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for Hospital Management Staffs
To provide useful basic concepts for management staff to apply in their management improvement effort.
About being a manager The art of managing the purpose and the future of the organization The art of managing the factors of operating the organization and its activities
Strategic management concepts
General management concepts
Who are managers?
Anyone who take charge of other peoples and activities. Not just the people who have the word “manager” on their name card.
What manages do basically?
Manager decides on the right things to do, tell the people, and make sure that they do the right things right. It is about getting the right things done correctly. It is about getting people to do things correctly.
What are managers’ fundamental responsibility?
Produce desirable results. Management is not successful if results are not good, even if the bad results are caused by uncontrollable factors, because it is the manager’s job to find way to control the uncontrollable factors.
Comparing managers and others
Plan and organize work activities Work through others Tasks are mostly non-routine Instruct and direct others Involve in setting policies and systems Take charge of all results within own scope of responsibility
Work according to plan Work by themselves Tasks are mostly routine Follow direction and instruction Abide by policies and systems set by managers Take charge of own result only
Matrix of Management Tasks
MANAGER MEANS Wants people Productivity Quality Cost Efficiency Hygiene Safety Functional objectives Activities Hardware facility material technology Software system management
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Management and people
Many things affect work results:
Work method Work specification Conditions of equipment People Management
People is most important because people is the one who make all the factors good or bad. Management success depends on how well we manage our people to do their works well. Managers depends on people to do their work. Managers manage people and at the same time depends on people.
Understand the needs to work effectively
Do what ? Why ? What ? What to do ? How to do ? How to do well ? Done ?
Do what? - About requirement, responsibility and achievement Why? - About purpose What ? - About understanding of happenings, factors, phenomenon What to do? - About understanding, analysis, priority and planning How to do? - About strategy and methodology How to do well? - About implementation Done? - About result
Management and Profession
Common oversight of managers
Confused about Profession and Work Appointment Imbalanced treatment of know-how and know-why Not focusing on result
On the whole, missing the big picture is the number one cause! Understanding of management and its scope is therefore more fundamental then learning management theories and techniques.
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Most needed management understanding
the profession, we are at least partly
must manage – people, works, facilities, systems and most importantly result. works are done through people. Management is about managing everything through people.
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Strategic management concepts
What is Strategic Management
management is about
achieving the organization’s purpose and materializing our vision through the use of strategies
and direction Optimum use of resources Development
Strategies are just complex decisions for telling the importance things to be done and for guiding actions. Strategies have to base on purpose, wish and reality.
Mission is our ultimate purpose Vision is our ultimate wish Our environment and situation are the current reality
We set strategies to fulfill our mission and to progressively realize our vision. We also set strategies to alter our reality. Strategies have to be implemented effectively to be meaningful. This means strategies must be realizable.
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Strategies are restricted by the strategies of higher organization.
Every departments or even groups is an unit of strategic management. Departments’ strategies need to support and must not go against the organization’s strategies.
Strategies can be specific or broad. But they are never detailed enough to let units know exactly what to do. Managers need to make decisions on their work to suit and support the organization's strategies. They set their own strategies to manage their department.
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Keys to effective strategy setting
Organization’s mission and own unit’s mission Ask! if unsure Cultivate consensus Organization’s vision and own unit’s vision Ask! if unsure Cultivate consensus
Higher organization’s strategies and wishes Environment and Situation
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Environment and Situation
Environment (external) Political
Situation (internal) Manpower
Availability Attitude Equipment Technology Facility Specialties IT System procedure
Affordability Prices Preferences Demands Age and sex distribution Epidemic Health management needs
Reported in a conference organized by the Ministry of Health
A campaigns to develop “Excellent Hospitals” to ensure good examination and treatment for the people. Challenges:
Increasing number of patients, overcrowding Human resources lack quality, medical ethnics and attitude of some fall short of expectation Inadequate and backward infrastructure and equipment. Nearly 50% of hospitals lack liquid waste treatment facility, more then 20% of hospitals do not have solid waste treatment facility.
Improve medical ethnic and behavior of health care staff Modernization of infrastructure, equipment and management Reform administrative procedures Application of information technology
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Analysis for setting strategies
Strengths and Weaknesses (internal) Threats and Opportunities (external)
Questions to ask in analysis
How to eliminate weaknesses? How to use strengths better? How to deal with current and imminent threats? How to capture opportunities?
Find pragmatic answers to fulfill the mission, to work towards the vision, and to support the higher level strategies. Decide on what to do basing on the answers (i.e. set strategies), and implement the strategies.
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General Management concepts
What is General Management
Academic management subjects include:
Strategic management Operation management Financial management Human resource management And many more depending on teaching focus
These subjects focus on specific areas. These areas are different because of unique concerns, issues and concepts. But, there are also common needs, issues, and concepts to all the areas. That is the ways to get things done. General management deals with how to effectively get things done. General management is about doing all the right things right to ensure the organization functions effectively for its strategies.
