Steel Fibre Concrete Composites for Special Applications

Normal and High Volume Steel Fibre Concrete Composites for Special Applications
Dr. V.S. Parameswaran, President & Chief Executive, Design Technology Consultants, Chennai Chief Executive, International Centre for FRC Composites (ICFRC), Chennai, Former Director, SERC & Past President, ICI. In recent times, the sustained efforts of researchers all over the world to innovate and incorporate unmatched excellence in construction have led to development of several advanced concrete construction materials. Of these, composites containing steel fibres have come to stay and deserve special mention. This paper, besides outlining the properties and applications of normal fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC), also describes the emergence and potentials of high-volume fibre composites such as slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete (SIFCON), slurry infiltrated mat concrete (SIMCON), compact reinforced concrete (CRC) and reactive powder concrete (RPC).

Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC)
Concrete is the most widely used structural material in the world with an annual production of over seven billion tons. For a variety of reasons, much of this concrete is cracked. The reason for

concrete to suffer cracking may be attributed to structural, environmental or economic factors, but most of the cracks are formed due to the inherent weakness of the material to resist tensile forces. Again, concrete shrinks and will again crack, when it is restrained. It is now well established that steel fibre reinforcement offers a solution to the problem of cracking by making concrete tougher and more ductile. It has also been proved by extensive research and field trials carried out over the past three decades, that addition of steel fibres to conventional plain or reinforced and prestressed concrete members at the time of mixing/production imparts improvements to several properties of concrete, particularly those related to strength, performance and durability. The weak matrix in concrete, when reinforced with steel fibres, uniformly distributed across its entire mass, gets strengthened enormously, thereby rendering the matrix to behave as a composite material with properties significantly different from conventional concrete. The randomly-oriented steel fibres assist in controlling the propagation of micro-cracks present in the matrix, first by improving the overall cracking resistance of matrix itself, and later by bridging across even smaller cracks formed after the application of load on the member, thereby preventing their widening into major cracks (Fig. 1).

The idea that concrete can be strengthened by fibre inclusion was first put forward by Porter in 1910, but little progress was made in its development till 1963, when Roumaldi and Batson

carried out extensive laboratory investigations and published their classical paper on the subject. Since then, there has been a great wave of interest in and applications of SFRC in many parts of the world. While steel fibres improve the compressive strength of concrete only marginally by about 10 to 30%, significant improvement is achieved in several other properties of concrete as listed in Table 1. Some popular shapes of fibres are given in Fig.2.

In general, SFRC is very ductile and particularly well suited for structures which are required to exhibit:

3. The high ductility exhibited by normal SFRC and polymerimpregnated SFRC over conventional concrete is shown in Fig. aspect ratio and bonding efficiency of the fibres in the concrete matrix.y y y y y y Resistance to impact. . 6). 4 illustrates the improvement in impact resistance of SFRC with the increase in the fibre content. and not due to their pullout. Any improvement in the mechanical bond ensures that the failure of a SFRC specimen is due mainly to fibres reaching their ultimate strength. fibre strength. The degree of improvement gained in any specific property exhibited by SFRC is dependent on a number of factors that include: y y y Concrete mix and its age Steel fibre content Fibre shape. usually higher for SFRC than conventional mixes Aggregate shape and content is critical. blast and shock loads and high fatigue Shrinkage control of concrete (fissuration) Very high flexural. erosion and abrasion High thermal/ temperature resistance Resistance to seismic hazards. the fibre type and the application of the concrete must be considered. a phenomenon called µballing of fibres¶ (Fig. concrete made with steel fibres will also have different properties. The behavior of SFRC under fatigue loading regime as compared to conventional concrete is shown in Fig. Cement content is. shear and tensile strength Resistance to splitting/spalling. Coarse aggregates of sizes ranging from 10 mm to 20 mm are commonly used with SFRC. while Fig. When developing an SFRC mix design. There must be sufficient quantity of mortar fraction in the concrete to adhere to the fibres and allow them to flow without tangling together. The efficiency of steel fibres as concrete macro-reinforcement is in proportion to increasing fibre content. The efficiency is further improved by deforming the fibres and by resorting to advanced production techniques. therefore. Larger aggregate sizes usually require less volume of fibres per cubic meter. its aspect ratio (length to diameter ratio) and bond characteristics. Mix Design for SFRC Just as different types of fibres have different characteristics. 5.

SFRC with 10 mm maximum size aggregates typically uses 50 to 75 kg of fibres per cubic meter, while the one with 20 mm size uses 40 to 60 kg. Smaller sections less than about 100 mm in thickness should be considered as requiring 10 mm aggregate size only. It has been demonstrated that the coarse aggregate shape has a significant effect on workability and material properties. Crushed coarse aggregates result in higher strength and tensile strain capacity. Fine aggregates in SFRC mixes typically constitute about 45 to 55 percent of the total aggregate content. Typical mix proportions for SFRC will be: cement 325 to 560 kg; water-cement ratio 0.4-0.6; ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate 0.5-1.0; maximum aggregate size 10mm; air content 69%; fibre content 0.5-2.5% by volume of concrete. An appropriate pozzolan may be used as a replacement for a portion of the Portland cement to improve workability further, and reduce heat of hydration and production cost. The suggested mix proportions for making SFRC mortars and concretes is given in Table 2. The use of steel fibres in concrete generally reduces the slump by about 50 mm. To overcome this and to improve workability, it is highly recommended that a super plasticizer be included in the mix. This is especially true for SFRC used for high-performance applications.

Generally, the ACI Committee Report No. ACI 554 µGuide for Specifying, Mixing, Placing and

Finishing Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete¶ is followed for the design of SFRC mixes appropriate to specific applications.

Fibre Shotcreting

³Shotcreting´ using steel fibres is being successfully employed in the construction of domes, ground level storage tanks, tunnel linings, rock slope stabilization and repair and retrofitting of deteriorated surfaces and concrete. Steel fibre reinforced shotcrete is substantially superior in toughness index and impact strength compared to plain concrete or mesh reinforced shotcrete. In Scandinavian countries, shotcreting is done by the wet process and as much as 60% of ground support structures (tanks and domes) in Norway are constructed using steel fibres. In many countries including India, steel fibre shotcrete has been successfully used in the construction of several railway and penstock tunnels (Fig. 7). Typical mix proportions for making fibre shotcrete with sand only, and with a combination of sand and coarse aggregate, is given in Table 3.

Applications of SFRC
The applications of SFRC depend on the ingenuity of the designer and builder in taking advantage of its much enhanced and superior static and dynamic tensile strength, ductility, energy-absorbing characteristics, abrasion resistance and fatigue strength. Growing experience and confidence by engineers, designers and contractors has led to many new areas of use particularly in precast, cast in-situ, and shotcrete applications. Traditional application where SFRC was initially used as pavements, has now gained wide acceptance in the construction of a number of airport runways, heavy-duty and container yard floors in several parts of the world due to savings in cost and superior performance during service. The advantages of SFRC have now been recognised and utilised in precast application where designers are looking for thinner sections and more complex shapes. Applications include building panels, sea-defence walls and blocks, piles, blast-resistant storage cabins, coffins, pipes, highway kerbs, prefabricated storage tanks, composite panels and ducts. Precast fibre reinforced concrete manhole covers and frames are being widely used in India, Europe and USA. Cast in-situ application includes bank vaults, bridges, nosing joints and water slides. ³Sprayedin´ ground swimming pools is a new and growing area of shotcrete application in Australia. SFRC has become a standard building material in Scandinavia.

Applications of SFRC to bio-logical shielding in atomic reactors and also to waterfront marine structures which have to resist deterioration at the air-water interface and impact loadings have also been successfully made. The latter category includes jetty armor, floating pontoons, and caissons. Easiness with which fibre concrete can be moulded to compound curves makes it attractive for ship hull construction either alone or in conjunction with ferrocement. Use of SFRC for repair work is also a growing market. Several tunnels and bridges have been repaired with spraying of layers of shotcrete after proper surface preparation. A few most common applications of SFRC are illustrated in Fig. 8. SFRC shotcrete has recently been used for sealing the recesses at the anchorages of post stressing cables in oil platform concrete structures. Recent developments in fibre types and their geometry and also in concrete technology and equipment for mixing, placing and compaction of SFRC and mechanized methods for shotcreting have placed Scandinavian and German consultants and contractors in a front position in fibre-shotcreting operations world wide.

Laboratory investigations have indicated that steel fibres can be used in lieu of stirrups in RCC frames, beams, and flat slabs and also as supplementary shear reinforcement in precast, thinwebbed beams. Steel fibre reinforcement can also be added to critical end zones of precast prestressed concrete beams and columns and in cast-in-place concrete to eliminate much of the secondary reinforcement. SFRC may also be an improved means of providing ductility to blastresistant and seismic-resistant structures especially at their joints, owing to the ability of the fibres to resist deformation and undergo large rotations by permitting the development of plastic hinges under over-load conditions.

Slurry Infiltrated Fibrous Concrete (SIFCON)

SIFCON is a high-strength, high-performance material containing a relatively high volume percentage of steel fibres as compared to SFRC. It is also sometimes termed as µhigh-volume fibrous concrete¶. The origin of SIFCON dates to 1979, when Prof. Lankard carried out extensive experiments in his laboratory in Columbus, Ohio, USA and proved that, if the percentage of steel fibres in a cement matrix could be increased substantially, then a material of very high strength could be obtained, which he christened as SIFCON. While in conventional SFRC, the steel fibre content usually varies from 1 to 3 percent by volume, it varies from 4 to 20 percent in SIFCON depending on the geometry of the fibres and the type of application. The process of making SIFCON is also different, because of its high steel fibre content. While in SFRC, the steel fibres are mixed intimately with the wet or dry mix of concrete, prior to the mix being poured into the forms, SIFCON is made by infiltrating a lowviscosity cement slurry into a bed of steel fibres µpre-packed¶ in forms/moulds (Fig. 9). The matrix in SIFCON has no coarse aggregates, but a high cementitious content. However, it may contain fine or coarse sand and additives such as fly ash, micro silica and latex emulsions. The matrix fineness must be designed so as to properly penetrate (infiltrate) the fibre network placed in the moulds, since otherwise, large pores may form leading to a substantial reduction in properties. A controlled quantity of high-range water-reducing admixture (super plasticizer)may be used for improving the flowing characteristics of SIFCON. All types of steel fibres, namely, straight, hooked, or crimped can be used. Proportions of cement and sand generally used for making SIFCON are 1: 1, 1:1.5, or 1:2. Cement slurry alone can also be used for some applications. Generally, fly ash or silica fume equal to 10 to 15% by weight of cement is used in the mix. The water-cement ratio varies between 0.3 and 0.4, while the percentage of the super plasticizer varies from 2 to 5% by weight of cement. The percentage of fibres by volume can be any where from 4 to 20%, even though the current practical range ranges only from 4 to 12%.

Uniaxial Tensile Strength
Unlike the cracks which form in continuous reinforced cementitious composites such as ferrocement, the cracks in SIFCON generally do not extend through the whole width of the specimen. Instead, they can be short and randomly distributed within the loaded volume, i.e. on the surface and through the depth of the specimen. The ultimate tensile strength of SIFCON typically varies from 20 to 50 MPa, depending on the percentage of steel fibres and the mix proportions used.

respectively.5. as well as its constructability and service life. Impact. SIFCON is found to possess excellent ductility both under monotonic and high-amplitude cyclic loading.8 MPa. Design Principles The design methods for SIFCON members must take into account their application or end-use. SIFCON exhibits an extremely ductile behavior under compression. mix proportion. 50 and 60 mm. and Repeated Loading SIFCON possesses extremely high abrasion and impact resistance. depending on the percentage of steel fibres incorporated in the matrix. strength. Denmark and India have shown that the ultimate shear strength of SIFCON specimens were 30. and a 28-day strength of 50 to 70 MPa.Compressive Strength The cement slurry (without fibres) used in the making of SIFCON generally develops a one-day strength of 25 to 35 MPa. The corresponding values for SIFCON composites are 40 to 80 MPa and 90 to 160 MPa. In general. The average shear strength of SIFCON can be taken as about 30 MPa as compared to just about 5 MPa for plain concrete.3 and 31. the property that needs to be enhanced. Fatigue.1. Resistance to Abrasion. when compared with plain concrete and SFRC specimens. Generally. indicating thereby that the fibre length does not seem to affect the shear strength. 28. Shear Strength Investigations carried out in USA. respectively. The values observed by several researchers range from 25 to 75 MPa with an average of about 40 MPa. a high-strength SIFCON mix can easily be designed and obtained . 40. It is several times that of ordinary plain or reinforced concrete. The resistance improves further drastically with the increase in the percentage of fibres. 33. Flexural Strength The ultimate flexural strength of SIFCON is found to be very high and is in the order of magnitude higher than that of normal SFRC. for fibre lengths of 30.

Since properties like ductility. 10 a & 10 b). fatigue and repeated loading regimes (Figs. crack resistance and penetration and impact resistance are found to be very high for SIFCON when compared to other materials. the term ³water-to-cement plus admixtures´ is used when designing the slurry mix. rehabilitation and strengthening of structures Rapid air-field repair work Concrete mega-structures like offshore and long-span structures. the ratio of the ³admixtures to cement´ is also an important parameter in the design of SIFCON. saddle piers) Military applications such as anti-missile hangers. strong rooms etc) Refractory applications (soak-pit covers. furnace lintels. the higher the strength of the slurry. It also exhibits a very high degree of ductility as a result of which it has excellent stability under dynamic. solar towers etc. because the slurry mixes used in SIFCON usually contain significant percentages of fly ash or silica fume or both. SIFCON should be considered as an efficient alternative construction material only for those applications where concrete or conventional SFRC can not perform as may be expected/required by the user or in situations where such unique properties as high strength and ductility are required.with virtually any type of steel fibres available today. In general. the strength of the slurry is a function of the water-cement ratio. the greater is the SIFCON strength. bridge decks and protective revetments Seismic and explosive-resistant structures Security concrete applications (safety vaults. Because of this. if the slurry is also of high strength. it is best suited for application in the following areas: y y y y y y y y y y y y Pavement rehabilitation and precast concrete products Overlays. It is also quite expensive. It is also to be noted that higher volume percentages of fibres need lower viscosity slurry to infiltrate the fibres thoroughly. Applications of SIFCON SIFCON possesses several desirable properties such as high strength and ductility. In addition. Like conventional concrete. . under-ground shelters Sea-protective works Primary nuclear containment shielding Aerospace launching platforms Repair.

about 15-20 minutes. as in the case of metals. ductility and durability. cracked pattern and ultimate failure mode. ensures effective particle wetting and high degree of micro-homogeneity. CRC has structural similarities with reinforced concrete in the sense that it also incorporates main steel bars. CRC specimens are produced using 10-20% volume of main reinforcement (in the form of steel bars of diameter from about 5 mm to perhaps 40 or 50 mm) evenly distributed across the cross section) and 5-10% by volume of fine steel fibres. having almost the same strength and extremely high ductility. ductile and strong.1-0. Prolonged processing time for mixing.The flow characteristics while mixing and pouring is aided by the use of micro silica and a dispersant. CRC is built up of a very strong and brittle cementitious matrix. and fracture energy from 5. . that takes into account the coherent and ductile phase of the composite. micro crack developed owing to the presence of a local flaw can not propagate and cause sudden tensile failure because of the interlinked pattern of main steel and fibres. Design of CRC The development and design of CRC is based on fracture mechanics principles/theories. Such highly fibre-reinforced concrete typically has compressive strengths ranging from 150 to 270 MPa. Some of the properties of CRC as obtained from extensive experiments carried out on CRC specimens are given in Table 4. 11).2 mm/m. Owing to this and also because of the large percentage of fibres used in its making.000 to as much as 30. thereby rendering the composite highly elastic. The water-cement ratio is generally very low. where as conventional reinforced concrete typically cracks at about 0. High-frequency vibration is often resorted to for getting a the mix compacted and to obtain homogeneity. but the main bars in CRC are large in number and are uniformly reinforced. The pioneering experiments carried out at this laboratory established the vast potential of CRC for applications that warrant high strength. CRC beams exhibit load capacities almost equivalent to those of structural steel and remain substantially uncracked right up to the yield limit of the main reinforcement (about 3 mm/m). toughened with a high concentration of fine steel fibres and an equally large concentration of conventional steel reinforcing bars continuously and uniformly placed across the entire cross section (Fig. The theories assume that. CRC was initially developed and tested by Prof. it exhibits mechanical behavior more like that of structural steel.000 N/m.18% and the particle size of sand in the cement slurry is between 2 and 4mm. about 0. In its cement-based version.Compact Reinforced Concrete (CRC) CRC is a new type of composite material.Bache at the laboratories of Aalborg Portland cement factory in Denmark. any single.

etc. large pressure tanks). Slurry Infiltrated Mat Concrete (SIMCON) .g. The high degree of ductility of CRC. load-carrying parts in large machines. or mechanical impact) or to resist uniformly distributed pressure. or for rapidly rotating large machine parts. where steel will fail due to brittleness or suffer functional deficiency due to progressive corrosion damage. vehicles. even at very low temperatures. to resist very large local loads with unknown attack position (from explosives. or special high-performance joints in conventional steel and concrete structures. where the performance is limited by the capacity of the materials to resist their own inertia loads.). be used for different forms of transport (ships. Because CRC has very high ³strength-density ratios´ (often greater than those of commonly used structural steel). either as pure compression or pure tension (e. CRC finds its principal use in hybrid constructions ± for example. say. It could.Applications of CRC CRC can probably be used especially in the form of large plates or shells designed. for example. where weight and inertia loads are decisive. for instance. where large forces have to be concentrated in small volumes. it offers particularly interesting possibilities for members. will make CRC very interesting for large objects that have to resist large loads at low temperatures. where low weight is essential. Because of the far better possibilities of forming CRC and combining it with several other components than those afforded by steel.

SIMCON broadens these market applications by cutting the fibre quantity to less than half and there by substantially reducing the product cost. Steel fibres produced directly from molten metal using a chilled wheel concept are interwoven into a 0. in the making of SIMCON. A reinforcement level in SIMCON of only 25% of that of conventional SIFCON is found to provide as much as 75% of the latter¶s ultimate flexural strength.5 to 2 inches thick mat.SIMCON can also be considered a pre-placed fibre concrete. SIMCON is made using a non-woven ³steel fibre mats´ that are infiltrated with a concrete slurry. still achieving identical flexural strength and energy absorbing toughness. Higher aspect ratios are desirable to obtain increased flexural strength.01 to 0. factors such as aspect ratio and fibre volume have a direct influence on the performance of SIMCON. This mat is then rolled and coiled into weights and sizes convenient to a customer¶s application (normally up to 120 cm wide and weighing around 200 kg). hence. While the use of SIFCON is presently limited only to specialised applications owing to high material and labour costs involved in the incorporation of a very high volume of discrete fibres that are required for achieving vastly improved performance.5 in long with an equivalent diameter of about 0.01 to 0. Since the mat is already in a preformed shape. be substantially less than that required for making of SIFCON. such as military structures or industrial applications requiring high strength and ductility. The fibre volume can. As in conventional SFRC. handling problems are significantly minimised resulting in savings in labour cost. because of the use of mats. Applications of SIMCON SIMCON offers the designer a premium building material to meet the specialised niche applications.02 in) and stainless steel mats (produced using 9. The advantage of using steel fibre mats over a large volume of discrete fibres is that the mat configuration provides inherent strength and utilizes the fibres contained in it with very much higher aspect ratios. However. ³balling´ of fibres does not become a factor at all in the production of SIMCON. the fibres are placed in a ³mat form´ rather than as discrete fibres. Besides this.02 in) have revealed that SIMCON has performed very well compared with SIFCON specimens that had a steel fibre content of 14% by volume as illustrated in Table 5. SIMCON the aspect ratios of fibres contained in it could well exceed 500. It is clear from the table that the energy-absorption capacity of SIMCON is far superior to SIFCON. Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) .5 in long fibres with an equivalent diameter of about 0. Generally. similar to SIFCON. Investigations using manganese carbon steel mats (having fibres approximately 9.

A view of another bridge built in Japan using RPC filled stainless tube supporting columns is shown in Fig. therefore. the pozzalolanic reaction of the silica fume is accelerated resulting in further modifying of the structure of the hydrates and in concrete strengths as high as 500MPa. refined microstructure and homogeneity is achieved by using dense and powder-like particles smaller than 600 microns. Canada is given in Table 6. By confining RPC (with steel fibres) in mild steel /stainless steel tubes and applying pressure-cumheating techniques during its casting. and traditional sand is replaced totally by finely ground quartz of particle size less than 300 microns. In due course of time. do not contain any aggregates. Paris. A high degree of strength. RPC is expected to outperform normal high performance concretes (HPC) as illustrated in Table 7. The compactness of an RPC mix is enhanced further by pressing the mix before and during setting. compactness. 12. First developed by BouyguesSA. It is reported that very high strengths of 200 to 800 MPa can be obtained for RPC with cement contents of 955 to 1000 kg/m3. and in some cases 300 microns. Quebec. RPC.Another recent development in concrete technology is the production of reactive powder concrete (RPC) containing steel fibres as macro-reinforcement. . its processing has been patented. Even though RPC is very strong. the compressive strength and ductility can be improved tremendously. it exhibits a brittle failure when fibres are not present. while still in the moulds/forms and by using a very low water-cement ratio (about 0. and by the addition of 2 to 5% of steel fibres. By subjecting the material to low or high pressure steam curing and by applying pressures up to 50 MPa.2%). Typical composition of an RPC mix used in the construction of the very first RPC pedestrian bridge built in 1997 in Sherbrooke.

The reason for these materials not finding favour with designers as well as user agencies in the country could be attributed to the non-availability of steel fibres on a commercial scale till a few years ago. possible now to use new-age construction materials like SIFCON and CRC in our country in the construction of several structures that demand high standards of strength coupled with superior performance and durability. CRC. Methodologies & Management organized by the Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology at Hyderabad during 21-22 January. even the well-proven SFRC has not found many applications yet. Cementitious Composites with Steel Reinforcement . For that matter. SIFCON. The author thanks the organizers of the Conference for giving consent to make use of them in the preparation of this paper. SIMCON and RPC are yet to be used in any major construction projects. The situation has now changed. therefore. in spite of the fact that its vast potentials for civil engineering uses are quite well known. Plain round or flat and corrugated steel fibres are presently available in the country in different lengths and diameters. Acknowledgment Some of the pictures and tables included in the paper have been freely extracted from the Keynote paper presented by the author at the National Conference on Advances in Construction Materials. It is. 2009.Indian Scenerio In India.

J. With the advent of new materials. Compatibility of ECC with reinforcement and concrete in terms of deformation and strength is discussed. Plain cementitious matrix is used in frame specimens to estimate deformation behavior and formation of plastic hinges. the following performances are desirable: i. Professor. Introduction In earthquake resistant design. Rathod. Concrete integrity under load reversals and Concrete damage contained within a relatively short hinging zone. These performances are difficult to achieve with ordinary concrete. investigation of response mechanism of composite moment resisting frame system with large energy dissipation capabilities. iv. S. there is a constant need for designers to find innovative ways to incorporate these materials into new applications. This paper reports. Ductile plastic hinge behavior under high shear stress. Deformation mechanism of plain cementitious matrix suggested economic use of ECC by replacement with concrete in some areas. Load-displacement curves are plotted and compared for damage tolerance evaluation. allow designers to create structures previously impossible due to limitations of minimum reinforcement. C. iii. micro structurally tailored with strain hardening and multiple cracking properties. number of load cycles. Patodi. These materials with tensile performance magnitudes higher than Reinforced Concrete (R/ C). Faculty of Technology & Engineering. D. minimum clear cover or excessive cracking in R/C.Response of Engineered Cementitious Composites with Steel Reinforcement and Concrete in Moment Resisting Frames Dr. it may be expected that the following properties of the concrete material in the plastic hinge should be advantageous: . In general. Crack width is measured as a function of load for damage reduction evaluation and toughness index is found out for post peak performance evaluation.University Baroda. sequence of application of load cycles and permissible reduction in strength at the end of loading.S. At the beam column connection level. although some encouraging results have been obtained with Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC)[1]. The replacement of brittle concrete with an Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC). the structural system performance requirements can be specified in terms of minimum ductility ratio. has shown to provide improved load-deformation characteristics in terms of reinforced composite tensile strength. The field of civil engineering is currently at a cross roads of equal significance with development of new materials termed as High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (HPFRCC). which represents a class of HPFRCC. No congestion of transverse reinforcement for confinement and for shear. deformation mode and energy absorption. M. Desirable performance of the plastic hinge is not easy to translate directly into numerical quantities of materials property requirement. however. Expected plastic hinge regions are properly detailed by steel reinforcement. ii. Applied Mechanics Department.

Compatible deformation implies that there is no shear lag between the steel and the ECC. in R/C members the stress must be transferred via interface to the concrete away from the crack site. ECC is a class of ultra ductile fibre reinforced cementitious composite used to achieve above objectives without introducing ductile detailing in a structure. High shear and spall resistance to avoid integrity loss by diagonal fractures and Enhanced mechanism that increases inelastic energy dissipation. As a result. the inelastic deformation is associated with micro cracking with continued load carrying capacity across these cracks[3]. In contrast. Interaction between ECC and concrete is observed and possibility of replacing ECC with concrete is explored. Because the tensile behavior of ECC is ductile. while the steel takes over the additional load shed by the concrete. interact with reinforcement and concrete. the effects of cementitious composite ductility on the steel reinforced behavior are experimentally investigated and contrasted to the unreinforced composite. ECC can eliminate premature delamination or surface spalling in an ECC/concrete combination. L-type plane frame and portal frame specimens are used for the experimental investigation. Low tensile first cracking strength to initiate damage within the plastic hinge.i. With tensile strain hardening and ultra high tensile strain capacity. Both. iii. High compression strain capacity to avoid loss of integrity by crushing. iv. the bond between ECC and reinforcement is not as critical as in normal R/C.35 and . Fiber volume fraction of 4% was used which was found as optimum fiber volume fraction by pilot tests. Kamal brand 53 grade OPC. 300 m passing silica sand. ECC when used with ordinary reinforcement detailing replacing the concrete at some key places. As a result. When ECC structural element is loaded in flexure or shear beyond the elastic range. resulting in a very low level of shear stress at their interface. ECC has excellent shear capacity. the two materials remain compatible in deformation even as steel yields. R/ ECC elements may need less or no conventional steel shear reinforcement. Under shear ECC develops multiple cracking with cracks aligned normal to the principal tensile direction. since stress can be transmitted directly through the ECC via bridging fibers even after microcraking. the concrete unloads elastically near the crack site. Material Composition Recron 3S brand synthetic fibers of triangular cross section produced by Reliance Industries were used with cementitious matrix. ECC can sustain very large deformation without damage localization. ECC can be used in some fused zones so that with the above performance. the shear response is correspondingly ductile. ECC can undergo upto 5% strain in tension. reinforcing steel and ECC can be considered as elastic-plastic material capable of sustaining deformation up to several percent strains. In the present work. overall performance of the structure can be enhanced[2]. ii. As a result of low interfacial stress between steel and the ECC. 2% dose of concrete super± plasticizer of conplast SP430 brand with w/c ratio as 0. yet at the lower fibre volume of 2% with flexible processing. This leads to incompatible deformation and high interface shear stress responsible for the commonly observed failure modes such as bond splitting and/or spalling of the concrete cover. After concrete cracks in an R/C element. The tight crack width in ECC has advantageous implications on structural durability and on the minimization of repair needs subsequent to severe loading of an ECC member. Tight crack width control in ECC is examined.

35 and 0.sand/cement ratio as 0. 3 specimens each. were cast with plain cementitious matrix (PCC).5 mm size coarse aggregates with w/c ratio of 0. Loaddisplacement curves were plotted and data were automatically recorded using basic Testware data acquisition facility.5% dose of superplasticizer were used to produce concrete for use in combination with ECC in C-ECC specimens. 12. Flow table test was performed to satisfy workability criteria in fresh state. Test setups for plane frame and portal frame specimens are shown in Figure 2. silica sand confirming to zone III. Load and displacement at the first crack and at ultimate load were recorded during the test. steel reinforced ECC (R-ECC). 3 specimens each. Specimen Configuration L-type plane frame specimens.407. Experimental Programme For the preparation of specimens. ECC with 4% fiber. Basic Testware available on computer supervised controller was used to conduct the test. specimens were fixed into prefabricated experimental set up on MTS machine. All the specimens were kept in curing tank for 28 days at room temperature. and combination of ECC and concrete (C-ECC). After putting proper identification mark. After filling the mould with the matrix. Crack width was measured for the first initiated crack during the test with the help of travelling microscope having least count of 0. Specimen configuration of LFigure type frame and portal frame specimens is shown in Figure 1. All the specimens were tested in flexure at a displacement control rate of 0.295:2.5 were used for the preparation of samples of ECC in the present experimental investigation. In addition. Mix proportion for concrete used was 1:1. it was compacted and demoulded after 24 hours. Portal frame specimens.005 mm/sec. the ingredients in required proportion were mixed in Hobart type mixer machine. Mild steel reinforcement having yield strength of 250 N/mm2 was used in R-ECC specimen. Discussion of Test Results . Kamal brand 53 grade OPC. were cast with plain cementitious matrix and ECC with 4% fiber.01 mm.

There is marginal increase in reserved strength but considerable improved performance in deflection hardening over plain cementitious matrix is observed. Reserved strength refers to increase in strength of the member upto ultimate load over the first crack strength. ECC-4% matrix has load and displacement values higher than plain matrix. This criterion is used to represent residue strength of the material. This value shows inelastic deformation capability of the member which represents ductility of the material. Plain matrix failed suddenly with no reserved strength and deflection hardening.5 times than plain cementitious matrix. Maximum deflection .y L-type frame specimens were tested under flexure. Deflection hardening refers to increase in deflection of the member upto ultimate load over the first crack deflection. First crack displacement is almost 2 times and ultimate displacement is almost 3. First crack load and ultimate load results are reported in Table 1 for plain matrix (L-0%) and ECC with 4% (L-4%) fiber matrix.

One can utilize design strength up to ultimate strength of ECC matrix in strain hardening zone. ECC.69 N/mm2 that of plain matrix.frame was recorded and was found within 150 m at ultimate load. Toughness index I5 for ECC.4% specimen is found as 4. Development of cracks and crack width are therefore important in strain hardening zone.21 which for a plain matrix could not be represented as it failed suddenly after the formation of first crack.Toughness index I5 is calculated as area under the load displacement curve for 3 times first crack displacement divided by the area under load displacement curve for first crack displacement. Crack generation history in the column of L frame is tabulated in Table 2 in which crack number along with its location from bottom of the beam is presented. which is also indicative of energy absorption capacity of the material. According to ACI committee 224.y y y y hardening achieved is more than 100%. ultimate crack width should be limited to 150 m when member is exposed to an environment of seawater and seawater spray in wetting and drying [4]. Spacing of the cracks was more below the crack number 4. Load-displacement curves are plotted for all the three specimens of ECC-4% as shown in Figure 3. . Strain hardening is observed in all the specimens with very little linear portion in the beginning. One should make sure that migration of aggressive substances into matrix should be eliminated so that corrosion of reinforcement and subsequently spalling of matrix and delamination can be prevented. Post peak performance of the material can be represented by this value.63 N/mm2 against 2. First crack load and ultimate load of PCC. Number of crack formation with increase in load in the column of L±type specimen is shown in Figure 4. Strain hardening was not observed in plain cementitious matrix. Crack width was measured of the first visual crack and then crack width development with increase in load in the column of L. Ultimate flexural strength of ECC-4% is found as 3. Rate of increase of crack width as a function of load gives information about consideration of design load for particular crack width criteria. ECC matrix is well known for its tight crack width control which is utmost important for the durability of a member. First crack generated right below the bottom of the beam and subsequent cracks appeared below first crack with spacing of about 2 cm up to middle of the column as the load increased. Failure of L-type specimens took place due to rotation of column in the middle at crack number 4. RECC and CECC frames are given in Table 3. Portal frame specimens were tested under flexure to evaluate ECC performance along with combination of reinforcement and concrete.

ECC.51 N/mm2 [5] which is approximately double than M20 concrete. Also.89 N/mm2 [5] was used alongwith ECC matrix as per the plastic hinge formation and compression zone requirement in plain cementitious matrix. In R-ECC samples nominal mild steel reinforcement of diameter 4 mm and 6 mm were used as shown in Figure 1(D). This behavior is reflected in ECC sample number 1 and 3. the deformation compatibility between ECC and reinforcement was observed. Ultimate flexural strength and shear strength in PCC. R-ECC and C-ECC.44% and deflection hardening as 331. RECC and C-ECC are calculated and tabulated in Table 5. and end of the beam (BC). Sample number 3 of ECC-4% performed well in both and showed reserved strength as 365.38% which is the maximum among ECC. RECC specimens showed consistent enhanced performance with percentage reserved strength and percentage deflection hardening. Bending moment and shear force at the base of column (AB). Shear resistance is contributed by ECC material only. Shear reinforcement was not used looking to the enhanced shear capacity of ECC material. Calculated shear strength in . Deformation compatibility between ECC and concrete and enhancement of strength perfor± mance after first crack is. Ultimate shear strength of ECC material for ECC-4% is 7. questionable which can be observed from the poor results of percentage reserved strength and percentage deflection harde± ning. Replac±ement of ECC by concrete is indicated by dark portion in Figure 1(C). along with bending moment at the center of the beam are calculated and tabulated in Table 4. however.y y y Lower first crack strength and then large amount of plastic hinge formation is desirable for seismic response so as to have large energy dissipation. Concrete of compressive strength 58. top ofcolumn (BA). CECC specimens render economy in strength perfor± mance as is clear from the higher first crack and ultimate strength compare to ECC. Shear reinforcement is not provided in R-ECC specimen. Contribution of mild steel in flexure and associated consistent compatible deformation is highlighted in the result of R-ECC.

ECC-4. y y y y Crack width as a function of load was measured on the column of RECC sample number 2 and results are given in Table 6.67 could be obtained for ECC. 21.494 N. RECC specimen performed the best with respect to strength.000 N load is slow but then it becomes fast.sample number 1 is 12. strain hardening and post peak behavior. .02 N/mm2 which is higher than the ultimate shear strength of ECC. Therefore. Toughness indices are found out for ECC. First crack initiated right at the bottom of the beam and new cracks generated below the first crack at approximately constant spacing with increase in load unlike ECC specimen.833 N load but then suddenly it became fast. Crack width remained 100 mm at a load of 19. Structural element should be loaded corresponding to maximum permissible crack width of 150 m from durability point of view. the toughness index of 12. Development of the crack width upto 20.000 N load is found to act for the threshold crack width of 150 m. R-ECC and C-ECC and tabulated in Table 8. 20. R-ECC and C-ECC specimens. There was a slow crack width development upto 20. Approximately. Load displacement curves are plotted in Figure 7 for PCC.000 N causes crack width within limit of 150 m. shear failure of beam in R-ECC specimen is observed as shown in Figure 5. PCC and CECC could not show strain hardening. Approximately. Development of crack width was also measured in beam of RECC sample number 3. Crack development along with its location in the column from bottom of a beam for RECC was studied and is represented here in Figure 6 and Table 7. As load displacement curve of ECC indicates the best post peak performance. ECC-4 specimen showed well defined strain hardening and post peak performance with less first crack load.

Shear resistance of ECC is also quite large. The multiple cracks at the outside of the midspan were inclined similar to the shear cracks in the R-ECC beams. punching was not observed. The crack pattern of ECC. The first crack at the top of the column widened and rotation took place from this crack. . R-ECC and CECC specimens. R-ECC and C-ECC are shown in Fig. but it requires careful design. R-ECC specimens having larger resistance to rotation due to reinforcement did not fail due to rotation. The first crack started at the midspan of the beam on the tensile face. spalling. Fractured surface of combination of ECC material with concrete revealed that there is good bond between two materials. Shear strength of the beam at support became more than ultimate shear strength of ECC material. R-ECC and CECC were distinctly different from that of PCC. Therefore. 8. Single crack formation at the center of the beam and top of the columns were responsible for failure of the PCC specimen. C-ECC has no problem with flexural strength compatibility. one of the cracks from the midspan started to open up after the development of large damage zone. Horizontal parallel cracks starting from the top of the column at the constant spacing of 2 to 5 cm developed upto the center of the column as shown in Figure 6. ECC plays significant role in rotation of such plastic hinges in ductile manner. It requires further investigation for proper interface behavior. ECC-4. As the ultimate load approached. Shear reinforcement can thus be minimized or eliminated. Shear reinforcement was not provided in the beam. Cracks were not seen along the reinforcement even after such large inelastic deformation which indicates good compatibility between reinforcement and ECC.y y Crack patterns for PCC. without any delamination and spalling. and multiple cracks developed from the first cracking point and spreaded to the outside of the midspan. beam of RECC failed due to shear from one of the ends as shown in Figure 5. R-ECC renders maximum improvement in structural performance. However. Eventually. Conclusion y y y Plastic hinges were formed at beam column junction in L and Portal frames. energy absorption capacity of plastic hinges in such cases is greatly enhanced. Debonding of ECC with steel reinforcement due to shear. This crack pattern gave information about reinforcement detailing and concrete substitution. it has poor deformation compatibility. Rotation of the beam in the center and at the top of the column was seen in ECC. ECC has compatible deformation and good bond strength with steel reinforcement. Total collapse of structure can be much delayed or damage can be minimized with the help of such fused zones made with ECC and thus the overall performance of the structure can be improved.

V.. 1.. V. ECC can be effectively used in cover with less thickness. Michigan. pp. higher cement content and use of high performance super± plasticizer. ³Intrinsic Response Control of Moment-Resisting Frames Utilizing Advanced Composite Materials and Structural Elements.1002/ app. G. Amravati.Novel Approach with Pre blended Material . pp.. G. Tight crack width control is the key property of ECC for durability performance.´ ACI Structural Journal. The additional cost of ECC over normal concrete is mostly because of the use of fibres. K. Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank Reliance Industries Ltd. 2003. The life cycle cost of structure includes not only the initial material cost but also the construction and maintenance cost. Kamal brand 53 Grade OPC cement and Conplast Super Plasticizer respectively. Finally. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. 2263. New Delhi for providing a grant of Rs. H. March 2007. K. Li.. ³Study of Recron 3S Fibers Reinforced Cementitious Composites. ³Effect of Matrix Ductility on Deformation Behavior of Steel Reinforced ECC Flexural Members under Reversed Cyclic Loading Conditions. 25. C. S. 99-s. Ann Arbor.´ ACE-MRL.6 Lakhs. and Li. This strong column-weak beam concept can be used for specimen configuration and thus hinge formation in the column can be avoided.A Review of the Material and its Applications. for supporting this research work by providing Recron 3s fibers. B. D. and Patel. ³On Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). References y y y y Fischer. Patodi for upgrading the testing facilities used in this investigation. 79.´ National Conference on Emerging Technology and Developments in Civil Engineering. C. and Li.y y y In R-ECC. This is the reason why optimization of the composite to minimize the fibre content is so important. under FIST Project. C. S. No. Li.´ Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology. Parikh. Vol. 2002. ³Large Volume. No. Rathod. to Prof. Patodi. High-Performance Applications of Fibers in Civil Engineering. University of Michigan. Title No. V. pp. 215230. I-88 to I95. C. C. and Fosroc Chemicals Ltd. vertical and inclined multiple cracks with close spacing are observed in beam portion while horizontal cracks with 2 to 3 cm spacing are observed in columns of portal frame specimens. Ultimate crack width of ECC matrix remains within 150 mm upto quite large load considered to be sound for concrete durability. 100-S18. High Performance Concrete . J. economy of ECC should be based on cost/benefit analysis. 3.´ ACI Structural Journal. V. ECC and C-ECC. Thus. Grasim Industries Ltd. Thanks are also due to the funding agency DST. C. Nov. March-April 2003. DOI 10. 2000. Damage zone is large in column compared to beam. Fischer.

S.Dr.A. HES). consequently high performance concrete are more durable when exposed to aggressive environmental conditions.21 Mpa within 4 hours after placement (Very Early Strength. American Association of State Highway and Transportation (AASHTO). Transportation Research Board (TRB). results in a very dense microstructure having a very fine and more or less well connected capillary system. Manjrekar. SHRP was developed in partnership with the State Departments of Transportation. and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The low water/binder ratio of high performance concrete. This fact has been endorsed by a case study of the use of specially formulated HPC in an aggressive chemical environment at a fertilizer plant in Gujarat. Concrete with a maximum water-cementitious ratio (W/C) of 0. High performance concrete is an engineered concrete obtained through a careful selection and proportioning of its constituents. . Mumbai. VES). industry. 2. . Chairman and Managing Director. Ltd. 6.69 MPa within 28 days (Very High Strength. VHS) High performance concrete can hence be defined as an engineered concrete with low water/binder concrete with an optimized aggregate/binder ratio to control its dimensional stability and which receive an adequate water curing.34 MPa within 24 hours (High Early Strength. that is its universal characteristic. S. asdetermined by ASTM C 666 Concrete with a minimum strength criteria of either . The concrete is made with the same basic ingredients but has a totally different microstructure than ordinary concrete. 3. 4. high performance concrete¶s dense microstructure make the migration of aggressive ions more difficult. or . Sunanda Speciality Coatings Pvt. The Strategic Highway Research Programme (SHRP) is a $150. 5. K. What is High Performance Concrete? The concrete that was known as high-strength concrete in late seventies is now referred to as high performance concrete because it has been found to be much more than simply strong.35 Concrete with a minimum durability factor of 80%. The development of high performance concrete is a giant step in making concrete a high-tech material with enhanced characteristics and durability.000.00 product-driven research program under the Federal-aid highway program in U. SHRP defined HPC as : 1.

When the concrete¶s compressive strength is limited by the coarse aggregate. Most of concrete¶s useful mechanical characteristics can be linked to concrete compressive strength with simple empirical formulas. and fillers such as limestone. Concrete compressive strength is closely related to the density of the hardened matrix. In such cases. Ternary systems are increasingly used to take advantage of the synergy of supplementary cementitious materials to improve concrete properties in the fresh and hardened states and to make high performance concrete more economical. the water/ binder and water/cement ratios should be alongside each other. the transition zone between the coarse aggregate and the hydrated cement paste practically disappears. This is the case with elastic modulus and the modulus of rupture (flexural strength). the only way to get higher strength is to use a stronger aggregate. In some areas. to reflect the fact that the cementitious component of high performance concrete can be cement alone or any combination of cement with supplementary cementitious materials. rice husk ash. metakaolin. The aggregate component (especially the coarse aggregate) contributes little to the mechanical properties of ordinary concrete. which should favor the use of more general expression water/binder ratio. As the strength of the hydrated cement paste increases in high performance concrete. concrete failure can start to develop within the coarse aggregate itself. because the hydrated cement paste and the transition zone around coarse-aggregate particles constitute the weakest links in concrete. decreasing the water/binder ratio below a certain level is not practical because the strength of the high performance concrete will not significantly exceed the aggregate¶s compressive strength. Despite the fact that most high performance concrete mixtures contain at least one supplementary cementitious material. As a consequence. High performance Concrete: A Composite Material Standard concrete can be characterized solely by its compressive strength because that can directly be linked to the cement paste¶s water/cement ratio. silica fume. flyash. high performance concrete behaves like a true composite material.1 Making HPC . there can be exceptions to the water/binder ratio law when dealing with high performance concrete. which means that most of the early properties of high performance concrete can be linked to its water/ cement ratio while its long-term properties are rather linked to its water/binder ratio. slag.Water/Cement or Water/Binder Ratio Both expressions were deliberately used above. This is because most of the supplementary cementitious materials that go into high performance concrete are not as reactive as portland cement. such as. Since there is proper stress transfer under these conditions. High performance concrete has also taught us that the coarse aggregate can be the weakest link in concrete when the strength of hydrated cement paste is drastically increased by lowering the water/binder ratio. either singly or together. which still is the best indicator of paste porosity.

