Training And Development

Project Compiled by

Rahul Arondekar Sagar Dhadve Ritika Mahadik Priyadarshini Patil Shreyans Chhajed

276 285 297 301 327

1

Index

Sr. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Topic
Nature of Training and Development Inputs in Training and Development Importance of training and development Training Process Methods of training Case Study I: Hotel Taj President Case Study II: Hotel Hilton Towers Analysis of the case study comparisons Conclusion

Page No.
4 5 8 10 13 18 20 22 23

2

abilities.” The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency. education and development. Which refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Such distinctions enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning if the term training. training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills.Nature of Training and Development In simple words. computed as follows: Training and development needs = Standard performance – Actual performance We can make a distinction among training. Education however is common to all the employees. on the other hand is confined theoretically learning in classroom To distinct more. A formal definition of training and development is determined as follows: “It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning. 3 . the training is offered in case of operatives whereas development programs are conducted for employees at higher levels. knowledge to an employee. usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Education.

and use other equipments with least damage and scrap. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening.Inputs in Training and Development Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills. This is basic skills without which the operator will not function.These skills involve learning to move various parts of their body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. A worker needs skills to operate machines. learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into the distant future. Employees particularly like supervisors and executives. Persuading and showing an understanding of others feelings 4 . These skills helps a person understand oneself and others better and act accordingly. There is also a need of motor skills or psychomotor skills as they are refer to performance of specific physical activities . The inputs of training and development are as follows: 1) Skills 2) Education 3) Development 4) Ethics 5) Attitudinal Changes 6) Decision making and problem solving skills 1) Skills Training is imparting skills to the employees. need interpersonal skills mostly know as people skills.

Knowledge about business environment. sometimes. finance or marketing personnel 5 .e. Shaw Wallace. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. The late Manu Chabria. Help him see himself as others see him and accept his self image as a prelude to change. which should again helps him being self generating. Also helps them understand the powers in their hands and thereby develop leadership styles which inspire and motivate others. This programme should keep the employee aware of him i. And finally helps install a zest for excellence. 4) Ethics There is a need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. In fact.2) Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgment. motivation. a nagging dissatisfaction with the status quo. It helps teach an individual to communicate without filters. his potentials and his limitations. CMD. It should make their performance result oriented and help them in being more efficient and effective. attended such a two month programme at the Harvard business school. build sense of commitment. human relations. Education is more important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by the HR specialist. organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. to see and feel points of view different from their own. It should also help in making the employee sensitive towards the environment that is his work place and outside. specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of a company. 3) Development Another component of a training and development programme is development which is less skill – oriented but stress on knowledge. management principles and techniques. They are less seen and talked about in the personnel function this does not mean that the HR manager is absolved if the responsibility. If the production. a divine discontent. Chief executive officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher course conducted in many Business schools. Development programme should help an employee to be a self-starter.

Attitudes affect motivation. collect and analysis information. satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes needs to be converted into positive attitudes. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need for ethical behavior. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers. supervisors and professionals 6 . Changing negative attitudes is difficult because of (1) (2) (3) Employees refuse to change They have prior commitments and Information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient. generate alternatives. 5) Attitudinal Changes Attitudinal represents feelings and beliefs an individual towards others.indulge in unethical practices the fault rest on the HR manager. 6) Decision making and problem solving skills Decision making and problem solving skill focus on methods and techniques for making organizational decision and solve work related problems. Attitude must be changed so that the employee feels committed to the organization and give better performance. Learning related to decision making and problem solving skills seeks to improve trainee’s abilities to define and structure problems.

d) Provides information on other government laws and administration policies. i) Makes the organization a better place to work and live. 2) Benefits for the individual 7 . rules and regulations viable.Importance of Training and development for the organization There are many benefits of Training and Development to the organization as well as employee. b) Aid in orientation of new employee and those taking new job through transfer or promotion. e) Improve interpersonal skills. growth and co ordination. f) Makes organizational policies. h) Provides a good climate for learning. c) Provides information on equal opportunities and affirmative action. intra group and internal group relation and policy implementation 1) Benefits for the organization a) Improves communication between group and individuals. We have categorized as under 1) Benefits for the organization 2) Benefits for the individual 3) Benefits for personnel and human relation. g) Builds cohesiveness in group.

