • Gd G Gd?G • Gd?0 Gd N • Gd?G Gd 0 • GdBG Gd?E • Gd ?

?• 0 Gd G • Gd 0 Gd?0 • Gd?E Gd?G • Gd?? GdBG • GdB0 Gd ? • Gd E

?G Gd 0 • GdB Gd • Gd 0 Gd?0 • Gd Gd00 • GdNG Gd00 • GdN

G GdB • Gd0 Gd 0 • GdB0 Gd • GdB GdN • GdS GdN • GdS

8 w , $ x & \- ? '# +% -5 A T * 6 * -5 . .Q -
> <>

[ +% U . % J h> & J F@G V& * 1+ ]


-? '# +% k A \ ! % % V F } ,FH

f= * ?N A # < ' &I ( !

c , # ~ •
#

G 0 ?G ?0 G BG 0G 3G • GG
8 C &!
~

A # ~ n)T •

GdG? • GdG? • GdG • GdGB •


E
GdGB GdG3 GdGE GdGS

G G 0• GdG? • GdG • GdGB •


G
GdG 0 GdG0? GdGN GdGS

GdG • GdG? • GdG? • GdG 0• ?dGB •


0
GdG?N GdGB GdG00 GdGE GdGE

GdG • GdG0 • GdG? • GdG • GdG 0 GdGB •


?G
GdG?B GdG 0 GdG0 GdG3 • GdGN GdGE

??G
GdGGE • GdG0 • GdG? • GdG?0• GdG • GdGB •
?0
GdG? GdG GdGB0 GdG0 GdG30 GdGE

GdG?0
GdGGE • GdG • GdG? • GdG?0• GdG 0 •
G •
GdG? GdG?N GdGB GdG00 GdGN
GdG00

GdG 0
GdG • GdG? • GdG?0 GdG •
0 • •
GdG?0 GdGB0 • GdG0 GdG30
GdG 0

GdG • GdG 0 GdG?• GdG? • GdG •


BG •
GdG? • GdG GdGB GdGB0 GdG3

GdG • GdG 0• GdG? • GdG?0 •


0G • •
GdG GdG 0 GdGB GdG00

GdG • GdG 0 • GdG? • GdG?0 •


3G • •
GdG?0 GdG GdG N GdG0

GdG 0 GdG? • GdG?0 • GdG?0 •


NG • • • •
• GdG GdGB GdG0 GdG0

GdG • GdG 0 GdG? • GdG?0 •


SG • • • •
GdG • GdGB GdG0 GdG0

GdG 0
GdG • GdG? • GdG?0 •
GG • • • • •
GdG?0 GdGB GdG0
GdG 0

8 w , $
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: ? '# +% % V A l .5 +% 9 9 5 v t F ÷ GF@ U v t F ÷ GF
mc -$ ,FH @ v t FF c GFH % .5 \ ! % V

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f= * ?E A # # &I ( ! ! &/ C #

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#


#

a^ # ≤
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2

? B 0 3 N Z
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A # a n)T

c

? Gd?0• Gd? • Gd E• Gd 0•
% Gd?•Gd • • •
Gd N Gd 0 Gd?N Gd??

Gd?0• Gd??• Gd 3• Gd ?•
≤ ?0 • B Gd?•Gd • • •
Gd N Gd Gd?B Gd E

Gd E• Gd 0• Gd ?• Gd G•
3 Gd?•Gd • • •
Gd?N Gd?? Gd E Gd 0

Gd • GdB?• Gd N• Gd B• Gd?0• Gd?G• Gd E•


•?0 ? Gd •GdB0 Gd?N•GdB
Gd? Gd3 Gd00 Gd0G Gd 3 Gd G Gd?N

???
GdB?• Gd N• Gd B• Gd?0• Gd E•
0 Gd?•Gd Gd?•Gd Gd?•Gd
Gd3 Gd00 Gd0G Gd N Gd?N

Gd 0• Gd ?• Gd G• Gd?0• Gd N• Gd 0• Gd 0•
≥S Gd?•Gd
Gd0? GdBE GdB0 Gd N Gd?0 Gd?? Gd??