Therefore. there is little cement and more water than is required to fully hydrate the cement particles present. just as though the concrete was drying. water stays within concrete means it only migrates towards the very fine pores created by the volumetric contraction of the cement paste. This phenomenon is called selfdesiccation. as explained below. But. The result is that no menisci. the coarse capillaries will be empty of water as hydration progresses.2 Concrete Shrinkage If water curing is essential to develop the potential strength of cement in plain concrete. This means that the hydrated cement paste does not shrink at all when selfdesiccation develops. can generate high tensile stresses that shrink the hydrated cement paste. if no drying is occurring and if no external water is added during curing. In ordinary concrete with a high water/cement ratio greater than 0. superplasticizer. in ordinary concrete. Compressive strengths from 50 to 75 MPa can usually be achieved easily with most cements. because their individual characteristics significantly affect the properties of the final product. autogenous shrinkage is as large as the drying shrinkage observed in ordinary concrete when these two types of drying develop in capillaries of the same diameter. and no autogenous shrinkage develops within the high performance concrete. and the other admixtures must be carefully selected and checked. whereas . course aggregates. This network drains water from coarse capillaries. Therefore. the menisci rapidly develop in small capillaries if no external water is added. so that the capillary network that developed within the fresh paste is essentially composed of fine capillaries. an essential difference between ordinary concrete and high performance concrete is that ordinary concrete exhibits no autogenous shrinkage whether or not it is water-cured. if there is an external supply of water. In the case of high performance concrete with a water/binder ratio of 0. for example. when concrete dries. water evaporates to the atmosphere. Particular attention must be paid to water content. Each ingredient viz : cement. early water curing is crucial for high performance concrete in order to avoid the rapid development of autogenous shrinkage and tocontrol concrete dimensional stability. no tensile stress.50. Of course. The difference between drying and selfdesiccation is that. When self-desiccation starts to develop as soon as hydration begins. This early shrinkage is referred to as autogenous shrinkage. Since many cement grains start to hydrate simultaneously in high performance concrete. the capillaries do not dry out as long as they are connected to this external source of water. supplementary cementitious materials. the drying of very fine capillaries. while during selfdesiccation. Cement paste hydration is accompanied by an absolute volume contraction that creates a very fine pore network within the hydrated cement paste. A large amount of this water is contained in well connected large capillaries. Even seemingly insignificant volumes of water present in the aggregates or admixtures must be accounted for. which start to dry out if no external water is supplied. sand.High performance concrete can not be made by a casual approach. significantly more cement and less mixing water have been used.30 or less.

or fogging are the best ways to cure HPC. then and only then. selfleveling. The water curing can be stopped after 7 days because most of the cement at the surface of concrete will have hydrated and any further water curing will have little effect on the development of autogenous shrinkage due to compactness of the HPC microstructure. most of the time. They have no value in inhibiting autogenous shrinkage. . it is prone to develop severe plastic shrinkage because it is not protected by bleed water. one of these two methods must be applied as soon as possible immediately following placement or finishing. HPC experiences little drying shrinkagedue to the compactness of its microstructure and because autogenous shrinkage will have already dried out the coarse capillaries pores. by this time. In fact. the best thing to do is to paint HPC with an sealing agent so that the last remaining drops of water in the concrete can hydrate more cement particles. Autogenous shrinkage will not develop in high performance concrete if the capillaries are interconnected and have access to external water.high performance concrete can experience significant autogenous shrinkage if it is not watercured during the hydration process. will autogenous shrinkage start to develop within the hydrated cement paste of a high performance concrete. a great deal of autogenous shrinkage will already have occurred and. the experience gained with ordinary concrete has taught us that concrete durability is mainly governed by concrete impermeability and the harshness of the environment. Based on years of experience with ordinary concrete. Durability of HPC The durability of a material in a particular environment can only be established by time. the short time during which efficient water curing must be applied to HPC can be considered a significant advantage over ordinary concrete. If HPC is not water-cured immediately following placement or finishing. the most critical period is usually from 12 to 36 hours. we can safely assume that high performance concrete is more durable than ordinary concrete. the microstructure will already be so compact that any external water will have little chance of penetrating very deep into the concrete. they can only help to prevent the development of plastic shrinkage in high performance concrete. There is no real advantage to paint a very porous concrete since it is impossible to obtain an absolutely impermeable coating. While curing membranes provide adequate protection for ordinary concrete (which is not subject to autogenous shrinkage). however. painting HPC. whenever possible. Those who specify and use HPC must be aware of the dramatic consequences of skipping early water curing. and later on develops severe autogenous shrinkage due to rapid hydration reaction. High performance concrete must be cured quite differently from ordinary concrete because of the difference in shrinkage behavior described above. the most critical curing period for any HPC runs from placement or finishing up to 2 or 3 days later. Water ponding. A specially designed high performance. Initiating water curing after 24 hours is too late because. Indeed. Therefore. Even then. after 7 days of water curing. Moreover. is easier and more effective. When the continuity of the capillary system is broken. nonshrink pre-blended high performance concrete was formulated and was put into use against the aggressive chemical environments at a fertilizer plant in Gujarat ± Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers Ltd. (GNFC). During this time.

diminishing of cement slurry and erosion like failure was also observed. huge wastage was observed in second method which made the second method uneconomical. First method failed earlier as compared to second method. Subsequently. Limitations of Conventional Solution . it results into availability of free lime in CAN granules. corrosion of reinforcement and disintegration of concrete by dissolution of cement slurry were observed. thickness was to build up in layers. loss of external finish. but CAN which is available in free form in the CAN granules. reacts with hydration products of concrete and deteriorates concrete. As the mixture is not a chemical reaction. Additionally. Concrete in cover portion started sounding hollow which would ultimately result into debonding. were added. Lime is inert and remains in dormant condition as far as effect on concrete structure is concerned. The droplets were chemically analysed and they were found to be containing CAN. GNFC is a world largest single stream manufacturer of ammonia and urea. application of good bond coat and repairing of the reinforcement bars by welding was carried out. Both the alternatives were tried but they failed. These are the signs of medium corrosion of RC members wherein cracks. the thickness was to be built up by pouring concrete after providing suitable shuttering and in second method. One was to build up the thickness of damaged/removed concrete by concrete of higher grade after water washing of exposed surface of beam. leaching of liquid and progressive reduction in strength etc. CAN also reacts with reinforcement present in RC member and causes corrosion. As such. Coarse aggregates could be seen on the surface of RC member. CAN is a physical mixture of ammonium nitrate and lime mixed at a particular temperature to form granules. In addition to this hollow sound and cracks. Second method was to build up the thickness with epoxy screed after similar preparations. would occur These observations were immediately followed by the signs of corrosion wherein debonding and spalling of concrete. for diversification various products viz. Ammonium Nitro-phosphate (ANP). Conventional Solution Two alternatives were initially decided to be implemented.This pre-blended high performance concrete was specially formulated to meet the MES & VES proportion as defined in the SHRP programme. Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) etc. It was found on further investigation that CAN is highly hygroscopic and hence it would attract moisture from atmosphere and form watery layer all around the surface on which CAN is present. In first method. Problem The signs of damages/ deterioration on concrete particularly in CAN plant were first observed in the form of cracks on edges of RC member which started widening within a span of 6 to 8 months. this type of failure in RC members can be due to many reasons but one observation which narrowed down the probabilities was observation of watery droplets around these members.

CAN. POLYCRETE is a high strength. Its application procedures are much simple than conventional methods. impermeable high performance concrete. Stresses resulting in debond of the repair mortar Unapproachability to surface ofcut outs due to their covering by ducts/equipment which enclosed a part of surface and could not be approached and repaired. fast setting. Considering the overall view of the problems as well the limitations involved the job demanded a robust. Based on all the above properties and parameters coupled with ease in application and fast . b. Repairing was carried out in running plant where airborne CAN dust and humidity were present. present in core of concrete which was not apparently visible and hence it was not removed. Besides combining all the above properties it also is free flowing and self levelling. Immediate coating of repaired surface. fast setting and non shrink specially formulated HPC. Minor vibrations transmitted from the equipment during repairing activity. c. Innovative Solution All these advertise were examined jointly with the representatives of GNFC. stopping the breathing of repair mortar and implemented.a. non-shrink. f. Repair system limitation was that the repairing was in layers each of 25 mm thickness which sandwiched CAN dust in-between every layer and did not allow to establish a proper inter layer bond. d. e.

3. pp. P. 0. P.. P. Benmokrane. 5. Aitcin.C. ³High Performance Concrete Speeds Reconstruction of McDonald¶s. References 1..´ to be published in Concrete International. (Sept..U.-C (Sept. ³Ecological properties of Building Materials.´ ACI Materials Journal. E.Oct.strengths which will delay CAN particles from depositions again POLYCRETE was suitably selected for the project. Nilsen. Repair procedures were suggested which included a Low viscosity Bonding agent and shear keys as per design requirements. Aitcin. Vol.´ ACI SP144. Kreijger.. This system has ensured that the repaired portion has an excellent mechanical strength and all chances of its getting debonded from original surface are eliminated. Concrete Containing More Than Two Admixtures . 14. (1987). B. Strength of the repaired mass was measured in December 1997 and it was found to be around 650 Kg/cm2. No. ³In-Situ Measurements of the Permeability of Concrete to Chloride Ions.-C.´ Concrete International. 199) ³Influence of Coarse Aggregate on Elastic Properties of high performance concrete. Vol. Present Scenario This system has been applied in end of September. 16. pp. ³Properties of High-Strength Concrete Containing Light-. A. 1994).. Dallaire. Lessard.-C.-C. No. W. 1997.. Summer.. pp. pp.´ Cement.. 1.(Vol. 1997) ³The Various Types of Shrinkage Deformation in Concrete: An Integrated View. Baalbaki. 6. Blouin. 83-104.. pp. P. 499-503.. Concrete and Aggregates. D. 2. pp. Aitcin. 9. 5.M. Normal±and Heavyweight Aggregate. (Sept.. 501-524. (1993) ³Durable Concrete±Current Practice and Future Trends. 8-12.. 20. Aitcin. P.´ ACI SP-82 1984. 47-50. Whiting. A. Neville.. 248-254. 4.-C. Vol. Repaired area was continuously observed and there are no signs of deterioration observed since then. Chaallal.´ Materials and Structures. D. Acker. P. M. 88. No... 1992). Aitcin.. P.

beams. Civil Engineering Department. it is important to understand the changes in the concrete properties due to extreme temperature exposures. Belgaum. Professor Civil Engineering Department K.B. Rajaramnagar. tensile strength. y y y y y Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Accelerator Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Retarder Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Waterproofing Compound Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Shrinkage Reducing Admixture Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Viscosity Modifying Admixture The tests are conducted to evaluate the strength characteristics of concrete like compressive strength. Dr. The following combinations of admixtures are used in this experimentation work. the concrete elements such as columns. The distress in concrete due to fire manifests in the form of cracking and spalling of the concrete surface1. Introduction One of the greatest advantages of concrete as a building material is its remarkable resistance to fire. Islampur. In this paper.Effect of Sustained Elevated Temperature on the Properties of Concrete Containing More Than Two Admixtures D. E Society¶s College of Engineering & Technology. flexural strength. Concrete is a material often used in the construction of highrise buildings. In most of the cases the concrete remains intact with minor damages only. an attempt is made to find out the effect of sustained elevated temperature on the properties of concrete containing more than two admixtures. The reason being low thermal conductivity of concrete at high temperature and hence limiting the depth of penetration of fire damage. etc. Prakash. will be subjected to extreme temperatures and needs assessment of their performance after fire. But when the concrete is subjected to high temperature for long duration. Kulkarni. the deterioration of concrete takes place3. . K. Hence. L. The property of concrete to resist the fire reduces damage in a concrete structure whenever there is an accidental fire. In case of unexpected fire. K. Concrete though not a refractory material is incombustible and has good fire resistant properties2. Selection Grade Lecturer. Rajarambapu Institute of Technology. and impact strength of concrete when it is subjected to a temperature of 600°C for 6 hours.

The recent technological advances have extended its use to special applications like aircraft engine test cells. particularly. it becomes necessary to use two or more than two admixtures simultaneously in concrete. tube jet runways. The following combinations of admixtures have been selected for the studies on concrete: y y y Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Accelerator (S+AEA+A) Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Retarder (S+AEA+R) Superplasticiser +Air Entraining Agent + Waterproofing Compound (S+AEA+W) . nuclear reactor vessels and missile launching pads.Concrete has been widely used as construction materials in buildings and other industrial structures for a long time. In such circumstances. such as silica fume. which have to endure higher tempratures4. chemical admixtures have enabled major improvements in many of the properties of concrete. Experimental Programme The main aim of this experimentation work is to find the effect of sustained elevated temperature on the properties of concrete containing more than two admixtures. Now-a-days the concrete is called upon for the use in various tricky situations and the concrete has to show a resistive nature for all the special situations for which it is used. compressive strength and durability. In conjunction with mineral additives. Chemical admixtures play a key role in the production of concrete with enhanced performance also known as High Performance Concrete or HPC.

A steel ball weighing 13. This homogeneous concrete mass was poured into the moulds which were kept on the vibrating table. The fine aggregate. the specimens were transferred to the electric furnace wherein they were maintained at 6000 C for 6 hours.41) was added into the dry mix and agitated for 3 minutes. For impact test four different test methods are referred in the literature7. At this stage approximately 80% of calculated quantity of water (w/c = 0. cement and coarse aggregates were dry mixed in a mixer for 60 seconds.y y Superplasticiser +Air Entraining Agent + Shrinkage Reducing Admixture (S+AEA+SRA) Superplasticiser +Air Entraining Agent + Viscosity Modifying Admixture (S+AEA+VMA) Portland pozzolana cement and locally available sand and aggregates were used in the experimentation. For tensile strength test.03 N was dropped from a height of 1 m on the centre point. From these number of blows.03 N h = Height of drop = 1 m N = Number of blows required for first crack or final failure as the case may be. which was kept on the floor. After consolidation the top surface was finished smooth and covered with wet gunny bags. the cubes of dimensions 150 X 150 X 150 mm were cast and were tested under compression testing machine as per I S 516-19595.66 and 2. after which the remaining two more admixtures were added and homogeneously mixed. The concrete was mixed again in the mixer. For compressive strength test.19996. After 6 hours they were cooled to room temperature and then tested for their respective strengths.51 with w/c = 0. After 12 hours. For flexural strength test the beams of dimensions 100 X 100 X 500 mm were cast and were tested on an effective span of 400 mm with two point loading as per I S 516-19595.85 respectively. was adopted to find the impact energy.26:2. The required quantity of fibers and hybrid fibers were added into the dry mix and again the entire mass is mixed homogeneously for another 60 seconds. Drop weight method being the simple method. Number of blows required to cause first crack and final failure were noted down. After 28 days of curing. .41 which corresponds to M20 grade of concrete. The concrete was consolidated in three layers by using just the required vibration time needed for a good compaction. The admixtures and their chemical content and dosages used in the experimentation are shown in Table 1. Now the superplasticiser was added in the remaining 20% water and this liquid was added to the concrete. Impact energy = w h N (N-m) Where w = Weight of steel ball = 13. Impact strength specimens were of dimensions 250 X 250 X 30 mm. the cylinders of diameter 100 mm and length 200 mm were cast and were tested under compressive testing machine as per I S 5816. the impact energy was calculated as under. The specific gravity of fine and coarse aggregate was 2. the specimens were demoulded and transferred to the curing tank wherein they were allowed to cure for 28 days. The experiments were conducted on a mix proportion of 1: 1.

r.t. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of compressive strength w. reference mix. reference mix.t.Test Results Table 2 gives the compressive strength test results of concrete with different combinations of admixtures. The variation of flexural strength is depicted in the form of graph as shown in Figure 3. Discussion on Test Results . The variation of tensile strength is depicted in the form of graph as shown in Figure 2. reference mix. Table 3 gives the tensile strength test results of concrete with different combinations of admixtures. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of flexural strength w.t.t. The variation of impact strength is depicted in the form of graph as shown in Figure 4. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of impact strength w. reference mix. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of tensile strength w. Table 4 gives the flexural strength test results of concrete with different combinations of admixtures.r.r. The variation of compressive strength is depicted in the form of graph as shown in Figure 1.r. Table 5 gives the impact strength test results of concrete with different combinations of admixtures.

t. This is followed by the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+A). (S+AEA+W). The percentage increase in the tensile strength of the above said combinations w. It has been observed that the concrete produced from the combination of admixtures . 47.91%. 53.35%.65%.76%. This is followed by the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+A).r. (S+AEA+SRA). and (S+AEA+VMA). and (S+AEA+VMA). ( S + A E A + W ) . 25. The reference mix without any combination of admixtures shows the least compressive strength. 51.It has been observed that the concrete produced from the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+R) show maximum compressive strength when subjected to 6000C for 6 hours. The percentage increase in the compressive strength of the above said combinations w. and 7. The reference mix without any combination of admixtures shows the least tensile strength. It has been observed that the concrete produced from the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+R) show maximum tensile strength when subjected to 600°C for 6 hours. (S+AEA+SRA). 32. 15. and 13.07%.t. reference mix are respectively 45. reference mix are respectively 55.63%.48%.02%.48%.07%.r.

77. and 11.Pilli. & Technology. S. (S+AEA+A). Conclusions It can be concluded that the combinations of admixtures used in the experimentation such as (S+AEA+R). 33. Chennai. This makes the concrete more dense which is ultimately responsible for increase in the strengths.´ Proceedings of the International Conference on recent advances in concrete and construction technology. and (S+AEA+VMA).Ltd(Degussa) Mumbai India for supplying the required admixtures. This may be due to the fact that the addition of combination of admixtures induce more workability thus making the compaction a perfect one. RIT. (S+AEA+SRA). This is followed by the combinations of admixtures (S+AEA+A).65%. SRMIST. 55. This is followed by the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+A).r.56%. 30. Principal. Belgaum for giving all the encouragement needed which kept our enthusiasm alive.r. (S+AEA+W). and (S+AEA+VMA). Hence it can be recommended to use any combinations of admixtures on the site to suite the situations. References y Lakshmipathy M and Balachandar M. 2005. The percentage increase in the impact strength of the above said combinations w.t.10%. It has been observed that the concrete produced from the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+R) show maximum impact strength when subjected to 6000C for 6 hours. (S+AEA+SRA). Kulkarni.(S+AEA+R) show maximum flexural strength when subjected to 6000C for 6 hours. and (S+AEA+VMA). do not have any compatibility problems either with respect to the properties of fresh concrete or hardened concrete. India. and (S+AEA+VMA). (S+AEA+W).S. These induced air bubbles can resist the expansion of concrete due to temperature. Thanks are also due to the management authorities and others who constantly boosted our morale by giving us all the help required.C. The addition of AEA creates small air bubbles in the concrete. (S+AEA+SRA). (S+AEA+SRA). (S+AEA+W). It can also be concluded that the maximum strength of concrete can be obtained with the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+R) when subjected to 6000C for 6 hours.77%.33%. Dec 7-9. reference mix are respectively 77. 35. Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank Dr. ³Studies on the effects of elevated temperature on the properties of high strength concrete containing supplementary cementatious materials. (S+AEA+W).(Mrs) S. The reference mix without any combination of admixtures shows the least impact strength. This is followed by the combination of admixtures (S+AEA+A).03%. reference mix are respectively 111.17%. KLE Society¶s College of Engg. Sakharale and Dr. The reference mix without any combination of admixtures shows the least flexural strength. 44.93%. Thanks are also due to authorities of MBT Pvt.34%.t.43%. and 9. 539-554 . pp. The percentage increase in the flexural strength of the above said combinations w. Principal.

2005. Chennai. India. Dec 7-9. Dec 7-9. there is not much difference in terms of mechanical properties . K. Sudarsana Rao H. SRMIST. ³Studies on SIFCON subjected to elevated temperature. (pp 257-262).´ Bureau of Indian Standards. 555-556 Sashidhar C. admixtures.567-576 Anbuvelan K. et al. & Sandeep Kadam. pp. Such engineering is achieved by incorporating chemical & mineral admixtures into cementitious system. Self-compacting (or consolidating) concrete (SCC) is a particular concrete mix which has a special performance requirement of self±consolidation or compaction at the time placement. Dinesh M.´ Bureau of Indian Standards. Chennai. India. Ramana N.V and Vaishali Gorpade. Engineering of Self Compacting Concrete Subrato Chowdhury. ³Sustained elevated temperature effects on post peak flexural strength of high strength concrete containing polypropylene fibers. However.y y y y y y Balamurugan P and Perumal P. 577-590 I S : 516-1959 ³Methods of tests for strength of concrete. Kumaravel K. ³Proceedings of the International Conference on recent advances in concrete and construction technology. pp. India. I S : 5816-1999 ³Splitting tensile strength of concrete method of test. SRMIST.´ The Indian concrete Journal. ³Impact resistance of steel fiber reinforced concrete. 2005. New-Delhi Balsubramanain. Chennai. 2005. Appropriate fresh state properties are achieved by engineering suitably the theology of concrete. Dec 7-9. ³Effect of thermoshock on bond strength of HPC. UltraTech Cement Limited. New-Delhi. Increasing demand for concrete in newer applications leads to engineer the properties of concrete at fresh and hardened state. May 1996. SRMIST. The development of self-compacting concrete is primarily achieved by designing the appropriate theology using different cementitious system. at the hardened state. pp.´ Proceedings of the International Conference on recent advances in concrete and construction technology. Andheri (East). etc. Thiyagarajan A and Sureshkumar N. Mumbai Cementitious material is the lifeline of modern infrastructure.´ Proceedings of the International Conference on recent advances in concrete and construction technology. One of the most important performance criteria for concrete is the fluidity at fresh state.

Passing ability is the ability to pass obstacles. Filling ability is the high fluidity and deformability to ensure adequate flow under selfweight. such as conventional normal strength concrete (NSC). etc. and passing ability (3). The yield stress and plastic viscosity generally characterizes such theological behavior of fresh concrete mix. especially on its theology. and placement process. SCC can be used in most application where traditional vibrated concrete. as a concrete mix. A suspension is self-flowing if it flows under its own weight. Fluidity is inversely proportional to the yield stress. has the ability to fill the formwork and encapsulate reinforcing bars only through the action of gravity i. transportation. Additionally. self-weight at the time of placement without any external energy inputs from vibrators. The above perspective induces the definition of self-compacting (or. high performance concrete (HPC) is used. and improvement in working condition and less noise pollution (4. normal strength concrete (NSC). narrow opening and closely spaced reinforcement bar without getting blocked by interlocking of aggregate particles (3). This attributes to three important functional requirements related to workability of the concrete mix: filling ability. the paste or mortar has to deform well too. it is to ensure±uniform suspension of solid particles during casting and thereafter until setting (2). The important aspects of achieving the functional requirements (filling ability. Two principal advantages of SCC are improved homogeneity of fresh concrete that leads to more durable concrete at hardened state as well as higher productivity in terms of pouring of concrete. The effect of method of placement. high performance concrete (HPC). which in fresh state. while plastic viscosity has direct proportionality on homogeneity. especially in terms of the pressure exerted on the formwork will also be discussed. The difference between the SCC and vibrated concrete exists in the performance requirements during fresh state. not much in terms of properties at harden state such as strength. durability. consolidating) concrete (SCC). 5). Contact and collision between aggregates as well as the interparticle friction . tampering or similar actions and with maintained homogeneity at the time of placement (3). different approaches for mix proportioning and the mixing method on the overall performance of the SCC mix in fresh state. Filling ability and passing ability of a fresh concrete mix depend on its fluidity and resistance of segregation on the homogeneity.e. Resistance to segregation is the ability of the particle suspension (in fresh state) to maintain homogeneity throughout the mixing. SCC is engineered to fill all the space within the formwork passing through the reinforcements or other obstruction without segregation. Additionally. Introduction Concrete is a suspension of aggregates in cement paste (1). passing ability and resistance to segregation) of SCC are related with: y y y y Appropriate characterization of ingredients Mix proportion Mixing method Placement This paper would discuss the effect of characteristics of individual ingredients. resistance to segregation.and durability between SCC and other type of concrete mixes viz.

The above points are deliberated in the following sections of the paper. The three basic functional requirements of SCC mix at fresh state. Special chemical admixture like viscosity modifier admixture (VMA) is used for controlling the viscosity of the mix and superplasticizer for lowering the yield stress. the characteristics of fine and coarse aggregates play very important role on the yield stress of the mix. iv. Characterization of an ingredient deal with those features of the material like composition. characterization of the ingredients mix proportion technique to achieve desired characteristics mixing method effect of method of placement. procedure of construction and quality assurance. who thinks of it in atomic terms.increase with the decreases in relative distance between aggregates particles in the concrete mix. the powder contains binder component consisting of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). dolomite etc. Adequate homogeneity improves viscosity of the mix. i. . structure. Characterization Ingredient characterization exhibits different aspects depending upon the background of the users. which in turn enhances the segregation resistance. In addition. etc that are significant for a particular preparation. This concept is well accepted in USA now. ii. To achieve moderate plastic viscosity and low yield value. The increase of paste volume with emphasis to low water powder ratio (w/p) in presence of compatible chemical admixtures further strengthens the fluidity and helps in attaining homogeneity. resulting in the blockage of aggregate particles (6). etc. The Japanese concept spread through Asia and to Europe around 1993 (7). These are: i. multiple chemical admixtures are required. Overview of SCC The work on SCC had started in 1988 in Tokyo University. An optimum balance between fluidity and viscosity is the key to achieve efficient selfcompacting characteristics of the concrete mix at fresh state. mineral admixtures like flyash along with/ without filler material like limestone powder. study of properties or use etc. In SCC. who thinks of it in terms of properties of concrete in fresh and harden state.e. Japan. especially the pressure exerted on formwork. A few points are important with regard to engineering of structures using SCC mix to satisfy the intended specification. Limiting coarse aggregate volume increases inter-particle separation and reduces the inter-particle friction and collisions resulting in minimization of the blockage leading to improvement in passing ability. These concepts range from that of the scientist. iii. filling ability. to that of the concrete technologists. passing ability and resistance to segregation could be assessed in terms of the theological characteristic like yield stress and plastic viscosity.

Extensive works on characterization of ingredients like OPC. Crushed stone aggregates require more paste volume for nonblockage criteria compared with the natural gravels. Certain chemical compounds of OPC clinker such as alkali (Na2O. . General-purpose Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is suitable to be the main cementitious constituent for SCC. on characterization of ingredients. the size of the aggregate is decided based on the size of the opening such a spacing of reinforcement bar (1).12). chemistry of flyash and presence of un-burnt coal particles has enough impact on fluidity and deformability of mortar for SCC (10). 10). Ingredients for self-compacting concrete shall satisfy the respective codal specifications. high alite content high strength OPC may be desirable for achieving high strength SCC along with appropriate replacement level of OPC by mineral admixture. 2).10. The compatibility of multiplechemical admixtures present along with mineral admixtures needs a serious attention towards satisfactory performance of rheological properties as well as hydration kinetics that has bearing on hardened properties. has influence on the rheology of mortar for SCC. especially format ion of micro mortar. fly ash and fine aggregates for SCC were carried out by authors and are published elsewhere. Initial flowability and viscosity of mortar mixes are not influenced by the alkali and sulphate content of the clinkers irrespective of the dosages of flyash. Ordinary Portland Cement Clinkers may have different levels of alkali and sulphate concentrations. The size of coarse aggregate in SCC is 5 to 20 mm. but the corresponding OPC shows fairly the same levels of sulphate owing to addition of gypsum during grinding process. Findings of the works. chemical admixture and water (6). The presence of mineral admixtures has a definite role on the performance of paste. High belite content OPCwas used at the initial years of SCC without any application of VMA (3). Alkali and sulphate content of the clinker not that of cement binder. Flyash is commonly used mineral admixture in SCC. sulphate (SO3) has significant influence on such compatibility (8). (8.11. The flow value increased as the bulk solid volume of flyash is increased (9. The micro-mortar formations is involved with all particles below the size of 125¼. K2O).An appropriate ingredient characterization helps to achieve the performance behavior of SCC at both fresh and hardened states. Blocking will occur if the maximum size of the aggregate is large as well as the content of the larger size aggregates is high. Well-graded fine aggregate is desirable. carried out by authors are summerised here. It is also well±established that compatibility between superplasticizer and OPC plays important role on the rheological characteristic of mortar. Particle size distribution of flyash. Larger the aggregate size more the driving force for flow would be required. Higher packing density of aggregates reduces demand of superplasticizer (1. The fine aggregate is one of the major components of paste formations. The initial flowability decreases and viscosity increase with elapsed time for all the cement replacement levels and types of OPC. The bulk solid volume of the fly ash also has significant impact on the rheology. Low lime content flyash improves the fluidity of the paste (9). However. However.

e. Mix Proportioning Method A number of methods for proportioning SCC mix have been developed over the years with primary attention to produce satisfactory self±compacting properties but with less attention to the properties at hardened state. These methods are of varying complexity and may require wide range of information on the effect of each ingredients on the mechanics of SCC mixes. The flow is enhanced with fly ashes having higher percentage of particle size below 45ì. Increase in flyash quantity neutralizes the negative impact of high sulphate and high alkali content of OPC clinker as well as the size fraction of fine aggregates on the rheology of mixes. OPC from low sulphate bearing clinkers and cement replacement level of 50% and above by flyash is vulnerable to the risk of segregation. In general. Higher quantity of fly ash could result in adjustment of chemical admixture to lower dosages for achieving appropriate flow and viscosity of mix. Flyash of appropriate characteristics acts as flow enhancing and viscosity reducing agent in SCC mortar. the SCC mix proportioning methods consider volume as the key parameter because of the importance of the need to fill over the voids in between the aggregate particles by the paste.Ingredients characterized and found suitable by mortar rheology experiments are suitable for selfcompacting concrete. i. either in terms of ingredients for which they have been shown to be suitable or in terms of the range of concretes that can be produced. . Flyash with higher LOI. It affects the rheology adversely making the mix highly viscose aswell as noncohesive. Flyash The flow of the mortar is affected adversely with flyashes having higher percentage of particle size above 90ì. Low sulphate content increases the filling ability of concrete mixes. the higher carbon content. Lower quantity of fines in fine aggregate accentuates the possibility of segregation. Fine Aggregate Initial viscosity of mortar mixes is influenced by the size fraction of fine aggregate. Though quantity of flyash does not significantly influence the initial spread and viscosity of mixes.Low sulphate content of clinker increases the flow ability and reduces viscosity irrespective of alkali content. non-cohesiveness of the mortar is also increased significantly. its increase in value helps in retention of higher spread diameter and lower viscosity. Flyash with high lime and sulphate content is not suitable for producing SCC as it decreases the flow and increases the viscosity. Alkali content of clinkers has similar trend of effect on flowability and viscosity but this influence is not as significant as that of sulphate. The finer fraction of sand reduces flowability and increases viscosity of mortar mix. is not a suitable mineral admixture for SCC mortar. Most of the methods those are presently available may have some inherent limitations. and the mortar becomes unfit for the purpose.

minimum flow and optimum flow viscosity ratio. and high quantity of VMA is required for maintaining homogeneity of the mix though superplasticizer requirement comes down significantly compared to the first type. 14]. The paste rheology. Polycarboxylate based superpla± sticizer was used and a viscosity modifying agent was used in some mixes.9 ± 1.5 and 1. This method is applicable to a limited range of Japanese materials. Relationship between viscosity and flowability of paste. The fine aggregate content is worked out about 50% of the resulting mortar volume. Mineral admixture content in the third type mix is about one±third of the powder content and a lower quantity of VMA is used (13). The satisfactory zone falls in between these two extreme zones.1 are achieved using mortar spread and V±funnel test respectively [3]. the flow of each paste were plotted against viscosity. with aggregate spacing were developed using average aggregate diameter 5. and high belite Portland cement. Other extreme zone is low deformation zone where viscosity is high and flow is low. Their method is also known as general method. The mixes proportioned by both these categories can further be subdivided in to three types. The approach is based on the paste rheology model. which is built on the combination of the criteria of minimum apparent viscosity. cement content.675 mm. per unit volume of concrete mix. For different paste volume. The basic steps of first category are determination of quantity of coarse aggregate. First the quantity of coarse aggregate. The required mortar volume is determined taking into consideration the air content in the mix. VMA type and mixed type. In first type cement content is very high. The water/powder ratio and superplasticizer dosages of the mortar are adjusted until the minimum relative flow area of 5 and relative flow rate between 0. 5-20 mm sized coarse aggregates. The mix is considered satisfactory from selfcompatibility consideration if it exhibits slump flow of 650mm and relative flow rate between 0. The air-entraining agent was used. One extreme zone is segregation zone in which flow is very high and viscosity is low. which is falling within the satisfactory zone. was considered appropriate for the purpose of . and then deriving appropriate quality of mortar compatible for SCC mix. fine aggregates of size less than 5mm. flyash content. the suitable mortar mix is first proportioned and then quantity of coarse aggregates is determined.0. The second type method results in almost equal quantity of cement and mineral admixture. The mix proportion thus arrived at is tested for selfcompactability by concrete funnel test and slump flow test. The effect of aggregate properties and content has been considered to develop a new paste model for SCC. Okumara and Ozawa of University of Tokyo developed most probably the first method of SCC mix proportion in 1995 [3. powder type. water binder ratio. admixtures. This method falls under first category and produces only powder type mix. et al [15] introduced a new approach for the proportioning of SCC that essentially falls under the second category and can produce combined and VMA type mixes.Different mix-proportioning methods can be grouped in having two categories of approaches. Criterion related to concrete strength is not included in this mix proportioning method. The model developed by testing wide range of concrete composition also provides a basis for quality control and further development of mineral and chemical admixtures. Bui et al defined three zones for mix proportion with the help of these plots. is set at 50% of the dry rodded weight. While in the second approach. Bui. The limits for segregation and low deformability zone were also plotted. mineral admixture content is very low to none and no VMA is used. This is a step-bystep method in which VMA is not used.

The method as well as rate of casting dominates the form pressure (19). y y y The constituents of the material have significant impact on the concrete rheology and hydration kinetics of SCC mix. aggregates and their influence on the behavior of SCC is essential. the unit volume was achieved by addition of aggregates into the paste without any additional adjustment. Concluding Remarks SCC mix engineering starts with balancing between high fluidity and high segregation resistance to achieve appropriate self-compacting properties. Hardly any information is available in this respect for SCC mix. its chemical compatibility with powder are issues to be addressed further. When concrete is placed using pump and if the pumping is done from bottom it creates more anchor pressure than that when pumping from top (18). its dosages. The correlation between form pressure and casting rate is relatively linear. The studies conclude that the maximum pressure of filled into a formwork from top is dependent on the casting speed and rate of the continuous pressure decrease of the SCC already cast. Mixing Method The ingredients of vibrated HPC mix and SCC mix are similar except for VMA. The HPC mix is manufactured adopting multistage mixing method.selfcompatibility. The relation between concrete pressure and optimal rate of pouring calls for further study to establish their inter-relation (20). hardened state properties as well as optimized behavior of the suspension within the formwork. The traditional vibrated concrete results in lower form pressure than SCC having same casting rate. It has been observed that mixing method has significant influence on the properties of the concrete mix both in hardened and fresh state (16. Leemann and C. Meticulous selection and characterization of locally available ingredients are the key to engineer the rheology of SCC. Subsequently. SCC pumped into the formwork a tits base can locally surpass hydrostatic pressure. . Form Pressure SCC results in higher form pressure because of its extreme fluidity showing nearly Newtonian behavior (18). The anchor force due to pump filling from bottom doubles than that when filling from top. Selection of appropriate chemical admixtures. The characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties of ingredients of powder. 17). They studied the formwork pressure caused by SCC with varying workability and conventional concrete filling the formwork from top in the laboratory and the pressure of SCC pumped into the formwork at its base was determined in a field study. The approach for characterization of SCC mix leading to defined acceptance criteria needs further work. Hoffmann investigated the pressure exerted by SCC on formwork both at laboratory scale and at field (20). the reason is that the pressure from pump adds to the pressure of concrete.

Khayat. ³Effect of Different Fly Ashes on Rheology of Mortar for Self-compacting Concrete. USA. pp. ³Impact of Fine Aggregate Particle Size on Mortar Rheology for SCC. France. P. 43-44.D. P. (October-November 2005).´ Second North American Conference on the Design and Use of Self±compacting Concrete. Bangalore. S. Basu. C. Advantage and Potential Application. 9.Michel Laye. USA.´ Proceeding of The Structural Engineering Convention). Volume 81. (January 2007). Hiroshi Ohnuma.C. use of local aggregates. (November 2002). Chowdhury. Petersson. ³Role of Flyash and Naphthalene Sulfonated Superplasticizer on Fluidity of Paste. Chicago. ³Self-compacting Concrete-State ± of±the±art report 174SCC. Pipat Termkhajornkit. 55-62.Compacting Concrete. 209-219. Rahman. K.A. p p. ³Rheology of Cement Pastes using Various Accessories. Chowdhury. Skarendahl. (August 2003).´ First North American Conference on Design and Use of Self±consolidating Concrete. (OctoberNovember 2005). ³Influence of Minor Constituents of Portland Cement on Rheology of Mortar for Self±Compacting Concrete. prediction of strength and durability. ³Holistic Approach. Biswas. Ghoshdast idar. (November 2002) pp. Chicago.´ First North American Conference on Design and Use of Self Consolidating Concrete. ³Mix Design Model for Self-compacting Concrete. pp. Iceland.´ RILEM Technical Committee. Third International Symposium on Self±compacting Concrete. pp. K. Reykjavik.´ The Indian Concrete Journal. H.63-68 Preface. H. O. P. Chong Hu. The form pressure in SCC is few folds more and different compared with vibrated concrete. ³Stability of Self compacting Concrete. 143±152. 1-8. P. Basu. A. More work is needed to under stand the relation between pump and concrete pressures. P. M. P.´ First North American Conference on Design and Use of Self±Consolidating Concrete. Toyoharu Nawa. (November 2002). S. online controlling of rheology. S.C. Peter Billberg. p p. Illinois.´ First International RILEM Symposium on Self±compacting Concrete. Jean. A.´ First North American Conference on Design and Use of Self Consolidating Concrete. (2000) Kamal H. Indian Institute of Science. Stockholm.´ First North American Conference on Design and Use of Self±Consolidating Concrete. Khayat. Report 23. pp.Basu. S. Narkar. K. 49-53.C. (November 2002). Basu. need to be looked into. mixing methodology. Few of the areas like adjustment for mix proportioning procedure. Chowdhury. Khayat. ³Importance of Aggregate packing Density on Workability of Self-consolidating Concrete. p p. . (2005). (September 1999) .y y y A detailed investigation on the effect of curing regime on the properties of SCC at hardened state needs further investigation. Nehdi. Saraswati. Illinois. S. Sweden. (November 2002). ³Influence of Components of Portland Cement on Rheology of Mortar for Self. P.´ Second North American Conference on the Design and Use of Self± compacting Concrete . References y y y y y y y y y y y y M. Chowdhury.

Iceland. Shah. (1995). 281-287. Saraswati. Basu. V. Osterberg Thomas. Illinois. ³Mix Design for Self-compacting Concrete. (March 2004). Peter Billberg. ³A New Approach in Mix Design of Self-consolidating Concrete. 69-74.´ Third International Symposium on Self-compacting Concrete.´ Third International Symposium on Self±compacting Concrete. Ozawa K. 288-298. 11 8. (August 20 03). S. pp. Nikki. (August 2003).´ Concrete Library of JSCE 25. Acknowledgment The article has been reproduced from the SEWC¶07 proceeding with the kind permission from the SEWC organisers.´ SP 132-54.y y y y y y y y Ouchi Masahiro. K. Iceland.´ Proceedings of International Symposium on Advances in Concrete through Science an Engineering. Cathleen Hoffmann. pp.´ Sweden. ³Pressure of Self Compacting Concrete on Formwork. 271280. T.Tochigi and T. Nakamura Sadaaki. pp. Stephan Uebachs. M. p p. Okamura H. USA. Self Compacting Cocrete . Andreas Leemann. Evanston. Akkaya. pp. Europe and United States. P. S. (2005). ³Application of Selfcompacting Concrete in Japan. Bui. ³Effects of mixing method on mechanical properties and pore structures of ultra high strength concrete. Iceland. ³Form Pressure Generated by Self-compacting Concrete. ³Investigations on the Form Pressure Using Self compacting Concrete. 107-120. pp . Wolfgang Brameshuber.´ First North American Conference on Design and Use of Self± consolidating Concrete. Reykjavik.P. Kakizaki.´ Third International Symposium on Self±compacting Concrete. ³Durability of High Performance Concrete: An Overview and Related Issues. (November 2002). C. Hauberg Svenerik. H-Edahiro. (August 2003). K.

Dr. S.C. Maiti, Ex±Joint Director, National Council for Cement & Building Materials, New Delhi. Raj K Agarwal, Managing Director, Marketing & Transit (India) Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.

Introduction
Concrete mixtures having high workability and high cohesiveness will be self±compacting concrete. The self±compacting concrete (SCC) is defined as a flowing concrete that can be transported without any segregation and placed without the use of vibrators to construct concrete structures free of honeycombs. Initially such concrete was developed by Japanese researchers. For such concrete which is specially required for heavily reinforced sections, a viscosity modifying agent (VMA) is required along with a polycarboxylic ether (PCE) based superplastisizer. Because of high fluidity, SCC requires higher fines content, in order to resist bleeding and segregation. Natural fine aggregate together with manufactured sand and mineral admixture {flyash or ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs) or silica fume} provide higher fines contents in the concrete mix. A cohesive SCC is thus produced in order to flow steadily in the heavily reinforced concrete sections, without any segregation & bleeding.

Materials and Mix Proportions
Besides cement, water and aggregates, the necessary ingredients for producing SCC are superplasticizers (PCE based), viscosity±modifying agents and mineral admixtures e.g. flyash, ground granulated blast furnace slag & silica fume. The proportion of fine aggregates required is higher, may be around 55% and the corresponding proportion of coarse aggregate (generally of smaller size, say 10 or 12 mm maximum size) will be around 45%. The mineral admixtures and fine sand (manufactured sand) are required to make the highworkability concrete mix cohesive. Typical concrete mix proportions for high strength (74.5 MPa at 28 days) SCC used by Gettu & others (from Spain) (1) are as follows:
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Cement (OPC-53 grade) = 428 Kg/ m3 Water = 188 l/ m3 Flyash (2935 cm2 / gm) = 257 Kg / m3 Superplasticizer (vinyl copolymer) = 7.9 Kg / m3 Sand (crushed limestone ) (0-5mm) = 788 Kg / m3 Coarse aggregate (gravel) (5-12mm) = 736 Kg / m3

The water / binder ratio of the concrete mix is 0.27. A look at the materials & mix proportions indicate use of smaller size coarse aggregate (12mm maximum size) & the shape is rounded, being gravel aggregate. In fact, crushed gravel will be a better option in order to obtain highworkability and highstrength SCC. The workability measured for the above mix is ³ slump flow´ of 48cm. In our country, still we are carrying out the usual slump test even for high±workability concrete mix. The ³flow test´ as specified in IS 9103 (2) can be conducted for testing such high±workability concrete mix, but the

³slump flow test´ will be better than the ³flow test,´ as no lifting (15 times in 15 seconds) of concrete is necessary, as the SCC is a flowing concrete mixture. Vachhani and others (3) used SCC in the prestigious Delhi Metro construction. Concrete mix proportions for M-35 grade of SCC are as follows :
y y y y y y y y y y

Cement = 330 Kg / m3 Water = 163 l / m3 Flyash = 150 Kg / m3 Superplasticizer = 3.12 l / m3 VMA ( glenium stream 2 ) = 1.3 l / m3 Retarder ( Pozzolith 300 R) = 0.99 l / m3 Sand = 917 Kg / m3 Coarse aggregate: 20mm maximum size = 455 Kg / m3 10 mm maximum size = 309 Kg / m3

Vachhani and others (3) highlighted the mechanism of self compaction, which is based on : i. ii. iii. Large quantity of ³fines´ (500 to 650 Kg / m3), Use of high ±range water ± reducing superplasticizers (with water- reduction of 25%), and The use of Viscosity Modifying Admixtures.

³Fines´ includes cement, flyash and the part of sand of size less than 0.125 mm. This together with water & chemical admixtures constitute the paste in the concrete mix. The paste makes the concrete mix cohesive and controls the segregation±resistance of the mix. The polycarboxylic ether±based superplasticizer ( presently being imported) generally provides water±reduction of the order of 30-40 % in the concrete mix. The VMA improves the segregation±resistance of the mix without changing the fluidity or workability. The retarder in the concrete mix controls the workability±retention, which is specially important in hot climate.

Fresh Self±Compacting Concrete
The characteristics of fresh SCC are fully described by the following properties : i. ii. iii. Filling ability±ability to completely fill all the spaces in the formwork, Passing ability±ability to flow around reinforcement, and Segregation resistance±ability to resist segregation of materials during transportation and placing.

Consequently new test methods have been developed to test SCC in the fresh state. The ³filling ability´ is tested by ³ slump flow´ and ³ V funnel,³ the ³passing ability´ is tested by ³L- Box³ and³ U±Box³ and the segregation±resistance is tested by ³ V- funnel´

Hardened Self±Compacting Concrete
The properties and characteristics of hardened SCC do not greatly differ from those of normal concrete, except that SCC can not be used in mass concrete construction using bigger size aggregates, say 75mm or 150mm sizes. Because such concrete always needs to be compacted with needle vibrators, in order to compact thoroughly in the forms. Any required compressive strength of SCC can be achieved. Vachhani & others (3) obtained 28day compressive strength of 44-49 MPa in the above±mentioned concrete mix proportions for M-35 grade concrete, for the Delhi Metro construction. The high ± strength SCC can be called ³ High±performance concrete,´ as such concrete has denser microstructure with lower inherent ³porosity´ and ³permeability,´ because of lower water- cementitious materials ratios and use of mineral admixtures in concrete.

Concrete Mix Proportioning Approach
The Self±Compacting Concrete, because of its high±workability and cohesiveness, generally needs higher fines content and lower size (10 or 12 mm maximum size) of coarse aggregate. Smoother and rounded or semi- rounded (may be crushed gravel) coarse aggregate will develop cohesiveness in the concrete mix. Bapat¶s (4) suggestion is good. Flakiness & elongation indices of coarse aggregate should be less than 15% each. Large quantity of fines is also required±500 to 650 Kg/m3 of concrete, & therefore crushed stone fine aggregate is also required along with natural fine aggregate. Flyash has also been used as an essential ingredient of SCC. In India, 30 to 50% flyash has been used in SCC. Originally Japanese people (5) suggested water±powder ratio between 0.90 & 1.1 (by volume). But it is the paste that controls the segregation of the concrete mix. The powder & the paste includes finer ( less than 0.125mm) part of the fine aggregate. Vachhani (3) & Bapat (4) used about 35 to 36% paste to produce self compacting concrete. The viscosity modifying agent also controls the segregation± resistance of the concrete mix.They are generally starch, cellulose & gum±based. Preferable & satisfactory VMA is ³Welan Gum.´ The quantity of such VMA required in SCC is very less, about 0.1% by weight of cementitious materials. Prof P.K. Mehta (6) included ³Welangum,´ silica fumes & ultrafine colloidal silica under the list of VMA. Gum or cellulose± based material is capable of modifying the viscosity of SCC, but the silica fume may not be able to modify the viscosity of concrete. Subramanian and Chattopadhyay (7) observed that micro silica at an appropriate dosage may be beneficial in reducing the dosage of ³Welan gum.´ The following mix proportioning steps for SCC can be followed.
y y

The target 28-day compressive strength of concrete can be calculated first based on standard deviation value used for the specified grade of concrete. The water±cementitious materials ratio can be decided based on the target 28±day compressive strength of concrete. This can be in the range of 0.30 ± 0.50, 0.30 for a 28

y y y y

y

day compressive strength of about 90 MPa, while 0.50 for a 28 day compressive strength of about 30 MPa . For the high ± workability concrete mix, the water content of concrete will be in the range of 180 ± 190 l/m3 of concrete. The maximum size of aggregate for SCC is more or less fixed at 10 or 12 or 16 mm. The sand (natural + manufactured) content can be kept at about 55% & the coarse aggregate content can be about 45%, by weight of total aggregate. The superplasticizer required is PCE±based and about 1% by weight of total cementitious material. The cementitious material includes ordinary Portland cement, flyash /ggbs & silica fume (in case of high strength concrete). For normal strength concrete (say from M25 to M-50), no silica fume will be required, but about 20 to 30 % good quality flyash will be required. If ggbs is used in place of flyash, its percentage can be 40 to 50 %, by weight of total cementitious material. For high strength concrete of M-60 to M-80, about 10% silica fume will be required instead of flyash or ggbs. The dosage of super plsticizer & the viscosity modifying agent can be fixed based on one or two trial mixes in a laboratory. With the above details in hand, concrete mix proportions for any grade of SCC can be arrived at.

Conclusions
The self compacting concrete, a high workability cohesive concrete mix needs polycarboxylic ether±based superplasticizer and a viscosity modifying agent. The proportion of fine materials in the concrete mix is also higher than that of normal concrete mixes. Therefore, in addition to natural fine aggregate, manufactured sand and mineral admixture eg flyash, ggbs or silica fume is also to be used.The percentage of fine aggregate is around 55%, while that of coarse aggregate is around 45%, by weight of total aggregate. Smaller size of coarse aggregate (10,12 or 16mm maximum size) having soother surface texture (rounded or crushed gravel) is required for concrete to flow smoothly in the formwork. For normal ³standard´ concrete grades of M-25 to M-50, about 20 to 30 % flyash or 40 to 50 % ggbs can be used, whereas for high strength self ± compacting concrete of grades M-60 to M-80, 10 % silica fume will be required.

References
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Gettu,R, Izquierdo, J, Gomes, P.C.C & Josa, A. Development of high ± strength selfcompacting concrete with flyash: a four ± step experimental methodology. 27th conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES : 29 ± 30 August 2002, Singapore, pp.217 ± 224. IS 9103. Specification for concrete admixtures. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. Vachhani, S.R, Chaudary, R & Jha, S.M. Innovative use of self compacting concrete in Metro construction. I.C I Journal, Vol. 5, No 3, Oct ± Dec 2004, pp.27 -32. Bapat, S.G, Kulkarni, S.B & Bandekar, K.S. Self- compacting concrete in nuclear power plant construction. I.C.I Journal, Vol-6, No 3, Oct- Dec 2005, pp- 37- 40.

