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Fluid Dynamics

# Fluid Dynamics

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12/07/2012

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# Fluid Dynamics

The Fluid dynamics is the study of fluid motion with the forces causing the flow.

Equations of Motion
Newton’s Second law of motion

Fx = m × ax
In the fluid flow the following forces are present •Fg→ Gravity force •Fp → The Pressure force •Fv→ Force due to viscosity •Ft → Force due turbulence •Fc→ Force due to compressibility

Fx = (Fg)x + (Fp)x + (Fv)x + (Ft)x + (Fc)x

Equations of Motion
Fx = (Fg)x + (Fp)x + (Fv)x + (Ft)x + (Fc)x Fx = (Fg)x + (Fp)x + (Fv)x + (Ft)x Fx = (Fg)x + (Fp)x + (Fv)x Fx = (Fg)x + (Fp)x → Reynold’s Equation of motion → Navier-Stokes Equation → Euler’s Equation of motion

Different types of Heads or Energies of a liquid in motion Potential Head or Potential Energy Velocity Head or Kinetic Energy Pressure Head or Pressure Energy Total energy = mgz + ½ mv2 + (p × volume) v2 + p Total head = z + 2g ρg m of liquid Nm/kg of liquid .

Converting Energy into Head of liquid Total head = Energy per unit weight mgz Potential Head = Potential Energy = = z Weight mg Kinetic Energy Velocity Head = Weight ½ m v2 mg v2 = 2g m of liquid = m of liquid p p × (m/ρ) Pressure Energy Pressure Head = = = ρg Weight mg m of liquid .

Euler’s Equation of Motion S ∂p   p + ds dA  ∂s   ds θ p dA ρ g dA ds .

Euler’s Equation of Motion Fs = m × as ∂p   p dA −  p + ds dA − ρ g dA ds cosθ ∂s   = ρ dA ds Now × aS aS = dv Where v is the function of S & t dt ∂ v ds ∂ v ∂v ∂v = + = v+ For steady flow ∂ s dt ∂ t ∂s ∂t ∂v v∂ v ∴ aS = ∂s ∂p v∂ v − ρ g dA ds cosθ = ρ dA ds × − ds dA ∂s ∂s ∂t =0 .

Euler’s Equation of Motion − ∂p v∂ v ds dA − ρ g dA ds cosθ = ρ dA ds × ∂s ∂s ∂p v∂v = − g cosθ ρ ∂s ∂s ds Divide both sides by ρ dA ds − or 1 ∂p v∂v + g cosθ + =0 ρ ∂s ∂s dz cosθ = ds 1 ∂p dz v∂ v =0 +g + ρ ∂s ds ∂s ∂p + g dz + v dv = 0 ρ → Euler’s equation of motion θ dz or .

Bernoulli's Equation from Euler’s Equation Euler’s equation of motion ∂p + g dz + v dv = 0 ρ On integrating dp ∫ ρ + ∫ g dz + ∫ v dv = constant If the flow is incompressible. ρ is constant and p ρ or v2 +gz + = constant 2 p v2 = constant +z + ρg 2g z = Potential head p = Pressure head ρg v 2 = Velocity head 2g .

i.Assumptions made in deriving Bernoulli's Equation •The fluid ideal.e viscosity is zero •The flow is steady •The flow is incompressible •Flow is irrotational •The only forces acting on the fluid are the gravity fore & the pressure force .

Bernoulli's Equation modifications p v2 = constant +z + ρg 2g When Real fluid is used 2 p1 v2 v1 = p 2 + z 2 + 2 + hf + z 1+ ρg ρg 2g 2g When kinetic energy correction factor (α) is applied 2 p1 v1 = p 2 v2 + z 2+ α2 2 + z 1 + α1 ρg 2g ρg 2g When energy is taken from flow 2 p1 v1 = p 2 v2 + z 2 + 2 + Energy taken out + z 1+ ρg ρg 2g 2g When energy is added to the flow 2 p1 v1 + z 1+ ρg 2g p2 v2 +z 2+ 2 + Energy added = ρg 2g .

actual velocity is less than this value .Flow through on orifice Applying Bernoulli’s equation at the points 1 & 2 2 p1 v2 v1 = p 2 +z 2+ 2 + z 1+ ρg ρg 2g 2g z1= z2 p1 = H ρg p2 = 0 ρg d d/2 v1= neglected H +0 v2 = 0 +0 + 2 2g v2 = 2 g H m/s → This is theoretical velocity.

Hydraulic Co-efficients •Co-efficient of velocity (Cv) •Co-efficient of contraction (Cc) •Co-efficient of discharge (Cd) Co-efficient of velocity (Cv) = Actual velocity of jet at venacontracta Theoretical velocity of jet = v v th = v 2gH Co-efficient of contraction (Cc) = Area of jet at venacontracta Area of the Orifice = a A Co-efficient of discharge (Cd) = Actual discharge Theoretical discharge = Q Q th v a = v ××A th = Cv × Cc .

Application of Bernoulli’s Equation •Venturimeter •Orificemeter •Pitot tube .