Gd00• Gd 0• Gd?0•
? GdE• d? GdN• dG GdB•Gd3 Gd •GdB0 Gd?•Gd
GdE? Gd0? Gd N

GdBN• GdB0• Gd?N• Gd?0•


•?0 0 Gd0•GdN0 GdB•Gd3 Gd •GdB0 Gd?•Gd
GdNG Gd3N GdBG Gd N

Gd N• Gd 0• Gd N• Gd 0• Gd 0•
≥S GdB•Gd3 Gd •GdB0 Gd?•Gd
Gd00 Gd0? Gd?0 Gd?? Gd??

f
• • • Gd?•Gd Gd?•Gd Gd?•Gd • • • • •

??
f• + ,- . /0 . 1

8 C 4+ F X C &! # f≤~ •
%, 2 #
# ? 0 E G 0 ?0

A # ~ n)T •

% Gd0 Gd 0 • •
€# ;M X Gd? Gd ?
f GdB Gd • •

€# ): % • Gd0 GdB Gd 0 •
Gd?
): &_ f • GdB Gd 0 Gd •

% Gd0 Gd 0
€# < ' Gd?0 Gd? Gd 0 Gd ?
f GdB Gd

8 w , $ U + 7 @ + 9 & \ * & + m h -? '# +% % V .5 ! % V

??B
f * ? S$ 4 # M7d #

)Z @ #

% M7d f b# d f
1Z @ #
?0 03 EN ? 0 ?BE ?NE ?G 3G EG ??G ?EG

4^ C u

% M7 d? d dG0 dG GdS GdE dB d d? d dG

% 0K3 GdE GdN0 GdN Gd30 Gd3 GdB0 • • • • •

% BKE GdS GdEN GdE GdN? Gd33 Gd00 • • • • •

%0K G dG dG GdS GdE GdN? Gd30 • • • • •

fKEd fK3 d? d dG0 dG GdS GdE dB d d? d dG

f= * ? G A # :d X : &I ( ! C
&/

1Z @ #
% M7 b# ƒ
X 7

€ 8 C 4+ F ~ •≤
#
7 7 W7

4# ? 0 3 E ? 0
2

~ •
a^ #
%,

A # a n)T
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??0
K GdE GdN0 Gd30 Gd3 • • GdE0 GdE GdN0 Gd00
X

Gd? •
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X7

Gd
t+

Gd? •
GdE GdN Gd00 Gd 0 Gd G Gd?G • • • •
• Gd 0
? Gd •
%

GdB? Gd N Gd 0 Gd?N Gd?B Gd E • • • •


Gd?
Gd? •
Gd0 GdBN GdB0 Gd 0 Gd?N Gd?0 • • • •
• Gd 0
+

0 Gd •
8 ^

GdB? Gd N Gd 0 Gd?0 Gd? Gd? • • • •


Gd?
Gd? •
GdB Gd N Gd 0 • • • •
3• Gd 0
Gd?0 Gd N Gd 0
S Gd •
Gd 0 GdB? Gd G • • • •
Gd?
Gd •
# X7

Gd0 Gd3 • • • • • Gd30 • • •

Gd?•
+

Gd GdB • • • • • GdB0 • • •
f
^

Gd •
Gd 0 • • • • • Gd E • • •
t!

Gd 0
8 w , $: ? '# +% % V % 6! .5 + ˆ%@ % $ * + + (&>
mc \ ! 69 -$ F ÷ GH

??3
f= * ? %&<4^ @( F *‘ 7 M7 \ ! 6C = A7 -
A7
8 C 4+ F
•≤
=

? B 3 E ? 0
~
:
-

%&<4^ *‘ 7 M7 ~Kb•
8 C

≤B SG E0 ?NG 3G 0BG N?G GEG 0G


≤3 GG E0 0EG NNG 0G 0BG ? GG ?EEG
≤E G 33G SSG ?G SNG ?3 G S0G ?SBG
≤ G 0GG SS0 0GG ?GGG ?SEG BGGG 0S3G NB0G
8 w , $
\ ! yw % V %l .5 [ W@ [ OM U T [ G[ F@ G[ O
> ( ! FH
[ 9 m .+ 6' > \ ! yw % V GH

f= * ? ? %&<4^ @ A # 7 M7 \ ! 6C = 4-
1Z @ #
b I % M7
b#
, ϕ0 σ bp ≤ 80 KG / mm 2 σ bp > 80 KG / mm 2