Properties & Materials. pp. Mumbai.H. Concrete-Microstructure. such as calcium chloride to provide a cold-weather setting concrete. contribute to good concreting practices.K & Ouchi. Vol-1. such as low absorption.478.y y y Okamura. p. 13 ± 20.P. water. No1. Some admixtures have been in use for a very long time. can be achieved simply by consistently adhering to high quality concreting practices. New Delhi. Admixtures are the ingredients in concrete which are other than the hydraulic cementitious material.J. setting or hardened properties and that are added to the batch before or during mixing. 2006. Both. suspension or water-soluble solid. Director. Others are more recent and represent an area of expanding possibilities for increased performance. Experiments for mix proportioning of Self ± compacting concrete.K & Monteiro.M. D. when used appropriately. aggregates or fiber reinforcement that are used as ingredients of a cementitious mixture to modify its freshly mixed. Also. Admixtures are usually further defined as a non±pozzolanic (does not require calcium hydroxide to react) admixture in the form of a liquid. Not all admixtures are economical to employ on a particular project. Structural Concrete. Water-reducing admixtures improve concrete¶s plastic (wet) and hardened properties. Third edition. some characteristics of concrete. Jan 2002. Tata McGraw ±Hill Publishing Co Ltd. both admixtures should meet the requirements of ASTM C 494. y y y High Performance Concrete Admixtures High Performance Concrete Admixtures for Improving the Properties of Concrete Pramod Pathak.M. Mehta. Subramanian. Selfcompacting concrete. Ozawa. while set-controlling admixtures are used in concrete being placed and finished in other than optimum temperatures. (Table 1). The Indian Concrete Journal. S & Chattopadhyay. y Water-Reducing Admixtures .P. Multichem Group. y y Also. March 2000.

A good portion of the water is absorbed in this process. They also reduce the viscosity of the paste. which leads to increased strengths and more durable concrete. The percent of water reduction is relative to the original mix water required to obtain a given slump (Table 2). medium. . Water-reducing admixtures essentially neutralize surface charges on solid particles and cause all surfaces to carry like charges. Reducing the w/c ratio of concrete has been identified as the most important factor to make durable. Water-reducing admixtures also reduce segregation and improve the flow ability of the concrete.and highrange. resulting in a greater slump. which results in flocculation or grouping of the particles. These groups are based on the range of water reduction for the admixture. This can result in a reduction of the watercementitious ratio (w/c ratio). Since particles with like charges repel each other.y y Water reducers decrease the amount of mixing water required to obtain a given slump. Their effect on air entrainment will vary depending on the chemistry. thereby leading to a cohesive mix and reduced slump. While all water reducers have similarities. their ranges of water reduction and their primary uses. Therefore. they are commonly used for concrete pumping applications as well. they reduce locculation of the cement particles and allow for better dispersion. On the other hand. Table 3 presents a summary of the three types of water-reducing admixtures. each has an appropriate application for which it is best suited. high-quality concrete. Water-reducing admixtures typically fall into three groups: low-. y y How They Work? When cement comes in contact with water. dissimilar electrical charges at the surface of the cement particles attract one another. sometimes the cement content may be lowered while maintaining the original w/c ratio to reduce costs or the heat of hydration for mass concrete pours.

This increases the exposed surface area of the cement particles. Superplasticizers. were developed for high-strength and high performance concrete applications. e.y y Table 4 presents some of the most common basic materials used for each range of water reducer. High-range water reducers.. allowing for more complete hydration of the cement. commonly called superplasticizers. All water-reducing admixtures increase strength development as a result of better dispersion of the cement. These are usually a twocomponent admixture system. thus increasing strength. Regular. Some water-reducing admixtures have secondary effects or are combined with retarders or accelerators.g. They may also reduce the setting time of cement. The second component is an . Many precasters can benefit from the use of a superplasticizer. Multiplast R slow down the hydration process. especially because of its improved high early strength development. Coincidentally. Extended-set control admixtures are those used to delay hydration for many hours or even days. Mid-range waterreducing admixtures were developed to increase the slump beyond the range available with regular water reducers without the excessive retardation that had been known to occur. Multiplast Super can take a 3.´ are used to place concrete in hot climates when long travel times are expected or. Retarding admixtures fall into two categories: regular and extended-set. They are also commonly used for mass concrete pours to prevent cold joints. they also may affect the hardening or strength gain after the paste has set.inch slump concrete to a 9-inch slump without risk of segregation and without compromising its strength. therefore. In some cases. most commonly referred to as just ³retarders. This will be discussed later. when placement is delayed. Setcontrolling admixtures include retarding and accelerating admixtures. in case of emergency. The first component is a retarder (stabilizer) which delays the setting of concrete. y y Effects on Concrete Water-reducing admixtures are primarily used to reduce the water-cementitious content of concrete. Other components are also added depending on the requirement of additional properties of concrete. the rate of setting (stiffening) of the paste. they can be used to increase the workability or slump of the concrete providing for easier placement. y y Set-Controlling Admixtures Set-controlling admixtures alter the rate of the cement¶s hydration and. y y Retarding Admixtures These admixtures.

Furthermore. However. The duration of retardation is based on the dose and chemistry of the retarder. to make repairs against hydrostatic pressure or when very rapid setting is required. They also tend to increase the plastic shrinkage. They also tend to increase early-age shrinkage and creep rates. but tests have shown that ultimate values seem to be unaffected. thereby increasing early strength. and cost savings. when water-reducing agents are included. . Retarders tend to lose their effectiveness as concrete temperature increases. ASTM C 494 lists specifications for these combination admixtures. How they work Retarders essentially slow early hydration by reducing the rate at which tricalcium silicate (C3S) reacts with water. laterage strengths may be reduced relative to the same concrete without the accelerator. Retarders tend to reduce one-day strengths and usually increase later-age strengths . it is important to note that they are not antifreezing admixtures. Effect on concrete: Both retarders and accelerators seem to have negligible effects on air entrainment. some air may be entrained. Rapid accelerators can set concrete in minutes and are used in shotcreting applications. Both reactions develop the early setting and strength gain characteristics of paste. temperature and the time it was added to the mix. even though the strength gain has been delayed. y y Combinations Some admixture chemistries provide for a combination of effects such as water reduction with retardation or acceleration. The effect remains until the admixture is incorporated into the hydrated material. retarders slow the growth of calcium hydroxide crystals. such as lignosulfonates. Accelerators typically increase early strengths. However. Advantages of this include reducing the number of admixtures that have to be stored and added to the concrete. These are typically not used in precast concrete applications. cement composition. y y Accelerators These admixtures increase the cement¶s rate of hydration. less admixture incompatibility. Standard or normal accelerators are used to speed up construction in cold-weather concreting conditions. Disadvantages include less flexibility and limited use when an accelerating or retarding effect is not desired. The concrete typically reaches initial set in a few hours after the activator is applied. thereby removing it from the solution and allowing for initial set to occur. however. There are two types of accelerators: rapid and normal.accelerator (activator) which overcomes the retarder. Multiplast ACC are designed to increase the rate of hydration of C3S. Retarders may also increase slump loss and cause an early stiffening of the mixture.

Ltd. The operation ± economics of road transport is influenced by the degree of maintenance imparted to the road. such as ingress of water. . The life of an asset can be preserved and prolonged if adequate maintenance measures are undertaken well in time. In developing countries.Conceptual Maintenance and Rehabilitation Strategies Conceptual Maintenance and Rehabilitation Strategies for Bituminous Concrete Pavements Dr. and it becomes necessary to utilize the same in the most judicious manner. The action of traffic. especially of overloading of heavy commercial vehicles. Road maintenance is an essential activity to rejuvenate roads in the safest condition. Span Consultant Pvt. The safety and convenience of traffic using the road are governed to a large extent by the quality of maintenance. and to ensure that Pavement Management System (PMS) should also be an integral part of a larger overall Road Maintenance Management System (RMMS). CRRI Chief Consultant±Pavement and Geotech. assumes greater significance in such situations. Environmental factors. Need for Maintenance A bituminous surface deteriorates with the passage of time owing to i. oxidation of the binder and loss of volatiles. This paper emphasizes the need for conceptual mechanism that will ensure the maintenance management procedures to be planned timely with adequate preventive maintenance interventions for effective sustainability of these roads. S. with lesser pavement thickness and lower specifications than needed for a full design. stage construction of pavements is often resorted to. ii.S. The proper maintenance of roads. The financial resources at the command of a maintenance engineers are always short of demands. New Delhi Introduction Highway maintenance is an important activity of every highway department. therefore. Rigid Pavements Division. Poor road drainage and particularly failure to prevent ingress of water into the subgrade and into the lower pavement layers is considered to be the single main culprit of road failures in India. by applying the best engineering practices and managerial skills. Maintenance of the drainage system is usually a relatively low cost operation. and one which can significantly reduce the need for far more costly pavement repairs and rehabilitation.Seehra Former Director Grade Scientist & Head.

periodic and special activities to be performed to upkeep the pavement. Inadequacies in the initial design. specifications and construction standards of the bituminous layers. Thorough examination of actual highway pavement life histories indicates that this cycle process shown in Figure 1 is more realistic than the so-called one shot design method. as nearly as possible in its constructed conditions under normal conditions of traffic and forces of nature. which calculates the road user costs for the given condition of the pavement. A transportation cost model. iv. which are invaluable aids in planning and programming of maintenance operations. and Lack of adequate support from the lower pavement layers. builtup and updated periodically by road inventories and condition surveys. Prioritizing the maintenance needs (renewal and overlay) for a given budget. v. A PMS is a computer package. As a matter of fact.iii. which facilitates advance planning of maintenance operations and optimal allocation of resources. shoulders and other facilities provided for road users. Pavement Management Systems Modern methods of highway maintenance make use of good management principles. iv. Selection of Intervention levels. A pavement performance model. iii. which predicts the future programme of a given pavement system. Maintenance Management Systems . It consists of the following elements i. Rehabilitation in a Pavement Management System One of the major reasons that pavement design was historically considered as a one shot process was the lack of an adequate concept for dealing with performance. Road maintenance is a routine. A basic road data bank. Many Pavement Management Systems (PMS) have been developed and are extensively used worldwide. ii. This need was filled by the serviceability performance concept. Timely and proper maintenance will prolong the life of a pavement system. almost no pavements can be found that serve out a predetermined design life of 20 years or more without some rehabilitation.

The materials are variously required to meet a number of criteria . too much sophistication should be viewed with caution and additional modules should be justified incrementally.For a modern road to operate efficiently and effectively for the benefit of all users. They can assist the engineer in identifying the most costeffective appropriate treatment on selected sections of the road network through the use of economic analysis. Maintenance of Flexible Pavements To meet the various treatments needs of different pavement types. Fundamental requirements of maintenance management planning stages are shown in Figure 3. Figure 2 illustrates a range of factors. Development of Pavement Management Systems Efficient and effective maintenance management is most simply expressed as doing the correct thing at the correct time and in the correct place. Pavement Management Systems are most effective if they fulfill a number of essential requirements in relation to the roads and road network to which they are applied. An effective management system must meet a number of core or critical requirements. it is required to meet defined customer requirements. predictive models and time series information. Maintenance operations and technologies themselves are evolving rapidly to meet the demands of modern road networks. Road drainage performance plays a vital role in ensuring the efficient structural performance of a pavement. industry and research institutions have developed a range of materials and treatments to offer the engineer a wide variety of effective solutions. which contribute to the deterioration of a road and to its consequent condition at any given time.

hungry surface. joint cracks. Many modern materials offer a good range of these qualities. under continued trafficking. or µfatting up¶ of the road surface with excess bitumen. deformation. Skin patches. shallow depressions. good skidding resistance. transverse cracking. corrugations. Surface Defects and their Rectification Pavement tend. potholes. Those pavement sections which have lost their anti-skid properties may be treated with a fresh surface treatment. reflection cracking. The assessment is done on the basis of condition surveys. flushing. Manifestation of distress or damage occurs in the form of. shrinkage cracks and slippery cracks arriving from different technical conditions over a pavement are to be treated differently. but it is fair to say that the perfect materials have yet to be developed. resistance to deformation. which can take various forms such as : y y y y Visual rating Roughness measurements Benmkelman Beam Deflection measurements Skid Resistance Measurements Visual rating is a simple method of inspecting the pavement surface for detecting and assessing the type and severity of the damage. slippage. Many countries carry out skid resistance measurements as part of their maintenance needs assessment. stripping. streaking. The skid resistance of a surface may also be reduced by bleeding. loss of aggregate. Preventive Bituminous Surface Maintenance through MicroSurfacing . Figure 5 shows the components of defectiveness profile recorded for surface treatment. deep patches. alligator cracks. settlement. reflection cracking. hungry and caked surface. disintegration. and value for money. Assessment of Maintenance Needs Maintenance needs are assessed every year as part of planning of maintenance. crack and surface sealing through resurfacing. edge cracking. longitudinal cracking. low noise and spray generation. Simple maintenance procedure for correcting common distresses in flexible pavements including patching. shrinkage cracking. ravelling. impermeability. shoving. polished surface. edge cracks. efficient drainage system.including strength. alligator cracking and edge failure etc. rutting. These serviceability indicators are to be kept intact through proper maintenance cycles methodology and strategies. to lose their anti-skid properties as the texture wears out and the stone aggregates get polished. depressions. This makes it increasingly necessary to find a method of common distress confinement and rehabilitation with a broad based applicability. Figure 4 shows the pavement performance modeling which is also applicable to other forms of infrastructure behaviour.

Periodic renewals consist of the provision of micro-surfacing layer so as to preserve the required characteristics of the pavement and offset the wear and tear of the surface caused by traffic and weathering etc. The micro surfacing mix provides excellent smoothness and good . raveling etc. the life of the pavement can be prolonged. shallow depressions and fine cracks to moderate cracks (3mm to 6mm wide). It is relatively thin sections in which the mix is laid over the surface which is called microsurfacing. For instance. Micro-surfacing is a thin layer of a mixture of a modified bitumen based emulsion. Periodic renewals represent preventive maintenance. water and additives like cement and lime in desired proportions. Since a cationic type modified bitumen emulsion is used in preparing micro-surfacing the surfacing has got the unique feature of resisting action of water and preventing damage due to rains in the sealed pavement which may prove a good remedial measure.Future maintenance strategies for renewal surfacing activity is the need of the hour at regular intervals of time so that the constructed roads perform satisfactorily throughout their designed service life. Micro-surfacing is a low cost preventive maintenance treatment that retards the deterioration of pavement surface caused by environmental and the associated oxidation of the existing surface. which is needed to prevent deterioration of the pavement characteristics and to ensure that initial qualities are kept up for the future requirements of traffic during the design life of the pavement. aggregate. Micro-surfacing is now recognized as most cost-effectiveway to treat the deteriorated surface. where the situation demands there can be two applications of the same thickness. The micro-surfacing treatment should only be used on structurally sound pavement without extensive cracking or other deterioration. This preventive maintenance treatment is applied in one or two courses and does not require compaction. Microsurfacing is generally applied over a hungry. if symptoms like hungry surface. Micro-surfacing mix can be applied more frequently by machine application up to a thickness of 5mm in one application. are noticed at an early stage and suitable preventive action by way of renewal of surface is taken to arrest further deterioration. baked flexible pavement surface and also in case of fretting of aggregate over already laid surface. Early detection and repair of noticeable defects can prevent a major break down of the surface. Micro-surfacing can be easily sweeped into cracks and fishers. Traffic can usually be located back on to the roadways within one hour under ideal condition.

Software for GIS. . ii. terrain modeling software. and Autocad may be required for the proposed planning model. Future Suggestions of Road Maintenance There is a need for the guidelines on the strategic maintenance of flexible pavements. Computer operating system can be selected to ensure compatibility of the hardware and the facility of upgradation at a later date. image processing software. For the proposed planning model. Some general indicators of future challenges for the road maintenance engineer are given below:i. the environment. fog seal. Micro-surfacing may be suitably used on cracked pavement in lieu of more conventional rehabilitation such as crack to sealing. The regional centers could be linked with the headquarters through a communication system so as to enable data transfer from the field to the headquarters. Microsurfacing provides a convenient economical way of addressing pavement distress such as raveling and cracking. understandable. road condition and road inventory surveys. which use sensors within road components to feed real ± time information regarding their condition and performance. A greater emphasis is also likely to be placed on improving communication with road users to provide them with up-to-date and reliable advice about the state of the road. it is probable that the most successful road maintenance will be that which is noticed least in terms of its impacts on the road user. National Highway network maps can be digitized using Survey of India (SOI) base maps and the mapping data can be held in the Geographic Information System (GIS) format in a cartographic database. process and management methodology. liquid seal and double surface treatments. HDM-4 has been developed and released for use. Highway Design and Maintenance Standards The World Bank had developed the highway design and maintenance standards model and its Version-3 has been in use. the maps with all the other relevant information collected during the socio-economic. which will bring the planning process to the state-of-the-art level. HDM-4 has been calibrated for Indian deterioration and user cost models and customized for the chosen computer system platform. There is no doubt that the external influences which affect road operators and authorities will continue to play a major part in shaping the development of road maintenance. Indeed.friction with minimal increase in pavement noise levels. Increased interest is likely to be paid to the concept of smart roads. Obtaining Good quality information about road conditions is an essential pre-requisite for sound decision making about the need for road maintenance. which should be easy to use. and those living and working close to the carriageway. and cost-effective and provide uniformity in evaluation. The entire highway management system needs to be established on a computer system platform on client server model at the headquarters of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRT&H). and type of treatment that is subsequently applied. HDM. It may also be possible to overlay.

Conclusions y y y y y y y y y y y Efficient and effective maintenance management is simply expressed as doing the correct thing at the correct time and in the correct place. We should follow-up strict construction supervision and stringent quality control measures and must protect our investment with minimal maintenance costs. revitalize the existing surface free of ruts and potholes. crushed aggregates. The best possible way shall be to run pilot projects in every state and on National Highways and State Highways to start with. traffic. including weather. mineral filler. For this the existing deficiencies in the system need to be overcome and new capabilities need to be developed. and their impact upon those which they serve. Committed manpower resources will have to be developed and adequate infrastructure will have to be established to bring the highway planning and management system to the state-of-the-art level and comparable to those existing in developed countries. . No existing system is directly applicable to another agency. The very wide use of roads. The traffic on National Highways is likely to increaseenormously in the futuristic scenario. it is essential to develop and establish an efficient highway planning and management systems. and thereby to ensure rapid economic progress of the country. iv. Much could be gained from expert sources with previous experience in the Pavement Management Systems. liquid seal. Effort is also required to integrate various systems related to highway management system carried out in India and abroad.iii. Most important aspect of the future is where does the future of Pavement Management Systems go from here? How can we upgrade and improve the technology of the Pavement Management System? How can we improve the Pavement Management System itself. A thin hot mix asphalt overlay on the principle of microsurfacing will improve the riding quality and skid resistance. slurry seal and fog seal composed of polymer modified asphaltemulsion. offer great challenges to road maintenance engineers to ensure that theassets for whose upkeep they are responsible are maintained for the benefit and convenience of all the road users. v. Capabilities of this type could eventually form the basis of better highway maintenance control if the demand for limited road space grows excessively. water and field control additive as needed. To meet the demand optimally. Making good decision regarding road maintenance is a complex process that involves the right treatment for the right road at a right time. and other surface defects. The preventive maintenance approach through microsurfacing will not only save our scare funds but also provide a safe and comfortable ride to our road users. do not be afraid to take advantage of the benefits of others experience. Maintenance-by-Contract of National Highways and expressways should be privatized or as a part of construction contract to reduce the burden on the exchequer. such as chip seal. Micro-surfacing is one of the latest mixtures of surface treatments. safety and other conditions.

´ The Indian Roads Congress.7 times as much carbon per unit of energy when burnt as does natural gas and 1. New Delhi. The saving due toreduction in losses can be used for the construction of new roads and improvement of existingroads and highways.´ Washington. S. 12.K. USA. Byrd ³Maintenance Management. 12. HMSO. The above highway maintenance strategies would be useful to reduce the losses caused due to bad condition of roads.´ Indian Roads Congress. 1978.1997. IRC:82-1982 ³Code of Practice for Maintenance of Bituminous Surfaces of Highways. B. Maintenance. and L. 9. Tech Dry (India) Pvt. Florida. 5. 1991. Bangalore There are several causes for global warming including carbon dioxide emission from burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity generation. 1972. Vol. Van NostrandReinhold.P. Coal emits around 1. Mookerjee. London. Washington.G. 1999. New Delhi±1997. Bhatnagar. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 1982. Asphalt Institute Park. 10.25 times as much as oil. GREEN CONCRETE & GLOBAL WARMING Dr. ³Tentative Guidelines for strengthening of Flexible Pavements using Benkelman Beam Deflectio Technique. D. References 1. 1989. Local Authority Associations. ³Pavement Management Systems´ Robert E. A.´ The Annual Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India). S. ³Causes of Failure of the Existing Pavements and their Evaluation for Strengthening.C.´ International Seminar on Highway Rehabilitation and Maintenance. 7. Butler. Maryland.Krieger Publishing Company. ³Road Rehabilitation and Maintenance. New Roads and Street Works Act.F. The special attention is required for the maintenance of roads and highways in the snow and desert areas. Seehra. IRC:81-1997.. ³Construction. Stacy. Coal accounts for 93 percent of the emissions from the electric utility industry. 8. The drainage conditions be improved along the highways so that the damage to the sub-grade due to seepage of water be avoided. Implementation and Management of Highways. 2. 1597. 1978. Association of County Councils. Australian Road Research Board. Ltd. New Delhi. Ralph Mass and Ronald Hudson. ³Maintenance of Highway Pavements and structures³Transportation Research Board. Highway Maintenance ± A Code of Good Practice.´ Section 25 of Handbook of Highway Engineer.y y Proper pavement design. ³The determination of Pavement Maintenance Strategies´ proceedings.. 6.C. London.. D. regular inspection and maintenance of drainage system is of utmost importance in preserving the investment made on the construction of highway pavements. 11. 1972. 1975.S. 4. Organized by Indian Roads Congress.C. Asphalt Technology and Construction. Transportation Research Record No. 3. A. 11. Natural gas gives off .

The strength of concrete has risen dramatically as a result of the development of construction chemicals. chemistry. and biology. Worldwide. Green building is about creating optimized boundaries between people and the environment. roads. which constitutes as environmental friendly or green material. Building is the shelter creating boundaries between people and the environment. the construction industry contributes about 9% to the global GDP. tunnels. Carbon dioxide emitted from cars is about 20%. and is one of the most important elements of every economy. Green building is all about science-physics. chemistry.1 It is wellknown that the ecological balance is getting disturbed but we will keep our discussions restricted to the construction industry and utility of the green concrete. Building structures account for about 12% of carbon dioxide emissions. It¶s really about ecology because ecology is about physics. . bridges. and because it is all about systems and integration of physics. and biology. Carbon dioxide emitted from airplanes causes 3. It is vast subject to even define the material. The green building programme has identified a set of parameters that should be kept into consideration when the building is constructed and materials are chosen for it.6% of global warming and that the figure could rise to 15% by 2050. and dams could not be met without construction chemicals.50% of the carbon dioxide. chemistry. Today¶s demands on buildings.

Cement . For the production of bricks and concrete energy intensive activities are undertaken. the demand for cement worldwide is 800 million tonnes per year. either fossil fuels or agricultural wastes. we will deal with one important aspect and that is the construction industry. given the huge population requiring housing. The raw materials needed for the production of construction chemicals are manufactured by the big chemical producers. it is disappointing. and cement is formed. The limestone is converted to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. This is the equivalent of 44 kg of carbon dioxide for every inhabitant of the Earth each year. In the case of cement production.The global construction chemical industry is a $20 billion business. CaCO3->CaO + CO2 For every 1000kg of calcium carbonate used. Assuming 500 million tonnes of limestone is used for this purpose each year then more than 220 million tonnes of carbon dioxide is emitted to the atmosphere from cement works alone each year. Polymers are the most important group of raw materials and are found in virtually every construction chemical formulation ranging from adhesives to waterproofing treatments. Japan. the energy use results in carbon dioxide production. limestone and clay are heated at 1450°C consuming fossil fuels. together accounting for 56% of the total market. 440 kg of carbon dioxide is produced. The development of new construction chemicals in many cases requires interaction by the chemical producer. The United States and Western Europe are the two largest markets. The firing of bricks is to increase the strength and durability of the brick and to decrease water absorption. The construction chemical industry spends about 3% of its sales on R&D of new products and applications. In addition.2 We often hear that India is going to become world power. It sounds musical to our ears but when you see the state of our Infrastructures. In this paper. To produce cement. construction chemical manufacturer and end user. Concrete requires the manufacture of cement. This production of carbon dioxide raises the question for the world of the desirability and economics of emulating western building practices in these countries. China and India come next and together have a market share of about 21%. The production of bricks required the burning of fuels.

Corrosion The corrosion of steel reinforcement is by far the single most common cause of structural damage. moisture. oxygen and in adequate concrete quality or cover. Other factors which may influence either the initiation or rate of reinforcement corrosion include cracks in concrete.Let us concentrate on some of the major factors contributing to this state of affairs related to construction industry. The given table will show the energy demand and emissions generated in production of 1kg of cement. There are two major situations in which corrosion of reinforcing steel can occur: y y Carbonation Chloride contamination Carbonation . We believe that every responsible citizen would continue in adopting environmental objectives. The key environmental factors that reduce the passivation of steel are carbonation and chloride. temperature.

which is not only hazardous but also carcinogenic. Togero4 shows in his studies that some small fraction of formaldehyde in both SNF and SMF is liberated. This leads to the corrosion of reinforcement/ malignancy of reinforcement as we call. highly alkaline passive shield around reinforcement. They may enter the set concrete from environment pollutants dissolved in rain water/humidity.Carbonation is the process in which the Carbon dioxide (CO2) enters in the concrete as carbonic cid in the presence of moisture and reacts with calcium hydroxide and following reaction takes place Ca(OH)2 + CO2 -> CaCO3 + H2O Chloride Ions Chloride ions can enter concrete in two ways: y y They may be added during mixing either deliberately as an admixture or as a contaminant in the original constituents. Some additional test showed that this is the only part of leached organic substance that comes from superplasticizers and rest of them come from coating and adhesives. Toxicity of Admixture While using admixture. which makes the building less durable and vulnerable to natural calamities which leads to human tragedy and loss of property. it is very important to be careful and make judicious decision so that the ingredient of cement does not react with admixture and produce undesirable side products. lmpregnants . The study shows that approximately 15-25% of sulphonated naphthalene polymers (SNP). Both Carbonation and Chloride ions damage the protective. lignosulphonate and polycarboxylates and 30-60% of sulphonated melamine polymers (SMP) were leached. Tons and tons of admixtures particularly plasticizers and superplasticizers are used in construction. Plasticizers tend to liberate cancer causing toxic product like formaldehyde.

Permanent bonding between concrete capillaries and impregnants results in longterm durability. The effect of some of the coatings is injurious like: Asbestos We are sure that everybody knows that any type of asbestos causes cancer and it is not confined to a specific blue variety. For these reasons. This trapped water hits the weaker part of the surface and create ingress points in the form of cracks. A satisfactory water repellent leaves the treated substrate permeable to water vapour while restricting the passage of liquid through the capillaries. Moreover. However. flexible fibers that can be separated into thin threads and woven. solvents are very expensive. Treatment by impregnation does not change the finish appearance and no yellowing is normally developed during use. These fibers are not affected by heat or chemicals and do not conduct electricity. solvent being toxic and hazardous has been banned in most of the Western countries. honeycombs etc. resulting in a molecular size three to four times the dissolved size. blisters. Water Based Water based impregnants form a zone within the pore of structure after penetration. A natural external finish of masonry buildings may be required for aesthetic purposes. Asbestos as we all know is the name given to group of minerals that occur naturally as masses of strong. and some impregnants is bound chemically to the silicates in the cement matrix. . asbestos has been widely used in many industries. Coatings Coatings have not been successful because they tend to block pores and capillaries with the trapped water underneath it. Solvent Based Impregnants Impregnants dissolved in a suitable solvent can be used to create a waterproof hydrophobic surface which does not allow the ingress of water.Water vapour permeability is an essential requirement for building materials.

Besides several disadvantages like blister formation. which easily distinguishes them from all other solid materials. molecules. Let us understand the term elastomers.Membranes It has become a fashion to use membranes. The conventional membranes or thick toppings are normally bitumen. Most synthetic elastomers are not as elastic as natural rubber. Elastomers are a class of materials which differ quite obviously from all other solid materials in that they can be stretched easily and almost completely reversibly. Weatherability. chainlike or string-like. Wind uplift resistance. polyurethane. Bitumen The main constituents in bitumen are polyaromatic compounds which undergo photochemical oxidation particularly at high temperature (since they are black. These photo-oxidation generates gases and strong carcinogenic compounds like Benzo[a]pyrene. Elastomeric coatings are the latest type of coating which came into roof protection systems and tanking systems in basements. At this scale the inside of a piece of rubber can be thought of . the temperature is much higher). Elastomers are a special case of the wider group of materials known as polymers. Crack bridging. but are made of long. Tensile strength. Materials compatibility. Temperature flexibility. breathable with high elongation and weatherability and crack bridging membranes rather than coating which have several problems. to high extensions and before reaching its ultimate breaking elongation ± it can be released and will rapidly recover to almost exactly the original length it had before stretching. Flashing attachment. the word is a misnomer since the elastomeric coating should have the following properties which these membranes do not have. debonding and other factors which allow water to enter. The material is said to be elastic. flexible. Elongation. Bonding. Elastomeric Coatings Elastomeric coatings should not be misunderstood as the above mentioned membrane since these are normally non-cementitious and are produced by using special polymerization techniques and unlike other membranes they are flexible. and epoxy based. Abrasion resistance. Polymers are not made up of discrete compact molecules like most materials. but all can be stretched (or otherwise deformed) in a reversible manner to an extent. To understand this concept we must address ourselves to basic questions to why latest membranes in this field are different than the conventional coating membranes. asphalt.

In planning a grouting programme for particular conditions. These kinds of products do not effect the environment nor pollute the ground water. Grouting Grouting is the injection of a fluidized material into the soil to enhance its strength. concrete spalling. the chains. Thermal Insulation . Grouting can be more feasible than the cut and cover method. So the whole structure forms a coherent network which stops the chains from sliding past one another indefinitely ± although leaving the long sections of chain between crosslinks free to move. excavating a trench to put in a tunnel lining and filling in the gap with soil. for example. No one grout is suitable for every situation. But in most practical elastomers each chain will be joined together occasionally along its length to one or more nearby chains with just a very few chemical bridges. Now-a-days excellent chemical grouting products have been developed.as resembling a pile of cooked spaghetti. Monomers may have the same or different chemical compositions Water in the form of vapour. Water presence in below grade makes interior spaces uninhabitable not only byleakage but also by damage to structural components as exhibited by reinforcing steel corrosion. though intertwined. by direct leakage in a liquid state. polymerization technique. poly(ethylene). accelerators and fillers can have an influence on the physical and chemical stability of the final elastomeric membrane. which represents some 500 to 2000 molecules of VC linked together to make a giant molecule of commercial PVC. which can strengthen the voids whether in basements or otherwise. chemical. and structural cracking. or to reduce its permeability. The most common types of grout are Portland cement. initiators. and asphaltic grouts. traffic may have to be rerouted around the cut and cover project site. The process by which crosslinks are added is known as vulcanization. The basic types of grouts now in use and their properties are discussed. In the city. Therefore. Water causes damage by vapour transmission through porous surfaces. all elastomeric membranes are not alike and different parameters like nature of monomer cross-linking agent. In spaghetti. known as crosslinks. For example there are 2-component system where the damage is not only treated on the surface of the structure but that the complete centre of damage and the whole section of the building structure are completely treated. for example poly(vinyl chloride). density. Types of admixtures and fillers used and their effects on the grout are also discussed. A polymer or a macromolecule is made up of many (poly) molecules (µmers¶) or monomers linked together like wagons in a train. settlement cracks. etc. Polymers on the other hand are giant molecules of different chemicals. we need knowledge of various types of grouts and their properties. are all separate. The polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC). liquid presents below-grade construction with many unique problems. clay. however.

Buildings already represent approximately 40% of primary energy use globally and energy consumption in buildings is projected to rise substantially in the world¶s most populous and fast . Thermal insulation for buildings has been known since long and is one of the serious requirements more because of the climatic conditions in India. and hot water use. In one of the reports conducted by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). it is soft. The general guideline for thermal insulation is to understand that thermal resistance of insulating material is directly proportional to the type of material and its thickness measured in terms of thermal conductivity. This flow of heat can never be stopped completely. but the rate at which it flows can be reduced by using materials which have a high resistance to heat flow. Moreover. but unfortunately they mix the cost benefit of these green buildings. Surkhi which is now-a-days used as burnt bricks but definitely does not provide any thermal insulation on the concrete. and laying of tiles over it is often required. gives a very good insulation. It is important that the key persons in the field of real estate and construction industry should appreciate the advantages of green building and its benefits.3 Existing technologies combined with common sense design can increase energy efficiency by 35 percent and reduce heating costs by 80 percent for the average building in industrialized markets. ventilation. There are large numbers of insulation materials available in the market. lightweight micaceous minerals like Vermiculite have been used. which can contribute in saving energy. For example. Recently. while the actual number of 40% is double this. ceramic microspheres and some natural clay along with redispersable spray dried polymers have played a key role. Heat naturally flows from warm areas to cooler areas. surkhi or thermal insulation are preferred as Insulation products while thermal insulation does provide insulation but is not very durable. The problem with this product is that it is very porous in nature and absorbs water and therefore has to be waterproofed. regardless of direction. lightweight waterproofing concrete not only replaces brick bat coba and reduced the weight on the surface of the roof. more than triple the true cost difference of about 5%. Life cycle analysis shows that 80 to 85% of the total energy consumption and CO2 emissions of a building comes from occupancy through heating. cooling. At the same time. we in India need any new system.This has been a very misunderstood subject and there has been an understanding that Brick bat coba. Respondents to a 1400 person global survey estimated the additional cost of building green at 17% above conventional construction. Moreover. The choice of the insulating material depends on the cost. area to be covered and the cost of heating or cooling. survey respondents put greenhouse gas emissions by buildings at 19% of world total. For the last few years.

Indoor Air quality: Condition of air inside buildings with respect to harmful concentrations of contaminants. It would also be interesting to note that we can perhaps use environmental friendly green material. Life Cycle: All stages of production. Reused or salvaged materials: Materials or products from building deconstruction or demolition that are reused µas ±is¶ with little or no processing or modification Solid waste: Material or product. Third party certified: Materials or products that are monitored by independent organizations for compliance with recognized environmental standards. Embodied Energy: All of the energy required in the raw material extraction. Green Terrace/Green Roofs We have been emphasizing on green concrete. it is extremely difficult to accurately assess the environmental performance of a building material or product over its entire life cycle. disposed of in landfills or incinerators. not contaminated by toxic coating etc. it permits us to develop design of sustainable ecosystem with . some them are: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y By-product: Unused or waste material from one manufacturing or energy producing process that can be used in another manufacturing or energy producing process. In many cases. usually in less than 10 years. including raw materials extraction. use. easily separated from other materials. distribution. disposal. manufacturing. reuse or recycling. typically long lasting and not biodegradable. distribution. Quite often. the GBP relies on third party certification organization to accomplish this task. and all transportation. Diversion: Avoidance of landfill disposal of a material or product through reuse or recycling. volatile organic compounds and particulates. Global Warming potential: Possible Climate warming effect caused by the manufacture and/ or use of a material or product compared to that of carbon dioxide which has a GWP of 1.growing countries such as China and India. Recycled content: Portion of material or product that is made from recovered material. Source separation: Separation of waste materials by material type at the point of use to facilitate recycling. maintenance. We would once again say that ecological engineering is an emerging field. and transport of a material product up to its point of use. Recyclable: Having the potential for being recycled by possessing such traits as highly recoverable. Off-Gassing: Releasing of gases or vapours into the air Rapidly renewable: Materials that are replenished relatively quickly.0. manufacturing.

it lights up garden and tress but we forget that the by-product of all these is light pollution. Recent advances in technology have made them lighter. longer useful life. This would help mitigate the urban heat insland effect. and advances in waterproofing systems aided the gradual development of a viable green roof industry. more durable and better able to withstand the extreme conditions of the rooftop. References: 1. mosses which are the natural sources of bacteria and in-house pollution. What is light pollution? When the light is shining into your neighbor¶s house it creates a sky glow effect. better health conditions for occupants. uninterrupted layers of protection and drainage.10 SRI Consulting SCUP Report World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Togero. reduce storm water runoff. Progress in horticultural engineering. 3. US Emission Inventory 2004 Executive summary p. Therefore. We can avoid sound pollution by using lightweight minerals. improve building insulation and increase green space and biodiversity in urban centers. Green roofs are the result of a complete underlying roof build-up system. radon gases which causes disease like asthma and diabetes mainly in children. we conclude that waterproofing is a critical step but should be based on environmental friendly. Germany has been on the forefront in this field and has subsidized green roof costs. it can cause glare and so many other problems. including improvements in drought-resistant plants. providing continuous. non-toxic and energy saving techniques. Infact several European countries and the US have very aggressively pursued the project of green roofs or terrace gardens. Light pollution is also harmful to wild life and equally to human beings. 2004 . reduced water consumption. 4. Conclusion The benefits of green buildings are many: greater energy efficiency. However. All of these factors can improve the value of a building over the long term and reduce operational costs.integrate human society. it can encourage the growth of algae. the mistaken perception exists that green building ³costs too much´ without a commensurate return on investment. Many home owners and the designers prefer to add bright lights because it gives a better feeling of architecture. 2. and much more. Waterproofing If waterproofing is not done and is not effective. fungus.

Concrete Composites Lab Structural Engineering Research Centre. or saturated wood fibers) Created. due to depercolation of the capillary porosity. curing is taken to happen µfrom the outside to inside¶. When this water is not readily available.´ Conventionally.¶ Need for Self±curing When the mineral admixtures react completely in a blended cement system. Chennai Excessive evaporation of water (internal or external) from fresh concrete should be avoided. µinternal curing¶ is allowing for curing µfrom the inside to outside¶ through the internal reservoirs (in the form of saturated lightweight fine aggregates. empty pores are created within the cement paste. otherwise. leading to a reduction in its internal relative humidity and also to . curing concrete means creating conditions such that water is not lost from the surface i. Scientist. CSIR. and Rajamane N P. Curing operations should ensure that adequate amount of water is available for cement hydration to occur.. This paper discusses different aspects of achieving optimum cure of concrete without the need for applying external curing methods. µInternal curing¶ is often also referred as µSelf±curing.e. Deputy Director and Head. for example. Due to the chemical shrinkage occurring during cement hydration.Self Curing Concrete An Introduction Ambily P.S. In contrast. Definition of Internal Curing (IC) The ACI-308 Code states that ³internal curing refers to the process by which the hydration of cement occurs because of the availability of additional internal water that is not part of the mixing Water. their demand for curing water (external or internal) can be much greater than that in a conventional ordinary Portland cement concrete. significant autogenous deformation and (early-age) cracking may result. the degree of cement hydration would get lowered and thereby concrete may develop unsatisfactory properties. superabsorbent polymers.

expanded shale). One type of SAPs are suspension polymerized. Potential Materials for IC The following materials can provide internal water reservoirs: y y y y y y Lightweight Aggregate (natural and synthetic. polyethylene-glycol) Wood powder Chemicals to Achieve Self±curing Some specific water-soluble chemicals added during the mixing can reduce water evaporation from and within the set concrete. another type of SAP is solutionpolymerized and then crushed and sieved to particle sizes in the range of 125±250 mm. about 95% of the SAP world production is used as a urine absorber in disposable diapers.¶ The chemicals should have abilities to reduce evaporation from solution and to improve water retention in ordinary Portland cement matrix. limiting the final degree of hydration. It is seen that more than 50% swelling occurs within the first 5 min after water addition.e. silica fume). The empty pores created during self-desiccation induce shrinkage stresses and also influence the kinetics of cement hydration process. SAPs are a group of polymeric materials that have the ability to absorb a significant amount of liquid from the surroundings and to retain the liquid within their structure without dissolving. The swelling time depends especially on the particle size distribution of the SAP. SAPs can be produced with . The SAPs are covalently crosslinked. reduced water/cement (w/ c) ratio and the pozzolanic mineral admixtures (fly ash. The strength achieved by IC could be more than that possible under saturated curing conditions. due to the extremely low permeabilities often achieved. The water content in SAP at reduced RH is indicated by the sorption isotherm. it is not easily possible to provide curing water from the top surface at the rate required to satisfy the ongoing chemical shrinkage. SAPs are principally used for absorbing water and aqueous solutions. Often specially in HPC.shrinkage which may cause early-age cracking. This situation is intensified in HPC (compared to conventional concrete) due to its generally higher cement content. They are Acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymers. spherical particles with an average particle size of approximately 200 mm. LWS Sand (Water absorption =17 %) LWA 19mm Coarse (Water absorption = 20%) Super-absorbent Polymers (SAP) (60-300 mm size) SRA (Shrinkage Reducing Admixture) (propylene glycol type i. The size of the swollen SAP particles in the cement pastes and mortars is about three times larger due to pore fluid absorption. Super-absorbent Polymer (SAP) for IC The common SAPs are added at rate of 0±0.6 wt % of cement. making it µself-curing.

They can be produced by either solution or suspension polymerization. all the water inside a SAP can essentially be considered as bulk water. i. Another factor contributing to increase the swelling is water solvation of hydrophilic groups present along the polymer chain. Some water remains always in the LWA in the high RH range and it becomes useful when the overall RH humidity in concrete is significantly reduced. however. The macromolecular matrix of a SAP is a polyelectrolyte. However. SAPs exist in two distinct phase states.e. . and the particles may be prepared in different sizes and shapes including spherical particles. The grain size of down to 2±4 mm are found to be beneficial. leaving ions of one sign bound to the chain and counter-ions in solution. The commercially important SAPs are covalently crosslinked polyacrylates and copolymerized polyacrylamides/ polyacrylates. From a chemical point of view. Means of Providing Water for Self±curing Using LWA Water/moisture required for internal curing can be supplied by incorporation of saturatedsurfacedry (SSD) lightweight fine aggregates (LWA). the distance to which the internal curing water could diffuse. a high concentration of ions exists inside the SAP leading to a water flow into the SAP due to osmosis. a polymer with ionisable groups that can dissociate in solution. The grain size of the LWA used as curing agent should be less in order to minimise the paste± aggregate proximity..water absorption of up to 5000 times their own weight. Water Available from LWA for Self±curing It is estimated by measuring desorption of the LWA in SSD condition after exposed to a salt solution of potassium nitrate (equilibrium RH of 93%). The total absorption capacity of the LWA can be measured by drying a Saturated Surface Dry (SSD) sample in a dessicator. Because of their ionic nature and interconnected structure. produce a more uniform distribution of the water needed for curing throughout the microstructure. SAPs exist in two distinct phase states. The water retained in LWA in air-dry condition may not be enough to prevent autogenous shrinkage whose magnitude. in dilute salt solutions. Water in LWA for Internal Curing About 67% of the water absorbed in the LWA can get transported to self-desiccating paste. the absorbency of commercially produced SAPs is around 50 g/g. collapsed and swollen. The fine lightweight aggregate. may be reduced significantly. The phase transition is a result of a competitive balance between repulsive forces that act to expand the polymer network and attractive forces that act to shrink the network. in saturated condition. i. For this reason. Elastic free energy opposes swelling of the SAP by a retractive force. collapsed and swollen.e. The phase transition is a result of a competitive balance between repulsive forces that act to expand the polymer network and attractive forces that act to shrink the network. they can absorb large quantities of water without dissolving.

increases as the radius becomes smaller and thus enabling the pores to continue to absorb water from the LWA. The unhydrated cement particles from the cement paste now have more free-water available for hydration and new hydration products grow in the pores of the cement paste thus causing them to become smaller. the water will be drawn from the relatively ³large´ pores in the LWA into the much smaller ones in the cement paste. which is the inverse to the square of the pore radius. via the Kelvin. different types of shrinkages may be identified as : . This continues until most of the water from the LWA has been transported to the cement paste. The radii of capillary pores formed during hydration in the cement paste are smaller than the pores of the LWA. This accelerates the appearance of the localized humidity gradients. Crushed LWA for Internal Curing Crushed LWA could provide a better surface for binder interaction as the pelletising process often produces LWAs with sealed surface. When the RH decreases (due to hydration and drying). Potential of LWA for Reducing Autogenous Shrinkage As the cement hydrates. This will minimise the development of autogenous shrinkage as the shrinkage stress is controlled by the size of the empty pores. It also leads to reduced or no stresses due to drying helping in eliminating the surface cracking. This helps reduce the amount of water that would normally evaporate and contributes to improve internal curing of the concrete. Water Required for Self±curing It depends upon chemical and autogenous shrinkages expected during hydration reactions. The capillary suction. with the LWA acting as a water reservoir. The water from the LWA near the surface is then used up faster than in the interior of the concrete thus causing the near-surface layer of the concrete to become denser in a shorter time. a humidity gradient develops. Types of Shrinkage Drying Shrinkages may occur at earlyages or at later ages over a longer period. the pores of the cement paste absorb water from the LWA by capillary suction.Laplace equation. The vesicular surface resulting from the crushing operation allows paste penetration and provides more surface area for reaction between the aggregate and paste. as the water evaporates from the concrete surface. The transition zone associated with a crushed aggregate has advantages over a more smooth and sealed surface.Utility of LWA Near Surface of Concrete At the surface of the concrete. a humidity gradient develops.

3 H -> C1. Reason for Chemical Shrinkage Chemical shrinkage is an internal volume reduction due to the absolute volume of the hydration Products being less than that of the reactants (cement and water).9) / 166. Chemical shrinkage = (150. before the concrete has formed a hardened skeleton. It is due to the internal chemical and structural reactions of the concrete.Drying shrinkage. autogenous shrinkage.7SH4 + 1. the autogenous shrinkage can also result from self-desiccation since the hardened skeleton resists the chemical shrinkage.9 = -0. C1608 Autogenous Shrinkage It is as a volume change in concrete occurring without moisture transfer from the environment intoconcrete.10 to 0. . 166. respectively. Autogenous shrinkage is prominent in HPCs due to the reduced amount of water and increased amount of various binders used.8 Therefore. these coefficients are about 0.1 + 95. and 0.e.3 CH Molar volumes 71.22. thermal shrinkage.096 mL/mL = -0. and fly ash. there is a need to supply 0. autogenous shrinkage is often due to only chemical shrinkage. Quantity of Chemical Shrinkage Portland cement hydration is typically accompanied by a chemical shrinkage on the order of 0. It can be measured by ASTM standard test method.8 ±166. The external (macroscopic) dimensional reduction of the cementitious system under isothermal sealed curing conditions.0704 mL/g cement For complete reaction of each gram of tricalcium silicate.9 -> 150. At later ages (>1+days). At early ages (the first few hours).8 + 43 i.8 -> 107. slag.053 for 75% hydration at 28 day was experimentally observed by Powers in 1935). can be 100 to 1000 micro strains.16.18. and carbonation shrinkage.07 gram of extra curing water to maintain saturated conditions. (A value of 0. 0. For example: Hydration of tricalcium silicate: C3S + 5.07 mass of water per mass of cement for complete hydration: for silica fume.

