TABLE OF CONTENT Table of content List of tables List of figures List of graphs Acknowledgement Abstract Chapter 01 1.0 Introduction 1.

2 Aim of product development 1.2.1 Overall objectives of the new product development 1.2.2 Specific objectives Chapter 02 2.0 Literature Survey 2.1 Egg 2.1.1 Structure, Physical Properties and Composition 2.1.1.1 General Outline 2.1.1.2 Shell 2.1.1.3 Albumen (Egg White) 2.1.1.3.1 Proteins 2.1.1.3.2 Other Constituents 2.1.1.3.2.1 Lipids 2.1.1.3.2.2 Carbohydrates 2.1.1.3.2.3 Minerals 2.1.1.3.2.4 Vitamins 2.1.1.4. Egg Yolk 2.1.1.4.1 Proteins of Granules 2.1.1.4.2. Plasma Proteins 2.1.1.4.3 Lipids 2.1.1.4.4 Other Constituents 2.1.1.4.4.1 Carbohydrates 2.1.1.4.4.2 Minerals 2.1.1.4.4.3 Vitamins 2.1.1.5 Aroma Substances 2.2 Vinegar 2.2.1 Production 2.2.1.1 Microbiological Production 2.2.1.2 Chemical Synthesis 2.2.2 Composition 2.3 Margarine 2.3.1 Manufacturing and Properties 2.3.1.1 Composition 2.3.1.2 Manufacturing i i iv v vi vii viii 1 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 4 6 6 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 14 15 16 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 21

2.4 Salt (Cooking Salt) 2.4.1 Composition 2.4.2 Occurrence 2.4.3 Production 2.4.4 Special Salt 2.4.5 Salt Substitutes 2.5 Tocopherols 2.6 Black pepper 2.6.1 Chemical structure 2.6.1.2 Piperine 2.6.1.3 Essential oil of Pepper 2.6.2 Ground pepper 2.6.3 Functional Properties 2.6.4 Use of pepper in food 2.7 Garlic 2.7.1 Chemical structure 2.7.2 Uses 2.7.3 Functional properties and toxicity 2.7.3.1 Toxicity of Garlic 2.8 Onion 2.8.1 Chemical structure and influence on flavour 2.9 Cardamom 2.9.1 Chemical structure 2.10 Clove 2.10.1 Dried clove bud 2.10.2 Main uses in food processing 2.10.3 Functional Properties 2.11 Mustard 2.11.1 Culinary uses 2.11.2 Storage and shelf life 2.12 Pineapple 2.12.1 Botany 2.12.2 Nutrition 2.13 Dates 2.13.1 Histrory of Dates 2.13.2 Food uses 2.14. Sugar 2.14.1 Physical and chemical properties 2.14.2 Culinary sugars 2.15 Packaging 2.15.1 Functions of packaging 2.15.2 Grouping of packaging Materials 2.15.3 Theory 2.15.3.1 Light ii

21 21 22 22 22 23 26 26 27 27 31 32 33 35 35 36 36 38 38 38 40 40 43 44 44 45 46 46 47 47 47 48 49 49 50 51 51 51 53 53 54 55 55 56

2.15.3.2 Heat 2.15.3.3 Moisture and gases 2.15.3.4 Microrganisms, insects, animals and soil 2.15.3.5 Mechanical Strength 2.15.4 Glass 2.15.5 Rigid and semi rigid plastic containers Chapter 03 3.0 Methodology 3.1 Methodology for egg spread production 3.2 Proximate Analysis 3.2.1 Determination of moisture content 3.2.2 Determination of ash content 3.2.3 Determination of total fat 3.2.4 Determination of crude fiber 3.2.5 Determination of acid detergent fiber 3.2.6 Determination of crude protein. 3.2.7 Determination of peroxide value 3.2.8 Determination of acid value 3.3 Microbiological Analysis 3.3.1 Determination of Aerobic plate count 3.3.2 Determination of salmonella 3.3.3 Determination of Yeast and mold count 3.3.4 Determination of coliform count 3.3.5 Determination of staphylococcus aureus 3.4 Sensory Evaluation 3.5 Selection of suitable packaging Chapter 04 4.0 Results, calculations and Discussion 4.1 Proximate analysis 4.1.1 Determination of Moisture 4.1.2 Determination of ash 4.1.3 Determination of crude fiber 4.1.4 Determination of acid detergent fiber 4.1.5 Determination of total Fat 4.1.6 Determination of Crude proteins 4.1.7 Determination of peroxide value 4.1.8 Determination of acid Value 4.1.9 Determination of free fatty acids 4.1.10 Calculation of carbohydrate Percentage 4.2 Microbiological calculations 4.2.1 Aerobic Plate count 4.2.2 Yeast and mold count 4.2.3 MPN/E- Coli count 4.2.4 Staphylococcus aureus count iii

56 57 57 59 60 61 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 65 66 66 67 67 68 76 79 81 82 82 82 82 82 85 86 88 89 90 92 94 94 96 97 98 98 98 98 98