motivational variables of recognition achievement. c) Provides information on equal opportunities and affirmative action.a) Helps and individual in making better decision and effective problem solving. frustration and conflict. h) Satisfies personal needs of a trainee. d) Provides information on other government laws and administration policies. b) Aid in orientation of new employee and those taking new job through transfer or promotion. k) Helps eliminate fear in attempting new task. intra group and internal group relation and policy implementation a) Improves communication between group and individuals. knowledge. growth. i) Provides the trainee an avenue for growth in his or her future. communication skills and attitudes. f)Increases job satisfaction and recognition. e) Provides information for improving leadership. 8 . g) Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills. c) Aid in encouraging and achieving self–development and self confidence. d) Helps a person handle stress. j) Develops a sense of learning. responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised. b) Through training and development. e) Improve interpersonal skills. 3) Benefits for personnel and human relation. l) Helps a person improve his listening skill. tension. speaking skills also with his writing skills.

What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to 9 . rules and regulations viable. h) Provides a good climate for learning. g) Builds cohesiveness in group. growth and co ordination. Training Process The steps of Training Process are as under: Organizational Objectives and Strategies Assessment of Training Needs Establishment of Training Goals Devising Training Programme Implementation of Training programme Evaluation of Results a) Organizational objectives and strategies The first step in the training process is an organization in the assessment of its objectives and strategies. i) Makes the organization a better place to work and live.f) Makes organizational policies.

Without clearly-set goals. Goals must be tangible. Inadequate in performance may be due to lack of skills or knowledge or any other problem.e. it is not possible to design a training and development programme and after it has been implemented. there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness. The following diagram explains performance deficiency Performance Deficiency Lack of skills Or knowledge other causes Training c) Training and development objectives Non training measures Once training needs are assessed. training and development goals must be established. Needs assessment occurs at two levels i. b) Needs assessment Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenge to be met through training and development. an individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short or standards that is when there is performance deficiency. This is easy where skilled training is involved d) Designing training and development program Who are the trainees? Who are the trainers? What methods And techniques? where to the What is the conduct level of training program what are the principles of learning 10 . verifying and measurable.provide this product or service? Where do we what to be in the future? Its only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strength and weakness of its human resources. group level and individual level.

Conducting the programme. etc. college classroom hotel. On site but not the job for example in a training room in the company.e) Conducting training activities Where is the training going to be conducted and how? • • • At the job itself. Scheduling the training programme. however organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. how far the programme has been useful must be judge/determined. f) Implementation of the training programme Program implementation involves actions on the following lines: • • • • Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. g) Evaluation of the results The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of the results. In the practice. Off site such as a university. 11 . Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. Monitoring the progress of the trainees. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme.

the focus of trainer’s focus is on making a good product and not on good training technique. However. as when experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform tasks. They can be used to provide a range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. They are basically of two types. Long lectures can also cause Boredom. video tapes and films. Training techniques are means employed in the training methods. It has several steps. 3) On. And since a model is given to the trainee. Also this type of communication is a one-way communication and there is no feedback from the audience because in case of very large groups it is difficult to have interactive sessions. It also improves the quality of presentation to a great extent. The lecturer is presumed to possess knowledge about the subject. OHPs. 1) Lectures It is the verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. Majority of the industrial training is on the job training. Often.the – Job. Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. It is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. The trainer then demonstrates how the job is to be performed and to give trainee a model to copy. 2) Audio Visuals This is an extension of the lecture method. In this method.Methods of training A multitude of techniques are used to train employees. A virtue in this method is that it can be used for large groups and hence the cost of training per employee is very low. the 12 . This method includes slides.Training It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their present jobs. the trainee first receives an overview of the job. its purpose and the desired outcomes. this method violates the principle of learning by practice. it is informal.