. The above equation is only approximate for a partiallysaturated visco-elastic material such as hydrating cement paste. It is the reduction in the internal relative humidity of a sealed system when empty pores are generated.In (RH) * R * T / Vm where . S = degree of saturation (0 to 1) or volume fraction of waterfilled pores. a strong correlation exists between internal relative humidity and free autogenous shrinkage. These stresses cause a physical autogenous deformation (shrinkage strain) given by: =(S* cap/ 3 ) * [ (1/K) ± (1/Ks)] where = shrinkage (negative strain). At later ages. Potential of Selfdesiccation Prominent in HPC/ HSC The finer porosity of HSC/HPC (with a low w/c). Self±desiccation is only a risk when there is not enough localized water in the paste for the cement to hydrate and it occurs the water is drawn out of the capillary pore spaces between the solid particles.Self-desiccation It is the localized drying resulting from a decreasing relative humidity (RH) which could be the result of the cement requiring extra water for hydration. Inter-dependance of Autogenous & Chemical Shrinkages Chemical shrinkage creates empty pores within hydrating paste and stress generated is stimated by equation: cap = 2 * / r = . such as fly ash and silica fume. leading to greater autogenous shrinkage as the paste is pulled inwards. R = the universal gas constant. causing large compressive stress on the pore walls. Mineral admixtures. and Ks = bulk modulus of the solid framework within the porous material. and T is the absolute temperature The sizes of empty pores regulate both internal RH and capillary stresses. K = bulk modulus of elasticity of the porous material. r = the radius of the largest water-filled pore (or the smallest empty pore).Vm = Surface tension and molar volume of the pore solution. but still provides insight into the physical mechanism of autogenous shrinkage and the importance of various physical parameters The internal drying is analogous to external drying shrinkage. in concrete tend to refine the pore structure towards a finer microstructure thereby water consumption will be increased and the autogenous shrinkage due to self-desiccation will be increased. causes the water meniscus to have a greater radius of curvature.

These problems can be mitigated by use of a pre-soaked LWA.) above the level where internally & externally induced strains can cause cracking. which is generally difficult to control. Capillary action of the pores in the concrete is very strong. . Early water curing can lead to higher strain gradients when the skin of the concrete becomes well cured (no shrinkage) whereas. IC provides water to keep the relative humidity (RH) high. keeping self-desiccation from occurring. autogenous shrinkage. IC can make up for some of the deficiencies of external curing. iv. both human related (critical period when curing is required is the first 12 to 72 hours) and hydration related (because hydration products clog the passageways needed for the fluid curing water to travel to the cement particles thirsting for water). c. iii. Following factors establish the dynamics of water movement to the unhydrated cement particles: i. x. b. viii. ii. ix. The cement. Water in the properly distributed particles of LWA (fine) is very fluid. provides water that is desorbed into the mortar fraction (paste) to be used as additional curing water. IC eliminates largely autogenous shrinkage. Monitoring of Self ± curing This can be done by: i. will have more water available to it. vi. begins at the interior of the concrete. Measuring weight-loss X-Ray powder diffraction X-Ray microchromatography Thermogravimetry (TGA) measurements Initial surface absorption tests (ISAT) Compressive strength Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Change internal RH with time Water permeability NMR spectroscopy Advantages of Internal Curing a. and iii. Internal curing (IC) is a method to provide the water to hydrate all the cement. accomplishing what the mixing water alone cannot do. d. e. ii. v. IC maintains the strengths of mortar/concrete at the early age (12 to 72 hrs.Early External Water Curing and Cracks in HPC Reduction of autogenous shrinkage due to external curing in HPCs is possible for first one or two days when the capillary pores are yet interconnected. replacing some of the sand. In low w/c ratio mixes (under 0.43 and increasingly those below 0. Thirst for water by the hydrating cement particles is very intense. vii. not hydrated by low amount of mixing water.40) absorptive lightweight aggregate.

rheology of concrete mixture. However. does not adversely affect finishability.Concrete Deficiencies that IC can Address The benefit from IC can be expected when y y y y y Cracking of concrete provides passageways resulting in deterioration of reinforcing steel. Higher early age (say 3 day) flexural strength Higher early age (say 3 day) compressive strength. improves contact zone. Lower turnaround time. lower modulus sharper edges. Increases early age strength sufficient to withstand strain.e. Lower maintenance. the further reduction of grain size could result in a . quicker turnaround time in precast plants. i. higher performance. Reduces permeability. Improved rheology Greater utilization of cement. Increases mortar strength. lower maintenance cost. Provides greater durability. Need for: reduced construction time. Improvements to Concrete due to Internal Curing y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Reduces autogenous cracking. greater curing predictability. largely eliminates autogenous shrinkage. The reduction of the grain size (down to 2±4 mm). higher modulus of elasticity. or through mixture designs. does not adversely affect pumpability. low early-age strength is a problem. the distance to which the internal curing water should diffuse. is shown to be beneficial. The grain size of the LWA used as curing agent needs to be reduced in order to minimize the paste± aggregate proximity. modulus of elasticity of the finished product or durability of high fly-ash concretes are considerations. use of higher levels of fly ash. reduces effect of insufficient external curing. Effect of Particle Size and Content of LWA Internal curing by saturated lightweight aggregate can eliminate autogenous shrinkage with the smallest possible amount of lightweight aggregate. permeability or durability must be improved. Protects reinforcing steel. greater performance and predictability.

The concept of internal curing was established. The spacing between the LWA particles is conveniently small so that the water travels smaller distances to counteract self-desiccation. For a given amount of aggregate. With water-reservoirs well distributed within the matrix. based on dispersion of very small. the aggregates are represented by impenetrable spherical or ellipsoidal particles and each aggregate particle is surrounded by a soft penetrable shell representing the interfacial transition zone. thus economising on the content of the LWA. The LWA can be used for internal curing without considerable detrimental effects on strength when added in the amounts just required to eliminate self-desiccation. one can determine the volume fraction of paste contained within these shells and hence the relative proximity of the cement paste to the additional water. ³Protected Paste Volume´ Concept in Self-curing For self-curing. which serve as tiny reservoirs with sufficient water to compensate for self-desiccation. shorter distances have to be covered by the curing water and the efficiency of the internal-curing process is consequently improved. often called spacing. For this. This distance can be called the paste± aggregate proximity. Then.decrease of curing efficiency. Alternatively. it is essential to ensure the proximity of the cement paste to the surfaces of the source of water so that required high RH is generated around the cement grains for hydration reaction. In this regard. saturated LWA throughout the concrete. besides providing necessary quantity of water inside the matrix. Hence. aggregate distribution can be described by means of aggregate± aggregate proximity. Instead of the interfacial transition zones. Travel of Water from Surfaces of LWA Estimates of travel of internal water from the surface of water reservoir in the concrete matrix are: . which is the distance between two nearest LWA surfaces. the ³protected paste volume´ concept is useful to recognise the effective volume of cement paste. the closer will be the paste± aggregate proximity. but also on whether it is readily available to the surrounding cement paste as well. water cannot permeate fully within an acceptable time interval. if the distance from some location in the cement paste to the nearest LWA surface is too great. The finer the aggregate size. the saturated LWA (fine aggregate) particles surrounded by a shell of variable thickness can be assumed for evaluation. Distribution of Internal Water Reservoirs for Curing The transport distance of water within the concrete is limited by depercolation of the capillary pores in low w/c ratio pastes. the paste±aggregate proximity can be adjusted by the size of the aggregate. by systematic point sampling. The effectiveness of internal curing depends not only on whether there is sufficient water in the LWA. The amount of water in the LWA can therefore be minimized.

an amount of water more than sufficient to counteract selfdesiccation should be absorbed in the LWA. During initial ages of concrete. Usefulness of IC in Pavements The major problem of cracking in pavements may be alleviated by internal curing. A great quantity of water is in fact entrapped in the internal porosity of the larger particles. Since some of the water absorbed by the LWA in the smaller pores will not be released to the hardening cement paste. the opposite seems to hold: the absorption is lower. Only pore sizes above approximately 100 nm are useful for storage of internal curing water. especially in concretes with lower water-binder ratios where sufficient curing water cannot be supplied externally.y y y y early hydration ² 20 mm middle hydration ² 5 mm late hydration ² 1 mm or less ³worst case´ ² 0. avoiding selfdesiccation (in the paste) and reducing autogenous shrinkage. Pore Sizes in Internal Reservoirs & Capillary Pores IC distributes the extra curing water throughout the 3-D concrete microstructure so that it is more readily available to maintain saturation of the cement paste during hydration. Size of pores for Internal Water Storage Water is held in pores primarily by capillary forces. the chemical shrinkage accompanying the hydration reactions will lead to self-desiccation and significant autogenous shrinkage (and possibly cracking). . In case of smaller fraction. Because the autogenous stresses are inversely proportional to the diameter of the pores being emptied. Another prominent effect would be autogenous shrinkage. hydration heat can raise concrete temperature significantly (causing expansion). subsequent thermal contraction during cooling can lead to early-age (global or local) cracking if restrained (globally or locally). besides imparting many potential benefits. one should consider that only about half of it is available for internal curing. the individual pores in the internal reservoirs should be much larger than the typical sizes of the capillary pores (micrometers) in hydrating cement paste.Age Cracking Contributors¶ which are mainly thermal effects and autogenous shrinkage. Usefulness of IC for Early-Age Cracking The IC can influence the µEarly. but almost 80 % of the water is lost by 85% RH.25 mm (250 ìm) (Early and middle hydration estimates in agreement with x-ray absorption-based observations on mortars during curing). for IC to do its job. In smaller pores the water is held so tightly that it is not available for the cementitious reactions.

These pore sizes in turn are dependent on the initial watertobinder ratio (w/b). HPC projects. In cement mortar containing a Type F fly ash. IC is useful when µperformance specifications¶ are important than µprescriptive specifications¶ for concrete.Quantifying Effectiveness of IC IC can be experimentally measured by: y y y y y y Internal RH Autogenous deformation Compressive strength development Degree of hydration Restrained shrinkage or ring tests 3-D X-ray microtomography (Direct observation of e 3-D microstructure of cementbased materials). precast concrete operations. It may be noted that the effects of self-desiccation are not always detrimental. and higher and coarser porosity at early ages result in less autogenous shrinkage. in the 21st century. bridges. Many strategies for minimizing the detrimental effects of selfdesiccation (mainly the high internal stresses and strains that may lead to early-age cracking). An additional benefit of IC beyond autogenous shrinkage reduction is increase in compressive strength. IC is particularly effective for the highperformance concretes containing silica fume and GGBS. needs to be more controlled by the choice of ingredients rather than by the uncertainties . and the chemical shrinkage is larger than the autogenous shrinkage. Prime applications of IC could be: concrete pavements. The self-desiccation is the reduction in internal relative humidity of a sealed hydrating cement system when empty pores are generated. the fly ash functions mainly as a dilutent at early ages. it is expected that IC would also reduce such cracking. and architectural concretes. the particle size distributions of the binder components. Since autogenous shrinkage is a main contributor to early-age cracking. and have often resulted in materials and structures where the effects of self-desiccation are all to visible as early-age cracking. Concrete. as exemplified by the benefits offered by self-desiccation in terms of an earlier RH reduction for flooring applications and an increased resistance to frost damage. This occurs when chemical shrinkage takes place at the stage where the paste matrix has developed a self-supportive skeleton. As internal curing maintains saturated conditions within the hydrating cement paste. Conclusion The internal curing (IC) by the addition of saturated lightweight fine aggregates is an effective means of drastically reducing autogenous shrinkage. parking structures. the magnitude of internal self-desiccation stresses are reduced and long term hydration is increased. such as internal curing. The continuing trends towards finer cements and much lower w/b have significantly reduced the capillary pore ³diameters´ (spacing) in the paste component of the fresh concrete. rely on providing a ³sacrificial´ set of larger water-filled pores within the concrete microstructure that will empty first while the smaller pores in the hydrating binder paste will remain saturated. Effects of self-desiccation depend on the sizes of the generated empty pores. and their achieved degree of hydration.

and Microstructure of Cement Paste. ³Mechanisms of water retention in cement pastes containing a self-curing agent.P. Lakshmanan. 2006. Bentz. K. 89 (8). 2006. 9. October 30.´ High-performance structural lightweight concrete. 7.of construction practices and the weather. and Roberts.J.. Shrinkage and Durability of Concrete and Concrete Structures. K. P. 11. 348-356... D. Halleck. 2002.S. D. Director.´ Magazine of Concrete Research. 2006.. U. 1998. F. 1999. UK..´ CONCREEP 7 Workshop on Creep.´ Journal of the American Ceramic Society.W.. and Snyder. 9-11 September 2002. Acknowledgment The authors thank Dr. Lura.´ NISTIR 6886. 579-584. A. 2005. ³Mixture Proportioning for Internal Curing. 1863-1867. Issue No 1.S.W. D. ³The possibility of self-curing concrete Proc Name Innovations and developments in concrete materials and construction. 10. Bibliography on Selfcuring (Internal Curing) 1.´ Concrete International.. 35-40. Commerce. ³Capillary Porosity Depercolation/Repercolation in Hydrating Cement Pastes via Low Temperature Calorimetry Measurements and CEMHYD3D Modeling.D. 12-14.. Bentz.E.. U.P. ³Curing. University of Dundee. for permitting to publish this paper.. Cusson. ACI SP 218.. De Jesus Cano Barrita. pp 85-90.. ³Use of magnetic resonance imaging to study internal moist curing in concrete containing saturated lightweight aggregate. Bentz.C. J.W. Department of Commerce. Dyer. Grader. N.P. D. 29.P. Hewlett.P. 4. P. 2. Bentz.´ Cement and Concrete Research. T.P.´ Concrete International. 1999. and Snyder. and Hoogeveen. Sept. Bentz. B.´ Proc. Dept. 39-45.. SERC. Bentz.J. 28 (10). Nantes. 2606-2611. Balcom. D. 2005.S. . ACI fall convention. 27 (2).´ ACI Materials Journal. P.. Vol No 50. ³Internally-Cured High. Bremner. Bilek. T. and Roberts. concrete quality will be engineered through the incorporation of water absorbed within the internal curing agent.. 6.´ NISTIR 6265. Garboczi..P. 5..M. Bentz... pp. and Stutzman. 103 (5). France. Instead of curing through external applications of water. T. ³Influence of Curing Conditions on Water Loss and Hydration in Cement Pastes with and without Fly Ash Substitution. Hydration. July 2002. 8. R... D. J. 3.. P. Arizona.K. ³A Hard Core/Soft Shell Microstructural Model for Studying Percolation and Transport in Three±Dimensional Composite Media. ³Direct Observation of Water Movement during Internal Curing Using X-ray Microtomography. Dhir. D. Chennai. B et al. ³Protected Paste Volume in Concrete: Extension to Internal Curing Using Saturated Lightweight Fine Aggregates.Performance Concrete under Restrained Shrinkage and Creep. D. Intl Conf.A. E.A.

et al. Lura. 2002. American Concrete Institute.S. Sellevold. : Ultimate concrete opportunities : Admixtures±enhancing concrete performance. 24. Va. Ries and T. Geiker. pp 131138. No 2. Thessaloniki. ³Mitigating Autogenous Shrinkage by Internal Curing. 2004. Hime. Troli. M. ³Efficiency of lightweight aggregates for internal curing of high strength concrete to eliminate autogenous shrinkage. High-performance structural lightweight concrete. Hammer..´ Bulletin 22. Farmington Hills. Bentur. ACI SP 218. ³Amount of Water Required for Complete Hydration of Portland Cement. Cement. Geiker. O. Damodarasamy..´ Northeast Solite Corporation.. 37 pp. and Jensen. B. S.C. Kewalramani. The Netherlands.´ ACI fall convention.. 5 July 2005. Zhutovsky.. Hoff. 143154..A. O. 6. Sixth CANMET/ACI.12. Skokie. 7-9 December 2005. R. ³Self curing concrete today¶s and tomorrow¶s need of construction world. Dec 18-19. Thesis. eds.C. 16. ³Experimental study of concrete strength through an ecofriendly curing technique. D.´ 6th Intl. Portland Cement Association... MI. 24. October 30.P.. 23. 20. Page 097-101. Hoff. Mangaiarkarasi. Univ of Dundee. Kovler. 2003.R. 2004.R.D.´ Advances in concrete technology and concrete structures for the future. 14. 35(246)40. 22. 13. 21. International Conference on Durability. M.L. ³Self compacting /curing/compressing concrete.A.. Arizona.. (1948). June 1-7 (2003). Chennai. No.´ High Performance Structural Lightweight Concrete. W. 15..´ Theodore Bremner Symposium. Dec. V. 19. D.P.M. ³The Use of Lightweight Fines for the Internal Curing of Concrete. Vol. Bjontegaard.. Rehsi.P. S. Gupta. UK. et. August 20. Annamalainagar. Powers. Holm. T. High-performance structural lightweight concrete.´ INCRAC & CT 2005±Proc Intl Conf on recent advances in concrete and construction technology. M. C. Arizona. Brownyard..al. 56-58 (2002)... J..A.. Jensen. ³Studies of the Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste.. SP-218.´ Concrete International. Chandigarh . ³Mitigating autogenous shrinkage by internal curing. T. K. Concrete and Aggregates.´ Materials and Structures. pp. 2002. June.J. Bentz. Delft. T. 2002. Bentz. Kovler. ³Pre-soaked lightweight aggregates as additives for internal curing of high-strength concrete´s. USA..M.R. Vol.´ ACI fall convention. Technical University Delft. 2002. K.´ Ph. ³Autogenous Deformation and Internal Curing of Concrete. O. G.. ³Internal Curing of Concrete Using Lightweight Aggregates.congress. 17. Consultant (Building Materials' Former United Nations Expert on Building Materials. Illinois. 992 pp.2. P. S. ACI SP 218. October 30. 18. Greece.. E. An Overview of Some Development in CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY Dr... G. R.G. 2003. Richmond.. Mather. ³Internal curingrole of absorbed water in aggregates. A. Global Constr.

high-density concrete. concrete containing these fibres loses strength with time. there is reduction in strength of the concrete. however is reported to develop higher impact resistance. Virgin PolyPropylene fibers of structural grades. water absorption of the asbestos fibre is high. its use in concrete increases water requirement. ready-mixed concrete. Fibre Reinforced Concrete Different types of mineral. there is over 100 percent increase in the flexural strength and impact . rayon and polyester are attacked by the highly alkaline condition in concrete. floating concrete and smart concrete (1-27).Introduction There has been rapid advances in concrete technology during the past three decades or so. Ferrocement. due to their lower modulus of elasticity. Later work led to the development of a variety of concretes in the form of. These are being extensively used all over world for Pavement/highways/Runway construction. Consequently. But. self-curing concrete. in the past but because of the corrosion problem structural grade poly propylene and other synth fibers are taking over now. Among all fibres the use of steel fibre in concrete has received far greater attention. high strength concrete. As a result. Among the mineral fibres. The improvement in strength and other structural properties achieved earlier through the use of steel reinforcement are now accepted as routine and the reinforced cement concrete and pre±stressed concrete have become conventional materials. Organic fibres such as. organic and metallic fibres have been used. tensile strength. Fibreshotcreting of tunnels. highvolume fly ash concrete. Other organic fibres namely. Repair and Rehab jobs and Bridge deck construction incl India. sulphur concrete. the incorporation of these fibres do not increase strength. skid resistance and thermal conductivity of steel fibre reinforced concrete has been found to be slightly higher than the corresponding plain concrete. Since. super high-strength concrete. Some of these concretes are briefly discussed here. having high strength and moduls of elasticity are now available from FORTA Corpn USA. polymer concrete. abrasion resistance. modulus of elasticity. self-compacting concrete. fibre reinforced concrete. fatique strength. jute. lightweight aggregate concrete. high performance concrete. coir. among others. Concrete containing nylon or polypropylene fibres. polypropylene and polyethylene are alkali-resistant. use of asbestos in the production of asbestos cement products is well known. rollercompacted concrete. The compressive strength. such as Forta Ferro Fibres. autoclaved cellular concrete. nylon. While creep and shrinkage are more or less unaffected.

At the same fibre content. the mechanical properties of polymer impregnated concrete vis-à-vis corresponding plain concrete were found to be as follows: y y y y Compressive strength. acrylonitrile and chlorostyrene. such as refractory linings. tunnel linings and structures requiring resistance to thermal shocks. iii. the resistance of steel fibre reinforced concrete to thermal shock and heat spalling is also far superior. applications of polymer concrete having good scope are: concrete pipe . 2 percent by volume. gives greater structural benefits. the polymer concrete is termed as i. styrene. Unlike plain concrete. fibre reinforced concrete is not brittle and offers far greater resistance to cracking. when cement. whether or not vacuum and/or pressure is applied. Polymer Concrete Depending upon the method of monomer incorporation into the concrete. ii. Almost Nil With almost nil permeability. polymer impregnated concrete. influence the extent of monomer filling in polymer impregnated concrete. when aggregate and monomer are mixed together and polymerized after laying. The fibres act as crack arrestors and restrict the growth of flaws in concrete from enlarging under stress into visible cracks. degree of drying. steel. water and monomer are mixed together and polymerized after laying and. use of a blend of fibres having different aspect ratio. As compared to plain concrete. blast resistant structures. aggregate. about 4 times higher Modulus or Elasticity. It has also been found more beneficial as well as economical to use steel fibres only in the tensile zone of the flexural member. machine foundations. The monomer polymerization is done either by thermal catalytic process or by radiation. monomer viscosity. when dried precast concrete is impregnated with monomer and polymerized in-situ. concrete reactor pressure vessels. the polymer impregnated concrete has much greater resistance to the attack of acidic and/or sulphate containing waters Economics permitting. total porosity and pore size in concrete. As compared to plain concrete. the strength and other properties of polymer concrete are considerably higher. polymer concrete. At 6 per cent polymer loading.toughness of plain concrete when reinforced with steel fibre. About 4 times higher Creep and Permeability. The ultimate failure is reached only when some of the fibres get pulled out of the matrix. The widely used monomers are methly methacrylate. A number of factors such as distance to be penetrated. precast concrete units. 2 to 4 times higher Tensile strength. in place of single aspect ratio fibre. polymer cement concrete. The major applications of steel fibre reinforced concrete are in pavements (both for new construction and overlays).

woven mesh. Different types of wire mesh such as. orientation and strength properties of the mesh.5 to 2.35 to 0. cooling towers. The mechanical behavior of Ferrocement is greatly influenced by the type.manufacture. The maximum size of sand grains depends upon the mesh opening and reinforcing system to ensure proper penetration. The mix proportions of the cement mortar usually are: cement 1 part. sand 1. When additional strength is required. concrete tiles. and providing waterproofing treatment over . hexagonal wire mesh (commonly known as chicken wire mesh). shutters and formwork for use in concrete constructions. water storage tanks. by weight. one or more layers of steel bars are inserted between the inner layers of the mesh. grain storage bins. The important among these are: construction of fishing and cargo boats. precast concrete building units for use in aggressive conditions. quantity. precast roofing and walling units. with and without short random fibres is reported to considerably improve upon these properties.5 part. precast concrete decks. welded wire mesh. The thickness of ferrocement elements range from 2 to 3 cm with 2 to 3 mm external cover. sewage troughs. Use of short random fibres in Ferrocement elements at the same steel content has been found to greatly increase the modulus of elasticity and strength. lightweight concrete constructions and providing surface protection to cast in-Situ concrete. Admixtures are added in the mix for improving to properties. Ferrocement has a variety of applications. septic tanks. drying pans for agricultural products. Use of Hexagonal Mesh is not preferred due to its poor resistance to loads. irrigation channels. are used. concrete piles.5 parts and water 0. fermentation tanks. lining for tunnels and mines. microconcrete and the reinforcement is in the form of layers of wire mesh or similar small diameter steel mesh closely bound together to produce a stiff structural form. tunnel supports and linings. biogas holders and digesters. Ferrocement Ferrocement is a kind of reinforced concrete in which the matrix is cement mortar. desalting structures. Polymer impregnation of the Ferrocement elements. expanded metal mesh.

A super high-strength concrete. been widely used in the construction of highrise buildings and bridges in many countries including India. lining of surface of tanks or swimming pools. iii. metakaoline in combination with suparplasticizers in HSC matrix greatly enhances impermeability. The water/cement ratio is kept very low. iv. in the first place high performance concrete has to be a high strength concrete.RCC or RB roofs. Besides high strength.15. It is suitable for use in building very thin structures meeting different architectural needs. ii. Studies on the effect of the size of coarse aggregate on the strength of concrete showed that smaller size produced higher strength. silica fume and short steel fibres. higher the strength. low permeability of concrete is an essential requirement to . be of 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269. The use of HSC in construction offers the advantages of i. The use of mineral admixtures such as fly ash. particularly when the desired concrete strength is 70 N/ mm2 or more. High performance of concrete is generally linked to strength of the concrete. quartzite or granite give higher strength and are more suitable than rounded gravel for use in making HSC. Ferrocement has been successfully used in india by SERC (G)'s Material Science Group for construction of domes. manhole covers. The RPC does not require reinforcement bars. finely ground sand with particle size close to that of cement. Therefore. High Strength Concrete IS: 456-2000 designates concrete having 28-day compressive strength of 60 to 80 N/mm2 corresponding to grades M60 to M80 as high strength concrete (HSC). The concrete matrix consists of cement.1987. early stripping of formwork and lowering of construction cost due to reduction in the concrete member size and selfweight. The Portland cement should. called reactive powder concrete (RPC) is produced by eliminating the use of coarse aggregate. reduction in the size of concrete members with resultant reduction in self-weight. therefore. A maximum coarse aggregate size of 10 mm is considered suitable for use in HSC. The desired workability is obtained by using higher amounts of super plasticizers. Crushed stone coarse aggregates produced from trap. around 0. large tanks. preferrably. silica fume. the new techniques and applications developed by this group are being used on large scale on commercial basis. better the performance. greater stiffness. Drainage units and for repair and rehab of structures. volume stability and longer life in severe environmental conditions to which the concrete is exposed during its service life. The production of HSC requires stringent control on the quality of materials used. durability and strength. It has. High Performance Concrete High performance concrete is defined as concrete that meets special Performance and durability requirements in terms of mechanical properties.

mineral and chemical admixtures. Silica fumes. and keeping water/cement ratio low at 0.35 or less. It enables minimizing the amount of cement required to produce high quality concrete for different types of applications by incorporating upto 50 to 60 percent fly ash in the concrete mix. self-defoaming and coahesive and can be handled without segregation. Its durability measured in terms of its low water permeability. All these and subsequent adequate curing of concrete after laying and regular maintenance of concrete construction ensure high performance. Like any other super plasticized concrete. A limiting value of coarse aggregate as 50 per cent of the solid volume of the concrete.A. coarse and fine aggregates. Self-compacting Concrete A concrete that gets compacted by itself totally covering reinforcement in the formwork is called self-compacting concrete (SCC). In view of this. Canada in 1980¶s. using 50 per cent fly ash in the concrete mix. Ottawa. and other countries.prevent ingress of corrosive waters containing chlorides. Ambuja Cements Ltd. was also found to be excellent. flexural strength. sulphates and /or other deleterious salts. and the desired workability is obtained by using super plasticizers. one at Ropar (Punjab) and another at Ambujanagar (Gujarat) in 2002. namely compressive strength. U. It is being used for such constructions in Canada. has made a beginning by building two fly ash concrete roads. While highvolume fly ash concrete was initially developed for mass concrete construction where low heat of hydration and just enough early strength were required.S. selflevelling.30. mineral admixtures such as fly ash. The concrete is prepared using a low water/cement ratio of 0. Workmanship has to be excellent to ensure full compaction and proper concrete cover over embedded steel reinforcement. and of fine aggregate as 40 per cent of the solid volume of the mortar fraction in the . resistance to carbonation. Higher amounts of super plasticizers are used to obtain the desired workability in the concrete matrix. and Young¶s modulus of elasticity. Low permeability is achieved by using higher cement content. in addition to its use for building of roads and pavements. In India. Both these roads are reported to be performing very well. alkaliaggregate reactions and penetration of chlorides and sulphates. metakaoline or granulated blast furnace slag. the ingredients in SCC mix consists of cement. High-volume Flyash Concrete High-volume fly ash concrete technology was developed at the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET). splitting tensile strength. It is highly flowable. later work showed that this concrete developed excellent long-term structural properties. highvolume fly ash concrete is eminently suitable for structural applications.

These include . Different lines of action are being pursued.walled elements densely reinforced concrete structure. self-compact ability and stability of the SCC. concrete technologist and research scientists in various countries including India. it is often neglected or not fully done. The SCC has the advantages of easy placement in thin . durability and reliability of concrete structures. more so. The use of one or more mineral admixtures having different morphology and particle-size distribution improves deformability. ground blast furnace slag Chemical admixtures consists of a super plasticizer and a viscosity modifying admixture. high Wind velocity and high ambient temperature. While the super plasticizer helps achieving high degree of flow ability at low water/ Cementing material ratio. being the last act in the concreting operations. silica fume. faster construction and reduced construction cost. the quality of hardened concrete suffers. which is considered a universal phenomenon. To avoid the adverse effects of neglected or insufficient curing. is kept moist for some days. are working on the development of self-curing concrete. after laying. quality. Consequently. if the freshly laid concrete gets exposed to the environmental conditions of low humidity. But. Self-curing Concrete Curing of concrete by which the concrete.SCC mix proportion is suggested for achieving good self-compact ability. IS 456-2000 recommends a curing period of 7 days for ordinary Portland cement concrete. Commonly used mineral admixtures are fly ash. the viscosity modifying admixture increases viscosity of the fresh concrete matrix and reduces bleeding. and 10 to 14 days for concrete prepared using mineral admixtures or blended cements. is essential for the development of proper strength and durability.

melting of ice on concrete highway and runways by passing low voltage current. to meet the needs of the construction industry. At high temperature during fire. due to its high density. Conclusion As other areas of research and development (R&D) in concrete technology has been a continuing process. but are expected to be fully developed soon and available for use in constructions. and develop a system by which some ³enteric´ coated particles or capsules containing membrane-forming curing compound (or a substance that reacts with water to do so) is distributed over the surface of the concrete slab in the final stages of finishing. thus preventing spalling and damage. Technologies for self-curing and smart concrete are still in the development stage. available in the form of coke at the steel plant. which attains a strength of 20N/mm2 in 30 minutes and so may not require further curing. speed and weight of the vehicles moving on concrete highways. ii. Different types of concretes. the conductivity decreases but returns to original on removal of the load. The particles will open if the surface becomes dry and a membrane will form while the concrete is still water-saturated upto its top but has no free water on the surface.i. Addition of 2kg polypropylene fibres per m3 of high strength concrete mix increases fire resistance. iii.5 per cent specially treated carbon fibre in the concrete mix increases the electrical conductivity of the concrete. incorporation of 0. Smart Concrete Smart concrete is a concrete that can take care of its own shortcomings or that can act as a senser to help detecting internal flaws in it. detect tiny flaws regarding internal condition of concrete construction after an earthquake. these fibres melt and leave pores for water vapours to escape from the concrete surface. develop high early strength concrete. Under load. It is produced by incorporating some changes in the ingredients of the concrete mix. use of water-soaked. leading to spalling off concrete cover and damage to concrete members. and b. i. References . ii. have been developed from time to time. The concrete could thus act as a senser to a. the high strength concrete does not permit water vapours to go out during fire. as described above. iii. and Use of porous carbon aggregate. For instance. in the concrete mix imparts good electrical conductivity which can help in room heating. surface dry lightweight aggregates which release water when the concrete starts getting dry and losing water. measure the number.

Concrete International. Pvt.11. ACI Special Publication. Proceedings: Conference on new Materials in Concrete construction. pp. University of iiiinoisat Chicago Circle.4: Ferro cement Current and potential Applications.). Detroit (U. Roorkee (India).'Ferrocement Water Tank' . SP-61. Super plasticizers: Their effect on Fresh and Hardened Concrete. London (U. Adam.C.38. SP-44.13-18 P. Vol. Swamy.. American Concrete Institute.P.A. Proceedings Fibre Reinforced Concrete. May 98 1.S.Published by International Ferrocement Information Center bangkok (Thailand) P. Sharma & V S Gopalaratnam . 1979 Sharma. S. ACI Journal.American concrete Institute. 3: Cement Replacement Materials. Detroit (U.C. T. 1974..C. Iiiinois (U. 15-17 December 1972 Proceedings International Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Shashi Kumar & P. V. 1973 Ferrocement: Materials & Applications. 1984. Oxford TBH Publishing Co.'ferrocement Lining for Waterproofing.PP. ACI Special Publication. Concrete Technology & Design. ACI Committee 544.K.19-1987. Ltd. July-August. ACI Special Publication. pp-729-743 Neville.2: New Reinforced Concretes. Vol. November 1973.P.). 1984. Malhotra.) Parameswaran. ACI Committee 363.American Concrete Institute. K.. 364-411 . Rehabilation and Retrofilling of RCC and masonary Structures' key note address±International workshop on 'Repair Rehabilitation and Retrofitting of concrete and masonary structures Oct 2004. P.). Blackie and Sons Ltd.K.66-81 State-of-the-art Report on High Strength Concrete.C.S. and Krishnamoorthy.). pp. sharma.A. Madras. R. PP.. nimityongskul 'ferrocement roofing Elements' published by International ferrocement information Center Bangkok (Thailand) P. Ed. sharma. (Publishers). Ferro cement Segmental Shell ± Multipurpose Unit. New Delhi(India) Shah. Vol 1 :New Concrete Materials..N.. Chicage. 113. Gedu Bhutan.S.. 23-25 April.124 Sharma. SP.A. ACI journal... 1988 Expansive Cement Concrete. Vol.M. End. Eds. University of Roorkee. A Mechanized Process for producing Ferro cement Roof and wall elements Journal of Ferro cement.S. Lancaster(U. Proceeding: RILEM Symposium on Fibre Reinforced Cement Ltd. December 16.C. Proceedings: AsiaPacific Symposium on Ferrocement Applications for Rural Development. Vol. Detroit.S. January 1983. V.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y State±of±the±art Report on Fibre Reinforced Concrete.

High Performance Concrete: Mechanism and Application. ICI Journal.2003.341-350 Designing Reinforced Concrete Structures for Long Life Span . pp. ICI Journal. ICI Bulletin No. ACI Materials Journal. D.D..L.V. August. ICI Journal. April.. P. 2006.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Kishore. Mather. 2002.13-25 Srinivasan. ICI Journal. M. 2001. High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete.. Green Business Opportunities. April-June. 1996. April-June. pp..pp. Prabir C.5-9 Kumar.B. Canada. Confederation of India Industry. Reproduced in ICI Journal.April.7-8 Subramanian. Innovative Concretes and Fibres. 55.pp.pp. April. CII (India) and CIDA (Canada) Publication.1996. Oct.. Self-Compacting Concrete. ICI Bulletin No. Self-Compacting Concrete: An Emerging Technology in Construction Industry. Jan-March. M.June.. High Strength Concrete. Samir.June.9-12 Srinivasan. Research Needs in Concrete. Ottawa. 51. D. High-Performance.14-19 Basu. and Mehta.pp.M. Quarterly.D. ICI Journal. July-September. V. Carbon Fibre Reinforced Concrete As An Intrinsically Smart Concrete For Damage Assessment During Static And Dynamic Loading. Canada. pp.2002. ICI Journal.pp. January..Will there be A Self-Curing Concrete? Concrete International.April. D. Rakesh and Rao.. 11-19 Chen. High performance Concrete: Development and Prospects. July-September..9-10 Surlaker. 2002. 2002 High-Volume Flyash Concrete.. Supplementary Cementing Materials for Sustainable Development Inc.-Dec. Kaushal. 1995. 2003. January-March. Ottawa. Curing-The Last and The least Considered Aspect in Concrete Making.The Evolution of Concrete. J.5-6 Walraven. 2000.. Apte.K.and Chung. Marquardt Printing Ltd. Self-Curing Concrete-why Not? Concrete International.2003 Handbook on High-Volume Flyash Concrete. pp. pp.Pu-Weei. N.2931 Sen. July-September.2001. ICI Bulletin No. September 2000 Bryant..15-26 Malhotra. 70.B. pp.June.

This article discusses some aspects of possibility for designing reinforced concrete structures for a very long life. Central Road Research Institute. Bridges & Structures Division. New Delhi.Dr. In the recent two±three decades lot of research relating to how to enhance the life of reinforced concrete structures has been carried out. Innovation in construction industry is highly linked with development of advanced construction materials. Scientist and Dr. As a result of which²it has been possible to design structures having service life span of more than 100 years. HoD. Rakesh Kumar. Introduction . Ram Kumar.

2). corrosion of reinforcing steel bars (Figure. chemical and in most cases. heterogeneity of the materials etc. compaction and curing of concrete and finally quality management of the construction practices. spalling (Figure. 3) and loss of strength. Adequate compaction of such sections by proper means is essential for durability assurance and often depends on the crew¶s ability to ensure it. a combination of both. Durability problems in concrete structures may be due to several causes such as errors in design or carelessness in detailing. the serviceability and the safety of concrete structures have been the prime concern of the structural engineers. which might be active throughout the structure¶s life. use of inferior construction materials. a high degree of congestion of reinforcement in structural elements significantly hampers concrete placement and its quality due to lack of proper compaction.The presence of heavy reinforcement i. poor workmanship. 1). quality of reinforcing steel. The cause of concrete deterioration can be physical. Notably. loss of mass (Figrue. The serviceability limit of concrete structures is primarily governed by the extent of damage resulting from daily service loads and various deterioration processes.e. inadequate quality control. The net effect of concrete deterioration processes is to weaken the integrity of the complex microstructure of . Durability of reinforced concrete structures is mainly dependent on the quality of the concrete. Inadequate compaction of concrete in such structural elements can lead to surface and structural defects and inadequate bond development with the reinforcement. cover depth of reinforcement. Durability affecting features of concrete structures are observed in the form of cracking.

Therefore. There are materials and technology available to ensure construction of long-life structures. freezing and thawing. and connectivity of pores. composites. and/or. or the presence of certain aggressive chemical ions. pore size distribution. cement paste is the primary active constituent. and construction practice. These deterioration processes can be physical. reinforcement corrosion.concrete. and other similar factors. environmental factors. wind. such as chlorides. Such deterioration involves either leaching of material from the surface by a dissolution mechanism or by expansion of material inside the concrete. It is well recognized that the quality of concrete in structures and defects induced at early age due to various reasons are main factors for the long-term durability of concrete. air to allow reinforcement corrosion to start. Long-term durability of concrete in civil infrastructures such as road and bridges can be achieved if the construction materials quality. causes the deterioration of the concrete. Mechanism for Enhancing Durability The fundamental fact that properties of material originate from its internal structure is also valid for concrete as well as steel. Improvement of . sulphides. the rate at which a concrete structure may deteriorate is mainly depend on the permeability of the concrete as well as how the concrete is placed. Therefore. which determine the durability of a concrete structure. and allowed to sustain load. acids. and even water. erosion. the mechanical properties and performance of concrete is largely determined by the properties of the cement paste. govern almost all the gas and liquid transport phenomena through the concrete [1-5]. Among various foresaid factors. cracking due to shrinkage. are design. reinforcement which does not corrode or would corrode only to predetermined minimum amount. Contact with. Therefore. or a chemical reaction such as sulphate attack. cured. alkali-silica reaction. cover depth and quality of cover concrete. In concrete. carbonation. leading to premature demise of useful life of a concrete structure. and other materials [6]. The broad categories of factors. Exposure conditions vary over a wide range including hot and dry desert ambient air. properties of transition zone. and concreting works are appropriately performed. compaction. Furthermore. Higher ambient air temperature may accelerate the chemical reaction of concrete leading to faster deterioration. there is a need for quality management for concrete placement. Designer should throughly understand the interaction of concrete with both exposure environment and service loads. and over load/overstress initiate the process to reduce concrete durability. and rain or snow. Also reinforcement should be such that it has ³sufficient´ cover depth protecting the reinforcing bars from deeper and wider cracks. and similar factors. Innovation in construction is highly linked with development of advance construction materials and technology. poor workmanship. Errors in design or carelessness in detailing may lead to cracking. carbon dioxide. and curing. material properties. compacted. the concrete quality degradation mechanism may be either a physical effect such as shrinkage. Microstructure characteristics of concrete such as its porosity. Such concrete cracking which cannot be eliminated but can be minimized provides path for the ingress of water/moisture. The low porosity and dense microstructure of concrete significantly reduce many sources of its deterioration. structural detailing and dimensioning. The principle of modifying internal structure suitably has been used in developing a number of metals. chemical or mechanical or combination of them. creep.

If w/c is lower than 0. The petrographic examination of oneyear. the morphology of hydrated cement changes which favorably affect most of the mechanical properties of concrete in comparison with conventional concrete [4. that was cast and cured under the similar conditions. The use of some mineral admixtures. some of the cement will always remain unhydrated.e. . there will always be some residual original mixing water-filled spaces that can hold freezable water. Better performance of high-performance concrete is primarily due to refinement of the pore structure of the concrete particularly at the transition zone [7. for a lifespan of a century or more [17.4 by mass. the amount of water that goes into chemical combination with Portland cement is equal to about w/c of 0. but. all of the mixing water-filled spaces could be filled.2 [1315]. such as bridges. As a result of continuous effort for enhancing durability of concrete structures. physical process. 0. 7. commonly used admixtures are silica fume [7. A water-to-cement ratio (w/c) of 0. However. The additional Amount of water. to last for 1000 years. This extra water must be available if the hydration product is to be formed.4 by mass.. Improved properties of high-performance concrete are due to the modification of its microstructure. 11]. Such concrete not only achieve highstrength but also possess improved durability. Most recently. 10.4 by mass is required for complete hydration of all the cement particles and for hydration products to fill all the space originally occupied by the mixing water [12]. They used high-volume Class F fly ash concrete in the construction of the foundation.old test slab.2 by mass. These materials improve the microstructure of concrete by pozzolanic action as well as a filler effect. monolith concrete foundation consisting of two parallel slabs. even if all the cement particles hydrate.durability of concrete has remained an active research area for concrete technologist for many years. Even the proven technology of high-performance concrete can enable the structures to double its useful lifespan in comparison with engineered structures constructed with conventional concrete technology [12]. Mehta and Langley [20] designed an unreinforced. Highly Durable Concrete Structures A greater understanding of concrete behavior at microstructure level and performance under different aggressive conditions has improved the confidence of concrete technologists to think about highly durable concrete lasting for 1000 years.19]. As a consequence of this. and tall structures. Recently some efforts have been made for designing highly specialized structures. tunnels. The slabs were built with HVFA concrete mixture containing 240 lb/ yd3 of Class F fly ash and 180 lb/ yd3 of portland cement. in theory.2 w/c by mass [12] is needed to fill gel pores. highperformance concrete (HPC) and selfcompacting concrete (SCC) have been developed. i. work as a filler in addition to contributing pozzolanic activity and fill the spaces occupied by water in capillary pores and make them discontinuous. such as coal fly ashes and other pozzolans. In high-performance concrete. 16]. has shown crack-free nature of the HVFA concrete [21]. On the other hand. the development of superplasticizers has revolutionized technology and has made it possible to make workable and/or very workable concrete with very low water-to-cementitious ratio even less than 0. 8] and fly ash [9-11]. If the w/c is higher than 0. Chemical and mineral admixtures augment the reaction mechanism. and curing. The modification is significantly dependent on the reaction mechanism among the ingredients of concrete.

Prediction of life of structures based on corrosion rate of reinforcement. Concrete should be carefully tested and quality managed to meet long-term tests such as water and air permeability. this seems to be achievable for concrete without reinforcement to predict/speculate on a 1000-year life. have given hope for the RC structures for life span of more than 100 years. silica fume. The improved microstructure of concrete by judicious use of mineral admixtures. creep. methods. steel coated with corrosion resistance layer such as cementitious material slurry. of concrete and their affect on cracking of the concrete. y y y y y y y y y y y Quality management of material. For such structures the following items should be clearly understood and implemented. Design adequate depth of cover for the reinforcing steel. and similar actions. shrinkage. Mathura Road. and possibility for improvement of it. Designer should have adequate knowledge of material properties such as strength. Concrete structures for a very long lifespan need materials of high-quality and also comprehensive knowledge about concrete properties and their effects on design aspects of the structure. stainless steel. from its proportions. Use of high-quality aggregates free from deleterious compounds for preventing alkaliaggregate reactivity. and testing. and other pozzolans. References . Concrete. by the use of chemical and mineral admixtures. Aggregates should also have proven reliability.. High-performance & self-compacting concrete may help in minimizing the potential of corrosion of reinforcement and deterioration of concrete due to poor quality of cover. In-depth understanding of microstructural behavior of concrete. Central Road Research Institute. Corrosion resistant steel. Director. mixing. has given the basis to concrete technologist to think for design of highly durable concrete structures that should last for several centuries. (compacting and curing). shrinkage. Conclusion The possibility for design of reinforced concrete structures for a very long lifespan of several years exist without a proven method (by calculation or experiments). etc. may be used. to overcome shortcomings that cause reduction in durability of concrete. and a new generation of steel reinforcement. with full compaction and a desirable pore system may be ensured. or other types of newer steel. chloride-ion penetration by ponding and chloride diffusivity. Manage all design and construction aspects to ensure the structural integrity. methods of construction.At present. New Delhi to publish the work is acknowledged. as well as new generation of chemical admixtures. should be given careful attention so that an adequately dense concrete. freezing and thawing. creep. Acknowledgment The approval of Dr Vikram Kumar. Adequate cover for the reinforcement ensuring highquality compaction and curing of the concrete. such as flyash. Use of fly ash and/or other pozzolonic materials instead of ordinary portland cement only.

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Neville, A. M. and Brooks, J. J. (1990). ³Concrete technology.´ ELBS Edition, Logman Singapore, Publishers (Pte) Ltd. Soroka, I. (1979). ³Portland Cement Paste and Concrete.´ McMillan Press limited, London, UK. Brandt, A. M. (1995). ³Cementbased composites: Materials, Mechanical Properties, and Performance.´ E & FN SPON, U. K. Mehta, P. K. (1996). ³Concrete: structure properties and materials.´ Prentice~Hal, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Kumar, R. (1997). ³Strength and permeation quality of concrete through mercury intrusion porosimetry.´ Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. Shackelford, J. F. (1992). ³Introduction to material science for engineers.´ 3rd Edition, Maxwell Macmillan International addition, London, UK Mehta, P. K., and Aitcin, P. C. (1990). ³Principles underlying production of highperformance concrete.´ ASTM Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, 12(2), Winter 1990, pp. 70-78. Malhotra, V. M. and Ramezanianpour, A. A. (1994). ³ Fly Ash in Concrete,´ 2nd Edition, ,CANMET, Ottawa, Canada. Naik, T. R., Singh, S. S., and Mohammad M. (1995). ³Properties of high performance concrete incorporating large amounts of high-lime flyash,´ International Journal of Construction and Building Materials, l 9(6), 195-204, Butterworth-Heineman, England. Wesche K. (1991). ³Fly Ash in Concrete¶s Properties and Performance.´ Report of Technical Committee 67-FAB, use of flyash in building, E & FN SPON, Chapman & Hall, U.K. Naik, T. R. (1997). ³Concrete Durability as influenced by density and/or porosity.´ Proceedings of the Cement and Concrete Institute of Mexico Symposium, World of Concrete ± Mexico, Guadalajara, Mexico, June 4-7, 1997. Mather, B., and Hime, W. G. (2002). ³Amount of water required for complete hydration of Portland cement.´ ACI Concrete International, 24(6), 56-58. Feylessoufi, A., Villiéras., F., Michot, L. J., De Donato, P., Cases, J. M., and Richard, P. (1996). ³Water, environmental, and nano-structural network in a reactive powder concrete.´ Cement and Concrete Composite, 18(1), 23-29. Richard, P., and Cheyrezy, M. (1999). ³Composition of reactive powder concrete.´ Cement and Concrete Research, 25(7), 1501- 1511. Khayat, K. H., Hu., C., and Laye, J. M. (2002). ³Importance of aggregate packing density on workability of self-compacting concrete,´ Proceedings, First North American Conference on the Design and Use of Self- Consolidating Concrete, Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials, North±western University, Evanston, IL, U.S.A., November 12-13, 2002, pp. 53- 62. Malhotra, V. M. (1995). ³Fly Ash, Blast-Furnace-Slag, Silica Fume, and Highly Reactive Metakaolin,´ Proceedings, Seminar On Recent Advances in Concrete Technology, UWM Center for By-Products Utilization, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee USA, Proceedings Complied by Tarun R. Naik and Henry J. Kolbeck. Dunaszegi, L. (1998). ³Highperformance concrete in the confederation bridges.´ ACI Concrete International 20(4), 43- 48.