Venturimeter .

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Venturimeter Converging Cone Throat Diverging Cone 15° to 20° d2 5° to 7° d1 h .

2 p1 v1 p2 v2 + + 2 +z + z 1= ρg 2g ρg 2g 2 z 1= z 2 2 p1 − p 2 v 2 − v1 = 2 2g ρg .Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter 1 2 d1 d2 h Applying Bernoulli’s equation between the section 1 & 2 .

Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter 1 d1 d2 2 h 2 p1 − p 2 v 2 − v1 2 = 2g ρg p1 − p 2 =h ρg The pressure head measured by the U-tube manometer As per continuity equation a1 v1 = a2 v2 2 v 2 − v1 h= 2 2g .

Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter 1 d1 d2 2 h= v −v 2g 2 2 2 1 h As per continuity equation a1 v1 = a2 v2 a2 v1 = v2 or a1 2 2 2 a2   2 v 2 −  a 2  v 2 v 2 1 −  a    a  2    2 v 2  a1 − a 2  1 2 2 1    =  h= =  a2   2g  2g 2g 1  2  a1  v = 2gh  2  a − a2   2   1 2 2 v2 = a 1 2gh 2 a1 − a 2 2 .

Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter 1 d1 d2 2 h v2 = a 1 2gh 2 a1 − a 2 2 Q a1 2gh = 2 a2 a1 − a 2 2 Q= a1 a 2 2gh a −a 2 1 2 2 Q th = C d a1 a 2 2gh 2 a1 − a 2 2 .

Values of ‘h’ given by differential U-tube manometer 1 2 x h Case-1: Let the differential manometer contains a liquid which is heavier than the liquid flowing through a pipe S  h = x  h − 1 S   o  Sh = Specific gravity of the heavier liquid So = Specific gravity of the liquid flowing through the pipe x = Difference of heavier liquid column in U-tube .

Values of ‘h’ given by differential U-tube manometer 1 2 x Case-2: Let the differential manometer contains a liquid which is lighter than the liquid flowing through a pipe  Sl  h = x 1 −   S  o   Sl = Specific gravity of the lighter liquid So = Specific gravity of the liquid flowing through the pipe x = Difference of lighter liquid column in U-tube .

Values of ‘h’ given by differential U-tube manometer Inclined Venturimeter x Case-3: Let the differential manometer contains a liquid which is heavier than the liquid flowing through a pipe  Sh   p1   p2  h =  + z1  −  + z 2  = x  − 1  ρg   ρg  S       o  .

Values of ‘h’ given by differential U-tube manometer Inclined Venturimeter x Case-4: Let the differential manometer contains a liquid which is lighter than the liquid flowing through a pipe  Sl   p1   p2  h =  + z1  −  + z 2  = x  1 −   ρg   ρg   S      o   .

Orificemeter Orifice Diameter Orifice Plate Venacontracta Pipe Diameter Pressure drop across orifice h .

Orificemeter Orifice Plate Orifice Diameter Venacontracta Pipe Diameter Pressure drop across orifice h .

Expression for rate of flow through Orificemeter 1 2 Venacontracta d1 d2 h .

Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter Applying Bernoulli’s equation between the section 1 & 2. 2 p1 v1 p2 v2 + + 2 +z + z 1= ρg 2g ρg 2g 2 z 1= z 2 p1 − p 2 =h ρg 2 p1 − p 2 v 2 − v1 2 = 2g ρg The pressure head measured by the U-tube manometer 2 v 2 − v1 h= 2 2g .

Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter 2 v 2 − v1 h= 2 2g As per continuity equation a1 v1 = a2 v2 2 or v1 = a2 v2 a1   a 2 2  2 v 2 −  a 2  v 2 v 2 1 −  a    a  2    2 1 1   h= =  2g 2g 2 v 2  a1 − a 2  2 = 2  a2   2g  1  2  a1  v = 2gh  2  a − a2   2   1 2 2 v2 = a 1 2gh 2 a1 − a 2 2 .

Expression for rate of flow through Venturimeter v2 = a 1 2gh 2 a1 − a 2 2 Q a1 2gh = 2 a2 a1 − a 2 2 Q= a1 a 2 2gh a −a 2 1 2 2 Q th = C d a1 a 2 2gh 2 a1 − a 2 2 .

Pitot tube h H+h H .

Pitot tube .

Pitot tube .

Expression for velocity in Pitot tube h H+h H 1 2 .

Expression for velocity in Pitot tube Let p1 & p2 = Intensity of pressure at 1 & 2. v1 & v2 = Velocity at 1 & 2 H = depth of tube in liquid h = rise of liquid in the tube above the free surface Applying Bernoulli’s equation between the section 1 & 2. 2 p1 v1 p2 v2 + + 2 +z + z 1= ρg 2g ρg 2g 2 z 1= z 2 v2 = 0 H = p1 ρg p2 H+h = ρg 2 v1 H+ =H+h 2g 2 v1 h= 2g v1 = 2 g H ( v1 ) actual = C v 2gH .

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