4) Programmed Instruction (PI) In this method. Then the employee is allowed to mimic the trainer’s example. and problems to the learner. However it is an impersonal method and the scope of learning is less as compared to other methods of training.transferability to the job is very high. the trainee goes through a test/ answers a question. This is possible thanks to the speed. It is an attempt to create a realistic for decision-making. facts. Also the cost of preparing books. he proceeds to the next block or else. In this method. 7) Vestibule Training 13 . repeats the same. memory and the data manipulation capabilities of the computer. Information is provided to the employee in blocks. After going through each block of material. training is offered without the intervention of the trainer. The trainee repeats these jobs until the job is mastered. Allowing the person to respond Providing feedback on the accuracy of the answers If the answers are correct. 6) Simulation It is any equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as the possible the actual conditions encountered at the job. This method is most widely used in Aeronautical Industry. 5) Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. Thus PI involves: • • • • Presenting questions. in form of books or through teaching machine. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. the learner’s response determines the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame. manuals and machinery is very high.

This method utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used in the job. Concept of Behavior Modeling: • Fundamental psychological process by which new patterns of behavior can be acquired and existing ones can be altered. The essences are on creating a real life situation and have trainees assumed parts of specific personalities (mostly interchanged roles of boss and subordinate to create empathy for one another). 14 . which provokes the reader to think and make decisions/ suggestions. Also the employees behave differently in real situations than in simulations. analyze it and develop alternative solutions. Also additional investment is required for the equipment. It is an ideal method to promote decision making skills. This is the most effective method of developing problem solving skills. Many a times only the result at the end of the case may be considered and not the line of thinking to approach it. They allow participation through discussion. It is however difficult to duplicate pressures and realities of actual situations. Even though the kind of tension or pressure may be the same but the employee knows it is just a technique and not a real situation. 8) Case study It is a written description of an actual situation in the business. The emphasis is placed on learning skills than on production. The trainees read the case. They also provide transference to an extent. select the best one and implement it. This is a major disadvantage since case studies must primarily be used to influence or mend the attitude or thinking of an individual. It is performed in a special area set aside for the purpose and not at the workplace. The method /approach to analysis may not be given importance. The consequence is better understanding of issues from the other’s point of view. 9) Role Playing and Behavior Modeling This method mainly focuses on emotional (human relation) issues than other ones.

Coaching is similar to apprenticeships. 11) Apprenticeships and Coaching It is involved learning from more experienced employee/s. These meetings have no agenda and take place away from the workplace. A trained professional serves as a facilitator. It is applied in cases of most craft workers. The discussions focus on why participants behave the way they do and how others perceive them. • • This change may be videotaped and showed to the trainee and he can review and critique it.• • “Vicarious process” learning takes place not by own experience but by observation or imagination of others’ action. They meet with a passive trainer and get an insight into their own behavior and that of others. But it is always handled by a supervisor and not by the HR department. carpenters. more stress is laid on productivity. Examples: Laboratory training. This method may be supplemented with other off-the-job methods for effectiveness. plumbers and mechanics. encounter groups. But in that case. the perception of others about them and increased understanding of group process. It also helps him see the negative consequences that result from not using the behavior as recommended. The person being trained is called understudy. whereas here. It is referred to as “copying”. 15 . The objective is to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior. It can be used to develop desired behaviors for future job responsibilities. This approach uses high levels of participation and facilitates transferability. However once the training is over employees get back to being the way they are. “observational learning” or “imitation” implying that it a behavior is learned or modified through observation of other’s experiences. 10) Sensitivity Training It uses small number of trainees usually less than 12 in a group. It is very similar to on the job training method. the focus is on learning. Laboratory training is a form of group training primarily used to enhance interpersonal skills.

In this method skilled workforce is maintained – since the participation. 16 . Immediate returns can be expected from training – almost as soon as the training is over the desired outcomes can be seen in the trainee. feedback and job transference is very high.

like few days back new software was introduced to the stores department. They were also showed audio visual to understand how to use the software. The introduction to the work is explained by the training department of human recourse management.D Sales 2) Methods or programs conducted for training Taj president trains most of the employees on the job. Usually the employees other than management heads get selected from the ‘Taj Hotel Management Institute’ in Aurangabad. Following are the departments were training is implemented after an employee walks in with the appointment letter (the order is in chronological format): • • • • • • • • Food and Beverages Kitchen House keeping Front Office Finance Accounts H. In case of introduction of new technology . the employees were given a lecture and practical study of this software. Since the software (Orien) was new.Case I: Hotel Taj president 1) Who are the trainees? Every employee walking in with the appointment letter is first a trainee as per the bond he signs and then when the time period of he being a trainee over. 17 . he gets permanently placed in the organization. The trainees are trained on the job.R.