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Holley, J. J., Thomas, M. D. A., Hopkins, D. S., Cail, K. M., and Lanctot, M.±c. (1999). ³Custom HPC mixtures for Challenging bridge design.´ Concrete International 21(9), 4348. Langley, W. S., Gilmour, R. A., Turnham, J. Forbes, G., and Mostert, T. (1997). ³Quality management plan for the confederation bridge.´ Proceedings, Third CANMET/ACI International Symposium on Advances in Concrete Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, August 24-27, 1997, ACI Special Publication SP-171, pp. 73-96, American Concrete Institute, Formington Hills, Michigan, Ed. V. M. Malhotra. Mehta, P. K., and Langley, W. S. (2000). ³Monolith foundation: Built to last 1000 years.´ ACI Concrete International, 22(7), 27- 32. Asselanis, J., and Mehta, P. K. (2001). ³Microstructure of concrete from a crack-free structure designed to last a thousand years.´ Proceedings, Third CANMET/ACI International Symposium on Sustainable Development of Cement and Concrete, San Francisco, U.S.A., September 16-19, 2001, ACI Special Publication SP-202, pp. 349-358, American Concrete Institute, Formington Hills, Michigan, Ed. V. M. Malhotra.

RMC²A Revolution in Production of Concrete

Dr. Y.P. Gupta, Material Consultant, Allahabad Bypass Project & Professor of Civil Engineering (Rtd.), MNNIT, Allahabad.

Introduction

Ready mixed concrete, by far the most common form of concrete, accounts for more than half of all concrete consumption. Ready mixed refers to concrete that is batched for delivery from a central mixing plant instead of being mixed on the job site. Each batch of ready-mixed concrete is tailormade according to the specifications of the contractor or concrete mix design and is delivered to the site in green or plastic condition, usually in the cylindrical trucks often known as Transit mixers. Concrete constituents occupy a large space for storage at construction site. Further, the builder has to spend a lot of time and effort to source these materials and test their quality before use. Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) suppliers take care to collect and store all these materials and supply the required quantity of concrete at the specified time and place so that construction can proceed smoothly. Metropolitan cities are hard-pressed for storage space. Therefore, RMC greatly relieves the space problem. The real advantage for the construction industry accrues from the quality of the concrete because of the expertise and experience of the batching plant QC Engineer. However, the quality of the structure made using RMC largely depends on close coordination between the supplier of RMC and the builder at the site at all stages starting from ordering concrete to discharging and placing of the concrete. Transit Mixers can drive directly onto the site and can mechanically control the positioning of the discharge chute without the help of contractor's personnel.

History
As early as 1909, concrete was prepared by a horse-drawn mixer that used paddles turned by the cart s wheels to mix concrete en route to the jobsite. In 1916, Stephen Stepanian of Columbus, Ohio, developed a self-discharging motorized transit mixer that was the predecessor of the modern ready mixed concrete truck. Development of improved readymixed concrete trucks was developed in the 1920s. During the 1940s, the availability of heavier trucks and better engines allowed mixing drum capacities to increase, which in turn allowed ready-mixed concrete producers to meet the high demand for concrete that developed as a result of World War II.

RMC±A Step Forward and Ideal for Many Jobs
Specification of RMC The builder should specify the grade (strength) of concrete required for his structure. It is also necessary to specify the minimum cement content and maximum permissible water-cement ratio and the workability in terms of slump value. This will ensure that concrete will have required strength on attaining maturity, workable at the time of placing and will be durable. For special jobs, the type of cement or admixture to be used should also be specified.

Types of RMC

RMC can be classified according to ingredients mixed in concrete. These may be on the basis of Cementitous Material i.e. Flyash is a part of Cement or not and Admixture is used or not. Otherwise, there are two principal categories of ready mixed concrete. 1. Dry Concrete: All the ingredients are mixed in dry form without mixing water in it. All these materials are sent in rotating drum and measured water quantity is sent in separate Water container. The water is mixed at site when it reaches there. 2. Green Concrete: All the ingredients are mixed together including the measured water quantity at Concrete Batching Plant itself. They are sent in rotating drum or in transit mixture to the site of concreting.

Code Stipulation
The most important parameter is the time that gets elapsed from the instance of adding water to the placement of concrete. Normally, the concrete has to be placed in about 90 120 minutes or before the rotating drum of transit mixer has made about 300 revolutions. Indian Standard 4926:2003 permits concrete to be discharged from the truck mixer within 120 minutes after loading. It also permits a longer period if suitable retarding admixtures are used or by deliberate chilling.

Mixing Plant

RMC is a specialized material in which the cement aggregates and other ingredients are weigh batched at a plant Figures 1 and 2 in a central mixer or truck mixer, before delivery to the construction site in a condition ready for placing by the builder. Thus, fresh concrete is manufactured in a plant away from the construction site and transported within the requisite journey time. The RMC supplier provides two services, firstly one of processing the materials for making fresh concrete and secondly, of transporting a product within a short time. Sometimes materials such as water and some varieties of admixtures can be transit mixed (also known as Transit Mixture), that is they can be added to the concrete at the jobsite after it has been batched to ensure that the specified properties are attained before placement. Here materials are batched at a central plant and are completely mixed in the Batching Plant or partially mixed in transit. Transit mixing

Additionally. After the concrete is loaded and mixed. A typical RMC plant is shown here. The Truck Mixer While ready mixed concrete can be delivered to the point of placement in a variety of ways. raw materials from a transit mix plant or centrally mixed concrete into the truck. Site Preparation . the drum must be turned very fast in the charging direction.mixing allows concrete to be hauled to construction sites further away from the plant. The maximum number of revolutions the drum may rotate before delivery is about 300. the overwhelming majority of it is brought to the construction site in truck mounted. To load. transit. or charge. Slight agitation of the concrete during transit prevents segregation of the materials and reduces the amount of slump loss. rotating drum mixers Figure 3. This method avoids the problems of premature hardening and slump loss that result from potential delays in transportation or placement of central mixed concrete. Truck mixers have a revolving drum with the axis inclined to the horizontal. Inside the shell of the mixer drum are pair of blades or fins that wrap in a helical (spiral) configuration from the head to the opening of the drum. This configuration enables the concrete to mix when the drum spins in one direction and causes it to discharge when the direction is reversed. There are several types of RMC plants varying in type of mixing and capacity of concrete production. Transportation of Concrete Central mixed concrete is completely mixed at the plant then transported in a truck or transit mixer or agitator truck. Freshly mixed concrete may be transported in a open dump truck if the jobsite is near the plant or very low slump is required like for pavement quality concrete used in road construction.keeps the water separate from the cement and aggregates and allows the concrete to be mixed immediately before placement at the construction site (Dry Concrete). it is normally hauled to the job site with the drum turning at a speed of less than 2 rpm. These plants are generally available in capacities varying from 15 /hour to 200 / hour.

Hence prior checking of good access to the site of discharge of concrete from transit mixture is essential. Advantages of Using Ready Mixed Concrete y y y y Ready Mixed Concrete can ensure quality because of the expertise and experience of RMC plant Technical Staff. This will avoid problems of delay on the day of concreting. the modern truck mixers can position it and discharge the full load in 15 to 30 minutes. after judging the condition of concrete. Handling and Placing Efficient use of RMC depends upon a rapid turnaround of truck mixers and proper facilities for rapid discharge and placing of concrete. They represent a potential delivery rate of nearly 30 m3 per hour. concrete that has been remixed tends to set more rapidly than concrete mixed only once. Ready-mixed concrete is also ideal for large jobs where space Figure 4: Taking Sample for Testing is limited and there is little room for a mixing plant and aggregate stockpiles. Then arrange for site mixing machine. Continuous handling methods such as mobile pump and conveyor system help in increasing the turnover. Ready-mixed concrete is particularly advantageous when small quantities of concrete or intermittent placing of concrete are required. Cement etc an find place to store them. Concrete can be discharged directly from the truck through chutes or it can be pumped by static or Mobile Pump as shown in Figure 5 at the construction pouring point. Samples should be taken from different parts of the load. it can be altered by mixing a small dose of Admixture. . Three cubes of size 150x150x150 are made on site of this concrete from every or alternate transit mixture depending upon the total quantity of concrete ordered.A fully loaded transit mixer weighs approximately 25 Tons. Sand. Quality Assurance For this a sample of concrete must be taken out of Transit Mixture (as shown in Figure 4) to measure the workability by taking the slump. There is no botheration of ordering materials like Aggregate. The builder often handles the concrete with only a few manual laborers. Samples are also taken for determining actual compressive strength of concrete. The concrete arrives with the ordered workability and hence no extra water should be added at the site. It is best to discharge the concrete from the truck mixture as close as possible to the place where it is required. Concrete that does not arrive within the tolerance limit of ordered workability may be rejected or if permitted. However. Ready-mixed concrete is often remixed once it arrives at the jobsite to ensure that the proper slump is obtained. With proper access and site facilities.

Concrete can be discharged directly from the truck through chutes or it can be pumped by static or mobile pump at the pouring point. Strange are the Ways of Cement and Concrete Dr. Asst. Do not add water at the site. Engineering.Civil Engineering and A K Sarkar. Civil Engineering Bengal. and Science University. Shibpur Introduction . Professor. Kolkata. Engineering Services International. Concrete arrives with the ordered specifications. Modern Truck Mixers can discharge the full load in 15 To 30 Minutes. Anil K Kar.Conclusion y y y y RMC is Fresh Concrete manufactured in a plant away from the construction site and transported within the stipulated time to the site. Arun Kumar Chakraborty.

. is that concrete is impervious and naturally waterproof. more particularly impression. This paper is an attempt to study the changed ways of cement and concrete. PSC. many a people have about concrete. more particularly moist curing (lower curve in Figure 1).. about concrete and concrete structures is based on the performance of well cured concrete and concrete structures which were built decades ago with OPC of that time. This knowledge of increasing compressive strength with increasing periods of moist curing has been gained from tests over the years where standard cubes or cylinders of concrete are tested on the last day or a day after a specified period of moist curing. and PPC. observed that after the first few weeks of moist curing. Much of the knowledge. Another impression. It is commonly known that the rate of gain in strength in the initial period is faster in the case of ordinary portland cement (OPC) than in the cases of portland slag cement (PSC) and Portland pozzolana or flyash cement (PPC).It is commonly recognized that the compressive strength and other useful properties of concrete increase with increasing duration of curing. It is generally. The impressions. further gain in strength in the case of OPC concrete is insignificant (lower curve in Figure 1). people carry from the past.. This is limited to studying the influence of the duration of moist curing on the compressive strength of concrete with OPC. is that concrete structures are durable. hastening the decay and distress in modern concrete structures. Much has changed over the years with cement and construction practices. whereas concrete with blended cement (PSC and PPC) can gain considerable strength beyond the first week or two of concreting (Figure 2).

the design and construction of concrete structures are based on compressive strength of well compacted concrete samples after 28 days of moist curing. The earlier code required 7 days¶ moist curing for concrete with blended cements too. OPC went through many modifications in its chemical compositions and physical characteristics. Because of slower rates of hydration. Besides the shortcomings. resulting in higher ultimate strength and the development of most of this ultimate strength within a week or two of concreting (lower curve in Figure 1). . Increasingly. PSC and PPC). Kar3-7 has pointed out that today¶s cement is in many ways different from cements which were used till a few decades ago and which had given durable concrete structures. In this scenario. it is considered appropriate: (a) to study the influence of curing on the development of strength in concrete and (b) to examine the reasonableness of the codal provisions on the duration of moist curing of concrete. This is done for concrete. and besides the obvious gap between the design (tested after 28 days¶ moist curing) and the actual periods of curing. The Indian code1. Furthermore. the earlier practice was to use mostly OPC. This early attainment of much of the ultimate strength and a greater emphasis on early completion of projects made the codes/standards lower the required period of moist curing. IS:456:20001. In order that concrete of comparable mix proportions with blended cements may yield comparable or higher (than 28-day OPC concrete strength) strengths. as well as its earlier version2 lowered the requirement of the minimum period of moist curing of OPC concrete from 28 days in earlier decades to 7 days. The Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete..Though blended cements find a very considerable share of the construction market in India today. however. It was an old practice in the era of OPC to provide 28 days¶ moist curing to concrete. which may arise as a result of the gap between the required (considered desirable by researchers on the basis of attainment of strength) and mandated (by the code) periods of moist curing. Kar3-7 has shown that today¶s cement in India may contain harmful alkalis to make concrete less durable or even self-destructive (curve for PPC in Figure 2). it became necessary to set standards at longer periods of moist curing of concrete with blended cements. OPC. Over the years. made with the three basic types of cement (viz. researchers generally recommend 56 to 90 days of moist curing of concrete in the case of blended cements with mineral admixtures. cement manufacturers in India started marketing blended cements aggressively. Though the code1 considers moist curing for periods ranging between 7 to 10 days to be adequate for concrete construction with different types of cement and though the duration of effective curing of concrete during construction may be even less thanthe periods specified in the code 1 . considers it sufficient to cure such concrete with blended cements for only 10 days. The code recommends that this minimum period of 10 days may be extended to 14 days.

This is done with cement that is available in the Kolkata region today. canvas. cement has undergone very significant changes in chemical compositions and physical characteristics3-7. The resulting effects of such changes include the generation of considerable heat inside concrete at early ages. ´ The code1 also requires that ³Exposed surfaces of concrete shall be kept continuously in a damp or moist condition by ponding or by covering with a layer of sacking. thereby leading to still faster gain in strength. All of these can make it possible to lower the required period of moist curing if the attainment of strength in concrete will become the only criterion in the determination of the adequacy of any particular period of moist curing of concrete. many structures with PSC concrete must have been cured moist for 7 days or less. The prevention of moisture loss from the concrete is particularly important if the watercement ratio is low. further hastening the rate of hydration of cement. The period of curing shall not be less than 10 days for concrete exposed to dry and hot weather conditions. It is of interest to note here that the provisions in IS :456-20001 were considered reasonable eight years ago. it is recommended that above minimum periods may by extended to 14 days.´ It appears from the language of the code that the extension of the curing period from 10 days to 14 days is not mandatory. The tests for compressive strength were . As stated earlier. were considered reasonable at least thirty years ago. This would suggest that even if it may be found that today¶s high early strength cements may yield strengths within acceptable ranges on satisfaction of the requirements of the mandated moist curing for short periods. IS:456-20001 suggests that ³Curing is the process of preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete whilst maintaining a satisfactory temperature regime. whereas the provisions in IS :456-19782. it is studied here whether the stipulated periods of moist curing. which permitted 7 days¶ moist curing for concrete with OPC. are reasonable or not. The curing regime should also prevent the development of high temperature gradients within the concrete. set in IS:4562000 1 for concrete with OPC and blended cements. During the intervening 22 years between the two codes. There is also the exothermic reaction from the high contents of water soluble alkalis in Indian cement of today3-7. hessian or similar materials and kept constantly moist for at least seven days from the date of placing concrete in case of ordinary Portland Cement and at least 10 days where mineral admixtures or blended cements are used. In the case of concrete where mineral admixtures or blended cements are used. such short duration curing in the past might not have yielded concrete strengths close to the design strengths at 28 days.Codal Provisions on Curing Among the different provisions on curing of concrete.2 and during the period following the more recent code. PPC as well as PSC. if the cement has a high rate of strength development. During the intervening period between the two codes1. if the concrete contains granulated blast furnace slag or pulverised fuel ash.

as explained below.6% of the 28-day strength of 33. Kar8 has explained that among the four options. It would appear that the mandated curing period (minimum) of 7 days may or may not lead to an endangerment of the safety of an OPC concrete structure if it would have been designed and constructed in accordance with the 28-day strength but cured moist for 7 days and loaded immediately thereafter. particularly at the initial periods. 21 and 28 days as is the conventional practice. Accordingly. An interesting observation can be made here with the help of the upper curve in Figure 1 which represents the compressive strength of the concrete as that in the lower curve. 3. any shortcomings in the form of greater permeability of concrete due to any inadequacy in curing loses some or much of any significance. It is further known that greater the impermeability. no serious attempt is made to study the effects of curing on the permeability of concrete at 7 or 10 days vis-a-vis permeability of concrete cured moist for 28 days. In this particular case. in the acceptance of cement and concrete. to ensure that concrete has the required compressive strength. given in the code. only the option of providing surface coatings/protection systems to concrete structures is practical in lengthening the life of concrete structures.22 MPa is 77. better is likely to be the durability of concrete structures. 7. The lower curve in Figure 1 represents the strength of OPC on the completion of moist curing for 1. There may be additional tests for setting times for workability and expansion as an yardstick for durability. reduces the permeability of concrete. Five sets of curves are presented here as a part of the study on the influence of the period of moist curing on concrete strength. The real situation is better if the structure will not be loaded immediately after 7 days of moist curing. the 7-day strength of 26. the code 1 has. 14.78 MPa. Since the provision of surface protection systems will effectively make concrete surfaces or structures impervious to the external agents of decay. except that the upper curve represents the compressive strengths at 28 days for cube samples which were cured moist for different periods from 0 to 28 days. The evaluation of the adequacy of the period of curing is made from the consideration of attainment of strength as a percentage of strength at 28 days of moist curing. Figure 1 shows the compressive strength of OPC concrete. It is well±known that moist curing. It is observed that the peak concrete strength of . given four options for lengthening the life of concrete structures. however.conducted using 150 mm cubes with cements of several nationally and internationally known brands. In clause 8. 10. Codal Provisions and Effects of Curing It is a common practice.

which is 90% of the strength of the concrete. the stipulated periods of curing will prove to be unreasonable. It is seen in the following that the picture is not necessarily unreasonable. In consideration of the above. whereas (a) the design is based on compressive strength after moist curing for 28 days. and then cured in air a further period of 21 days. concrete will be cured moist for at least 3 days. it is recognized here that it may not be unreasonable if the moist curing will be terminated at the end of 10 days in the case of PPC concrete. the structure will not be loaded until 28 days after concreting or some such days after concreting as may be determined from tests for particular batches of cement. to within 70% of the design loads. The samples were cast in the month of April 2008. Since structural elements e. In the same token.. and (b) real structures are seldom cured moist for the stipulated (in the code) periods. In this particular case. It is recalled here that the code1 permits 7 days¶ moist curing in the case of OPC concrete and 10 days¶ moist curing in the case of concrete with blended cements. but kept covered or in shade. The cubes were tested for compressive strength at the end of each period of curing. but the same cannot be said in the case of PSC concrete.90 MPa at 28 days is higher than the concrete strength of 33. if it would be cured moist for 28 days. three cases are studied in the following.46 MPa would develop at 28 days. In contention of the above. it so happens that the peak strength at 28 days is available when concrete is cured moist for 7 days. Prolonged curing may increase the durability of concrete by minimizing permeability and shrinkage. It is noticed that the compressive strength of concrete at the end of stipulated 1 periods (10 days) of moist curing is 76 to 80 percent of the 28-day strength in the case of PSC concrete whereas it is 91 percent in the case of PPC concrete.g. floor slabs and floor beams are frequently loaded close to their design loads during construction stages. if a. and b. This suggestion is made only in the context of strength. it would appear that if adequate care will not be taken to limit construction or service loads. Figure 2 shows the gain in compressive strength of PPC concrete from one batch and PSC concrete from two batches. The 150 mm cubes were cured moist for different durations. a minimum strength of 30. moist curing of the structure or structural element for 10 days may not be too unreasonable. immediately upon the termination of moist curing. it is observed that in the event the concrete in Figure 1 would not be cured moist at all. and that too with appropriate margins for various uncertainties. This is not too bad a situation where concrete may not be moist cured at all and the attainment of strength of concrete will be the only consideration.37. It will be seen later that if loading of the structure will be delayed. These include cases: .78 MPa when it is cured moist for a period less than 28 days.

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4 percent in one case. 10. it is seen that the 28-day strength could be reached by discontinuing moist curing after 3 days. followed by air curing for 28. c. it is seen that strengths equal to or higher than the strengths. 14. 3. 21 and 28 days. 18. In the three cases of PSC too. In the case of PSC concrete (Figure 4 and Table 2). Figures 3. Test results on concrete samples from three batches of concrete are represented in each of the three figures. there is a drop of strength . at 28 days¶ moist curing. 21. 7 and 0 days.day moist curing followed by 21 days¶ air curing) by as much as 17. It¶s noticed that with continued moist curing. followed by air curing for the remaining days.a. 4 and 5 show the variations in compressive strength of concrete when concrete is tested at 28 days but cured moist for 0. the 28-day (moist curing) compressive strength was lower than the peak strength (at 7. It is seen in each case in Figures 3 to 5 that the peak compressive strength is recorded when concrete is tested at 28 days but the moist curing is between 3 to 14 days (Tables 1 ± 3). 14. can be obtained if the moist curing will be discontinued after 3 days. respectively. Where the design is based on compressive strengths of concrete after 28 days¶ moist curing but the concrete is not provided with any moist curing and the structural element is not loaded until 28 days. Among all the three batches of OPC concrete (Table 1). The concrete is cured for 3 days and the structural element is not loaded until 28 days. b. the peak strengths were gained when concrete was cured moist for 7 to 14 days. 25. 7. In fact. It is further noticed in Figure 3 and Table 1 that in two cases the peak strengths in OPC concrete were obtained when concrete was cured moist for 7 days. When the design is based on compressive strength of concrete after 28 days¶ moist curing but the concrete is cured for the stipulated period of 7 or 10 days and the structural element is not loaded until 28 days. followed by air curing for 21 days before the test.

moist curing of 9 days. it appears that curing concrete. In the case of PPC concrete (Figure 5. followed by curing in air for 25 days. Studies are underway to determine if the declining strength with increasing moist curing has . as in Ref. particularly when cement of the earlier periods did not gain strength as early as it does today. In case I (Table 3). 2. It is seen that the stipulated2 period of 7 days¶ moist curing for concrete with blended cements. for 3 days in moist condition will be sufficient if matching the 28-day design strength will be the only criterion to be fulfilled and the structures will not be loaded until 28 days after concreting. the 28-day strength (moist cured) could be obtained with 9 days¶ moist curing.1 percent in the peak strength with continued moist curing beyond 10 days. the strengths of concrete were higher than the 28-day strengths when the cubes were cured moist for 3 days. with today¶s PPC and PSC. however. From the performance of four batches of OPC concrete (1 in Figure 1 and 3 in Figure 3). the minimum period of moist curing has been lowered to 3 days and in real cases in India many concrete structures are not provided any moist curing.4 and 5). followed by air curing till 28 days from concreting.(from the peak) by as much as 11. The period of 10 days is. followed by air curing of 19 days. A closer study of the various curves in Figures 1 to 5 show a decreasing trend for the strength of concrete with continued moist curing after the peak strength will have been reached much earlier than 28 days. In two of the cases. Concluding Remarks There is an increasing trend to shorten the period of moist curing of concrete. 2. It is seen that the stipulated1 period of 7 days¶ moist curing in the case of OPC and 10 days in the case of blended cements is justified as far as matching the 28. In some countries. there is a drop of 25. with today¶s OPC. was not reasonable.3 percent. it appears that except in one case of PPC concrete.day (moist cured) strength is concerned provided that the structures will not be loaded till 28 days after concreting. 2. Table 3). followed by 19 days of air curing. higher than what was specified in Ref. the peak strengths were obtained after 7 to 14 days¶ moist curing. From the performance of nine batches of PPC and PSC concrete (3 each in Figures.20001 has lowered the required period of moist curing of concrete to 7 days in the case of OPC and 10 days in the case of blended cements with mineral admixtures. This challenges the widely held concept about concrete that concrete increases in strength with continued curing in moist condition. The Indian code IS:456. curing concrete. In case III of PPC in Figure 5. In the remaining case (Case III). for 3 days in moist condition will be sufficient if matching the 28-day design strength will be the only criterion and the structures will not be loaded until 28 days after concreting. leads to a matching of compressive strength of concrete if such concrete will be cured moist for 28 days before loading.

9. Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice (Fourth Revision). Part 2. Vol. 13.. July.Freshly Ground Lime Instead of Cement Prof M. New Delhi Vol.. Kar. A.´ Part II New Building Materials & Construction World. Kar. Issue 3. New Delhi. New Delhi. Vol.8. Issue-6. Kar.9.´ Journal of the Indian Roads Congress.´ New Building Materials & Construction World.´ New Building Materials & Construction World. March. New Delhi. ³Woe Betide Today¶s Concrete Structures. Vol. New Delhi. 2003. Bureau of Indian Standards. Kar. K. the British rulers had imported µCement¶ to India and . July 2000. New Delhi. K... 2008. ³Concrete Structures We Make Today. Issue. K. 13.13. September 1978.s New Building Material. 68. Vol. Bureau of Indian Standards.February 2007. Kar.September 2007.more to do with impurities in today¶s cement3-7 or with any lingering damp/ moist condition of the test samples after the initial period of moist curing.. References y y y y y y y y IS:456-2000. February. New Delhi. K. September 2007. ³IS 456:2000 On Durable Concrete Structures. Indian Standard. Third Edition.. December. A. Kar. A.´ New Building Materials & Construction World. ³Woe Betide Today¶s Concrete Structures.´ Part I New Building Materials & Construction World. Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete. Vol. K. K. Pune By the end of the Nineteenth century. ³The Ills of Today¶s Cement and Concrete Structures. Apte. D. 2008. IS:456-1978. A. A. 12. Issue. A. Issue 8. ³Durability of Concrete Bridges and Roadways.

commenced discouraging the method of using freshly ground lime for masonry construction that was in vogue in India since ages. By that time British and other foreigners had progressed into pre-stressed and/ or post-tensioned concretes. we used to need 15-16 one CWT (112 Lbs) bags of cement to make 100 cft of finished concrete. By the end of Second World War. If properly used. Any more small voids in this box were supposed to be filled with the expanding cement gel after it reacts with the mixing water in the concrete. Being a factory manufactured material. Even RCC was started being used by engineers with success. Sometime the cement consumption could go up to even 17 bags. Whatever concrete construction was executed before Second World War in India was by the British Engineers done through the Indian µMestries¶. We the engineering students were really overwhelmed by the good qualities of the cement and began enthusiastically looking forward to design cement concrete structures. the cement construction could be made fairly waterproof. The body of concrete being aggregate the cement was only the binding agent as we could understand. The mix design was introduced with a hollow box (3¶ x 3¶ x 3¶) packed fully with coarse aggregate additionally packed with fine aggregate and in turn this interfiled with finer powder of cement. They had no restriction of time or . even better than ³finely and freshly ground lime´ under use then. similar to slaked lime construction to the users. The mix design for 1:2:4 (volume batch concrete) RCC. We students were awestricken with the new found material and the technique of its use. The Portland cement age was dawning in India! Local industrialists as well went ahead and established cement factories here. Concrete designing had become a science and wordy wars about volume batching versus weigh batching were fought in technical journals with gusto. The resulting concrete was supposed to be even waterproof. it was touted to be always of uniform (and good) quality. the fresh lime grinding as a process of preparing masonry material had been fully relegated into an historical construction activity! In late fifties when we civil engineering students of Government College of Engineering Pune were taught this subject of cement concrete. The construction could last as well appreciably long and gave hardly any trouble of maintenance. it was emphasized that Concrete structures like bridges will last for over 60 years whereas residential accommodation can give satisfactory service for over 100 years! The cement concrete was quite strong and durable. Indians accepted that as well as a technical gift from West.

their output is dropped to µaverage¶). Bureau of Indian Standards brought a standard for this cube test and use of concrete to give impetus to good concrete construction. placement of reinforcement might not be exactly as per design or might have been shifted to wrong places during concreting or the compaction might not have been done effectively or the curing might not have been done correctly or defect might be in erection and/or removal of form work. 53 or even higher (at the end of 28 days curing). Isn¶t it? Not only cities but even small towns became concrete jungles and no wonder the mother Earth reacted by increasing environmental temperatures everywhere. Deterioration of Vashi Bridge near Mumbai and failure of many bridges like Mandovi River Bridge in Goa as well as overhead tanks. segregation might have taken place while pouring. the constructors gave more importance to the test . made frequent appearances. rusting of steel and carbonation of concrete. gullible people. Indian engineers used concrete since independence without teaching their masons and mestries the correct techniques needed to use this new material properly (since they themselves were unaware of that aspect). In the name of progress. According to their thinking. Moreover. deterioration of the concrete members after a few seasons of intensive (though within designed loads) use. the sample of the concrete used therein was to be cast in cubes and after proper curing. cracking of ³stronger´ cement concretes after a few days use. Most of the µexperts¶ included in the BIS committee on Cement Concrete Section are either representing large construction companies or cement manufacturing companies who were only interested in increasing the use of cement to earn more money. enthusiastically started using it in their designs. use of more cement for strength as well as durability purposes became rule rather than exception. further progress in concreting was never held up (as obstacle to maintain progress of work) till the 28 days crushing strength of the cubes certifying the strength of the concrete became available to the site engineer. the defects might be due to various reasons like the pour was incorrect. Cement was being used as readymade ground lime only. They were not necessarily interested in propagating use of some other material in construction. Once a boxed structural member was concreted.money for the projects and accordingly these constructions are standing even today as good examples. Cement factories grew in number as well as size and they manufactured special cements not only for refractory or sulphate resistance purposes but also to give higher strength in compression (instead of 33 N/mm2) of 43. even engineers. When the manufacturers professed that the stronger concrete is more economical. now the British or other Western engineers have relaxed their vigil and got confused due to the large varieties of cements in the market. even when the test cubes were cast along with the member being concreted. After they published IS: 456 of 1978 regarding use of plain & reinforced cement concrete giving the direction to use more cement (up to 540 Kgs per CM3 of concrete) for durability consideration. The engineers took it to increase the strength or durability of concrete. members failing because of inadequate concrete strength development etc. one needs to add cement in excess to the mixture. destruction of concrete because of alkali-aggregate reaction in certain circumstances. (Of course. the cube was to be crushed to determine the quality (compressive strength) of the concrete used in the member. Defects like. multistoried concrete residential buildings etc compelled Indian civil engineers to wake up and study the technology and its application in India thoroughly. cracking of concrete with excessive cement quantity leading to destruction of the monolith. This was the time when dangers of cement concrete even with reinforcement were started appearing on horizon.

Cement is only binding agent and has hardly any inherent strength as a material. 6. Strength of concrete has very little bearing on the quantity of cement in the concrete in the long run. 3. less voids or gaps should be permitted in the concrete monolith. In short. From the basic principals of concrete technology one can list following essentials of strong and durable concrete by using Ordinary Portland Cement:1. In addition to the use of excessive cement in concrete. 7. Extra water remaining if any is likely to create voids after evaporation. 2. cement being in very fine form has a high coefficient of thermal expansion/contraction compared to that of aggregates used and hence thinner the layer. say within 40% water as . Since cement as binder has no inherent strength. quantity of cement should be small and sizes of coarse aggregate pieces be as large as possible in the mixture. To make concrete stronger. the binding layer should be as thin as possible.cubes being cast and tested successfully than the concreting of the members themselves (to avoid any future problem arising in case the test results were not found satisfactory). safer it is. The cement only binds the various aggregate pieces together to make the concrete monolith. this and other shortcomings in use of correct technology and procedures led to the defects in concrete that have surfaced in India over the years. So cement must be used as least as practicable. Larger the (than necessary) quantity of cement. This led to having individuals other than site engineers specializing in casting of test cubes. To have cost within limits. Therefore. 4. Moreover. In the concrete mixture only cement is a manufactured substance and hence is more susceptible to environmental damage and deterioration and hence least durable. to make strong and durable concrete what we need is well graded aggregate to fill the volume of concreting (box?). added with minimum required cement to cover the interstices with strong gel formed with little more than essential. This is possible by using all the intermediate sizes of aggregate (to reduce the size of gaps) and adequate compaction of the concrete in-situ after pouring. This was found to result in the cubes not really as representative a sample of the concreting of the member as desired. 5. It can adhere to surfaces of strong pieces as gum and give strength to the monolith body. For convenience. Water should be just sufficient to make the rich chemical gel with cement. pieces of stones as aggregates of various sizes are considered suitable to give a body to concrete. the concrete is likely to deteriorate over time faster due to temperature variations in the environment. thinnest possible gel around the aggregate pieces is all that is needed to make a durable concrete.

This will ensure that the semielastic gel that is produced by the colloidal mixture will be able to coat the aggregate pieces effectively with less cement at the same time giving better strength. Accordingly. it can be comparable with concrete. If these conditions are adhered to. As far as reinforcement is concerned. The unrestrained compressive strength of this stabilized soil becomes about 6 Kgs per mm2. This is natural. cement is mixed in soil (comparatively coarser. compaction must be completed. The cement is required only to surround the aggregate pieces for binding neighboring pieces. ensuring W/C ratio around 0. For a cubic meter of concrete (MSA 20 mm) about 1300 litres of aggregates are required. for cementing purposes. The mixture must be uniform and before setting time of the cement is reached. 9. chlorine or moisture from reaching the bars and corroding them. For soil stabilization. since surface area of particles to be covered by cement increases appreciably. 8. say 40 mm. As soil becomes clayey and finer. If properly restrained and compacted the resulting compressive strength. the required cement quantity will increase since the surface area of the smaller aggregate pieces (to be bound together) will increase. even sandy) at not more than 10% by volume. then adding any extra quantity of cement (per cubic meter of concrete) has no positive effect on the strength or durability of concrete. the cement content may go even up to 25%. it is suggested that concreting can be done by first filling coarse aggregate in the centering boxes and colloidal mass of sand and (water added) cement is poured to fill the voids before compaction. Since the concrete strength will be limited by that of the aggregate used.4 and adequate compaction to prevent any voids in hydrating (cement in) concrete are the only ways to ensure strong and durable concrete. Once concrete is cast and set. In short. the quantity of steel as designed must be placed at correct locations to resist tensile stress development in concrete. it should be cured with water at least for 7 days and then damp curing may be satisfactory. If possible and convenient. Addition of any extra cement cannot make the concrete more durable. To make it durable. It must be ensured that the steel reinforcement bars do not shift during pouring and compaction of concrete. Rather more cement is likely to make the concrete less durable since thicker cement layer will have more shrinkage/ expansion than other ingredients of concrete as environmental temperature wane and wax giving rise to destruction of the monolith. then naturally cement quantity will reduce by around 10%. You can provide compaction such that the strength of the concrete is as designed. prevent any voids within the monolith by adequate compaction. for RCC we use 20 mm MSA. In case the mix is found to be non-workable for want of sufficient fines. any lesser strength of the concrete can be achieved by adjusting the compaction suitably. Adequate concrete cover must be around the reinforcement to prevent environmental carbon-di-oxide. Thus compressive strength will depend on compaction and W/C ratio only. Normally.compared with cement quantity. When this size increases (like for road or foundation purposes) to. As the MSA decreases. The maximum size of aggregate (MSA) will determine the quantity of cement required per CM of concrete. Some small additional quantity of cement may be required to cater for inadequate and/or non-uniform mixing of the concrete and to cater for the rough surfaces of the aggregate pieces being bound by the cement paste. 160 Kgs of cement should be sufficient. it can be seen that once the ingredients of concrete are properly selected. an odd bag of pozzolanic powder may be added and/ or some plasticizer used. Addition of extra quantity .

Cement is factory produced. The position in foreign countries is also not very good. pouring. mixing. It is suggested that at this stage of development India should carry out checks on the utility of freshly ground lime against cement. Since however. every bag that one opens. Lot of technical consideration is needed to determine the type and quantity of the chemical to be mixed. but its raw materials like lime-stone.of cement will not do the trick of giving more strength and/or durability to the concrete. Structures constructed with lime over 60 years ago appear to be still in serviceable state without undue maintenance expenditure. The costly cement concrete structures need varieties of construction chemicals to add for getting desired results. Since cement has no intrinsic body and therefore strength. Therefore. It will be apparent therefore that the New Material (cement) that was initiated (with much fanfare) to replace freshly ground lime is neither advantageous nor economical to anyone (at least in Indian environment) but to the manufacturers of Cement and construction chemicals. needs field checks for characteristics of the cement before using the same. Amongst the constituents of the concrete cement is having the largest coefficient of shrinkage. This has led to development of construction chemical industry. in case adequate control on W/C ratio and/or compaction of concrete could not be maintained. The chemicals to be added are not inert and therefore dangerous to life and nature as well. This makes it further costly. compacting as well as curing of concrete are confusing even to engineers and the construction is not economical to the consumer i. any quantity in excess of binding needs. clay etc are Natural minerals and therefore cement cannot be (and also is not) a product of identical chemical composition (even from adjacent batches). This finally will result in deterioration of the monolith.e. Any exposed cement at the surface may get damaged due to environmental factors in addition. Cement is manufactured from mixture of lime stone and clay (both ground/crushed) in water (or dry if could be uniformly mixed). Selection from the large variety of cements and additives in the market and the appropriate practices of complicated processes of designing. They have developed chemicals to treat these defects. As a result of all this the cement as a replacement of finely ground lime has become enormously costly and beyond the affordability of common man. they may continue to insist on cement as µBest¶ building material in use. The results are not of required durability or long lasting. Natural materials will always be superior and economical when compared with µmanufactured¶ replacements. cement used in the concrete must not be in excess. The slurry is blended to correct composition. This will ensure that the thicker cement layers will crack and loosen the aggregate pieces while facing changes of environmental temperature. is likely to make the layers between aggregate pieces thicker. Amongst the constituents of concrete only cement is a factory manufactured item and therefore susceptible to environmental attacks. the Westerners did not have any better method or construction material before cement. While treating the intended defects the reactive chemicals create some other side effects (defects?) in the concrete. and cannot be made waterproof by human intervention Even Cement is not an environment-friendly material and its production as well as use add pollutants as well as heat to the atmosphere. common man. Doubts are also cropping up if Cement is really an effective and acceptable replacement for freshly ground lime. let them. The structures constructed in Cement Concrete are non-durable. This corrected . In short. Thus many defects in concrete may be developed after the structures are in use.

this material requires lot of energy during production process and adds heat and pollution to the environment while in use. People using it have perforce to add some (more expenditure?) chemicals to overcome the defects.slurry fed to rotary kiln heated by powdered coal is converted into clinkers. 200 MT of cement (quantity produced and used in whole year of 2006) has used 30 million tons of coal. it evolves heat. Similar to modern system. It surely cannot be dismissed as minor aspect while considering the µGreen. It is thus creating havoc all over the world. This activity is a long drawn process and for our purpose we take 28 days hydration as full hydration for design purpose. Other countries in the world would have added lot more and thus earth temperature would have been raised to a very high extent. Once the structures are in use. their exposed concrete bodies absorb heat from the sun during day and reject to the atmosphere during the evening is another aspect of heat evolution by concrete structures. This is during construction. they did insist on . more by the developed Nations. Once cement concrete is poured in formwork and starts hydrating. Environment is getting heated to a large extent by the use of cement. Thus one can imagine how much heat is daily given out by the cement use to the environment so that earth temperature goes on increasing. It is possible that this has been taken into account in Industry¶s contribution to environmental pollution. Total heat that cement can generate during hydration is around 125 calories per gram of cement during its complete activity of hydration. It therefore can only be noted here as cement factory¶s pollution portion. 17 million tons per month) for construction/repair of structures. This would have added about 75 million tons of CO2 (CarbonDioxide) to the environment to increase the atmospheric temperature. Thus quite an appreciable quantity of heat is generated (for the environment) by cement consumed by all the nations. Actually. In addition. Many factories produce cement by dry process but still some use wet process. The coal requirement of the rotary kiln is 350 Kgs per ton for wet process and 100 Kgs for dry process. Let us assume that on the average a ton of cement needs 150 Kgs of coal.House¶ effect on the earth due to human activities. Kyoto round of WTO talks during Nineties could have done better by adding µscrapping of this material from production (as well as use) slowly¶ to its suggestions for corrective measures to reduce rising temperature of the earth. These clinkers ground in ball mill with addition of 2 to 3 % gypsum (for preventing flash setting). Thus during the year 2006 concrete structures (only under construction/repairs) have given out 34 X 10*12 calories (or 34 trillion calories of heat) to atmosphere EVERY DAY!. More heat at a lower rate is being given out in balance period of the year in addition. As per reports. in whole year India has consumed 200 million tons of cement during 2006 (or say. It will be clear from above discussion that cement as building material has technical problems right from start and could not yet been completely rectified. Let us consider that on the average 3 calories of heat is given out per day by one gram of cement. Rather they appear to be increasing continuously. However. an attempt to rectify some defect creates another one in concrete structures as well. This cement is stored in cement silos for loading in bags or vehicles. While discussing this aspect with my friends most of them agreed with the view that cement is surely a building material quite inferior to burnt and ground lime. A heat of hydration of 90 calories is given out by every gram of cement during that period. India is considered to be (still) developing indicating that the use of cement is going to increase continuously as the µdevelopment¶ progresses.

as a rule man need not operate from high rise structures at all. The slave population had no choice to refuse it (though they had better material in µfinely ground lime¶) for masonry. it will be apparent that getting way from Nature¶s contact and desire to abjure physical labor are the two tendencies of man which are detrimental to him. As a young boy. If we consider the condition of man on this planet since he came. Therefore. S. Quite a large amount of pollution can be reduced by use of this rule since only a fraction of buildings are presently highrise structures. he will have few persons familiar with it to help him in this aspect. Same thing happened concerning use of lime in construction during their rule. Its use in Europe started in right earnest since they had no other (suitable) construction material prior to that time. e. after which it nearly reached its extinction as a building material. As good traders they propagated with zeal and force this material in their colonies. a Leeds constructor took a patent for Portland cement {a fine powder of certain earth crust found in nature which was similar to the rock at Portland (a place in England) in color in 1824. Mr Joseph Aspdin. The world will be saving not only money and energy but it will be saving the environment and Nature as well for our future generations. Shetty. I remember to have seen the use of µGhaani¶ being used for grinding lime by bullock when our house at Satara was being extended in around fifties (about 55 years ago) as an only instant. 2. In old world at least. Handloom weaving. When man stays in highrise buildings he is necessarily away from earth i. This will really be going back to the (progressive) future! Reference 1. This should be immediately implemented. Use of cement therefore can immediately be stopped only for buildings lower than 3 stories high. Lack of physical labor has made him fall sick frequently for lack of exercising his body adequately and properly.telling that the lime is incapable of constructing highrise buildings for which cement concrete is only available. Cement concrete text book µConcrete Technology¶ by Prof M. The organization of IITians that is coming up in India to develop technical education (and other aspects) Nationwide can do well to serve the World if they can revive the µfinely ground lime¶ as a building material to replace the µdirty¶ cement. This led to disuse of lime slowly till WWII. During their rule British always discouraged the use of any indigenous materials or systems like Dhaka Mulmul. Distance from Nature has kept him away from Nature¶s ways to prevent/recover from various mental as well as physiological illnesses. specifically to kill the indigenous systems and fleece the riches of the enslaved country and people. He will have to use lime as a new building material instead. Now as well disusing this material he can reduce environmental pollution. he could have done nicely with burnt & ground lime as construction material and avoided manufacture and use of cement at all. Ayurved and Gurukul System of learning in India and offered their imported versions instead. All the pollution of environment as discussed above could have been avoided. Therefore. Minimum Cement Content for Strength and Durability of Concrete± Technical Rationale¶ by Prof M D Apte published in NBM & CW Jan 2002. . It is quite likely therefore that some oldies aware about use of this material may still be around and can assist us in redeveloping it into a building material superior to Cement in all aspects. Nature and he misses all the advantages of it.

Silica fume concrete mixes are obtained by adding silica fume to basic control mix in percentages varying from 0 to 16% at an increment of 2% by weight of cement. It can be considered as high strength concrete or high performance concrete The use of pozzolanic admixtures like condensed silica fume. 4. blast furnace slag. Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology. These factors can be achieved in concrete by adding various blending materials with cement or separately to concrete. silica fume.3. proved to be the most useful if not essential for the development of very high strength concretes and/or concretes of very high durability.M. The objective of the present experimentation is to study the effect of silica fume as additive on the strength and durability characteristics of concrete obtained using locally available material. Indian Standards concerning Concrete Construction as brought out by BIS Cement Manufacturers Literature and publications Experiences of the author during his professional career British rulers¶ efforts in imposing Western culture Addition from Editor Gangaccanal aqueduct known as Solani Bridge near Roorkee in Uttarakhand is a fine example of lime construction (Masonary line mortar) which is more than 150 years old by now with no problems. Silica fume concrete (SFC) is emerging as one of the new generation construction material. Introduction The present trend in concrete technology is to increase the strength and durability of concrete to meet the demands of the modern world. Experimental Investigation on the Strength and Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Dr. The use of silica fume as a mineral admixture for the production of high strength concrete and high durable concrete is gaining importance in recent years. etc.Gupta. Concrete mix for M20 gradeis designed which serves as basic control mix. The materials suitable for blending are flyash. 6. 5. Kurukshetra. The compressive strength development and durability against acidic and alkaline attack is studied. S. Large number of Arch Bridges on Ganga canal (constructed along Solani bridge starting at Hardwar are constructed using Bricks masonary in lime mortar. because of its finely divided state and very high percentage of amorphous silica. It is recommended that for applications in concrete silica fume should conform to certain minimum specifications such as silicon dioxide content of not less than 85%. spherical shape with a .

5 micron sizes and reduces the size of pores in the 50 to 500 micron range. Physical effect of silica fume in concrete is that of a filler. Silica fume is known to improve both mechanical characteristics and durability characteristics of concrete since. Concrete mix for M20 grade was designed. As for chemical reactions of silica fume. which served as basic control mix. Experiments have revealed that silica fume in concrete essentially eliminates pores between 500 to 0. Experimental Programme An experimental program was carried out to find out the strength and durability characteristic of concrete containing silica fume as an additive. because of its fineness. this highly active pozzolan reacts more quickly than ordinary pozzolans.1 to 0. which.number of primary agglomerates with particles of size ranging from 0. because of high surface area and high content of amorphous silica. both the chemical and physical effects are significant. Materials Used . Silica fume concrete mixes were obtained by adding silica fume to basic control mix in percentages varying from 0 to 16% at an increment of 2% by weight of cement.2 microns).01 to 0. can fit into spaces between cement grains in the same way that sand fills the spaces between particles of coarse aggregate and cement grains fill the spaces between sand grains. amorphous structure and a very low content of unburnt carbon. Physical and chemical mechanisms made the silica fume more effective in reducing pore size.3 microns (average of 0.