Concept 1 Every work is a process
Environment, Discipline, Teamwork
Process concept of management
Every work is a process. Result of process depends on not only the process but also the factors controlling the process. Management focuses on managing the factors well and the work will be processed properly, because it is easier to do right when conditions are right. Application of the process concept helps managers to manage thoroughly.
Concept 2 Manage the System
System is just a way to specify and dictate how works should get done. System is useful because it helps to reduce supervision needs, and frees managers to do improvement works or professional works. System is absolutely necessary in critical works where mistakes are absolutely not permissible. Effective managers design system to manage everything. They focus on managing the system.
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How system works?
System affixes work related activities
Predictable Reliable Transparent
System facilitates procedural and methodological changes
System provides directions
Minimal consultation Minimal judgment error
What system specifies?
Sequence of actions Methodology Quality requirements Responsibilities and Authorities Communication and Recording requirements Procedures
Normal Abnormal Communication monitoring
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How to ensure system works?
Objective Specifications methodology Expectation
Compliance Enforcement Review
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How to use system in work?
Ensure everyone accept and respect systems Ensure proper operation of existing systems Know the dynamic nature of work and continually update systems Use system to manage all routine tasks Improve or Add system whenever shortcoming is found
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Concept 3 People is the key to management
Organizations exist to serve people. We care to work because of people – our family. People cause success and people cause failure. Managers depends on people to do their work. Managers manage people and at the same time depends on people. Manager need to understand people and know how to ensure they do well.
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Human Sphere in Work
Wife Relatives friends
People are human beings
Human value Idiosyncrasy Habit Mode Attitude Personality Physical
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Strategies for people management
Manage people with understanding
But not compromising on work quality.
Enable people to work well Manage people’s willingness
This is not about motivation. Motivation is only needed when we want people to work exceptionally well. Motivation is not needed to get people to work reasonably well, because it is people’s responsibility to work as such. But it is necessary to ensure that people understand and accept their responsibility. It is also necessary to help them fulfill their responsibility; with direction, facilitation and feedback.
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What people need to do well
Know what to do
Instruction System Common sense
Facilitated Enabled Supported by other people
Know how to do
Willing to do
Agree with the purpose Acceptance
How to enable people to work well
People have accepted the job. They are willing:
When they could When are not unhappy (not unhappy ≠ happy) When they understand their responsibility When excessive effort is not needed
To enable them to perform:
Clear system and clear instructions Provide adequate training Assign works reasonably (be fair) Ensure they are facilitated adequately Give them sufficient time to accomplish their work Promote, encourage and enforce teamwork
Fairness in Human Relationship
People want to be treated nicely! We have a natural tendency to be nice by not offending others to maintain relationship. A common result of this is we accept bad behaviors and poor work performance. But, are we nice in doing so?
We are not nice to our organization We are not nice to others who care to do good Most importantly, we are not nice to our customers (patients)
Need to be fair. Think about every parties and be fair to every parties. Equal is unfair. But be equitable!
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Need to follow up to ensure work results
Why the management process?
To know what need to be done To know how to organize and coordinate tasks To know what facilitation are needed To enable effective communication To implement the plan To monitor progress and results To adjust actions according to development during implementation
See and Adjust
– to know the scope of the issue
– to describe the situation of the issue with objective data and facts – to understand the issue, the situation and also the interrelationship – to bring the situation of the issue to desire level – to ensure effect of improvement stays without deterioration
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Concept 5 Need to manage performance
cannot be good unless managers demand for performance requirements have to be clearly communicated need to be told when their performance is not up to expectation performance must be enforced
Weak links limit performance
Work results are the combine effect of all the factors and the way they are coordinated. The combine effect can only be as good as the weakest factor. Smart managers pay close attention to the weakest factors and continually work on improving them or eliminating them. When apply this concept to people, it is better to eliminate a poor staff if he does not improve. This is because an ineffective member affects the effectiveness of the whole team.
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Control to maintain performance
Equipment will deteriorate if not maintained. Work quality will deteriorate if not monitored. Health will deteriorate if not managed. Everything deteriorate naturally unless maintained – maintenance is important to everything. Control is the maintenance need of management. Wise managers rely on systems to do the control. They get to do know critical happenings from information of their systems.
The best control
Performance rest on a slope all the time. It has a tendency to slide down. Control acts like a brake to prevent performance from sliding down. But affordable control measures are always imperfect. Performance will still slide down. The best way to ensure performance does not slide down is to always push it even higher, so that it will not have a chance to slide below its original level. Continual improvement effort is the best control.
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Most important concept Manager but not management is the key
SUMMARY - The Gist
manage to serve some
needs to flexibly device and implement ways that FIT factors and conditions to the purposes managers continually strive to modify factors and conditions to achieve the purposes better
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