A # ~ n)T •
G GdBG • Gd3G Gd G • GdBG Gd3G • GdEG
B0 Gd G • GdBG Gd?0 • Gd?0 GdBG • Gd3G
3G Gd?0 • Gd 0 Gd?G • Gd?0 Gd 0 •Gd0G
SG Gd?G • Gd G Gd 0 • Gd?G Gd G • GdBG

??N
f= * ? 8 - , @( F # @ Q F 7 / ): ϕ1 = 0 0

( F 8 -
x pz y pz n pz
% 7 ~ y - • *‘ Pz = C pz .t .S .V .k µ pz ( KG )
x py y py n py
, * Py = C py .t .S .V .k µ py ( KG )
x px y px n px
( # ~ &/ • *; Px = C px .t .S .V .k µ px ( KG )

f= * ? B 4^ ): 4^ p & 6= E
4^ ): 4^ p & - l
1Z @ #
( 7 ( , ( #
7‘ ;7‘ 7‘ 7‘ 7 ;7 7 7 7; ;7; 7; 7;

% M7 2 • • •
BE GdS GdS 0 Gd3 GdE ?B dG0 Gd?
σ bp = 75 KG / mm 2
Gd 0 Gd GdB
b# ;
? dG GdE0 G 3 Gd3 Gd0 G ?B dG0 Gd? G
f ˆ SG

f= * ? 0 4^ C u , @( F 7 / ! )Z @ #

4^
1Z @ #
( 7 ( , ( #
0 , 35 1, 35
σ bp σ bp σ bp
% M7 k µpz = k µpy = k µpü =
75 75 75
0, 4 0 ,8
HB HB HB
b# k µpz = k µpz = k µpx =
190 190 190

f= * ? 38 - , ^ ! F # 6D # A7 -
€ # 8 -
Cv
% :d &! VT = m/ p
T .tvx .Svy
m

??E
Cv
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T .S vy
m

4^ ): 4^ p
1Z @ # 1Z @ 4^ ): 4^ p
€ #
7 F 8) ;) )

% :$
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a ≤ GdN0 n)T
BG Gd 0 GdB0 Gd?G
a • GdN0
% &! $ a ≤ GdE0 B Gd 0 Gd 0 Gd?G
a • GdN0 GB Gd 0 GdB0 Gd?G
% M7 2
% 6D # % 0K3
σ bp = 75 KG / mm 2
@ Q F 7 / ϕ ˆ GG
≥a ?S? Gd G Gd 0 GdE
Œa ?S? Gd 0 GdG Gd E
% &_ 3 d0 • GdE Gd?
8F - N? • • •
% : ?3? Gd? GdB Gd?
% &! ? 3 Gd? GdB Gd?
% 6D #
b# ; @ Q F 7 / ϕ ˆ GG
fK3
f SG ≤a ?B GdB Gd? Gd?E
•a ? B Gd? GdB Gd?E
% &_ 0Nd0 • GdB Gd?
8F - SEd0 • GdB Gd?

??S
f= * ? N8 - , 4^ k µv # 6D # A7 -
1Z @ # % M7 b#
75 190
1, 25

8 - k mv = k µv =
σ bp HB

f= * ? E 4^ C u ^ ! F # 6D # A7
-
P ^
=
J 4^ C u
^
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%& %& K )r 1r - ,
8 )r -
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% M7$
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-
-

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b# $
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I I ϕ
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4^$ d00 d d GdS? GdE3 GdE
% M7
• • d? GdEE GdE GdN
b#
€ € X tX &
8 ) + •
X & 7 y
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8 w , D ! .5 +% 9 - s L * 9 ! 6! .5 ϕ

f= * ? S A # 6:
b 8 C 4+ F ~ •
1Z @
I ≤0 ≤ ? ≤ ?G ≤ G • G
#
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G BdG • 3dG BdG • 0d0 d0 • 0dG ?d0 •BdG •
b# B0 • N0 dG • Bd0 dG • BdG ?d0 • d0 dE • ?dE dB • ?dG
SG dG • Bd0 ?d0 • d0 ?• dB • ?d d? • dE
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8 C : : &' # ~ •
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f:
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#
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?
f= * ? ? %&< 4^ 81 # M7 &u): M7 <

€ : p #
H @ t: M7 t:
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&u NBG 8
% M7 8& E % J ! ˆ 0G 8 d0N d?0
< ): i < ˆ N0G 8 d S ?dS
Bd 0 dNN
?d00 ?d ?