74 and conforming to IS 383-1970 were used. SFC16). Concrete Mixes Mix design for M20 grade of concrete was carried out using the guidelines prescribed by IS: 10262. For Fine aggregate local sand having specific gravity of 2. SFC6. SFC4. The designed concrete mix for M20 served as basic control mix (CM). SFC8. Locally available aggregates were used. The physical and chemical properties of OPC and silica fume (SF) are given in Table 1. Ordinary potable water was used for mixing of the ingredients. SFC10. (viz SFC2. The dosage of super plasticizer was 0. SFC12. Coarse aggregates crushed from igneous basalt rock of 20mm and down size having specific gravity of 2. SFC14. The Basic control Concrete mix proportion obtained was 1 part . Silica fume used in the experimentation was obtained from FOSROC Chemicals (India) Limited.1982.Ordinary Portland cement was used throughout the Experimentation.7% by weight of cement.56 and conforming to grading zone I of IS: 3831970 was used. Superplasticizer based on sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde was used to impart additional desired properties to the silica fume concrete. Silica fume concrete mixes were obtained by adding silica fume to basic control mix in percentages varying from 0 to 16% at an increment of 2% by weight of cement.

28 parts of coarse aggregate with water±cement ratio of 0. 28-days. the specimens are taken out and were washed in running water and kept in atmosphere for 2-day for constant weight. To this the calculated quantity of silica fume was added and dry mixed thoroughly. The compressive strength test specimens were cured and tested for 3-days.3. cement. The calculated amount of superplasticizer was now added to the mix and then mixed thoroughly.7% of Superplasticizer. the specimen were demoulded and transferred to curing tank where in they were immersed in water for the desired period of curing Tests Conducted The tests were conducted both on Fresh and Hardened concrete. The specimen are cast and cured in mould for 24 hours. The pH value of the acidic media was at 0. Three specimens were used for each test. The required quantity of water was added to the dry mix and homogenously mixed.cement: 1. subsequently. Table 2 and Vee-bee consistometer test. The specimen are cast and cured in mould for 24 hours. Resistance Against Alkaline Attack For alkaline attack test concrete cube of size 150 150 150 mm are prepared for various percentages of silica fume addition. Mixing. and Curing The concrete ingredients viz. The specimens are given the required compaction both manually and through table vibrator. After 24 hours of casting.3. after . The homogeneous concrete mix was placed layer by layer in moulds kept on the vibrating table. the specimens are weighed and immersed in 5% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) solution for 60-days. Batching.62:3. The strength and durability tests conducted on hardened concrete are briefed here: Compressive Strength Test The compressive strength test was carried out on cube specimens of dimensions 150 150 150 mm. The tests on fresh concrete was the workability test conducted through Slump test.5 and 0. Subsequently the specimens are weighed and loss in weight and hence the percentage loss of weight was calculated. Compaction factor test. all the specimen are demoulded and kept in curing tank for 7-days. 7-days.62 parts of fine aggregate: 3. and 60-days in compressive testing machine. sand and coarse aggregate were weighed according to proportion 1:1. After 7-days all specimens are kept in atmosphere for 2-days for constant weight. after 24 hours. Durability Test Resistance Against Acid Attack For acid attack test concrete cube of size 150 150 150 mm are prepared for various percentages of silica fume addition. The pH value was periodically checked and maintained at 0. After 60-days of immersing in acid solution.28 and are dry mixed on a platform. After through compaction the specimens were finished smooth.

This is due to the fact that as the percentage of silica fume increases the water available in the system decreases thus affecting the workability. The pH value was periodically checked and maintained at 12. The effect of silica fume content on the workability with regard to slump of concrete is shown in Figure 1. the specimens are taken out and are washed in running water and kept in atmosphere for 2-day for constant weight. compaction factor and. After 7-days all specimens are kept in atmosphere for 2-days for constant weight. Compressive Strength Test Results . the mix containing 16% silica fume (SFC16) has a slump reduction of 28% and compaction factor reduction of 5. Results and Discussions Workability Test Results The result of workability of concrete as measured from slump. Subsequently. Vee-bee degree are shown in Table 2.0.26%. According to these results. the specimens are weighed and immersed in 5% sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution for 60-days. subsequently. the specimens are weighed and loss in weight and hence the percentage loss of weight was calculated. The silica fume concrete did not show tendencies for seggregation and bleeding.24 hours. all the specimen are demoulded and kept in curing tank for 7-days.0. After 60. No wide variations in the slump and compaction factor values for the mixes containing increased amount of silica fume were observed.days of immersing in alkaline solution. As compared to control mix (CM). The pH value of the alkaline media was at 12. workability of concrete decreases as the silica fume content in concrete increases from to 16%.

It appears that in the Sulphuric acid attack.H2SO4 solution with a significant weight loss. Resistance Against Alkaline Attack .3 pH) of 5% .H2SO4 Solution. SFCl6 mix was found to be most effective in preventing the Sulphuric acid attack. decreases as the percentage of silica fume in concrete increases. all hydrated products. The strength activity index for 3-days. hydrated silicate and aluminate phases and calcium hydroxide.41 respectively. 7. The effect of silica fume content on the Compressive strength of concretes is shown in Figure 2.H2SO4 solution varied widely depending on the percentage of silica fume. On the other hand. Under a very low pH (0.The compressive strength of concrete containing silica fume given in Table 3 shows an increasing trend as the percentage of silica fume increases.65.49 and 1. the early decomposition of calcium hydroxide and subsequent formation of layer amount of gypsum are attributed to the progressive deterioration accompanied by the scaling and softening of the matrix. from 0 to 16%. 1. The percentage weight loss. This is true for 3days. 1. 28-days. the progress of deterioration in silica fume concrete immersed in 5% .33. can easily be decomposed. and 60-days for 16% of silica fume is 1. and 60-days compressive strength. 28-days.65 The effects of silica fume content on the acidic media durability shown in Figure 3. 7-days. The control mix was markedly affected by 5% .days. The weight loss index for SFC16 is 0. Resistance Against Acid Attack Table 4 shows the change in weight of control mix and silica fume mix when immersed in 5% sodium Sulphric acid (H2SO4) solution.

00 while for control mix it is 1. decreases as the percentage of silica fume in concrete increases. which is an indication of durability. The weight loss index for SFC16 is 0. increases the density of concrete by .Table 4 shows the change in weight of control mix and silica fume concrete when immersed in % sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution. which also acts as a filler material. This may be due to the fact that the silica fume.00. The percentage weight loss. The pH value of 5% sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) solution was found to be 12.

26%.days compressive strength.00. decreases as the percentage of silica fume in concrete increases. SFC16 has a slump reduction of 28% and compaction factor reduction of 5. The weight loss index for SFC16 is 0.92 for acidic and 1. Thus silica fume acts as a pozzolanic material. The percentage weight loss. As compared to the control mix. the durability of concrete in acidic media increases as the percentage of silica fume in concrete increases.41 at 3. which is an indication of durability in alkaline media. 1. The compressive strength of concrete shows an increasing trend as the silica fume content increases. hence the compressive strength of concrete increases as the percentage of silica fume increases.65. 28days.42 for alkaline as compared to the control mix in the respective media. Compressive strength of Silica Fume Concrete after 60-days Immersion in Acidic Media and Alkaline Media Table 5 shows test result of 60-days compressive strength of silica fume concrete. 4. and 60. Thus the percentage weight loss will be less as the percentage of silica fume in concrete increases. The effects of silica fume content on the compressive strength after 60-days immersion in Acidic media and Alkaline media of concretes is shown in Figure 5. Thus the workability of concrete decreases as the percentages of silica fume in concrete increases. when exposed to two different media viz Acidic and Alkaline media the strength activity index shows an increasing trend as the silica fume increases from to 0 16%. The weight loss index for SFC16 is 0. Resistance against acidic attack of silica fume concrete increases as the silica fume content increases from 0 to 16%. The strength activity index for SFC16 is 1. The strength activity index for SFC16 is 1.49. and 1. which are very compactly filled up by the silica fume. decreases as the percentage of silica fume in concrete increases. Resistance against alkaline attack of silica fume concrete increases as the silica fume content increases from 0 to 16%. from 0 to 16%. 5. and 60.65.days. The effect of silica fume content on alkaline media of concretes is shown in Figure 4.33. compaction factor and Vee-bee degree decreases as percentage of silica fume in concrete increases. This increasing trend is evident for 3-days.days respectively. do not allow the alkaline media to penetrate into concrete mass and also reduced content of calcium hydroxide in die silica fume concrete due to pozzolanic reaction. which is an indication of durability in acidic media. The voids. Conclusions These studies have lead to the following conclusions: 1. 28-days. 7-days.00 while for control mix it is 1. 1. when exposed to two different media viz. Thus since silica fume acts as a filler material and fills up the voids of concrete. 7-days.filling the voids. 2. The percentage weight loss. 3. The 60-days compressive strength of silica fume concrete. Acidic and Alkaline media shows an increasing trend as the silica fume . The workability of concrete as measured from slump.

K. Kumar Mehta (Nov. pp. 587-595. N. CANMET.92 for acidic and 1. ³Specification for coarse and Fine Aggregate from Natural source for concrete. 1996. July. Kadri (1998).´ Department of Civil Engineering.K. ³Properties of Portland Cement Concrete Containing Silica Fume. Supp1ementary Cementing Materials for Concrete.L. 35-39.´ Ph. 11. 67-75. References 1. The strength activity index for SFC16 is 1..E. and Gjorv. 1988. pp. pp.increases from 0 to 16%.: 383-1970 (1990). and Nilsen.´ IE (I). Ed.M. Cook.-Dec. 225W.Apr. Journal V.. Ojho. pp. 1989). Gupta. Detwiler and P. O. 77. N. pp. 2001. 3. E. ³Use of Flyash and Condensed Silica in Making Concrete. 1990. No.H.000 psi Concrete. ³Silica Fume in Concrete. 4. Sellevold.Pearson Education Asia Ltd. Conferences/Seminars/ Workshops.M. pp. pp.42 for alkaline as compared to the control mix in the respective media.E. Malhotra...S. Wacka Drive. 1981). ³Properties of Concrete. ³Experimental Studies on the Behavior of High Strength Concrete. 6. ³Influence of Silica Fume on the Workability and the Compressive Strength of High Performance Concrete. V. 86.S.J.Kurukshetra.´ Fourth and Final Edition . SP 86-8E. 5. Integral Watertight Concrete Structures..´ Cement and Concrete Research. R. J. 6.´ Concrete International. P. (2000). 84.´ BIS. : 10262±1962. 14. Jan. Thesis.´ ACI Materials Journal.U. November. pp. Mehta.An Insight . 12. 7. 5. 12. New Delhi. ³Indian Standard Recommended Guidelines for concrete mix design. 28. Moreno. Rachel J. 170-173.D.1982. 10. Oct.´ ACI Material Journal. Leming M. I. New Delhi.533-547. 8. By V. and E. Duval R. 158±166.´ Cement and Concrete Research. 167-246/1987.. North Carolina State University.´ Bureau of Indian Standards.C.. ³Properties of High Strength Concrete: An Investigation of Characteristics High Strength Concrete Using Materials in North Caroling Research Report FHWA/ NC/88-006. Sept.. 609-614. Neville A. 4. 2. ³Chemical and Physical Effect of Silica Fume on the Mechanical Behavior of Concrete. 9. I.. 10.M. 3. 1989. 13. S. Raleigh. J. ACI Committee 226R (March. Concrete International. T. ³Research and Application of High Strength Concrete. ³The State±of±the±Art of High Strength Concrete in Chicago.

Sources of Leakage There are three main sources of water leakage in concrete structures: y y y Construction Joints Cracks Porous media Construction Joints Large structures of concrete are cast in number of sections. .Upen Patel. Ltd. The dividing lines between two sections are the joints between already harden concrete and freshly poured concrete. At these joints fresh concrete shrinks and creates a fine crack. with continuity of reinforcements. less attention and focus has been on getting integral water tightness (within the structure). BASF Construction Chemicals (India) Pvt. Even today¶s struggle is on to deploy one or other kind of waterproofing system to achieve total water tightness of structures. engineers struggle to keep structures watertight. and using two technological advancements to enable integral water tightness to structure with a live case study. Marketing Manager. In spite of good construction practices at site and using branded products. So far the approach has been based on achieving watertight tanking around the structure to guard entry of water in the structure. This article explains the main sources of leakages in the structure. Mumbai Preface Since the Stone Age mankind has struggled to keep the structures watertight.

This extra water leaves the concrete mass during the hydration reaction resulting in to the formation of pores. While mixing the ingredients and placement of fresh concrete.1 ± 0. These hydration pores promotes diffusion of corrosive agents in the concrete. While actual concrete in practice contains 40 ± 50% of water by the weight of cement. concrete requires only 23 ± 25% water by weight of cement for the chemical hydration of the cement. settlements. In adequate compaction results in to the air voids.These cracks are normally 0. one of end product of the hydration reaction. These capillaries make concrete porous. Theoretically. early de-stripping. Cracks Due to various reasons such as excessive segregation of concrete mix. Achieving uniform compacting throughout the volume of freshly placed concrete is very difficult to achieve. Porous Concrete Media Concrete has heterogeneous matrix. high water cement ratios. rapid variations in ambient temperatures. concrete entraps air and the same is attempted to remove by compaction using mechanical means. 3 mm in width and are passages for water to pass through the structure. etc« concrete structures develop cracks during the construction stage and these cracks are some time deeper and can easily transport water from one side to another. Besides these two features concrete also contains hydration pores which are formed due to volume changes of hydration products and are normally filled with loose lime. . The extra water is provided to achieve desired workability and easy of placement. An interconnected series of such pores are popularly known as capillary pores. a mixture of binding paste and fillers. movements.

The core has injection channel in the centre. which connects to openings at regular distance in all four directions. The openings are guarded with neoprene seals. . The concept is a combination of two systems: y y Watertight joints using reinjectable hoses Watertight concrete mass by deploying self±compacting concrete concept Re-injectable Hoses The re-injectable hoses are made up of PVC plastic core which enables toughness to the hose.The Integral Watertight Solution To check the porosity of concrete and leakages through the joints & cracks. integral watertight concept is gaining popularity.

Then injected using water±based lowviscosity. injection pressure is release and the hose is applied with the vacuum. The hose can be injected with water to verify the effectiveness of the injection. Now the resin in the cracks has set and forms an effective seal for passage of water in the future. it is important to include all of following components in the mix. The neoprene seals now gains original size and seals the openings and prevents the suction of resin from outside of the hose to inside. Overall the re-swellable acrylate resin and injection hose provides following main benefits: y y y Re-injectable hose ± permanent access to the construction joint In-build QA system±Test the effectiveness by injecting with water Re-swelling injection resin± swells up to 2. In the next stage of operation. re-swellable. Also all the resin from the central channel is sucked out and then the hose is rinse using water under low pressure re-circulation stage. The injection resin pressurized the soft neoprene seals and squeeze out around seals to the openings and travels around the hose and to the crack of the construction joints and other cracks which connects to the construction joints. If leakages are noticed then the hose is re-injected with the resin once again. After the casting and destripping of the concrete cover of the junction box is located and marked for future operations.5 time in volume to maintain tight seal even in the case of movements in the cracks Watertight Self± compacting Concrete To obtain proper. vinylacrylate injection resin. Each length of the hose is first injected with water to assess the leakages at the construction joint. robust self± compacting concrete. These components enhance the performance of the fresh concrete as mentioned below: y Hyperplasticiser±which is based on PCE polymer and have 30 ± 40% water reduction capabilities .The hose is placed at the central line of the construction joints using clips and the ends are connected to nonperforated hose with termination in near-surface mounted junction boxes.

. to achieve a robust mix of self±compacting concrete. Hence. Further the Government decided to minimise the impact for the environment during construction.y y Viscosity Modifying Agent ± Improve the shear resistance and thickens the paste to achieve effective segregation resistance Pozzolans ± Facilitate increase in the paste volume without increasing the temperature of concrete and enables segregation resistance. Case History± Hercules Harbor Client±Gouvernement of Monaco Location of site±Algeciras Spain Contractor±DRAGADOS BEC V Engineering±DORIS Engineering France R & D±Institute Francais du Petriole Norwegian Technical Institute and many others Technology Supplier±BASF CC Spain (BETTOR MBT) New studies were made in the 1980µs to protect and extend the existing harbor. The depth of the sea±bed of 55 meters did not allow conventional construction. Based upon studies made in France and Norway the Monaco Government decided to build a prefabricated ³ semi floating seawal l´ a technique common in the offshore oil industry. achieving watertight concrete mass is possible. While in the case of smaller projects such special self± compacting mix can be supplied by Ready mix producers who can design and control the ingredients. From the water tightness and durability aspects²these three ingredients enable the following benefits: Overall by carefully implementing a proper self± compacting mix. it is must that all of these three ingredients are present and are properly included to maximize the benefits they can offer on the hardened properties of the mix. Following case history of Hercules Harbor in Monaco enables us an insight in one of such successful implementation of this integral watertight concrete concept. developed mix can be tested for permeability to standards such as DIN 1048 and that can be one of the acceptance criteria. Also in the case of large projects.

900 MT .The structure was 352 metres long. its design required 2. 44 m wide and about 35 m tall.

This required total watertightness of the structure and all the joints it has. DORIS Engineering recommended the use of Self±compacting Concrete. Trends in Concrete Construction . Finally.of steel cables for stressing and 45. As such long structure cannot be transported on the ship. water based reswelling resin and tested for watertightness. an off shore platform built in Norway. No form of external waterproofing treatment was carried out for this structure. To secure the construction joints. No membrane or no accidental drill and grouting were implemented. the structure was towed in the sea as it can be carried on the ship and was positioned at the final location in 2004. the re-injectable hose was specified allowing testing joints and injecting and re-injecting with resin where necessary. Engineers from DORIS Engineering decided to construct in a dry-dock. After the construction all the joints were injected using Masterflex 801. Such implementations make these technologies time tested and real for the rest of the world to get inspired and to implement. 1200 km away in Spain. it required to be floated in sea and to be transported by towing. Masterflex 900. Any leakage at joint or within the concrete mass would make it sunk below the ocean. Conclusion The new age technologies and quest of civil engineers have lead to solutions which are long lasting. Based upon the construction of TROLLE.000 of concrete! As the structure cannot be constructed in-situ and also near by area was not available for precasting yard.

discovered off the coast of Gujarat. transporting. in actual fact. eminently feasible. would have saved the almost impossible effort required to construct the 4. there were no limestone blocks to start with. They were.500 years old pyramids. Human slaves. Leaving aside improbable conjectures like the one that the pyramids were constructed by alien beings who visited our planet from outer space. floated down the Nile on boats or rafts. most other theories focus on methods used to quarry the gigantic blocks. Concrete is one of the oldest and most widely used building materials in the world. shape and polish them so finely²even though no mortar has been used to join the blocks together. nor of hauling them into position. poured in-situ lime concrete blocks.000 years old sunken city. to construct their massive pyramids. This is because. along with elephants. haul up huge limestone blocks weighing over fifteen tonnes. taken at random. it is argued. This process. there was no question of quarrying. In one form or another various types of concrete have been used for construction purpose for around 9. have been unearthed in West Asia and concrete structures have been found in a 7. Concrete platforms dating back to 7. who had no machines worth the name. now were aware of the invention of the wheel. New Delhi. shaping and polishing of blocks. from hundreds of concrete structures built throughout known human history. formed the motive power. is the answer to the question as to how did the ancient Egyptians. especially as the Egyptians of that time apparently had no iron tools. they fit so nicely that even a knife blade cannot be slipped between adjacent stones±and finally haul them into position. moved across land using wooden rollers placed below them. and several possible answers arrived at. Chief Consultant. this method would have been painfully laborious and slow. according to this revolutionary theory.Brajendra Singh.000 years by now. As concrete evolved over the ages. According to it.C. it has become quite clear from recent discoveries. and positioned using long sloping ramps. that several . Although. Some years back a new theory of pyramid construction was put forth. This question has for centuries been very widely debated by archeologists. transport them to the building sites. Most aver that the blocks were chiselled out of hillside rock formations.000 B. Cement Manufacturers¶ Association. historians and engineers. One of the enduring mysteries of all times. These are just two examples.

many colleges in USA. to give them an aesthetic look. Sometime during the 3rd Century B. is not all that modern as..e. is fibre reinforced concrete. . Undersea structures built at that time. dating back to between the 1st Century B. Stromboli and Vesuvius. since the know-how for the manufacture of steel fibres was not available earlier on. These boats were made by plastering concrete over an iron mesh boatshaped framework. This product too. were plying on ocean going routes. irrigation & sanitation item etc.. may not be so modern after all.D. As far back as 83 B. Steelfibre reinforced concrete is a more recent product. so that Rome literally glittered in the sunshine. lightweight concrete. first made its appearance. Even today. Another example of a supposedly modern form of concrete which in actual fact was fairly widely used by the ancients. This resulted in a fairly unique product±concrete that set under water. he decided that his capital did not look grand enough. Four hundred years later. And concrete roofs. in France. house components. when the Goths under Alaric looted Rome. which were in wide use some 3000 years ago. a mere 132 years ago. The marble facades and brick burned off.500 tonnes. whose ruins were discovered some time back.D.C. were all the rage around the 3rd Century A. Hence steel fibre reinforced concrete only made its appearance in 1874. Such boats had many advantages since they were waterproof and leak proof. nephew of Julius Caesar.C. since 1850s. is fireproof concrete. according to available records.C. concrete mixed in a central batching plant and transported to different work sites. Augustus Caesar (after whom the month of August is named). which are extremely popular with students. it is boats. weighing over 7. water tanks. took independent charge of the Roman Empire in 32 B. organize regular concrete boat races. So he had marble facades put on every building. they set the entire city on fire. Excavations in Italy have also revealed the remanants of large number of other residential and official buildings. Next on our list. to build the Temple of Fortune in Palestrina. concrete boats and ships. Then. from volcanoes like Etna. reinforced with horse-hair. Italy.µmodern¶ varieties of concrete. was the blending of reddish volcanic earth with lime. were re-built with fireproof concrete. Take for instance. Right till the 1920s. though most of them are damaged or broken.C. It was in 1903. did not rot and were also almost damage proof. to the 2nd Century A. they were given a facing of bricks. concrete was used for making boats. And do you know when Ready Mixed Concrete (RMC) i. Roman architects used lightweight aggregates formed by the cooling of lava. some as big as 132 metres long and 17 metres wide. When Rome¶s first Emperor. reinforced with straw fibres. yes you read that right. the first fibre-reinforced concrete products were bricks. Coming to more modern times. This composite was named as Fericement in early days and Ferrocement later on. made with lightweight concrete. but the basic concrete structures of Rome almost all survived Innovations Another innovation that originated over 2000 years ago in Rome. are still existing today. It is still being used for making boats. the buildings of almost the entire city of Rome.

when the first petrol engine driven RMC trucks made an appearance. Flexible Concrete The term µflexible concrete¶ seems to be an anomaly. till about 1914. The manufacture and use of RMC was therefore somewhat slow. bent/sagged but did not crack. when subject to severe stress by overloaded trucks going across them. till just a few decades ago. when centrally batched concrete was carried by horse-drawn container vehicle. Incidentally. These include flexible concrete. Eventually. They gave their new product the name of Engineered Cement Composite (ECC) and started carrying out experiments with different trial mixes. This latest composite concrete has been used for a 5cm ultra-thin deck on a bridge in . The requirement for a flexible form of concrete has been felt for many years. most of which±as far as current knowledge goes±were unknown or even undreamt of. was not available in those days. Switzerland and USA.´ Today. the fibres incorporated in ECC were specially coated ones. after dozens of hits and misses. after setting. it often set on the way. suitable motorized transport for its conveyance. has already been used in projects in several countries. Korea. In the mid-1990¶s. since concrete is generally considered to be inflexible. thus imparting flexibility to it. modern-day concrete technologists need not feel that ³there is nothing new under the sun. as in a rigid road pavement. Additionally. Japan. compared to the normal half percent contained in ordinary fibre-reinforced concrete. scientists in USA¶s University of Michigan. except that there were no coarse aggregates in it. decided to try and design a flexible form of concrete. due to failure of concrete roads and bridge decks. since the automobile industry was still in its infancy. Some details of these products and processes are given in the succeeding paragraphs. resulted in a concrete that. which would be ductile and elastic. ultra-thin concrete and even cementless concrete. they produced a fairly satisfactory mix which. Concrete produced by ECC techniques. spun concrete. Despite all that is mentioned above. So. when overloaded. The mix was similar to a normal concrete mix. including Australia. whisper concrete. The latest formula has given an end product that is 40 percent lighter in weight and 500 times more resistant to cracking. Also it contained around two percent fibres. as there was almost no knowledge regarding retarding chemicals available at that time. this coating allowed the fibres to slide within the concrete.Unfortunately. 1914 was also the year when the first concrete road was constructed in our country. than normal concrete. from batching plant to work site. we have a number of innovative usage for concrete.

have enabled production of 28 metre high columns. is then spun for approximately 10 minutes. such as strength required. Though large columns can be fashioned and designed artistically. The 40 percent saving in weight has led to significant economies in construction cost especially in the understructure on which the dead load came. anchored to fixing devices. Pre-stressing columns imparts additional load bearing capacity to them. depending on various factors. at 600 rpm. The reinforcement cage for the column is also made in two parts. they often take up vital space and obstruct free movement as well as vital viewability. An additional bonus that the deck¶s flexibility gave. This process produces a very dense. A steel mould in the shape of the column is made. Heavy reinforcement ratios up to 15 percent. This not only provided a smoother ride for motorists using the bridge. unfortunately. High strength concrete. which are a part of the mould. and pretensioned. column size. tend to be large in size. capable of taking loads up to 360 tonnes. After that. a new technique has been conceived. in two halves. The mould is then removed and the column cured. To provide columns with even more load bearing strength. but also saved on the bother and cost of joint filler maintenance/ replacement. One part is placed in each half of the mould. their size can create problems. Spun Concrete Columns are vital part of most buildings. the concrete is left to set. ambient conditions and so on. is then poured into the mould halves. up to M-100. having a diameter of only 70 cm. so that their diameter could be further reduced. This technique results in the production of what is known as spun concrete. which is basically German in origin. high strength concrete structure.Japan. by the use of spun concrete. Load bearing columns. The mould. was that there was no requirement for expansion joints±the entire deck slab was a continuous one. thus giving a pleasing appearance. for between 12 to 16 hours. with the concrete in it. thus allowing them to be made slimmer in size and permitting larger spacing between them but even then. Whisper Concrete . then transported to the construction site. The procedure for making columns of spun concrete is roughly as follows. After that the halves are bolted together and placed in a centrifuge.

where speeds generally exceeded 120 kmph. this irritating µswishswish¶ was. In late 70¶s and early 80¶s. In European countries. . where long stretches of concrete highways exists. motorways and freeways. particularly on intercity highways. and is. they were invariably given a non-skid surface by brooming.000 vehicles traversed the facility every day. However. traffic on concreted European roads increased by leaps and bounds. So much so that many countries have made it mandatory to construct sound deflecting fences along concrete roads. and between 75. and noise pollution gave rise to headaches and other soundrelated psychological problems. Investigations into the causes of skidding. re-grooving of the road surface. In fact in UK. In those days. causing accidents. priority was given for mitigating causative factors for the former. and for those whose houses are situated in the vicinity of concrete roads.One major disadvantage of concrete roads is that they are noisy. These troubles were particularly noticeable near and on autobahns. despite predictions that the then quantum jump in oil prices would drastically reduce individual usage of vehicles. due to the friction between their tyres and the hard road surface. Since accidents due to skidding (which led to a large number of deaths and serious injuries) caused much more damage than mere noise pollution.000 to 1. Simultaneously. Smoothened pavements.00. wherever they pass through residential areas. continuous heavy traffic over on extended period of time. there was an increase in vehicular speed. These grooves. a method in which the surface of the road had grooves etched into it. before it had hardened fully. vehicles traveling on them produce a µswishing¶ sound. led to skidding of vehicles. worn down due to excessive wear and tear. This caused a greater wearing action on road surfaces and also an almost unbearable increase in the level of sound being produced. showed that when concrete pavements were initially laid. by dragging steel-wire brooms across the top of the concrete pavement. construction of concrete road pavements was actually banned for a few years due to noise pollution. Among the first countries to take cognizance of motorists complaints was Belgium. imparted excellent anti-skid properties to the road. the cause of much annoyance for road users. And that is how µWhisper Concrete¶ came into being. which were generally made two millimeters deep. thus flattening the surface of the pavement. caused the ridges between the grooves to get worn down. although it was partly by accident.

They began to look for ways and means to restore the anti-skid surface of concrete roads economically and speedily. and normally leads to total loss of control of vehicles by drivers. was a somewhat costly and laborious process (new techniques have made it easier to re-groove the top of a concrete pavement today). These rotating brushes removed the cement mortar from the top 1. water and alcohol. Hence road maintenance authorities tended to delay the operations. and where it was laid on an existing worn-out bitumen pavement. smooth road surface.¶ Hydroplaning is a particularly nasty form of skidding. they eventually proved to be even quieter than blacktopped roads. However. Once partial curing of the remaining concrete had taken place (anything between 8 to 36 hours later. Further trials were then carried out. depending on the ambient conditions). Initially. Where overlaying of old smoothened concrete pavements was involved. This particular retarder. besides being safer to travel on. An accident rates in the country went up and criticism of official apathy mounted. were overlaid with 40-50 mm of concrete having a maximum aggregate size of 6-8 mm. whisper concrete had one fairly serious drawback. it was found to every ones surprise that. was sprayed with a retarder consisting of glucose. rotating wire bristle brushes. and decided to go in for it in a big way. interaction between vehicle tyres and the wet. to prevent evaporation. the Belgian authorities started to take action. but involved much less effort. that the new type of surface was much quieter than any of the other pavements in service. with the emphasis now on reduction of the amount of noise pollution being created. while still wet. So when it next rained. These only served to confirm the earlier findings. and the surface of the road was swept with a machine. which had stiff. thus exposing the aggregate and making the surface rough enough for safe high-speed driving in wet weather. affected only the top 2 mm of the concrete.though eminently feasible. such exposed-aggregate pavements were much quieter than normal concrete surfaces. In fact. it was then immediately covered securely with polythene sheeting. whisper concrete . trial lengths of smoothened road surface.5 mm of the pavement. produced a phenomenon known as µhydroplaning. as tests had shown. The surface of the new concrete. or even give it the complete go-by. the Belgians soon discovered that along with its advantages. the polythene sheeting was removed. the cost of using whisper concrete was more or less the same as regrooving. The delighted public works authorities±who had got two benefits for the price of one±soon labeled the exposed-aggregate pavement as µwhisper¶ concrete. When vehicles were driven at expressway speeds over these newly made antiskid surfaces.

Hence the Austrians used soft aggregates for the thicker lower layer of their concrete roads. between 150-200 mm thick. having a maximum aggregate size of 6-8 mm. followed by 50 mm of whisper concrete surfacing. Increasing traffic at greater speeds along these arteries. Nevertheless. CRCP (Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement) with an exposed aggregate surface. looking for solutions to the problem. whisper concrete pavements could be laid in a single pass. the Austrians decided to adopt the Belgian two-layer technique of construction. Today. worried Government officials. Such aggregates are essentially required for that country¶s roads because the heavy snowfalls it experiences. . because even five years after the initial whisper concrete roads were built. apart from the considerable saving in time and money since only a single laying operation was involved. It was not long before they discovered whisper concrete. After Belgium. and a good percentage of small stone chippings added to the mix. waited to see the experience of others and then took up the construction of whisper concrete pavements only in 1995. suitably tough and hard aggregates are extremely costly. proved to be a wise one. for all inter±city highways. caused noise to roll up the hillsides in waves. having a maximum aggregate size of 30 mm. Though driving on such pavements was not as µcomfortable¶ as on two-layer whisper concrete. and hard tough aggregates for the thinner. The guidelines provisionally enunciated by them.¶ Fearing loss of votes. traditionalists as usual. This phenomenon started causing µadverse political fall-out. upper whisper concrete layer. despite their regular use by studded tyre traffic.costs matched those of white-topping (re-surfacing of an old blacktopped pavement with thin concrete slabs). On top of this. despite the country¶s middle±of±the±Alps location. but not too pleased in having to build it in two layers. there should be 200 mm of CRCP. Extremely happy with its performance. and an upper layer of 40-50 mm of whisper concrete. Austria is by and large a mountainous country. The next European nation to take up the new road building method was Austria. with many of its roads running along the lower portions of valleys. a concrete road should consist of a cement-bound sub-base. their surfaces showed no signs of wear and tear. the noise produced was somewhat less. scanned literature. Between 1981 and 1994 eight million cubic metres of whisper concrete was laid down on the country¶s roads. the Dutch carried out some trials of their own. whisper concrete was taken up in a big way by neighboring Netherlands. rather than the Dutch single-layer method. it was found that the pavement had to be constructed in two layers. After due trials and deliberations. Belgian authorities decided that the advantages of whisper concrete far out-weighted its disadvantages. The British. and such tyres wear out soft aggregates very fast. means that most vehicles use studded tyres. with the new material. is the standard form of road construction in Belgium. They soon discovered that if the maximum aggregate size in the entire concrete mass was reduced to 20 mm. These include: y Under standard highway conditions. But where new roads had to be built. A lower layer of 200 mm of µnormal¶ concrete. organized conferences and toured Europe. This double operation increased both time and cost of construction. Austria¶s selection of the twolayer method of construction. They therefore went on constructing fresh roads and topping existing ones. are probably the most suitable ones for use by those building whisper concrete roads for the first time. This is because in Austria.

However. at right angles to the first float. Ultra-Thin White. this will ensure sufficient hardness to combat wear and tear. most white topping projects did not purposely seek a bond between the interface of the concrete and the underlying flexible surface. Sand used should be very fine. stiff bristles. the existing bitumen served as base for the new concrete overlay. usually of thickness of 100 mm or more. The whisper concrete layer should be initially levelled by a conventional mechanical float with oscillating beams. a new technology emerged in the early 1990¶s. The aggregates should also have a µflakiness¶ index less than 25% which will ensure that they have a fairly uniform shape. Therefore. which has dramatically expanded white topping technology and its use. The cement used should be OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). As a result.Topping Until 1991. Full pavement width (even for double-lane roads) on each side of dual carriageway roads. These aggregates should posses a polished stone value greater than 60. the concrete overlay and the underlying bitumen act as a composite section rather than two independent layers. 8 mm size coarse aggregate should be used in the surface layer. This rehabilitation technique purposely seeks to bond the concrete overlay to the existing bitumen. Between 8 and 36 hours later (depending on ambient conditions). Rather. which should remove any remaining imperfections or ridges. Normally. to remove cement mortar from the top 1.5 mm. This composite action significantly reduces the load-induced stresses in the concrete overlay. Then cover the surface with a polyethylene µcling¶ film. Today. Not more than 3 percent of these should be oversized and 10 percent undersized. should be laid in a single operation. defined as: ³A concrete overlay. we refer to this technique as ³Conventional´ or ³Classical´ white topping. the concrete overlay can be considerably thinner for the same loading as compared to a white topping section . which should be airentrained. placed directly on top of an existing bitumen pavement. remove the polyethylene film and brush the surface with mechanically rotating. Coarse aggregate should form around 60% of the whisper concrete. water and alcohol. This should be followed by further levelling by a µsuper smooth¶ float. set longitudinally down the carriageway.y y y y y y y y y Existing concrete paving trains should be modified to lay the lower CRCP and the upper whisper concrete surface in the same pass. Spray the smooth finished surface immediately with a retarder consisting of glucose. Properly planned operations should enable construction of about 3000 linear metres of whisper concrete per day.

However. With UTW. The composite section has opposing effects on corner stresses. This shifting lowers the stresses at the bottom of the concrete and brings the stresses into a range that the thin concrete layer can withstand. close joint spacing is critical. With bonding. terms such as ³thick´ and ³thin´ are relative and depend on the viewpoint and experience of the user. Essentially. It is recommended that the maximum joint spacing for UTW be between 12-15 times the slab thickness in each direction. a more definitive description is needed. the neutral axis in the concrete shifts from the middle of the concrete down toward the bottom of the concrete. The short joint spacing also minimizes stresses due to curling and warping by decreasing the amount of slab that can curl or warp. if the neutral axis shifts low enough in the concrete. Bonding allows the concrete and bitumen layers to perform as a composite section. To combat this effect. All pavement types must absorb the energy of the applied load by either bending or deflecting.with no bond to the underlying bitumen. Typical joint spacings that have performed well on UTW projects are somewhere between 0. These are: y y y Availability of an appropriately thick existing bitumen layer.´ There are three basic requirements for UTW overlays to perform properly. the corner stresses decrease because the bonding action creates a thicker section.5 m. which transfers loads to the flexible pavement through deflection rather than bending. the short joint spacing in effect forms a minipaver block system. Traditional concrete pavements are designed to absorb energy by bending and thus are made thick enough to resist stresses induced by bending. Based on the international experience. There is a decrease in the concrete stresses because the whole pavement section is thicker. For Ultra-Thin White (UTW) topping. Achievement of a bond between the existing bitumen pavement and the UTW. This causes the two layers to act monolithically and share the load. Provision of short joint spacing. the critical load location may move from the edge to the corner depending on the materials and layer characteristics. but increase because the neutral axis shifts down and away from the top surface. short joint spacings are used so that energy is absorbed by deflection instead of bending. When describing pavement thickness.6 and 1. . For the UTW overlays. ultrathin white topping can be defined as: ³A concrete overlay 50 mm to 100 mm thick with closely spaced joints bonded to an existing bitumen pavement.

Milling the surface followed by cleaning improves bond because it opens the pore surface of the bitumen pavement. Normal finishing and texturing procedures are applied to the surface. Cut saw joints early at prescribed spacings. because the overlay being a thin concrete slab. or blasting with water or abrasive material. This shifts the neutral axis down in the concrete. and also carries more of the load. Care must also be used during application. as well as hand-held equipment±such as vibrating screeds±have all been used successfully without major modifications. . and can thus lose water rapidly due to evaporation. finish. Typically. has high surface area to volume ratio. The milling creates a rough surface that ³grabs´ the concrete and creates the mechanical bond between the two layers. to avoid spraying curing compound on adjacent uncovered prepared bitumen surfaces. The only real change is that the concrete layer is thinner than normal. Curing compound should be applied at twice the normal rate. The construction of a UTW consists of three basic steps: y y y Prepare the existing surface by milling and cleaning. Once a surface is cleaned it is extremely important to keep it clean until paving commences. Conventional slip-form and fixed-form pavers. there must be enough bitumen to protect the concrete (minimize stresses). and enough concrete must be placed to protect the bitumen (minimize strains). which decreases the concrete stresses. UTW joints are not sealed. Joint sawing should be carried out with lightweight saws. as early as possible. Proper curing is critical to avoid shrinkage cracking and debonding between the bitumen and concrete pavements. to control cracking. since that would decrease bonding. Test studies have shown that UTW pavements perform well without sealants because the compactness of the slabs minimizes joint movement. A thicker bitumen pavement section improves the load-carrying capacity of the system because it creates a thicker final UTW pavement structure. and cure the concrete overlay using conventional techniques and materials. Paving a UTW is no different from paving any other concrete pavement. A clean surface is required for proper bond. Saw depth should be approximately one±fourth to one third of the total depth of the overlay.When performing a UTW project. Place.

By trial and error.The concrete mix selected for particular project is matched to the traffic conditions and openedfortraffic requirements. Austria. their alternative binding material. Both the cement and construction industries were worried. Austria was facing a shortage of cement. which laid down specifications for µUltra-thin White-topping Overlay with Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete.¶ They decided that they did not want to produce a modified cement. This was a tall order indeed.¶ As far as is known this is the only existing specification on the subject. Their basic premise was. Brazil and Canada. an absolutely new. was ideally situated to procure massive quantities of slag. The American Concrete Institute issued µSupplement Specification 852¶ on 11th July 2000. easily and economically. or even an improved version of OPC. and decided to do something to sort out the problem. had to have cementitious properties. And blast furnace steel slag is a highly cementitious material. They resolved to create an alternative to cement. technologists and others involved in the project. that although they did not want cement. Eventually. Cementless Concrete In the late 1980s. but the experiment team was determined to succeed. yet was superior to it in many ways. after 15 years of intense effort. The advantages that this new slag-based binder had included: . Discussions. The scientists. easy-to-use and economical binding agent. and succeed they did. However. novel and unique product was developed. certain alkaline products and a few other additives with slag. Synthetic fibers are often added to increase the post-crack integrity of the panels. experiments. located right in the heart of Europe¶s biggest steel producing zone. Shortage of suitable quality limestone was one of them. laboratory and field trials became the order of the day. Once the base element had been identified further experiments and trials were carried out to find ways and means to convert it into a suitable. Ultra-thin White-topping projects have been carried out in several countries including USA. the technique is still regarded to be in its infancy and requires considerable research to streamline and standardize it. due to concern about the steadily deteriorating environment. due to several factors. if they wanted it to take over cement¶s role. Another was the extremely stringent emission standards for cement manufacturing plants set by the country¶s Government. Finally it was determined that by blending gypsum. they could obtain a substance that had all the binding properties of cement. they narrowed down their choice of the base material to slag. started off by thinking µoutside the box.

as well as damage by alkali-reactive aggregates. High resistance of concrete products made from it. since this involves only grinding. are still being carried out. as its composition was finalized only around five years ago. to sulphate and acid attack. BFT International and the Indian Cement Review for some of the information contained in the above article. the relation that exists between slump and Vee±bee time for normal concrete without superplasticizers does not remain valid for concrete having mineral admixtures and superplasticizers. Lecturer. It has a very low heat of hydration. Also. Thus can be used with great advantage in aggressive environment. Head. Professor Bishwajit Bhattacharjee. low heat of hydration means almost no cracks in the finished product. Superplasticizers are the admixtures that are added to concrete in very small dosages and modify the water requirement of resultant mix and improve fresh properties of concrete. The Influence of Flyash Addition on Fresh Properties of Silica Fume Concrete Shweta Goyal. making it extremely friendly to the environment. b. d. Civil Engineering Department. Patiala. This paper deals with the effect of granular characteristics of mineral admixtures like silica fume and flyash added in binary or ternary combinations on the water requirement of resultant concrete. c. Energy saving of up to 80 percent in its manufacture. Thapar University. Maneek Kumar. Also. Hence emission of carbon-dioxide and nitrous oxides was reduced to almost zero. Measurement of workability is made by slump test and Vee-bee time test in order to have the correlation between the two and amount of compaction achieved is studied by measuring fresh density of concrete. hence eminently suitable for water-retaining structures. The above-mentioned binder is still not in general production. The role of superplasticizers in modifying the rheology has been investigated. Hence it is ideal for mass concrete applications such as dams and foundations. Civil Engineering Department IIT Delhi. Trials on concrete items and structures manufactured using this binder. No burning process was involved in its production. Head. The author is grateful to the International Cement Review. Introduction . It is found that superplasticizers become necessary with the reduction of water binder ratio and flyash and silica fume affect the fresh concrete in opposite ways. Thapar University.a.

. poly-carboxylic group based superplasticizer is used as a chemical admixture. In the study undertaken. The values that are usually reported in literature do not take into account the contribution of aggregates [12]. Therefore. which are directly related to development of strength and durability of hardened concrete. which deflocculates and separate. However. flyash and silica fume are some of the mineral admixtures used in varying proportions to achieve the desired results. For this. Silica fume. is used. It is widely known that better fluidity is achieved by addition of superplasticizer. slump cone test. Blast furnace slag. silica fume and flyash are used in combination to see the effect on improvement in fresh properties. The main reason behind it is that cement rheology is typically measured under conditions that are never experienced by cement paste in concrete. The results are then related to concrete workability. 3. 5]. The increase of superplasticizer in concrete began in 1960s and has proved to be a milestone in concrete technology and in the field of construction [6]. Much research has been conducted for improving both fresh and hardened properties by using various mineral admixtures. has very fine particles± average particle size is less than 1Fm. sulphonate napthalene formaldehyde. There is no doubt that the use of admixtures had a profound impact on the concrete practices in India during the last few years [7]. Unfortunately. i. provides a dense microstructure and improved mechanical properties at early stages due to fast pozzolanic reaction [4. silica fume comes under the category of costly materials. releasing trapped water from cement flocks [8]. one of the most commonly used methods for measuring concrete workability. in India. whereas flyash is abundant in our country and its production is increasing day by day. The superplasticizer is adsorbed on the cement particles. Currently available superplasticizers are micro molecular organic agents which are often divided into four groups according to their chemical contents as sulphonate melamine formaldehyde.The use of high range water reducers (superplasticizers). 8]. Silica fume is considered to be most efficient in contributing towards both early and later age properties of concrete. on the other hand.e. It is believed that admixtures mainly affect the flow behavior of cement paste and do not alter the behavior of aggregates. the relation between cement paste rheology and concrete rheology has never been completely established [11]. These materials are of higher reactivity. Mineral admixtures are used in order to increase strength and improve durability of concrete. These do not have the side effect of delaying the curing of concrete [10]. Economics (not always) and environmental considerations have also had a role in the growth of mineral admixture usage. in most of the studies on concrete rheology and selection of chemical admixtures. tests on cement pastes have been conducted [1. Therefore. modified lignosulphonates and copolymers containing sulphonic and carboxyl groups [9]. The mineral admixtures also affect the properties in fresh state. condensed silica fume and other fine mineral admixtures have lead to the production of high-strength concrete [1]. which decreases the flowability in fresh state of concrete although. The family of superplasticizers based on polycarboxylic products is more recent (1980s). in order to predict concrete rheology accurately. In the present study. a dense microstructure and develop higher mechanical properties at the later stage due to the pozzolanic reaction [2. It is reported that fly ash contributes to increase flowability in the fresh state.3]. they do not contain the sulphonic group and are totally ionized in alkaline environment. the tests are directly conducted on concrete. The aggregates act as heat sink and shear the cement paste during mixing process.

along with the slump cone test.Slump cone test is the typically quantified field test for measuring concrete workability. because in slump cone test. in a survey conducted by National Ready Mix Concrete Association (NRMCA) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [13]. Therefore. Secondly. Vee±bee time is also noted. Materials . The objective of the study is to look at the rheological characteristics of concrete which has silica fume and fly ash present either as binary or ternary combination with ordinary Portland cement. concrete experience almost same vibrations as experienced in field. because in this test. the validity of existing relation between slump and Vee±bee time is checked for the mineral admixture concrete containing superplasticizers. However. concrete does not undergo the same treatment as is met in the field. it is determined that slump cone is not representative of the ease of handling high performance concrete in field.

It is a light yellow colored liquid complying with requirements of IS 9103 ± 79.Cementitious material ASTM Type I Portland cement is used in this study. is used throughout the investigation. The specific gravity of superplasticizer is 1. This group maintains the electrostatic charge on the cement particles and prevents flocculation by adsorption on the surface of cement particles [14].52 was used as fine aggregate. Its chemical composition is given in Table 1. Superplasticizer Poly-carboxylic group based superplasticizer.2 and solid content is 40 percent by mass. The properties of aggregates are listed in Table 2. Structro 100 (a product of Fosroc chemicals). . The chemical and physical characteristics of two mineral admixtures silica fume and flyash can be seen in this table. BS 5075 Part III and ASTM ± C494 Type F. Aggregates Crushed granite with a maximum nominal size of 10 mm was used as coarse aggregate and natural riverbed sand confirming to Zone II with a fineness modulus of 2.