4.2.5 Salmonella count 4.3 Results of minitab evaluation 4.3.1 Result of Kruskas-wallis test 4.3.2 Result of Friedman test 4.4 Result for selection of suitable packaging 4.4.1 Moisture variation with packaging 4.4.2 Peroxide variation with packaging 4.4.3 Aerobic Plate count variation with packaging 4.4.4 Free fatty acid variation with packaging Chapter 05 5.0 Conclusions 6.0 References 7.0Appendices 7.1 Appendix 1-Sensory evaluation ballot paper 7.2 Appendix 2-Kruskal-Wallis Test 7.3 Appendix 3- Friedman test 7.4Appendix 4-Technological Evaluation of Shelf Life of Foods List of tables Table 2.1 Average composition of Chicken egg Table 2.2. Amino acid composition of whole egg, egg white and yolk (g/100 g edible portion) Table 2.4. Proteins of egg white Table 2.5. Carbohydrate composition of some chicken egg white glycoproteins Table 2.6. Amino acid sequences of avidin (1) and lysozyme (2)a Table 2.7. Mineral composition of eggs Table 2.8. Proteins and apo proteins identified in egg yolk, plasma (P) and granules (G) after electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE) Table 2.9. Amino acid composition of phosvitin and - and -lipovitellins (mole %). Table 2.10. Egg yolk lipids Table 2.11. Fatty acid composition of the lipids in egg yolk ± Influence of feed(a) Table 2.12. Vitamin content of whole egg, egg white and yolk (mg/100g edible portion) Table 2.3.1Examples of margarine types Table 2.6.1 Average composition of dried pepper (Pruthi 1993) Table 2.6.2 Nutritional composition of black pepper per 100 grams Table 2.6.3 Taste and complex effect. Table 2.7.1 Nutritive composition of fresh/peeled garlic cloves and garlic powder (Pruthi, 1987) Table 2.9.1 Flavour characteristics of important volatile components in cardamom iv

100 105 105 106 106 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 115

4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 15 16 17 21 26 32 34 37 42

. Table 2.10.1The characteristics of clove bud from Zanzibar type at several stages of maturity Table 2.10.2 Nutritional composition of clove, per 100g Table 2.12.1 Odorants of pineapples Table 3.3.2.1. Biochemical and serological reactions of Salmonella. Table3.3.2.2. Criteria for discarding non-Salmonella cultures. Table 4.1.1 Variation of moisture with time Table 4.1.6 readings for crude proteins Table 4.1.7 variation of peroxide vale with time Table 4.1.9 Free fatty acid variation with time Table 4.2.1 Aerobic plate count variation with time Table 4.3.1Result for colour obtained via sensory ballot paper. Table 4.3.2Result for aroma obtained via sensory ballot paper. Table 4.3.3Result for mouth feel obtained via sensory ballot paper. Table 4.3.4 Result for taste obtained via sensory ballot paper. Table 4.3.5 Result for overall acceptability obtained via sensory ballot paper. Table 4.3.1Result of Kruskal-Wallis Test in Mini Tab statistical software package Table 4.3.2 Result of Friedman test Table 4.4.1Moisture variation with packaging Table 4.4.2 Peroxide value variation with packaging Table 4.4.3 Aerobic plate count with packaging Table 4.4.4 Free fatty acid content with packaging List of figures Fig. 2.1. Cross-section of a chicken egg ± a schematic representation. Fig.2.2. Egg white viscosity, Fig. 2.3.Tertiary structure of lysozyme from chicken egg white (according to McKenzie and White, 1991) Fig. 2.2.1. Oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid by Acetobacter species (according to Rehm, 1980) Fig 2.5.1 Mechanism of -tocopherol action. Fig. 2.6.1 The structure of piperine. Fig. 2.6.2 The structure of piperine. Fig. 2.6.3 Chemical structures of -pinene, _ -pinene, sabineneand limonene. Fig. 2.6.4 Chemical structure of -caryophyllene. Fig. 2.6.5 Suitability pattern for pepper (Source: Hirasa and Takemasa 1998). Fig. 2.9.1 Structure of important aroma compounds. Fig. 2.10.1 Chemical structures of eugenol, eugenol acetate and carophyllene (Guenther 1950). v

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3 5 9 18 23-24 28 29 30 31 34 41 44

58

Fig. 2.14.1 Stress±strain curve for flexible packaging: T, tensile strength; Y, yield strength; slope of curve AB _ Young¶s modulus; C, breaking point. (After Briston (1980).) Fig 3.1 Flow chart for egg spread production Fig 3.3.3.1 lifting of petrifilm Fig 3.3.3.2 placing of 1 ml dilution of sample Fig 3.3.3.3 placing the lifted film back Fig 3.3.3.4 spreading of dilution Fig 3.3.3.5 spreading of dilution Fig 3.3.3.6 spreading of dilution Fig 3.3.3.7 incubating of petrifilm Fig 3.3.3.7 counting of petrifilm Fig 3.3.4.1 lifting of petrifilm Fig 3.3.4.2 placing of 1 ml dilution of sample Fig 3.3.4.4 placing the lifted film back Fig 3.3.4.5 spreading of dilution Fig 3.3.4.6 spreading of dilution Fig 3.3.4.7spreading of dilution Fig 3.3.4.8Incubating of petri films Fig 3.3.4.9 counting of colonies List of graph Graph 01 Moisture Percentage Vs Time Graph 02 peroxide value Vs time Graph 03 free fatty acid content Vs time Graph 04 CFU/g Vs Time Graph 05 moisture percentage vs time with packaging Graph 06 Peroxide value variations with packaging Graph 07 Aerobic plate count with packaging Graph 08 Free fatty acid content Vs time with packaging vi

60 77 77 77 77 78 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 80 81 81

84 93 96 98 106 107 107 108