f= * ? ?? 8 - , @( F \ ; F # M7
&u ): M7 < 6D p # M7

1Z @ # 8 - , b &< "#
4^
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&u &# 8*€aGdN 8t€?dGaGdN
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8& BH Bf ?t ˆ N0G 8 ?B0 0B

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p # A7
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€ % M7 2 # 6 # d M7 b#
# & d M7 & \ @: )
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~Kb • ~Kb •
K # *Yˆ tK ˆ €?a δ76 GdN *Yˆ t Kˆ dB €?aGdSB
&! ?€ dBaGdE δ67 GdN0 Nd?€GdSa fGd3 fGd3

tK ˆ G€GdN0 GdEaGdS0 δ67 Gd N0 tK ˆ


G€GdN0 GdEaGdS0 δ67 GdN0
8 w , $ ! ! 6\ % l 6B > > I (%L 6p 6U > l 6 T 1+

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8 ! #
1Z @ # %^ ! F 1 A # a ~ n7 w •
~ n7 w • #
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%I;•• •@ BG • 3G GdGN † GdG?

f= * ? ?0 %&< 4^ 4^ 84
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% M7 b# K @
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b 6C σ67 ~Kbn ?
• c! - f K @
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f= * ? ?3 %&< 4^ 4^ 84 #
1Z @ #
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b 6C c! - f
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EB
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? B
f= * ? ?N 4^ C u 9 @ A # 7 / ! ):
C : "# @L
%‚ 4^ `#
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f= * ? ?E A # M @L 6D # M A7 -
K M
% M7 @: @ 6D I• •
c , # b# @: @
;
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A # a n)T
c 0 GdBG • Gd00 Gd?G • GdBG Gd3G • GdSG GdB0 • Gd30
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NG GdS • dB • d0 • ?d? d • d3
EG ): @ 5 dG • d0 • d3 • ?dB d • dN

? 0
f= * ? ?S A # # @L 6D p # A7 - '
&/
€ #
c , p % M7 @: @ 6D I •; b# @: @
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A # a n)T
G Gd 0 • Gd0 Gd? • Gd GdE0 • d Gd30 • dG
0 Gd 0 • Gd00 Gd?0 • Gd GdSG • dB GdNG • d
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?0 GdB0 • Gd30 Gd ? • GdBG d • d3 GdE0 • d
G Gd0G • GdNG Gd 0 • GdB d? • dE GdS • dB
0 Gd00 • GdN0 Gd 0 • GdBN d?0 • dS GdS0 • dB0
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0G Gd30 • GdE0 • dB • ?d d • d3
3G GdNG • GdS • d3 • ?dB d?0 • dE
NG GdEG • dG • dE • ?dN d 0 • ?dG
EG ): @ 5 GdSG • d? • ?dG • dG d0 • ?d?

f= * ? G8 - , ^ ! F M ): # 6D # M ):
# M7
b# M7 @ b# # ):
): A7 #
€ #
8 - ^ ! F )T n7 w

C v D 0d 3 C v D 1d 2
K M v= v=
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C v D 0d 3 C v D 0d 2
€ # v= v=
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? 3
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K M 6D p M
1Z @ # 8 @C 8 @F7 € #
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% M7 ( ! f BG • ? G GGG ?NGG S3G
% M7 6 & 6' f 00 •
?GGG EGG G
?30
% M7 A7 2 $
% M7 & d M7 & \ d M7
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)#@# f 00 • BG
% M7 # # d M7 4 @ # # d
M7 & d M7 &
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% M7 6 / /d M7 6
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c # ! - & 6' 03 0G
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f= * ? ?8 - ] , ^ ! F M ): # 6D p Md
p # A7 -
%, 2 # 1Z @ # ): 4^ 8 - ^ ! 1
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K M < % M7 2 # 6 # EN0€ Gd3
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@: @ 6D I• M7 8& ): M7 8& % Gd?0a Gd Gd?
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•; \ A7 % 0K3
% M7 # G€ Gd3
1=
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U8ˆ BS ÷ 0B
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K M @: b# ; d # ƒ d A7 S30GG € Gd B
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% M7 6 # d M7 BSGG € GdE
1= Gd S
8& d M7 8& \ d A7 % Gd Na Gd30 δ 67

- % 0K3
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