45. The cementitious material was then put in the mixing drum and the resultant mixture was dry mixed for one minute followed by addition of half of the total water content during the next one-minute mixing. silica fume . M2 and M3 respectively for water binder ratios of 0.5 minutes or till the uniform and homogeneous mix is achieved.45. Coarse aggregates and the fine aggregates were mixed in a mixer rotated at slow speed of about 140 rev.Mixture Details and Preparations To explore the effect of superplasticizer.35 and 0. The three series obtained from three water binder ratios are designated as M1. (Superplasticizer was taken as percentage by mass of binder which included cement. The following procedure was adopted for mixing. The quantity of mineral admixtures is varied from 0 to 30 percent and is used either in a binary or a ternary combination. 0.25. The mix designs used in the study are shown in Figure 1 and the mix details of specimens are listed in Table 3 and Table 4. The remaining water along with superplasticizer was then added and mixed at high speed of about 285 revolutions per minute for 1./min. The cementitious materials (Portland cement. The mix preparation is very important because it influences its rheological behavior. for 1 minute. silica fume and flyash) were mixed together separately in a container. 0.35 and 0. the rheological properties are studied for three water binder ratios: 0.25.

(In other words. The results are represented in Figure 2 to 4 in which the variation of slump is plotted as a function of superplasticizer dosage for three series of water binder ratios studied. no segregation was observed at any stage. and is taken as that value of superplasticizer beyond which it will not increase the slump with any further increase in dosage. superplasticizer has no further plasticising effect). (a) OPC ± SF System . It is worth mentioning at this stage that for the selected dose of superplasticizer. The results are discussed as below. Effect on Mineral Admixtures on Rheological Properties The effect of the addition of a mineral admixture is detected by an increase in the slump or a reduction of water content or a reduction of superplasticizer dosage needed to obtain the same slump. The nomenclature of mixes used is already presented in Table 4.) The prepared mix is used for obtaining slump and Vee±bee time. the superplasticizer dose is given step increments and the corresponding Vee±bee time and slump is noted. Water content of superplasticizer was taken into account when calculating the total water content of the mix [15]. In all 24 mixes are prepared and three determinations of slump and Vee±bee time are made for each sample and the mean value is taken.and flyash if any present. Results and Discussions For each of the mix. The results of these tests are presented in Figure 2 to 4 where slump is plotted against superplasticizer dosage and in Figure 5 where optimum superplasticizer dosage is plotted against water binder ratio. The saturation point is obtained from the slump verses superplasticizer dosage curves.

For the same water binder ratio. which can be attributed to high specific surface of silica fume with an average particle size of 0. the water demand and hence optimum percentage of superplasticizer required reduce as compared to the control mix without mineral admixtures for all water binder ratios studied. the value of lump decreases and hence the optimum superplasticizer dosage increases. with increase in silica fume percentage.1Fm. 20]. this is not the sole factor affecting the increase in superplasticizer demand for silica fume mixture.25. the optimum dosage of superplasticizer decreased by a small amount from 4% (for control mix) to 3. the particles of silica fume are chemically highly reactive and have affinity for multilayer adsorption of superplasticizer molecules. Long with the high specific surface area. the quantity of superplasticizers in the concrete system decreases leading to steep increase in the superplasticizer dosage. The same type of behavior is observed for entire water binder range with an exception for water binder ratio of 0. which is also supported by other researchers [16. As a result. with the addition of 5% silica fume. the effectiveness of superplasticizer is enhanced in the presence of silica fume [18]. (b) OPC ± FA System The addition of flyash has just the opposite effect on the mix properties in terms of workability and optimum dosage of superplasticizer as compared to silica fume. The reduction in water demand of concrete caused by the presence of flyash is ascribed to its . Similar observation is also made in some previous studies also [19. This reverse trend can be explained by considering the dispersion action of flocculated cement particles by silica fume particles in combination with superplasticizer. At this ratio. However. Actually.75%. with increase in silica fume content in concrete. 17]. With incorporation of flyash.

For all the three water binder ratios. the optimum superplasticizer dosage increased from 1. TC2 gave least superplasticizer dosage while MC3 gave maximum superplasticizer dosage. The optimum dosage increases sharply as the water binder ratio is decreased from 0.45 to 0. it is observed that as the water binder ratio decreases. the optimum dosage of superplasticizer increases. due to the electrical charges. called ball ± bearing effect [21]. reducing interparticle friction. it can be said that the addition of flyash led to the production of economical mixes with greater workability. it is thought that when used in combination.spherical shape. in the control mix.25 as compared to the shift from 0. the beneficial effect of flyash on fluidity is used to compensate the loss of slump with silica fume addition. Also.35. the fine flyash particles become adsorbed on the surface of cement particles. cement particles are very close and to overcome inter particle friction and inter particle forces of attraction. As expected. In other way. higher optimum dose of superplasticizer is required.25% to 4% as the water binder ratio is decreased from 0. more number of superplasticizer molecules are required for adsorption on the surface of cement and mineral admixture particles to increase the fluidity of the mix. Thus.35 to 0. For example. it can be stated that flyash act improves flowability and silica fume has a reverse effect. The spherical shape also minimizes the particle¶s surface to volume ratio. Thus. when the different combinations of silica fume and flyash are used. the slump values were higher and optimum superplasticizer dosage was lower in comparison with the corresponding mixes having only silica fume. when added individually. This is because at very low water ± binder ratio.45 to 0. which thus become deflocculated. These spherical particles easily roll over one another. The slump obtained increased with increase in flyash content in the mix and decreased with increase in silica fume content. which reduces the frictional forces among the angular particles of OPC. Relation Between Slump and Vee-bee Time . the effect of flyash can be considered similar to the action of superplasticizer (c) PC±SF±FA System From the above discussion.35. From the figure. resulting in low fluid demands. With the decrease in water binder ratio. Effect of Water Binder Ratio on Optimum Superplasticizer Dosage Figure 5 shows the results of optimum superplasticizer dosage obtained for all mixes at various water binder ratios. reducing the water demand [22].

In order to formulate a relation between slump and Vee±bee time for mineral admixture concrete. The marked shift of the present curve for concrete containing mineral admixtures and superplasticizers from the existing curve for normal concrete can be observed from the graph. the amount of slump required is almost same from both the curves. Effect of Mineral Admixtures on Fresh Density In order to study the effect of mineral admixtures of superplasticizer on the degree of compaction achieved. In the graph. Conclusion On the basis of the studies carried out. the difference in the values of slumps obtained from the two curves differ in the range of 20 to 50 mm. silica fume increases the superplasticizer demand at a constant workability due to its high surface area and its strong affinity for multi² layer adsorption of superplasticizer molecules. when the Vee±bee time is lesser than 5 seconds. it can be said that for equal compaction. the mixes with admixtures require 20 to 50 mm higher slump than the mix containing Portland cement only. Since Vee± bee time is the representative of actual compaction in the field. Flyash addition. Figure 6 shows the graph for slump with Vee± bee time. flyash and superplasticizers. The fresh density of all the mixes lies in the similar range. although the mixes with flyash have a density somewhat higher than the other mixes which can again be due to ball bearing effect of flyash. For higher values of Vee±bee time. it can be concluded that in the binary system. Vee±bee time test is also conducted simultaneously to slump test. on . However. This shift in the curve can be due to the effect of cohesive nature of the mix with silica fume. the doted line shows the approximate relationship between slump and Vee±bee time for the normal ordinary Portland cement concrete without using superplasticizers and the solid line is the best fit obtained for the test results in the present study. fresh density of final mixes were also determined and the same is presented in Table 5.

the mixes with admixtures require 20 to 50 mm higher slump than the mix containing Portland cement only. 35. 842±849. Oikonomou N. which thus become deflocculated. 1605 ± 1611. µThe influence of mineral admixtures on the rheology of cement paste and concrete.¶ ACI Materials Journal. Chandra S. cement and Concrete Research. (2002). The authors would like to acknowledge the authorities concerned for its assistance in carrying out the research. New York. 61±64. Gallias J L. (2004).¶ Cement and Concrete Research. ACI COMMITTEE 212.¶ cement and concrete Research. Malhotra S K. Bjornstrom J. 7. Cement and Concrete Composites.¶ Elsevier. Park C K. 13. 86. µProcessing of high performance concrete¶. No.. (2000). 7. 3. 4. µProperties of Concrete. 5. µThe effect of fine mineral admixtures on water requirement of cement pastes. Vol. Tsohos G. Also. 20.¶ Cement and Concrete Research. 5. 6. Mavria P. 4. (2005). due to the electrical charges.¶ Cement and concrete research. (2001). Neville A M. Park T H. Bigas J P. Hill R. µInfluence of superplasticizer type and mix design parameters on the performance of them in concrete mixtures¶. 30. Papayianni I. L. 1011±1020. µChemical admixtures for concrete¶ ACI Materials Journal. 297. Ferraris C F. concrete International. 1543 ± 1549. 253±259. .the other hand. 11. For equal compaction. (1998).¶ Cement and Concrete Research. 245±255. (1998): µStrength and pore structure of Ternary Blended Cement Mortars Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Silica Fume. (2005). 27. (2000). Construction and Building materials. Agarwal S K. µInfluence of cement and superplasticizers type and dosage on the fluidity of cement mortars ± Part I. 12. 827 ± 830. 28. (1989). Bagel. 10. Acknowledgments This research is supported by the Department of Science and Technology Grant. the fine flyash particles become adsorbed on the surface of cement particles. (2000). 217±222. The existing relationship between slump and Vee ±bee time changes with the addition of mineral admixtures and superplasticizer. silica fume act as a filler and flyash controls rheology. Carette G G. 32. Han J. 9. Lobo C. 30. Noh M H. µThe effect of ultra-fine admixture on the rheological property of cement paste. µRheological properties of cementitious materials containing mineral admixtures. Obla K H. pp. reducing the water demand. 31.' Pearson Education. (1989). Zhang X. decreases the water demand and hence optimum percentage of superplasticiser for constant workability due to its ball ± bearing effect that reduces frictional forces among binder particles. Malhotra V M. (1992). 2. 8. Ferraris C F. µStructural concrete incorporating high volume ASTM Class F flyash. 14. References 1. Bartos P. 507±514. Three-component system is much preferred for high performance concrete because in it. Masood I. µFresh Concrete: Properties and tests. Langley W S. µCompatibility of superplasticizers with different cements¶. Kara-Ali R.

pp. Chairman. 35.H. Nawa T. 28. 22. Ed. Scientist.3. K. 18. 18.H. pp. No. pp 203. 17. K. Olliver J. (*) 19. New Building Materials & Construction World. 28. 15.). ACI Materials Journal. Singh.. Malhotra. and Ohnuma T. and Kadri E. Cement and Concrete Research. .C. Langan B. pp. pp. pp.A Paradigm Shift S. Nehdi M. Ill. 16. Structural Engineering Division. 4. (1998): µInfluence of silica fume on the workability and compressive strength of high performance concrete.. and Kadri. 163±169. pp. Vol.H.¶ Cement and Concrete Research. (*) 21. (1998): µInflunce of silica fume on the workability and compressive strength of high performance concrete.¶ PCA. (1998): µRheology of High performance Concrete: Effects of fine particles..M. (1987).. Duval. New Delhi. Termkhajornkit P.¶ Cement and Concrete Research.. and Park T. 533 ± 547. et al. Carles-Gibergues A. Vol. Head ( Retd.K. Roorkee and P. Use of RECYCLED AGGREGATES In CONCRETE. 842 ± 849. (1988).¶ Cement and Concrete Research. 79 ± 97. (1989): µProperties of High strength concrete with silica fume using high±range water reducer slump retaining type¶ in Superplasticisers and other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete. 533 ± 547. (1987). ACI SP ± 119. SERC. Haque M. Indian Concrete Instt.. Skokie. Cement Science and Concrete Technology. C. Duval R. Noh M. 55.A.H. F. Mitsui.(G) & Editor. Vol. R. Material Sciences. Yogendran V. and Hanna B. pp 687 ± 697. (2005): Rheological properties of cementatious materials containing mineral admixtures. UP Gaziabad Centre. No. Helmuth R. and Aitcin P. Park C. 28.W. Sharma. V. 20. 438 ± 448. Central Building Research Institute.N. Mindess S.14. (2001): µEffect of properties of fly ash on fluidity of the paste¶. and Ward M.P. Vol. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. µFly ash in cement and concrete. Vol.

w/c ratio. M-20 and M-25. The results shows the compressive.7. The recycled aggregate are collected from four sources all demolished structures. 56.3.e.One of the major challenges of our present society is the protection of environment. For both types of concrete i. and 90 days. It conserves natural resources and reduces the space required for the landfill disposal.14. maximum size of aggregate and mix proportion are kept constant. the development of tensile & flexural strength at the age of 1. The fine aggregate used in the concrete.28. recycled and conventional is 100 percent natural. tensile and flexural strengths of recycled aggregate are on average 85% to 95% of .14 and static modulus of elasticity at the age of 28 days are investigated. This paper presents the experimental results of recycled coarse aggregate concrete and results are compared with the natural crushed aggregate concrete. These topics are getting considerable attention under sustainable development nowadays.7. Some of the important elements in this respect are the reduction of the consumption of energy and natural raw materials and consumption of waste materials. i. The use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes is showing prospective application in construction as alternative to primary (natural) aggregates.3. The development of compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete at the age of 1.e.

major emphasis must be laid on the use of wastes and byproducts in cement and concrete used for new constructions. v. recycled concrete. Special rules and regulations concerning the demolition have already been introduced in several countries like U. steel. New construction for better economic growth.. . power plant wastes. and so on. However. Many old buildings. demand for improvement in techniques & efficiency of the past demolition methods is getting pronounced. In that case. economic viability and cost effectiveness. (1979) for European Environmental commission (EEC) envisages that there will be enormous increase in the available quantities of construction and demolition concrete waste from 55 million tons in 1980 to 302 million tons by the year 2020 in the EEC member countries. glass. wood. sawdust. protect the environment. the aggregates considered are slag. The utilization of recycled aggregate is particularly very promising as 75 per cent of concrete is made of aggregates. For its suitability and adaptability with respect to the changing environment. mining and quarrying wastes. This can easily be recycled as aggregate and used in concrete. Holland and Japan. Structures are turned into debris resulting from natural disasters like earthquake. cyclone and floods etc. iii. The structures. Introduction Any construction activity requires several materials such as concrete. mud. To achieve this. Research & Development activities have been taken up all over the world for proving its feasibility. incinerator residue. iv. An investigation conducted by the environmental resources ltd.K. the concrete must be such that it can conserve resources. Creation of building waste resulting from manmade disaster/war. The enormous quantities of demolished concrete are available at various construction sites. brick. concrete pavements. which are now posing a serious problem of disposal in urban areas. even adequate to use are under demolition because they are not serving the needs in present scenario. ii. the cement concrete remains the main construction material used in construction industries. waste glass. burnt clay. The main reasons for increase of volume of demolition concrete / masonry waste are as follows:i. combustor ash and foundry sand. economize and lead to proper utilization of energy. As a whole. the safety and environment regulations are becoming stringent. red mud. The durability parameters are also investigated for recycled aggregate concrete and are found to be in good agreement with BIS specifications.the natural aggregate concrete. bridges and other structures have overcome their age and limit of use due to structural deterioration beyond repairs and need to be demolished. clay. stone.

120 in United Kingdom. 50 in France. the several recycling plants were operational in European countries such as 60 in Belgium. 70 in the Netherlands. levies etc. International Status The extensive research on recycled concrete aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) as started from year 1945 in various part of the world after second world war. but in a fragmented manner. 1. the approximate percentage of various construction materials in demolition waste is presented in Fig. where disposal of debris problem is becoming more and more difficult. penalties. The recycling of construction & demolition waste becomes easy & economical. The possible uses of construction and demolition wastes are given in Table 1. 2. First effort has been made by Nixon in 1977 who complied all the work on recycled . This may vary depending upon the type of structure. As per the survey conducted by European Demolition Association (EDA) in 1992. wherever combined project involving demolition and new construction are taken up simultaneously.In study conducted by authors for RCC buildings. The properties of recycled aggregate concrete obtained by various authors are given in Table2. 220 in Germany. Recycling and Reuse of Construction & Demolition Wastes in Concrete The recycling and reuse of construction & demolition wastes seems feasible solution in rehabilitation and new constructions after the natural disaster or demolition of old structures. 20 in Denmark and 43 in Italy. This becomes very important especially for those countries where national and local policies are stringent for disposal of construction and demolition wastes with guidance. A typical lay out plan of recycling plant for construction waste has been shown in Figure. the recycling of demolition waste has already been started. In many densely populated countries of Europe.

a comprehensive state-of-theartdocument on the recycled aggregate concrete has been presented by Hansen & others in 1992 in which detailed analysis of data has been made. It has been estimated that approximately 13 million tons of concrete is demolished in France every year whereas in Japan total quantity of concrete debris is in the tune of 10-15 million tons each year. airports etc. In general. The 285 million tons of per annum construction waste produced in Germany. Approximately 70% of it is recycled and reused in new construction work. whereas 78. However. out of which 77 million tons are demolition waste. The Hong Kong generates about 20 million tons demolition debris per year and facing serious problem for its disposal. leading towards preparation of guidelines for production and utilization of recycled aggregate concrete. roads etc. The planning Commission allocated approximately 50% of capital outlay for infrastructure development in successive 10th & 11th five year plans.aggregate carried out between 1945-1977 and prepared a state-of-the-art report on it for RILEM technical committee 37-DRC. Indicatively 10% of used aggregates in UK are RCA.000 tons of RCA were used in Holland in 1994. in EU. USA is utilizing approximately 2.The rapid development in research on the use of RCA for the production of new concrete has also led to the production of concrete of high strength/performance. It has been estimated that approximately 180 million tones of construction & demolition waste are produced each year in European Union. A recent report of Federal Highways Administration. Nixon concluded that a number of researchers have examined the basic properties of concrete in which the aggregate is the product of crushing another concrete. and growing demand for housing has led to scarcity & rise in cost of construction . Rapid infrastructural development such highways. 500 Kg of construction rubble and demolition waste correspond annually to each citizen. The Netherland produces about 14million tons of buildings and demolition wastes per annum in which about 8 million tons are recycled mainly for unbound road base courses. where other concentrated on old laboratory specimens.7 billion tons of aggregate annually out of which 30-40% are used in road works and balance in structural concrete work. Indian Status There is severe shortage of infrastructural facilities like houses. hospitals. USA refers to the relative experience from European data on the subject of concrete and asphalt pavement recycling as given in Table 3. in India and large quantities of construction materials for creating these facilities are needed.

Further. Management of such high quantum of waste puts enormous pressure on solid waste management system.7 million tons per annum out of which 7-8 million tons are concrete and brick waste. penalties etc. In view of above. Preparation of techno-financial regime. The experimental investigations were carried out in Mat Science laboratory and Institutes around Delhi/GBD to evaluate the mechanical properties and durability parameters of recycled aggregate concrete made with recycled coarse aggregate collected from different sources. .materials. financial support for introducing RCA in construction including assistance in transportation. According to findings of survey. specifications and codal provisions. Preparation of list of experts available in this field who can provide knowhow and technology on totality basis. In view of significant role of recycled construction material and technology in the development of urban infrastructure. Also. the user agencies/ industries pointed out that presently. Formulation of guidelines. there is urgent need to take following measures:y y y y y y y y y Sensitization/ dissemination/ capacity building towards utilization of construction & demolition waste. transport of RCA. the BIS and other codal provisions do not provide the specifications for use of recycled product in the construction activities. waste from construction industry only accounts for more than 25%. Central Pollution Control Board has estimated current quantum of solid waste generation in India to the tune of 48 million tons per annum out of which. Incentives on using recycled aggregate concrete-subsidy or tax exemptions. SERC. cost and energy. The total quantum of waste from construction industry is estimated to be 12 to 14. it is necessary to start recycling and re-use of demolition concrete waste to save environment. Therefore. for disposal of building & construction waste. Realising the future & national importance of recycled aggregate concrete in construction. 70% of the respondent have given the reason for not adopting recycling of waste from Construction Industry is ³Not aware of the recycling techniques´ while remaining 30% have indicated that they are not even aware of recycling possibilities. the suitability in construction of buildings has been studied. Dumping of wastes on land is causing shortage of dumping place in urban areas. establishing recycling plant etc. Ghaziabad had taken up a pilot R&D project on Recycling and Reuse of Demolition and Construction Wastes in Concrete for Low Rise and Low Cost Buildings in mid nineties with the aim of developing techniques/ methodologies for use recycled aggregate concrete in construction. guidance. Preparation and implementation of techno-legal regime including legislations. treatment. Delineation of dumping areas for pre-selection. Most of waste materials produced by demolished structures disposed off by dumping them as land fill. National level support on research studies on RCA. TIFAC has conducted a techno-market survey on µUtilization of Waste from Construction Industry¶ targeting housing /building and road segment. Preparation of data base on utilization of RCA.

2:2. Since the enormous quantity of concrete is available for recycling from demolished concrete structures.5:2. . The cylinder strength and corresponding strain & modulus of elasticity were measured in standard cylinder of 150x300 mm size at the age of 28 days.The properties of RAC has been established and demonstrated through several experimental and field projects successfully. This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on recycled aggregate concrete. dry lean concrete(DLC) etc. The recycled coarse aggregates were washed to remove dirt. sewerage structures. The maximum size of coarse aggregate used was 20 mm in both recycled and natural aggregate concrete.50 & 0. The prism of size 150x150x700 mm and cylinder of size 150x300mm were cast from the same batches to measure Flexural strength and splitting tensile strength respectively. Due to the higher water absorption capacity of RCA as compared to natural aggregate. and collected for use in concrete mix. subbase course of pavement.9 and 1:1.45 respectively for M-20 & M-25 grade concrete. in Indian scenario. Further. materials and energy. drainage layer in highways. The concrete debris were collected from different (four) sources with the age ranging from 2 to 40 years old and broken into the pieces of approximately 80 mm size with the help of hammer & drilling machine. It has been concluded that RCA can be readily used in construction of low rise buildings. 28. retaining walls. approach lanes. field demolished concrete is used in the present study to produce the recycled aggregates. concrete paving blocks & tiles. both the aggregates are maintained at saturated surface dry (SSD) conditions before mixing operations. and used for masonry mortar & lean concrete mixes. 14.4 with water cement ratio 0. The ordinary Portland cement of 43 grade and natural fine aggregates (Haldwani sand) are used throughout the casting work. The development of compressive strength is monitored by testing the 150-mm cubes at 1. dust etc.75 mm to remove the finer particles. But these were found to suit for normal brick masonary mortar and had normal setting and enough strength for masonary work. The total two mixes were cast using natural aggregate and eight mixes were cast using four type of recycled aggregate concrete for M-20 & M-25. Concrete Mixes The two different mix proportions of characteristic strength of 20 N/ mm2 (M 20) and 25 N/mm2 (M 25) commonly used in construction of low rise buildings are obtained as per IS 10262 ± 1982 or both recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete. those pieces were crushed in a lab jaw crusher and mechanically sieved through sieve of 4. an endeavor is made so as to compare some of the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with the natural aggregate concrete (NAC). The proportions of the ingredients constituting the concrete mixes are 1:1. 56 and 90 days. flooring. 3. 7. In one set 39 cubes were cast for each mix. The fine aggregate were separated out. The foreign matters were sorted out from the pieces. which is not part this reported study. Use of RCA will further ensure the sustainable development of society with savings in natural resources. Experimental Investigations In the present paper.

The amount of fine particles (<4.75mm) after recycling of demolished were in the order of 5-20% depending upon the original grade of demolished concrete. The recycled aggregate generally meets all the standard requirements of aggregate used in concrete. The lower value of loose bulk density of recycled aggregate may be attributed to its higher porosity than that of natural aggregate. It is found that recycled coarse aggregate are reduced to various sizes during the process of crushing and sieving (by a sieve of 4.75mm). the water absorption ranges from 3.Properties of Recycled Concrete Aggregate Particle Size Distribution The result of sieve analysis carried out as per IS 2386 for different types of crushed recycled concrete aggregate and natural aggregates.35 to 2. which gives best particle size distribution. The crushing & impact values of recycled aggregate satisfy the BIS specifications except RCA2 type of recycled aggregate for impact value as originally it is low grade rubbles. The single crushing process is also effective in the case of recycled aggregate. which is obtained from demolished newly constructed culvert. . the crushing and impact values for concrete wearing surfaces should not exceed 45% and 50% respectively. Bulk Density The rodded & loose bulk density of recycled aggregate is lower than that of natural aggregate except recycled aggregate-RCA4. The best quality natural aggregate can obtained by primary. secondary & tertiary crushing whereas the same can be obtained after primary & secondary crushing incase of recycled aggregate. it is advisable to maintain saturated surface dry (SSD) conditions of aggregate before start of the mixing operations. Crushing and Impact Values The recycled aggregate is relatively weaker than the natural aggregate against mechanical actions. As per IS 2386. Since the RCA from demolished concrete consist of crushed stone aggregate with old mortar adhering to it. The particle shape analysis of recycled aggregate indicates similar particle shape of natural aggregate obtained from crushed rock.58 which are lower as compared to natural aggregates. Specific Gravity and Water Absorption The specific gravity (saturated surface dry condition) of recycled concrete aggregate was found from 2. The Table 4 gives the details of properties of RCA & natural aggregates.75mm due to which voids increased in rodded condition.40%. as the water absorption characteristics of recycled aggregates are higher. Recycled aggregate had passed through the sieve of 4. which is relatively higher than that of the natural aggregates. In general.05% to 7.

Splitting Tensile & Flexural Strength The average splitting tensile and flexural of recycled aggregate are determined at the age 1. 56 and 90 days and reported in Table 5. The reduction in splitting and flexural strength of RAC as compared to NAC is in order of 5-12% and 4 -15% respectively.30 -3. 3. The amount of reduction in strength depends on parameters such as grade of demolished concrete.5 to 16% for M-20 & M-25 concretes respectively. the compressive strength of RAC is lower than the conventional concrete made from similar mix proportions.7. processing of recycled aggregate etc. hence more studies are needed. w/c ratio. The modulus of elasticity is critical parameter for designing the structures. The table 4 shows that the target cube strength was achieved at 28 days for all types of concrete. & 28 days varies from 0. Modulus of Elasticity The static modulus of elasticity of RAC has been reported in Table 4 and found lower than the AC. replacement ratio.95. 7. 3.The reason for the lower static modulus of elasticity of RCA is higher proportion of hardened cement paste.1 MPa and 0. The reduction is up to 15% .2 MPa respectively. It is well establish that Ec depends on Ec value of coarse aggregate. Durability The following parameters were studied to assess the influence of recycled aggregates on durability of concrete: Carbonation Freeze-Thaw Resistance Carbonation .Compressive Strength The average compressive strengths cubes cast are determined as per IS 516 using RCA and natural aggregate at the age 1. The reduction in strength of RAC as compare to NAC is in order of 214% and 7. 14. w/c ratio & cement paste etc. 28. 14. 7. As expected.

Obstacles in Use of RCA & RAC The acceptability of recycled aggregate is impeded for structural applications due to the technical problems associated with it such as weak interfacial transition zones between cement paste and aggregate. The pores (pore size>100nm) in the concrete in which this transport process can take place are therefore particularly crucial for the rate of carbonation. cement remains. The literature also found that the effect of cement mortar adhering to the original aggregate in RAC may not adversely affect the properties of RAC. porosity and transverse cracks within demolished concrete. specifications. researchers and user agencies is major cause for poor utilization of RCA in construction.5 to 14mm as compared to 11mm depth for natural aggregate concrete. Lack of awareness. data base of utilization of RCA in concrete and lack of confidence in engineers. Freeze-Thaw Resistance In the freeze-thaw resistance test (cube method). standards. loss of mass of the concrete made with recycled aggregate was found sometimes above and below than that of concrete made with natural aggregate. impurity. attributed to porous recycled aggregate due to presence of old mortar attached to the crushed stone aggregate. Conclusion . however the current legislation and experience are not adequate to support and encourage recycling of construction & demolished waste in India. This increase in the carbonation depth of RAC as compared to NAC. and large variation in quality. The carbonation tests were carried out for 90 days on the specimens (150x150x150mm) of recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete in carbonation chamber with relative humidity of 70% and 20% CO2 concentration. If the Govt wishes these obstacles can easily be removed. The results were so close that no difference in freeze thaw resistance (after 100 cycles) could be found. The carbonation depths of recycled aggregate concretes for different grade were found from 11. poor grading.CO2 from the air penetrates into the concrete by diffusion process. guidelines. high level of sulphate and chloride contents. it is environmentally & economically beneficial to use RCA in construction. Although.

A. 7. T.C. 27. E & FN Spon. R. environment and economical respect Recycled aggregate posses relatively lower bulk density. 6. Technology Exchange Programme. 3. However.Recycling and reuse of building wastes have been found to be an appropriate solution to the problems of dumping hundred of thousands tons of debris accompanied with shortage of natural aggregates. 2. (1992). because of big infrastructural projects are being commissioned including Common Wealth Games in 2010. J.N.J.G. pp.´ Institution of Civil Engineers. 8. Seocnd state of Art Report. Hansen. pp315-318. Vol. L. III. pp. Ferguson. pp. Thomas. 19. Kermode. C. References 1. pp. S. (1996) ³Waste Materials and Alternative Products ³Pro¶s and Con¶s´ Concrete for Environmental enhanced and Protection. 9. ³Recycling of Concrete in Aggressive Environment. more research and initiation of pilot project for application of RCA is needed for modifying our design codes. and Huxford.. The subject of use of RCA in construction works in India should be given impetus. and Scholten. ³Demolition and Construction Debris Recycling in Europe. specifications and procedure for use of recycled aggregate concrete.´ Demolition and Reuse of Concrete and Masonry. Technologies and Policies. E&FN Spon.(2004)´Concrete Technology Reports 2001. Oikonomou. W. Rilem Report No.(2005)´Recycled Concrete Aggregates. 201. pp.N. Development 1945±1985. Sketch. The compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete is relatively lower up to 15% than natural aggregate concrete.´ Cement & Concrete Composites.2003. No.R. Biojen. London. O.248. 5. U.J. 1-60. (1995).. (1994). 6.D. Great Britain.´ European Demolition Association (EDA). Buchner.L. F. ³Managing and Minimising Construction Waste. crushing and impact values and higher water absorption as compared to natural aggregate. Vol.´ Int.F. Hansen. of Transportation (2000) ³Recycled Materials in European Highways Environment-Uses. ³Recycling of Demolished Concrete Masonry. 587-598. Telford Publications.. US Deptt. There are several reliable applications for using recycled coarse aggregate in construction. . E & FN Spon.P. Gottfredsen. and Thogerson. Nash. The use of recycled aggregates in concrete prove to be a valuable building materials in technical.´ Rilem TC-DRC. 309-317. (1992). T.J. Material & Structure. Rilem Proceeding 23. 316. Thielen.. (1986) ³Recycled Aggregate and Recycled Aggregate Concrete. 4.K. The durability parameters studied at SERC(G) confirms suitability of RCA & RAC in making durable concrete structures of selected types.C."German Cement Works Association. The variation also depends on the original concrete from which the aggregates have been obtained.

. ³Future of Recycled Aggregate Concrete in India. (1993). 17. Demolition and Recycling. K. 43-54. N. Roorkee.´ SERC Report. pp. ³A Review of the Prospect for Greater Use of Recycled and Secondary Aggregate in Concrete. The Concrete Society Journal. ³Recycling and Construction and Demolition Waste in Belgium : Actual Situation and Future Evaluation. M. and Kasai. Yangani. N.´ All India Seminar on Concrete for Infrastructural Development. P. pp. 12. 16. Vigyan Bhawan. Hendricks. K. E&FN Spon. Sharma. Singh. ³State-of-Art Report on Recycled Aggregate Concrete. pp. Structural Assessment. Tavakoli. 367-377.205.A Review.´ Rilem TC-37. RILEM TC 121 DRG Recommendation (1994). (1994). Tavakoli. 173. P. 14. E&FN Spon. S. et al. Rilem Report 9. Vyncke. ³Introduction. (1996).´ Materials and Structure. Rousseau. 27. 57. 16-18. Yogishita. ³Strength of Recycled Aggregate Concrete made using Field Demolished Concrete as Aggregate.. Merlet. (1994). Pauw. pp 317-329. No. Vol. F.´ Disaster Planning. 9. 343-353. pp. 331-342. Structural Assessment. 22.C. 23. Sharma. Rilem Proceeding 23. (1998).D. E&FN Spon pp. Vol. P. Singh. and Nagraj. S. C. NO. pp.D. ³Recycling and Reuse as a Basis of Sustainable Development in Construction Industry. Ch. ³Physical Properties of Recycled Concrete using Recycled Coarse Aggregate made of Construction with Finishing Mater4ials. 27. (1997). Y.K. A. ³Mechanical and Physico. . Nikon. July 24-25. 21. P.69. Kikuchi. and Soroushian. 13. No.J. P. (1994). pp.C.pp. pp. 557. pp. (1994). M. 6. ³Specification for Concrete with Recycled Aggregates.K. pp.182-190. (1996). 20.10. and Nagraj.´ Concrete for Environment. P. 111. Rilem Proceeding 23. and Soroushian. J.´ ACI Materials Journal. IV-197-IV.´ Disaster Planning. 58-61. Hisaka. 19. Sharma (1998)´Recycling and Reuse of Building Waste in Constructions. No. Vol. ³Drying Shrinkage Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete. and Pimienta. E&FN Spon. Mc Laughliu. and P. Ghaziabad.F. No. Rilem Proceedings 23. E.New Delhi. DRC. J. Materials Structures.(1996). E.. J.´ Demolition and Reuse of Concrete and Masonry. 11. Singh. (1994).. 133-159. 25. Lauritzen. 379-390. ³Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams containing Recycled Coarse Aggregate´ Demolition and Reuse of Concrete & Masonry Rilem Proceeding 23. (1994). and Yasunaga. Enhancement and Protection.2.1 ±10. 15.559.´ Concrete. 19. Rilem Proceeding 23. pp. S. C. Vol. (1986). M. Vo. M.´ Demolition and Reuse of Concrete & Masonry. Demolition and Recycling. ³Recycled Concrete an Aggregate for Concrete±a Review.K.´ Concrete International. 18. ³Reuse of Building Materials and Disposal of Structural Waste Material. 93. E&FN Spon.Chemical Properties of Concrete Produced with Coarse and Fine Recycled Concrete Aggregates.´ National Seminar on New Materials and Technology in Building Industry. (1994). 24. ³The Total Evaluation of Recycled Aggregate and Recycled Concrete´ Demolition and Reuse of Concrete and Masonry. E&FN Spon. E&FN Spon.´ Demolition and Reuse of Concrete & Masonry. 18. pp. Rilem Report No. 11. E&FN Spon.

. Ahmedabad. There are various techniques for online monitoring of the concrete . Quality monitoring of ready mixed concrete (RMC) has to be carried out throughout its production process. Science Institute. The collected 28 days cube strength data for the various concrete grades produced by these RMC plants have been utilized in finding out the producer¶s risk.26. Sharma.S. Nagraj. This can be used to find out the producer¶s risk and consumer¶s risk. the producer¶s risk is associated with the risk of a good quality concrete being rejected by the client and the consumer¶s risk is associated with the risk of accepting a poor quality concrete.G. ³Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete. pp 407-415. The operating characteristic (OC) curves measure the performance of a sampling plan. 32. These parameters would provide adequate information about assuring the quality levels for RMC producers and consumers. 42. CEPT University Navrangpura. average quality level. ³Recycled Aggregate Concrete and Its Importance in Indian Conditions´± All India Seminar on Indian Cement Industries : Challenges and Prospects of Cement´ Chandrapur (Maharashtra) 27. (2007) ³Mechnical Properties of Concrete with Recycled Coarse Aggregate. Manish . 29. In this paper. However. Lecturer in Statistics. 31. namely (i) Control charts±Cusum Control charts. Online quality monitoring deals with the monitoring techniques applied during the production of the ready mixed concrete in the RMC plants. if the RMC producers in our country adopts any of the above monitoring techniques. In context to commercial ready mixed concrete plants. Rahal. EWMA Control charts (ii) Acceptance Sampling (iii) British Ready Mixed Concrete Association (BRMCA) concrete control system. 28 days cube compressive strength data of concrete grades have been collected from RMC plants in and around Ahmedabad and attempts have been made to investigate the producer¶s risk and consumer¶s riskwhich would enable RMC producers and consumers to assure quality levels. Lecturer CPM. consumer¶s risk and limiting quality level from the OC curves plotted. N. Debasis Sarkar. & Gumaste. K.´ Indian Concrete Journal. Dr. it would enable them to produce and sell quality product at reasonable prices. 28. Statistics Department M. The operating characteristic curves which measure the performance of a sampling plan can be utilized for finding out the producer¶s risk (associated with the risk of a good quality concrete being rejected by the client) and consumer¶s risk (associated with the risk of accepting a poor quality concrete). Schewart Control charts. an attempt has been made to plot the OC curves for various grades of concrete collected from the RMC plants in and around Ahmedabad.(1998).´ Building & Environment. An Application of Operating Characteristic Curves in Online Strength Monitoring of Ready Mixed Concrete Thaker. 30. Ramammurthy. Ahmadabad. P.C. K.(1999).Vol. Navrangpura. 49-53. K. pp.

diagrams are usually of the form of Figure 1. If the producer designs for 97. but . Acceptable quality level (AQL): This is a numerical definition of a good lot. Acceptance Sampling Plan 34. 1. or between departments or divisions within the same company. the OC curve displays the discriminatory power of the sampling plan and it shows the probability that a lot submitted with a certain fraction defective will be either accepted or rejected. In acceptance sampling plans by attribute.E 43. 39. It is merely a method for determining the disposition of the lot. Acceptance sampling can be used as a form of product inspection between companies and their customers. Operating characteristic (OC) curve measures the performance of an accepting sampling plan. It is generally denoted by ³E´ Since á is expressed in terms of the probability of non-acceptance. Operating Characteristic Curve 38. In acceptance sampling plans by variable the quality characteristic is expressed as a numerical value.0b where both run some risk.0). Key elements of an OC curve are described as follows. This conversion is given below : 42. 36.0a). This curve plots the probability of accepting the lot versus proportion non±conforming. 41. even though they are of same quality. Acceptance sampling is the type of inspection procedure employed when inspection is for the purpose of acceptance or rejection of a product based on adherence to a standard.5% of concrete to be above the specified strength when the theoretical basis of the compliance rules is 95%. 37. the risk of failing on any normal size of contract is acceptably low. By this approach the ready mixed concrete industry runs less risk problems with each individual small contract and also safeguards larger contracts and its overall production Thus the conventional way by which probabilities may be judged by both producer and consumer is through the use of the operating characteristic curve (Figure. Producer¶s risk (E) : This is a risk associated with rejecting a lot of ³good´ quality. identified as producer¶s risk and consumer¶s risk respectively. For any compliance clause. 40. Thus. It does not control or improve the quality level of the process. it cannot be located on an OC curve unless it is specified in terms of probability of acceptance. In practice. Probability of acceptance (Pa) = 1 . associated with the producer¶s risk a. the degree of conformance is not specified. the producer may assess the risk of having complying concrete rejected (producer¶s risk) and the consumer can assess the risk of accepting non-complying concrete (consumer¶s risk). the producer¶s risk and consumer¶s risk are both nil. There is a risk of rejecting ³good´ lots or accepting ³poor³lots. 1. a product item is classified as conforming or not. Thus AQL is a percent defective that is the base line requirement for the quality 35. Acceptance sampling procedures will accept some lots and reject others.33. In the theoretical diagram (Figure.

61. ’ 51.0) 62.1) and (1. «. rejected. 52. = Average number of non± conforming items in the sample. 44. Pa = c) .1. 57. It is generally denoted by ³F)´ 45. here µc¶ denotes the acceptance number. Probability of acceptance of lots with few defectives can be identified from the OC curve plotted for that particular case.x / x! 48. Poisson distribution can be used to find out the probability of ³x´ non± conforming items in the sample (n). (i) OC curve in general is continuous in nature 59.of the producer¶s product. The producer would prefer the sampling plan to have a high probability of accepting a lot that has a defect level less than or equal to the AQL.2. = 0. To construct an OC curve. 50. we assume that the process produces a stream of lots and the lot size is large and the probability of non± conforming item is small. The probability of lot acceptance can be found out by using : 54. P(x)= e.versa . lots with all defectives must always beWhen P = 1. (ii) Pa = 1 ie. Limiting quality level (LQL): This is a numerical definition of a poor lot associated with consumer¶s risk..P (x ” 55. = np (where n = sample size and p = proportion of non± conforming items) 53. Consumer¶s risk (F): This is a risk associated with accepting a lot of ³poor´ quality. lots with no defectives must always be acceptedWhen P = 0 60. This probability is given by: 47. OC curve has the following properties: 58. ie. All OC curves passes through points (0. 46. Thus the LQL is a designated high defect level that would be unacceptable to the consumer. The consumer would prefer the sampling plan to have a low probability of accepting a lot with a defect level as high as the LQL. where x 49. 56. (iv) As P increases Pa decreases and vice. (iii) Pa = 0.

F) where a denotes producer¶s risk. Where a result is the mean for a pair of cubes from a single batch and tested at 28 days. The above parameters can also be represented by the decision table Figure 3. the corresponding mix proportions followed by the RMC plant operating around Ahmedabad were collected. Conformity is confirmed if both the criteria given in Table 1. an attempt has been made to apply clause BS 5328(ii) to the 28 days compressive strength results for M20 grade concrete. Data in form of 28 days cube compressive strength results available for a number of grades of concrete. (ii) No mean of four consecutive results shall be less than the specified strength plus 3 Mpa. (v) The points on the OC curve are ( LQL. In this paper. (i) No result for a batch shall be less than the specified strength less 3 Mpa.1:2000) 66. M30. Conformity criteria for compressive strength (EN 206. The current strength compliance rules of BS 5328 are: 69.0. Conformity assessment shall be made on test results taken during a n assessment period that Data Collection and Case Study 72. shall not exceed the last twelve months . 67.63. 74. 71. About twenty samples for grade of concrete M20. 1-E) . 64. and b denotes consumer¶s risk.0 for either initial or continuous production are satisfied. ( AQL. 65. M40 have been considered for the analysis of OC curves. Current compliance rules of BS 5328 68. 73. which has resulted in identification of the batches in . 70. and about thirty samples for grades M25.

result no. 19 (18.50 Mpa) and result no.0 for concrete grade M20 produces the graph as represented in Figure. 21 (22. A comparative statement showing the results of the analysis is represented here.95 Mpa) is being accepted by the consumer along with other good samples for a lot of thirty.206-1:2000). it has been observed that the producers risk for the RMC plant under study ranges between to 16.0. and M40.0 are represented as comparative statement in Table 4. 75. 76.3%. Thus the consumer¶s risk can be quantified as 3. M30. A plot of Probability of acceptance (Pa) versus Proportion nonconforming (p) for the values obtained from Table 5. M30. From the above Table. The acc eptance number (c) is assumed to be 0 for this analysis. result no. Poisson Distribution is applied for plotting the OC curve for a reasonably large sample size (n) and small proportion nonconforming (p). 18 (23.0. Similar analysis has been carried out for concrete grades M25.0. 19 (18. The details of this case is demonstrated in Table 3. Thus the producer¶s risk can be quantified as 10%.3%. Similar analysis can be carried out for concrete grades M25.66% and the consumers risk is about 3. In the above case one poor sample i.95 Mpa) together with the good results fail to satisfy the acceptance criteria. These values of the producers risk and consumers risk can be superimposed on the OC curve to find out the Acceptable quality level (AQL) and Limiting quality level (LQL) for the concrete grade under analysis (M20). A similar attempt will be made in future papers to understand the application of conformity criteria as per Table 1. Criterion 1 (EN. 78. 4. and M40. Thereby the producer has a risk of about three good samples out of a lot of thirty being rejected by the client along with poor quality samples. .e. 20 (24. Lot acceptance probabilities for different values of proportion nonconforming for sampling plan n = 30.45 Mpa) inspite of being above the specified strength (20 Mpa) are being rejected during sampling as the other faulty results of the batch like result no. Inspite of these strengths being more than the specified strength. An Operating characteristic curve (OC) has been plotted from the data available pertaining to the probability of acceptance (Pa) and proportion nonconforming (p). but during sampling these three results are being rejected. 77.0.which ³good´ quality concrete is being rejected by the client and the batches in which ³poor´ quality concrete is being accepted by the consumer. For the batch 18-21. A similar logic can be applied for quantifying consumer¶s risk.20 Mpa). result no. and c = 0 is analyzed in the Table 5. The values of the producers risk and consumers risk obtained from the analysis of Table 3.

With á = 0. 4. M30. Thus a lot with 100% defectives has 0% probability of acceptance. which indicates that lot with 0.4% of times. As per Table 6.0. For M30 grade lot with 16. Analysis of M40 concrete projects a case where a lot with 0. Thus = 0. The above analysis of various grades of concrete indicate that the RMC plant operators have a general tendency to reduce the producers risk by following a mix design where the Target Mean Strength (TMS) is obtained from the where fck is 28 days characteristic compressive±equation TMS = fck + 2 strength and = Plant Standard Deviation.0) is 0.41% defectives had 90% probability of acceptance. For 0.76% defectives should then£1. . The design margin for a confidence level of 97. 4.00.1 the value of AQL obtained from the = 0.76% defectives should then be accepted only 90% of times.033).As per Figure.0 is 0.0 analysis of grade of concrete M25 resulted in an ideal situation where the producers risk and consumers risk is zero. the LQL tends to 1. Similar analysis for concrete grades M25.be accepted only 83.90 lot with£Figure. 80.834. too m u c h±is kept as 2 79.3% times by the consumer.166 (16. Thus with AQL = 0.0 and Table 4. 4. Thus the probability of acceptance is 100%.6% =£defectives will be accepted only 3.76% and 1.0076.6%) the AQL obtained from graph (Figure.3 % of times by the consumer (with probability of 0. However. and M40 is represented in the Table 6. The consumers risk F) being nil.0 for M20 grade concrete lot with 10% defectives will be accepted only 3.0.5%.0041.

of concrete for various grades. Conclusions 84. and proportion nonconforming (p).0) it is suggested that the RMC producers can fix up the ) within 5% and LQL =¤AQL = 97. The major disadvantage of this type of OC curve is that there are no provisions for the AQL and LQL in the input parameters of the Poisson Distribution. the only input parameters are the sample size (n). As per the analysis done in this paper. In addition to this weakness. This criteria can be taken care of during the mix design of the concrete grades. which is timated from each lot data. Therefore. In real practice each lot might have different proportion of nonconforming items. 81. it is suggested that the RMC producers ideally maintains the Acceptable quality level (AQL) = 97. Limitations 82. it is reasonable to assume that the distribution will vary based on these two limits.0 and as per analysis (Table: 7. acceptance number (c). As per Figure. But when AQL and LQL are specified. In this case.overconservative mix design will lead to an uneconomical mix thereby resulting in higher price per cum. A representation of the OC curve by considering the parameters Probability of acceptance Vs Percent within limits (%) is shown in Figure. 5. 83. fewer lots of unacceptable quality are accepted and fewer lots of acceptable quality are rejected. Thus a good compliance scheme should ensure that the producers risk and consumers risk are at an acceptable level and are properly distributed between the producer and . Sampling plans with large sample sizes are better able to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable quality. 5. which will restrict the producers risk and consumers risk to 5%. Also it is not reasonable to assume that the distribution will be the same for any given RMC plant. Thus fixing up the AQL and LQL to the above mentioned limits will develop a practical situation where the chances of a good concrete being rejected by the client and chances of the consumer to accept bad concrete are both restricted to 5%. The OC curve is a widely accepted tool to quantify the producers risk and consumers risk.5% and Limiting quality level (LQL) = 0%.0.5% which will keep the producers risk ( 0% which will also restrict the consumers risk ( ) within 5%. This will also ensure that unnecessarily there is no requirement of over conservative mix design for the concrete grades which will definitely make the grade prices more economical. it is not reasonable to assume a proportion of nonconforming units of any lot for given RMC producer is unique throughout its production process.