values. • • • • To help the employee build his confidence in performing his work and help him use his theoretical knowledge provided by his hotel management course. 4) Why train the employees? What are the benefits? • To understand the Taj policies. Helps the employee to learn new things and increase his knowledge. morals and ethics. 18 . thus satisfying his employer. the kitchen employees and chefs are trained personally by the Chief Chef Mr. In case of Kitchen. To make the employee get use to his job and surroundings and to make him comfortable in performing his job. The Trainees are trained by the Training & Development department which comes under Human Recourses Department.3) Who trains the new employees? In Case of the departments others than Kitchen. Helps the employee to upgrade his personal skills. Aananda Solemon. They are introduced with the vision & values of the hotel so that they perform their task accordingly.

Hilton makes use of this time period and molds the students. the trainees are undergraduate students from various hotel management institutes. Each hotel management student is allotted a time period to work as a trainee in any hotel. They are given personal skills and are made presentable. 19 . The basic principle that is to maintain the old customers and get new customers. 1) Who are the trainees? In case of departments other than management. In case of new employment. 2) Who are the trainers? There is a Training department under the HR who takes care of the new trainees and the training programs conducted for them. • Grooming sessions are conducted to educate the trainees how to dress and behave to match the standards that Hilton maintains. 3) What are the training programs? • Introduction or orientation wherein.Case II: Hotel Hilton Towers Hotel Hilton works in a totally different manner from Taj when it comes to training its employees. the student is introduced to the hotel and is told about the training program for the immediate three months of his training and the long term training policies. Hilton selects students from various hotel management institutes and molds them during their graduation period itself. • They are taught values of the hotel that are policies like keeping the customer always satisfied. In case of management the hotel only employees experienced staff with high qualification.

20 . They also apply the knowledge which they get in these training sessions to their academic knowledge which makes them a better student in all.4) What are the benefits for the employee? The employees are students of hotel management. The theoretical knowledge gained by them hotel management course is then converted to practical knowledge. The training sessions provides them with practical knowledge which helps them in their hotel management course and makes it easy to understand the job perspectives during the graduation course itself.

Analysis of the case study comparison Both the methods of training are effective and have their merits and demerits which can be summarized as follows: In case of hotel Taj President The methods of training are good and effective but it’s not always that the employee changes himself and molds himself as per the organization principles and objectives even though he might be an intelligent and talented employee. This would result in losses for the hotel. He may also start his own business or join some other hotel. wherein the employees are trained in the hotels as interns and are then made to sign a bond wherein they to agree to work for few years in the same organization would be effective. 21 . Therefore a mix strategy. In case of Hotel Hilton tower The hotel conducts a very well planned and managed programme for training but in all there is no such guarantee that the employee or the trainee would like to join the same organization after his graduation.

will be more emphasized upon. view training and development as a stepping stone for enriching their career and fulfilling their personal needs. New technology. And that is the way it should be. Companies already foresee this and are already in preparations to make their staff better equipped. Training and development is a necessity for both the trainer and the trainee. Training & Development has transformed from an add-on function to a core function of companies. Training and development is another round of education for them. multi-tasking. The future would demand more from the employees as well as the companies in terms of productivity. So. It would want its employees to know the latest trends and technologies and use them according to the company’s principles and objectives. group culture. This means training and development is going to be even more important. The trainer (the company) would want to make its staff more efficient in this highly competitive world. complex and rigorous. The trainees (staff) on the other hand.” 22 . the knowledge from which is to be applied later.Conclusion Gone are the days when training was a 2 hour process on the first day of the job. On this we conclude our report with the following words “Education ends with school but learning ends with life. It has become more of a science with systematic rules and formats guiding the companies on how to go about training and development. it’s more of a mutual necessity and agreement between the companies and their respective employees when it comes to training and development. etc.