D. IS 456: 2000. Assistant Professor. Dewar. References 86. 85. 2001. 89.2004.. Bureau of Indian Standard. 1. A. Belgaum. K. Civil Engineering Department.K. Inc. J. Ltd. in transportation of concrete by manual labor. Mixed concrete is a costly material .E.. Neville. 1994. in hilly terrain long hauling of concrete is required. J. K.the consumer. 87.B. Professor Civil Engineering Department.L. and Brooks. 3. Kulkarni. Mitra. Introduction to Statistical Quality Control John Wiley & Sons. Glasgow and London. and Anderson. Montgomery. 88. many a time reject the concrete partially set and unduly stiffened due to the time elapsed between mixing and placing. 2. Ltd. Concrete Technology ELBS with Longman. in constructing lengthy tunnels. Miller. Probability and Statistics for Engineers Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. 1985.C. Manual of Ready Mixed Concrete Blakie and Son Ltd.E Society¶s College of Engineering and Technology. Indian standard code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete. D. 4. I and Freund. Rajarambapu Institute of Technology Rajaramnagar Islampur. New Delhi. Loss of workability and undue stiffening of concrete may take place at the time of placing on actual work site. Fundamentals of quality control and improvement Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. In situations like delivery of concrete from central mixing plant.M. 1988. Effects of Addition of More than two Chemical Admixtures on the properties of Retempered Concrete D. in road construction. 5. In such situations engineers at site.J. Prakash. Maharastra. A. Dr. Here lies the importance of OC curves which can be used to evaluate the desired compliance scheme. R. 90. J.

at worst. 6. then the intelligent use of admixtures can alleviate the potential workability difficulties. Thus retempering becomes important in such odd situations. The process of remixing of concrete. tensile strength. In this paper an attempt is made to study the strength characteristics of concrete containing combination of admixtures at retempering time of 15 min upto 90 min. The tests were conducted to evaluate the strength characteristics of concrete like compressive strength. which is mixed at the plant. expensive repair. may. while normally considered to be bad practice. This may be due to some break down in the conveyance or quarrel between the labors. using a normal. In such situations the concrete looses its plasticity. It is required to see whether such a stiffened concrete could be used on work without undue harm with use of combinations of admixtures. The combinations of admixture studied in this experimentation is Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Water proofing compound (S+AEA+W). with addition of just the required quantity of water is known as µretempering of concrete¶. then it may stiffen to an unacceptable degree and site staff would normally insist on the rejection of a batch or otherwise good concrete on the grounds of insufficient workability. Ready-mixed (RMC) concrete. In such circumstances. flexural strength and impact strength for different retempering times. such concrete cannot be wasted. in cases where unforeseen delay or some other cause has lead unexpectedly to poor workability. if necessary. The increase in the water content of the concrete immediately prior to discharge will improve the consistency. In such situations addition of small quantity of cement and water along with combinations of admixtures can bring back the plasticity to concrete. although at additional cost. there will be a noticeable reduction in the workability of the fresh concrete. However. If for any reason. excessive vibration would be needed to attempt to fully compact the concrete. 4 is common place . removal of the hardened concrete. in reality. the placement of the concrete is unduly delayed. with the risk of incomplete compaction. If not rejected. or. but it is widely held that there must be a subsequent increase in the water/ cement (w/c) ratio which will be detrimental to the hardened concrete5. Introduction One of the adverse effects of hot weather concreting is loss of slump. where there is a significant period of time between mixing and placing the concrete. a process known as µretempering¶1. and this practice 2. 3.and it cannot be wasted without any regard to cost. . Delay in the delivery of ready mixed concrete has the same result and leads many people in the concrete industry to regain the original slump by adding water. a small quantity of extra cement is also added while retempering. But since the quantity is enormous. be contemplated as a possible course of action. If abnormal slump loss in anticipated or if transport times are significant. retempering of the concrete by water. In the sites sometimes the concrete has to wait for some time to enter in the formwork after it is mixed. well-designed concrete mix. should arrive at its destination with sufficient workability to enable it to be properly placed and fully compacted. Sometimes.

This causes the loss of plasticity and if such concrete is used. . Concrete often arrives on site more than half an hour after initial mixing.Adding water to a plastic mix to increase slump is an extremely common practice.26:2. The combination of admixtures selected for the study on concrete is Superplasticiser + Air Entraining Agent + Water proofing compound (S+AEA+W) Ordinary Portland Cement and locally available sand and aggregates were used in the experimentation. The admixtures and their dosages used in the experimentation are shown in Table 1. i. it is essential to study the characteristic properties of retempered concrete containing combination of admixtures.1 with w/c = 0.51 respectively. In such above situations the concrete which is already mixed may have to wait for a longer time before entering into the formwork. experienced field inspectors will tolerate what can be termed µreasonable¶ retempering. Experimental Programme The main aim of this experimentation work is to find the effect of addition of more than two admixtures on the properties of retempered concrete. depending on the field conditions and the size of the load. When the slump decreases to an unacceptable level during the operations. and such concrete is called retempered concrete. Placement operations can take anywhere from 10 to 60 minutes. the strength and other characteristics of concrete are affected.66 and 2.41 which corresponds to M20 grade of concrete. Therefore. The experiments were conducted on a mix proportion of 1: 1. even though it is not recommended because it increases the porosity of concrete. Such concrete has to be either discarded or used with little addition of extra water and cement so that a part of plasticity is regained.e. Research Significance In the circumstances like breakdown of any concreting equipment or quarrels between the labors or suddenly erupted strikes on the site may put the green concrete into difficult situation. The specific gravity of fine and coarse aggregate was 2. Probably use of some admixtures may induce some good qualities to such retempered concrete.. water is added to the mix and. very often. enough to increase slump by 50 or 60 mm7.

60 minutes.After thoroughly mixing all the ingredients in dry state. Table 4 gives the flexural strength test results of retempered concrete. From these number of blows. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of impact strength w. This concrete mix was covered with gunny bags for 15 minutes. All the specimens were demoulded after 12 hours of their casting and were transferred to curing tank to cure them for 28 days. After 15 minutes the mix was poured into the moulds and the specimens were cast with sufficient compaction through vibration.t. Similarly. Impact energy = w h N (N-m) Where w = Weight of steel ball = 12.t. For compressive strength test. the moment the water was added to the concrete mix.10 Drop weight method being the simple method. the impact energy was calculated as under. the cylinders of diameter 100 mm and length 200 mm were cast and were tested under compressive testing machine as per I S 5816.8 For tensile strength test. reference mix.41. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of tensile strength w. A steel ball weighing 12. was adopted to find the impact energy. the specimens were prepared with retempered concrete with a retempering time of 30 minutes. reference mix. the cubes of dimensions 150 X 150 X 150 mm were cast and were tested under compression testing machine as per I S 516-1959. Another set of retempered concrete specimens were cast by adding 5% extra cement and the required extra amount of water to balance a w/c ratio of 0.t.r. air entraining agent and water proofing compounds were added and a homogeneous concrete mix was obtained.r. tensile strength. which was kept on the floor.1999. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of flexural strength w.6 N was dropped from a height of 1 m on the centre point. Impact strength specimens were of dimensions 250 X 250 X 30 mm. flexural strength and impact strength as per IS specifications. This forms retempered concrete for 15 minutes.t. . The time was reckoned. reference mix. the required quantity of water was added in the mix and thoroughly mixed. 45 minutes.r. Number of blows required to cause first crack and final failure were noted down.r.8 For impact test four different test methods are referred in the literature.6 N h = Height of drop = 1 m N = Number of blows required for first crack or final failure as the case may be. Table 3 gives the tensile strength test results of retempered concrete. Test Results Table 2 gives the compressive strength test results of retempered concrete. After 28 days of curing the specimens were tested for their compressive strength. It also gives percentage increase or decrease of compressive strength w. reference mix. 75 minutes and 90 minutes.9 For flexural strength test the beams of dimensions 100 X 100 X 500 mm were cast and were tested on an effective span of 400 mm with two point loading as per I S 516-1959. Table 5 gives the impact strength test results of retempered concrete. At this stage the different admixtures like superplasticiser.

3. flexural strength and impact strength as compared to concrete produced without 5% extra cement and water. 2. Discussion of Test Results 1. . Thus it can be concluded that the concrete with the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) shows maximum strengths at a retempering time of 45 minute. This may be due to the fact that the evaporated water up to Figure 3: Variation of Flexural Strength w. tensile strength. This is true for the retempering times from 15minutes to 90 minutes. This may be due to the fact that the evaporated water up to 45 minute may bring down the w/c ratio resulting in an enhanced strength. flexural strength and impact strength as compared to concrete produced without 5% extra cement and water.1. It is true for both the concretes which are produced by adding 5% extra cement and water and concrete without adding 5% extra cement and water.r. 2. 4.The variation of these strengths are depicted in the form of graphs as shown in Figure. 3 and 4. flexural strength and impact strength at a retempering time of 60 minutes. Thus it can be concluded that the concrete without any admixture show maximum strengths at a retempering time of 60 minutes. Obviously this may be due to the fact of presence of 5% extra cement. It has been observed that the concrete without any admixture shows maximum compressive strength. when the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) is used. tensile strength. This is true for all the retempering times from 15minutes to 90 minutes. tensile strength. Retempring Times Figure 4: Variation of Impact Strength w. for all the retempering times up to 90 minutes. It has been observed that the concrete with the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) shows maximum compressive strength. tensile strength.t. It has been observed that the concrete produced with addition of 5% extra cement and water show higher compressive strength.r. It has been observed that the concrete produced with addition of 5% extra cement and water show higher compressive strength. Different Retempring Times 60 minute may bring down the w/ c ratio resulting in an enhanced strength. Thus it can be concluded that the concrete produced with addition of 5% extra cement and water yields more strength.t. flexural strength and impact strength at a retempering time of 45 minutes. It is true for both concretes which are produced by adding 5% extra cement and water and concrete without adding 5% extra cement and water.

Pilli. y The concrete with the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) shows maximum strengths at a retempering time of 45 minute. S. Thanks are also due to authorities of MBT Pvt. Belgaum for giving all the encouragement needed which kept our enthusiasm alive. y Thus instead of wasting the bulk concrete. y The concrete produced with addition of 5% extra cement and water yields more strength. tensile strength. y The concrete produced with the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) show higher strengths than that of without admixtures for all the retempering times. Conclusions The concrete without any admixture show maximum strengths at a retempering time of 60 minutes. RIT. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Dr. KLESCET. (Mrs) S. Sakharale and Dr. flexural strength and impact strength of concrete produced with the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) is higher than that without any admixture. It has been observed that the compressive strength. S. Reference . y The concrete produced with addition of 5% extra cement and water and with combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) yields more strengths for all the retempering times up to 90 minutes. This may be due to the fact that the addition of combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) induce more workability which will facilitate for full compaction and in turn this results in higher strengths. Thus it can be concluded that the concrete produced with addition of 5% extra cement and water and with combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) yields more strengths for all the retempering times up to 90 minutes.C. Thanks are also due to the management authorities and others who constantly boosted our morale by giving us all the help required. Thus it can be concluded that the concrete produced with the combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) show higher strengths than that of without admixtures for all the retempering times.Ltd(Degussa) Mumbai for supplying the required admixtures. Principal. Principal.Obviously this may be due to the fact of presence of 5% extra cement. This is true for all the retempering times and also it is true for the concrete produced by addition of 5% extra cement and water and concrete without 5% extra cement and water. for all the retempering times up to 90 minutes. Kulkarni. 5. the retempering can be recommended either with the use of combination of admixture (S+AEA+W) or without admixture.

. and Patrick Plante. pp.252-259.´ Bureau of Indian Standards.´ Concrete international. pp. composed mostly of carbon-dioxide. There is a general acceptance of the view that firm measures must be taken without delay to bring down the global carbon emissions to the 1990 level or less during the next 15 years. Francois Saucier. New-Delhi. Jan1979. ³Retempering studies of concrete in hot weather.´ Proceedings of colloquium organized on behalf of the coordinating committee for concrete technology of RILEM. y Gonnerman H F and Woodworth P M. pp. K. (pp 257-262). et al. Oct 3-5.´ Proceedings of colloquium organized on behalf of the coordinating committee for concrete technology of RILEM. y I S : 5816-1999 ³Splitting tensile strength of concrete method of test. part IV: Retempering. ACI Journal. y Erlin B and Hime W G.´ The Indian concrete Journal. ³Impact resistance of steel fiber reinforced concrete. pp.S. 1990. The climate changes.´ y ACI Materials Journal. 48. Cements and Concrete Mixtures for Sustainability Mehta. Oct 3-5. May 1996. pp.´ ACI Journal. y I S : 516-1959 ³Methods of tests for strength of concrete. Jan-1979. pp.´ Concrete International. ³Air-void stability. ³Tests on retempered concrete. University of California. P. 1929. is a very serious issue that is being addressed worldwide by every major sector of economy. ³Concrete slump loss. y R P West.43.134-141.51. 36. y Balsubramanain. Berkeley. pp.y M A A l Kubaisy and A S K Palanjian. ³Theory of concrete slump lossas related to the use of chemical admixtures. ³Concrete Retempering without strength loss. Kumar. May-June 1990. y Mayer L M and Perenchio W F. ³Concrete slump loss and field example of placement problems.A. Aug-1977. 361-367. U. due to man-made global warming triggered by steeply rising volume of greenhouse gases. New-Delhi. y Michel Pigeon. y Previte R W. 25.´ Bureau of Indian Standards. 1990.83-91.

Evidence of global warming is not confined to temperature measurements. y Disruption of the earth¶s carbon cycle due to changes in the botanical species on land and oceans. issued earlier this year by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. cyclones. and ice sheets. the world production of cement was slightly more than 1 billion tonnes. The production and use of blended Portland cements containing large proportion of complementary cementing materials. Different options for consideration of the construction industry are presented in this paper.9 tonne carbon-dioxide for each tonne of portland clinker. The following list includes some of the observable effects of the phenomenon: y A sharp increase in the melting rates of glaciers. with businessas.usual. which is the principal component of modern cements. y Adverse impact on current sources of agriculture and water. In a series of reports. and direct CO2 emissions from cement kilns would triple the 1990 level. y Unusual increase in frequency and intensity of rainstorms. The term. the challenge before the global construction industry is how to meet the buildings and infrastructure needs of rapidly growing economies of the world. in 1990. refers to the greenhouse-gas effect leading to a steady increase in the earth¶s surface temperature since 1950s. droughts. Fifteen years ago. and at the same time. With business as usual. twenty-four of the last 27 years have been the warmest on record. which is the most widely used manufactured product in the world today. In 2006. Thus. it is projected to increase at an exponential rate. which makes up 85 % of the greenhouse gases. Among the major sustainability issues of public concern are high rates of consumption of energy and materials. and lack of space for safe disposal of huge volumes of solid. short service life of manufactured products. in conformity with other sectors of economy. such as coal fly ash and granulated blast-furnace slag provide an excellent strategy for immediate and substantial reduction of direct CO2 emissions associated with the manufacture of portland-cement clinker. global warming. In 2005. about 380 ppm (mg/L) in 2005. leading weather scientists of the world have unequivocally stated that global warming is . and gaseous wastes generated by human activities. y Rising ocean levels±a potential threat to coastal populations. is the highest in recorded history (Figure 1). Furthermore. heat waves.The focus of this paper is on portland-cement concrete. High-volume fly ash concrete applications for recently built structures in North America are cited as typical examples of possible CO2 reduction. the estimated cement requirement would be 3. Weather scientists around the world have concluded that a linear relationship exists between the earth¶s surface temperature and the atmospheric concentration of CO2.5 bilion tonnes. Global warming. Cement production is not only energy-intensive but also responsible for direct release of nearly 0. Sustainability±an Introduction During the 1990s. the use of composite cements and concrete mixtures containing large addition of complementary cementing materials would yield crackresisting structural elements of radically enhanced durability. cutting down the CO2 emissions attributable to cement consumption to the 1990 level. the annual global CO2 output reached a staggering 30 billion tonnes. polar caps. Fifteen years from now. it already crossed 2 billion tonnes which means that direct CO2 emissions from the portland clinker production have nearly doubled. liquid. The current CO2 concentration. it became abundantly clear that industrialization of the world is happening at an unsustainable speed. the cumulative effect of these problems. flash floods. According to a World Watch Institute report. Both EU and North American cement standards now permit more than 50 % clinker replacement in composite cements. hurricanes. has emerged today as the most serious sustainability issue of the 21st century. and wild fires.

They have warned about devastating consequences of global warming if immediate action is not taken by national and industry leaders to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions to the 1990 level or less. proposed in 1990 and signed in 2005 by 141 countries.270 million tonnes. the U. grinding and transport of materials. Concrete Industry¶s Environmental Impact The subject of environmental impact of the concrete industry is covered by numerous publications across the world including those listed in References (1-6). In September 2006. In 2005.000 million tonnes of concrete is being produced annually. However. have yet to show a willingness to commit to any specific goals. approx. and install building elements is only 1. sometimes other mineral additives.. of which approx. and over 400 mayors representing 60 million Americans have signed on to programs that intend to meet or beat the Kyoto targets by 2020.S. in 2005. Therefore. carbon footprints of the global cement industry are very significant considering the amount of fossil fuels and electrical power consumed for crushing. Worldwide today. i. the sum total of energy required to extract raw materials. California¶s CO2 emissions would be reduced to the 1990 level.0 tonnes of CO2 is directly released from cement kilns during the manufacture of clinker. The embodied energy content. However. Co2 Emissions from Cement Kilns Typically. and manufacture of structural materials like concrete and steel. such as power generation. and China.S. many multinational corporations. State governments in the U. The two largest polluting countries. compared to 9 MJ/kg for recycled steel and 32 MJ/kg for new steel.. Depending on the carbon content of fossil fuels used for clinkering. and energy consumption associated with the use of buildings. the concrete industry is a large consumer of cement± a manufactured product directly responsible for high CO2 emissions. ordinary portland cement is composed of 95 % clinker and 5 % gypsum. 17. the signatories agreed to stabilize the greenhouse gas emissions by 2012 to 6 % below the 1990 level. In addition to gypsum. quantitatively concrete represents considerable embodied energy.3 MJ/kg for 30 MPa concrete. the State of California approved the Global Warming Solutions Act according to which. being the largest manufactured product consumed in the world. which is a complementary cementing material (CCM) because it enhances the cement performance by improving the setting and hardening characteristics of the product. the global cement consumption was 2. 0. Although climate change is a global phenomenon. and for the 1400 to 1500°C burning operation to make portland clinker ±the principal ingredient of hydraulic cements.e. such as aggregates and water. manufacture. Besides natural resources.9 to 1.occurring. it has to be tackled in every country individually by each of the major CO2 emitting sectors of economy. and that it has been triggered by human activities. according to Cembureau. transportation. 6. According to Kyoto Protocol. by 2020. The scope of this paper is limited to direct CO2 emissions. commonly known as . transport. which are responsible for nearly half of the global CO2 emissions.3%2 of the global emissions are attributable to portland clinker manufacture.

at present. According to the U. Geological Survey records. Obviously. by the end of the next 15 years the cement requirement is expected to go up to about 3. Reduce the consumption of concrete: Architects and structural designers must develop innovative designs that minimize the consumption of concrete.270 million tonnes of cement. these additives too are treated as complementary cementing materials (CCM) in this paper. low-carbon. in 1990 the direct CO2 emission from clinker production were 940 million tonnes. As discussed in this paper. in 2005. respectively. Alternate sources of energy other than fossil fuels are being sought but. The golden rule or mantra for successful resolution of all sustainability issues is. ³Consume less. Therefore. there are some cements that do not require calcium carbonate as a raw material (e.800 million tonnes. with 1.520 to 940 million tonnes (the 1990 level) involves nearly a two-third reduction in clinker requirement. the average CO2emission rate dropped to 0. In conclusion.9. it is estimated that 370 million tones of CCM were incorporated into 2. the magnitude of the problem becomes at once clear. 1. Foundations. globally. pulverized limestone. Assuming the average CO emission rate as 1. The former accounts for about 0. Reducing the Co2 Emissions Comparing the 1990 and 2005 global CO2 emissions directly attributable to clinker production (Table 1).supplementary cementing materials (e. Not only the annual rate of cement consumption in the world has nearly doubled during the last 15 years but also. the author proposes the following three tools.6 kg CO2/kg clinker and the latter 0. the global average being 0. the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct CO2 emissions during the last 15 years..044 million tonnes. the world consumption of cement in 1990 was 1. when properly used. direct release of CO2 occurs from two sources.0 tonne CO2/ tonne clinker.500 million tonnes a year. are presented in Table 1. and 2.520 million tonnes.S. due to increase in the use of alternate. at the current rate of economic growth in many developing countries.9 kg CO2/kg clinker. granulated blast-furnace slag. namely the decomposition of calcium carbonate (the principal raw material) and the combustion of fossil fuels. which is unlikely barring a global catastrophe. in 2005. the mineral additives have the ability to enhance considerably the workability and durability of concrete.700 million tonnes of direct CO2 release to the environment. Service life of repairable structures should be extended as far as possible by the use of proper materials and methods of repair. they are too expensive. fuels for burning clinker. Global statistics for 1990 and 2005 on cement production. Low-priority projects should be postponed or even canceled when possible. In 2005. due to a gradual increase in the use of CCM. it will not be possible to achieve any drastic cuts in CO2 emission as long as technical and economic reasons favor the use of portland clinker as the major component of hydraulic cements. the global clinker production and CO2 emission in 2020 would amount to 2.. the simultaneous use of which would enable the cement industry to reduce greatly the direct CO2 emission attributable to clinker production: 1. and think more. In the portland clinker manufacturing process.900 million tonnes of clinker was produced. Assuming that during the same period the use of CCM increases from 15 to 20 % of the total cement. and silica fume) can either be interground with clinker and gypsum or added directly during the concrete mixing operation. the average clinker factor of cement (units of clinker per unit of cement) in 1990 was 0.9 tonne per tonne of clinker. natural and calcined pozzolans. CCM consumption. magnesium phosphate cements) but they are neither economical nor technically feasible for large-scale production. coal fly ash.g. massive columns and beams of . This means that. Also. From the fragmentary information available it is estimated that. This gives a clinker factor of 0. To bring down the CO2 emission from 2.g.´ Based on this mantra. Large quantities of these materials are available as industrial by-products.84.35 kg CO2/kg clinker (depending on the carbon content of the fossil fuel). Also. which means that 940 million tonnes of clinker and 104 million tonnes of CCM were used. and direct CO2 emission attributable to Portland clinker manufacture.25-0.

In Table 3. but let us examine the assumptions under which this is possible. minimum cement content. Would such a large quantity of fly ash be available in 2020? It is difficult to provide a definite answer. According to Reinhardt (7). Furthermore. in 2020. Therefore. If no serious measures are put into place quickly by the world¶s construction industry. it is not the w/c but the cement paste content which should be minimized through optimum aggregate grading. Options As shown in Table 1. and is vulnerable to cracking from excessive thermal shrinkage and drying shrinkage. concrete products made with cements of low clinker factor are expected to be much more durable when compared to ordinary portland cement products. Reduce the clinker factor of cement: Every tonne of clinker saved would reduce the direct CO2 release from cement kilns by an equivalent amount.760 million tonnes. this would serve as an excellent strategy for minimizing the wasteful consumption of cement and other concrete ingredients for general construction. use of plasticizing admixtures. without using any expensive technology and materials! Unquestionably. Such prescriptive codes have outlived their usefulness and must be replaced with performance-based specifications that promote durability and sustainability. these steps will have the effect of reducing the direct CO2 emissions from cement kilns to 1. Imagine if it were possible to enhance the durability of most cement-based products by factor 10 or more. that are discussed next. Reduce the cementing materials in concrete mixtures: Mix design procedures that involve prescriptive codes (e. in the long term. Note that coal fly ash is expected to make up 760 million tonnes or nearly threefourths of the total CCM.. should be made with highly durable concrete mixtures described in this paper. volume of the paste (cement plus mixing water) in concrete should not exceed 290 L/ M3. described in this paper are made with cements of low clinker factor (0. . For example. global carbon emissions direct from Portland clinker production have already doubled in the past 15 years. 2. by 2020. The hardened product contains a heterogeneous cement paste. with business-as-usual it is estimated that the rate of direct carbon emissions from cement kilns will almost triple in the next 15 years (Table 2. to achieve durability. besides adversely affecting the durability of concrete. an easy option (Option 2) and a challenging but preferable option (Option 3). i. with weak interfacial bonding. they can be used for making relatively crackfree products of excellent durability without any added cost. compared to the base year 1990. Option 1). the total cementing material (2. if the global concrete construction industry is able to reduce the concrete consumption by 20 % (compared to Option 1) and at the same time increase the CCM utilization to 30 % of the total cement.concrete.g. and pre-cast building components that can be assembled or disassembled as needed. and much higher than needed strength) lead to considerable waste of cement. as explained below.4 ± 0. estimates of different types and amounts of complementary cementing materials that would be available for use in 2020 are given. Table 2 also includes data on two other options. Note that Option 1 (business-as-usual) data will be used as a reference point for both Options 2 and 3.e. and less than 290 L/m3 cement paste content. construction often suffer from lack of durability because they are usually made with high content of a cementing material and a high clinker factor of cement.5). According to Option 3. maximum w/cm. and specifying 56 or 91-day strength for the structural components that do not have to meet a minimum 28-day strength requirement. High-volume fly ash concrete mixtures.100 tonnes) would comprise 1050 million tonnes of portland clinker and the same amount of complementary cementing materials. to minimize the shrinkage. This is nearly twice as much as the 1990 emissions rate of 940 million tonnes. high-speed. 3. According to Option 2. Published literature contains numerous reports showing that high-early strength concrete mixtures used in modern.

and due to the low cost of coal. lack of state-ofthe. The power sector of the global economy is the largest single source of carbon emissions in the world. Therefore. expansion of the coal-fired power industry will continue in major coalproducing countries such as China. why does the fly ash utilization rate as a complementary cementing material remain so low? Obsolete prescriptive codes. India. economic. coal combustion in 2005 generated approximately 900 million tonnes of solid by-products including 600 million tonnes of fly ash.art information to architects and structural designers.e. Diverting fly ash from the waste stream and using it to reduce direct carbon emissions from the cement industry is like killing two birds with one stone. provided the key players. the most powerful tool for reducing the environmental impact of two major sectors of our industrial economy. The remaining fly ash either ends up in low-value applications. namely the cement industry and the coal-fired power industry. accurate data on today¶s global rates of flyash production and utilization are not available. When used as a complementary cementing material. Due to rapidly changing rates of fly ash production and use in the two large economies of the world. It is estimated that about 7 billion tonnes a year of CO2 is being released today from the combustion of all fossil fuels. all of the currently produced fly ash is not suitable for use as a complementary cementing material.In the foreseeable future. increasing the utilization of most of the available fly ash as a complementary cementing material is. and individuals or organizations responsible for specifications work together to overcome the problems. Also. In spite of proven technical. according to Malhotra (5). and that the coalfired power plants alone generate 2 billion tonnes of CO2. which meet threequarters of their electrical power requirement from coal-fired furnaces. According to one estimate.. fossil fuels will continue to remain the primary source of power generation. however cost-effective methods are available to beneficiate the material that does not to meet . or is disposed to landfills and ponds. each tonne of fly ash can replace a tonne of portland clinker. China and India. Besides carbon emissions. and the United States. approximately 1200 million tones of fly ash would be available in 2020. This goal can be accomplished. and that nearly 140 million tonnes/year is being consumed as an ingredient of blended cements and concrete mixtures. It would indeed be a formidable job to ensure that nearly two-thirds of the fly ash produced by coal-fired power plants is suitable for use as a complementary cementing material. unquestionably. However. discussed below. i. the producers of fly ash. and lax quality control in power plants are among some of the reasons. a rough estimate shows that the current rate of fly ash production is approximately 750 million tonnes/ year. such as road sub-bases and embankments. and ecological benefits from the incorporation of high volumes of fly ash in cements and concrete mixtures. the consumers of cement and concrete.

Compared to portland cement. with clinker factor of 0. in North America significant amount of blended portland cements are not produced. the conventional concrete construction practice is dominated by prescriptive specifications that do not permit the use of high volume of mineral additives. . the emerging technology of high-volume flyash (HVFA) concrete is an excellent example showing how highly durable and sustainable concrete mixtures. are being manufactured in these countries. According to Cembureau statistics for 2005. worldwide. contains 26 types of blended portland cements including three cement types that have clinker factors ranging between 0. the consumption of ordinary portland cement in the European Union countries has dropped to 30 % of the total cement produced. but they are more suitable for producing highly durable concrete products. however.the minimum fineness and maximum carbon content requirements±the two important parameters by which the flyash suitability is judged by the cement and concrete industries (5). Natural or calcined pozzolans. may also be used. portland-clinker based cements can be made with 0. Type III-A Cement covers slag cements with 36-65 % gbfs. and silica fume. natural or calcined pozzolanic minerals. Type V-A Cement covers composite cements containing 18-30 % gbfs plus 18-30% pozzolans. Unfortunately. the high-volume flyash and slag cements are somewhat slower in setting and hardening.5 or less.30 % flyash. with or without other mineral admixtures. Sustainable Concrete Mixtures For reducing direct carbon emissions attributable to Portland clinker production. which are available in most parts of the world in large amounts. at present about 14 million of the available 70 million tonnes/year fly ash is being used as a complementary cementing material in concrete mixtures. However. Sustainable Cements Sustainable. can be produced by using ordinary coal fly ash (ASTM Class F or Class C).35 and 0. Note that concrete mixtures with similar properties can be produced by using a high volume of granulated blast-furnace slag or a combination of flyash and slag. or coal fly ash (ASTM Class F or C). issued in 2002.64. it is reported that significant quantities of blended cements containing 20. which is performance-based. in combination with fly ash and/or gbfs. Cement containing a high volume of complementary cementing materials can now be manufactured in accordance with ASTM C 1157±a new standard specification for hydraulic cements. whereas blended portland cements containing up to 25% CCM have captured 57% of the market share. The composition and characteristics of HVFA concrete are discussed in many publications and are briefly described below. and blended cements with more than 25% CCM are approaching 10% of the total cement consumption. Type IV-B Cement covers pozzolan cements with 36-55 % pozzolans including fly ash.5 or even lower clinker factor using a high volume of granulated blast furnace slag (gbfs). because it is customary to add mineral admixtures at the readymixed concrete plants. or a combination of both. According to American Coal Ash Association. The European Cement Specification EN 197/1. Reliable estimates are not available from China and India.

the chloride penetration permeability.33. and the drying shrinkage (less volume of cement paste). which made it possible to place and finish 400 m 3 Concrete for the main prayer-hall slab (22 by 18 by 1 m). an air-entraining admixture is also included in the mix when protection against frost action is sought. Unreinforced monolith slabs are a part of the foundation. . 48 MPa. which is an excellent index of long term durability of concrete. Compared to portland-cement concrete. i. respectively. The mix has a low water content (100. the clinker factor was only 0. and reinforcement corrosion (due to very low electric conductivity). develop slightly lower strength at 3 and 7-d. with large reduction in CO2-emissions resulting from the use of HVFA concrete. and 1-y were 10 MPa.e. in less than 5 hours. However. sulfate and other chemical attacks. The fresh mix had 150-200 mm slump and showed excellent pumpability. 2 L/ m3 polycar± boxylate superplasticizer. and a low content of cementing materials (e.130 kg/m3). The use of 3. 9 m high and 1 m diameter. and 60 MPa. the ability of HVFA concrete to enhance the durability by factor 5 to10 makes it a highly suitable material for construction of sustainable structures in the future.33. Typical compressive strength values at 3-d. Three recently built structures in the U. chemical plasticizers are often used. 300 kg/ m 3 for ordinary strength and max. similar strength at 28-d. the HVFA concrete mixtures are much less vulnerable to cracking from both the thermal shrinkage (less heat of hydration). Also. The author has been involved with many field applications of HVFA concrete that are described in earlier publications (8-11).g.. All structural elements were made with. Typically. Furthermore. which corresponds to about 800 tonnes of CO2 emissions reduction.000 m 3 HVFA concrete mix resulted in 900 tonnes of portland cement saving. when lower w/cem are required. are described below. The pozzolanic reaction leading to complete removal of calcium hydroxide from cement hydration products enables the HVFA concrete to become highly resistant to alkaliaggregate reaction. A conventional concrete mix would have required 400 kg/m3portland cement to achieve similar3 highstrength. Therefore. 7-d. Occasionally.S. 56-d. built with concrete members designed to endure for 1. The plasticizing action of the high volume of flyash imparts excellent workability even at w/cem of the order of 0. A Hindu Temple.4. No structural cracks in any concrete member were reported. and much higher strength at 90-d and 1-year. in addition to very low clinker factor. and the w/cem was also 0. and 100 kg/m3 water. the concrete is slow in setting and hardening. supported by 250 drilled piers.000 individual segments of intricately carved white marble (Figure 2).000 years or more. was surprisingly low (< 200 coulombs) in 1-year old core samples. Note that the total cementing material was 300 kg/m3. HVFA concrete containing 105 kg/m3 ASTM Type I portland cement and 195 kg/m3 Class C flyash. cast-inplace. 400 kg/m3 for high-strength). was constructed in Chicago in 2003 (Figure 2). 27 MPa. The superstructure of the temple is composed of some 40.The cementing material in HVFA concrete is composed of ordinary portland cement together with at least 50% flyash by mass of the total cementing material. the HVFA concrete mixtures designed to achieve the same 28-d strength exhibit superior workability without segregating even at slump values of 200-250 mm.

200 kg/m3 Class F flyash. However. a statistical life-cycle analysis is not possible because there are no reliable laboratory tests for quantitative assessment of longterm durability of field structures. and the w/cem was 0. Salt Lake City. 160 kg of Class F fly ash.50.38. The specified compressive strength was 27 MPa @ 28-d for all structural members except the foundations and mats which were designed for a specified strength of minimum 27 MPa @ 56-d. and nearly 40 MPa @ 56-d. often it is just a matter of getting on the other side of the learning curve. Again. but on further examination. it proves no to be so. since many sustainable products have better life cycle performance. described in this paper. It is estimated that the choice of HVFA concrete as a structural material for the CITRIS Building resulted in a reduction of 1950 tonnes of direct CO2 Emissions attributable to the low clinker factor of the cementing material. We must clarify the difference between life cycle cost and first cost. The specified slump and 28-d compressive strength were 150 mm and 27 MPa. a concrete mix containing 200 kg/m3 ASTM Type II portland cement. The use of sustainable cements and concrete mixtures.The Utah State Capitol Building. and 1 L/m superplasticizer was used. beams.35 w/cem) was used. and shear walls. a nearly self3 consolidating mix containing 160 kg/m3 ordinary portland cement. 200 kg/m ASTM Class F flyash. We need to define the term µeconomic¶ and include the collateral cost of using non-sustainable practices. According to Meryman and Silman (12): Sometimes. Other major barriers are lack of codes of recommended practice and unwillingness of structural designers and engineers to be among the first to champion the use of new materials.700m3 HVFA concrete ± the largest volume ever used for construction of a single building. respectively. Due to heavily congested reinforcement in the foundations. The clinker factor of this mix was 0. For foundations and mats. It is estimated that this 4. human perception appears to be a far more formidable barrier than actual economic and technical barrier. walls. The field concrete showed an average of 225 mm slump and 34 MPa strength. according to Meryman and Silman (12): . and 123 kg/m3 water (0. girders and slabs. The CITRIS Building at the University of California at Berkeley contains 10.37 w/cem) was used. and 140 kg/ m3 water (0. floor beams.500m3 HVFA concrete job. there is a perception that a ³green´ material or practice is more costly. would undoubtedly produce structural members of high durability.44. Note that the concrete used for reinforced columns achieved 20 MPa strength @ 7-d. In both cases the clinker factor is 0. For heavily reinforced columns. underwent seismic rehabilitation in 2006 (Figure 3a). enabled 900 tonnes of reduction in CO2 emissions attributable to clinker saving. 138 3 3 kg/m water. Economic and Technical Barriers For utilization of high proportions of complementary cementing materials in general construction. a concrete mix containing 160 kgm3 of ASTM Type II portland cement.

which is the major component of modern hydraulic cements. (b) volume of cement paste in concrete. Codes of recommended practice advocated by organizations. To meet the global concrete demand. the USGBC pointrating system for new construction has already become a powerful driving force for sustainable building designs. such as American Concrete Institute and U. the USGBC can help sustainability of the cement and concrete industries. we become their advocates. A similar emphasis is needed in favor of sustainable materials that produce less CO2 during their manufacture. structural engineers can use specifications to communicate a commitment to and confidence in more sustainable choices. Concluding Remarks The high carbon dioxide emission rate of today¶s industrialized society has triggered climate change that is potentially devastating to life on the planet earth. By taking responsibility for those practices. With business-as-usual.How can an underused material or method become tried. trusted and ultimately the standard? These materials and methods need advocates. which was 17 billion tonnes in 2005. The rating system awards sufficient points for buildings that would consume less energy in their use. For instance. would triple the 1990 level unless immediate steps are taken to bring down the emissions by making significant reductions in the: (a) global concrete consumption. in the year 2020. and (c) proportion of portland clinker in cement. I have come to the conclusion that it is the hand that writes the specifications which holds the power of leading the concrete construction industry to an era of sustainability. I confirm the observations of Meryman and Silman. we can produce low cost. From my own personal experience. By suitably amending the rating system so that some points based on CO2 emissions reduction are directly assigned for the use of sustainable materials in new construction. Examples of recently built structures prove that by using high volume of coal flyash and other industrial wastes as complementary cementing materials with portland clinker. can play an important part in accelerating the sustainability of the concrete industry. two billion tonnes of CO2 were directly released to the atmosphere from the manufacturing process of portlandcement clinker.S. Green Building Council. As technical professionals. the direct CO2 emissions from portland clinker production. highly durable. and sustainable cements and concrete mixtures that would significantly reduce both the carbon .

´ Concrete International.´ Otto Graf Journal. Manmohan and P. Vol. What is needed now is the will and the individual initiative. 2007. 8. contractors. Geneva. pp.." McGraw-Hill. by the year 2020. all segments of the construction industry±owners. Monteiro. Switzerland. Univ.´ www.7. ³Ask not what others can do. 19-21 y The Concrete Center of U. pp.wbcsdcement. The construction industry is already pursuing the goal of designing and constructing sustainable buildings that consume less energy and resources to maintain. 2007 y V.´ ibid. pp. designers. is over. 27 No. 2006.. July 2000. Mehta and W. 64-70 . Now.´ Concrete International. ³Greening of the Concrete Industry for Sustainable Development. ³White Paper on Sustainable Development. and Materials. Vol. Vol. in a finite planet.K. Vol. Mehta. Ask what you can do to promote the use of sustainable construction materials. San Francisco. Malhotra. of Stuttgard.000 Years. ³Monolith Foundation Built to Last a 1. for the photographs in Figures 3 and 4. by reckless use of energy and materials.K. ³New German Guideline for Design of Concrete Structures for Containment of Hazardous Materials. FMPA. ³Concrete: Microstructure. ³Sustainable Concrete.. 2005. 2006 y ACI Board Advisory Committee on Sustainable Development. pp. 24 No. 9-17 y P.K.K. New York. American Concrete Institute. 28 No. and P.org. 2002. 2. Germany. American Concrete Institute.S. 42-45 y P. 18 pages y World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Reinhardt. Vol.M. It seems that the game of unrestricted growth. 2006. 2002. 22 No.K.´ Acknowledgement The author would like to thank Mason Walters of Forell Elsesser Engineers. 23-28 y H.´ ibid. Vol. References y P. ³Reducing CO2 Emissions. and cement and concrete manufacturers±will have to join the new game of building sustainable structures using only sustainable materials. To paraphrase John F. pp. 17. Langley. 27-32 y D.concretecenter. Mehta.J. 9.´www. Mehta. 7. 24 No.´ Concrete International. Kennedy. Most sectors of the global economy have already initiated action plans to bring down their share of carbon emission to the 1990 level or less.com. American Concrete Institute. ³The Cement Sustainability Initiative.M. Properties. pp.W.footprints of the cement industry and the environmental impact of the coal-fired power generation industry. ³Heavily Reinforced Shear Walls and Reinforced Foundations Built with Green Concrete. We have the tools to win this game.

M.P. 2002 y H. y High±Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete under Compression and Flexure . 2006. ³Sustainable Engineering±Using Specifications to Make it Happen. 3. ³High-Performance. ³Sustainable. Manmohan. 7. Ottawa.´ ibid. Malhotra and P.´ Supplementary Cementing Materials for Sustainable Development. Mehta and D. Canada.K. Meryman and R. Silman. pp. Aug. pp 216-219. Mehta. Vol.K.. 3742 y V.´ Structural Engineering International. 28 No. Acknowledgement The article has been reproduced from the SEWC¶07 proceeding with the kind permission from the SEWC organisers. High-Performance Concrete Structures. Vol. 14 No. High-Volume Flyash Concrete. 2004.

Structural Engineering Division CEG. Typical high performance requirements specify high strength (above 41 MPa). and high tensile strength (above 4 MPa) and other special requirements.. .40 to 0. HPC is achieved by using super plasticizen (SP) to reduce water/cm ratio and by using SCM (supplementary cementing material) as silica fume having pozzolanic reaction and filler effect. applications. The influence of fiber content on the compressive strength and flexural strength with w/cm ratios ranging from 0.fiber reinforced concrete with varying w/cm ratios and 10% silica fumereplacement. research on HPC where fibers play a major role is lacking. The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of crimped steel fibers on the compressive strength and flexural strength of high performance. which meets special performance and uniformity requirements that can¶t always be achieved by using only the conventional materials and normal mixing. enhanced impermeability (permeability less than 1010 m/s). especially in the area of structural elements. When concrete cracks. 78 and 117. Mechanical properties of fiber reinforcement concrete are needed to use the FRC in various structural applications.P. numerous research and development studies have been taken up in the field of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) for understanding the behavior of sound composites. High performance concrete (HPC) is defined according to ACI 363-1992 [3] as concrete. Strength. This paper presents the experimental investigation carried out to study the behavior of high performance fiber reinforced concrete (HPFRC) under compression and flexure with compressive strength ranging from 60 MPa to 86 MPa and flexural strength ranging from 6 MPa to 10 MPa.C.5 percent (39. the composite has great potential for many use in civil Engg. 10]. Professor. hydraulic structures. it lowers its post-peak portion of the stressstrain diagram almost vanishes or descends steeply [5]. is responsible for the enhancement of strength and durability of the concrete [4]. Ramadoss. placing and curing practice. Fibers with 1 percent volume fraction and aspect ratio of 75 provide maximum stiffness to concrete and results in maximum increase in compressive strength [7]. the randomly oriented fibers arrest a micro cracking mechanism and limit the crack propagation. sky scrappers.149. Anna University. ductility and durability are the important factors to be considered in the design of earthquake resistant R. Nagamani. Although a number of researchers investigated the effect of inclusion of discrete steel fibers on the compressive strength [8. tunnel lining. industrial floors.5kg) with aspect ratio of 80 were used. 9. Introduction In last 3 decades. Equations are proposed using regression analysis to predict the strength of HPFRC effecting the fiber addition in terms of fiber reinforcing index. Due to the inherent brittleness of HPC/ HSC. As noted by ACI Committee 544. which usually combines high strength with high durability [4].107 and 0. 2]. thus improving the strength and ductility thereby enhances the durability of structural elements. Strength comparison analysis was carried out to validate the empirical equation and the maximum absolute variation obtained was 4 percent. High-performance/highstrength concrete leads to the design of smaller sections and reduces the dead weight. allowing longer spans and more useful area of structures.25 is presented. Chennai. [1. bridge decks. Reduction in mass is also important for economical design of seismic resistant structures. This inverse relation between the strength and ductility is a serious drawback for the use of HPC/HSC and a compromise to this drawback can be obtained by the addition of discontinuous short steel fibers in to the concrete. Wafa and Ashour [6] have reported that addition of steel fibers in to HSC changes its brittle mode of failure in to a more ductile one and results in a small increase in compressive strength and more increase in tensile strengths compared to plain concrete.5 % volume of crimped steel fiber resulted in 10% increase in the compressive strength while flexural strength increased by 37% and the RCSR value evaluated is between 0. Research Scholar and K. structures. SFRC has been used in several areas of infrastructure and industrial applications including highway and airport pavements. Addition of 1. etc. Steel fiber volume fraction ranges from zero to1.

Materials and Mixture Proportions Ordinary portland cement-53 grade satisfying the requirements of IS: 12269±1987 [11] and silica fume supplied by Elkem India Ltd. For each water to cemetitious material ratio three fiborus concrete mixes were prepared with fiber volume fractions. giving an aspect ratio of 80. 0.75% by weight of cementitious .5. FC3-0.75% to 2.35 and contained 88.30 and 0. 14. a specific gravity of 2. Experimental Program Four basic mixes for plain concrete designated as FC1-0.0 according to the w/cm ratios of 0.63 and coarse aggregate of blue granite crushed aggregates conforming to IS: 383.0. having specific surface area of 23. Due to the inclusion of the fibers some minor adjustments in terms different ingredients had to be made as shown in Table 2. FC2-0. Fine aggregate of locally available river sand conforming to IS: 383-1970 [12] with fineness modulus of 2. a specific gravity of 2.25 and studies the effects of inclusion of fiber contents on improving these properties.5kg/m3).55 and a specific gravity of 2.0 and FC4-0.70 were used.30 and 0. This paper presents an extensive experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of HPFRC with w/cm ratios of 0.000 m2 /kg. Fibers used are crimped steel fibers of diameter =0.35.0.4.5 percent (39. Vf of 0.Research Significance High performance concrete with and without fibers possesses mechanical properties that are significantly different from normal strength concrete materials. 15].0 and 1. 0.45 mm and length = 36 mm.4.1970 with 12.40.25 were selected. A naphthalene sulphonated formaldehyde (NSF) as HRWR admixture (superplasticizer) conforming to ASTM Type F with dosage range of 1.35. 1.5 mm maximum size and fineness modulus of 6. 0.7% of SiO2 were used in the ratio of 9:1 (1:1 partial replacement of cement) in all the mixes. Mixture proportions used in the test programme are summarized in Table 2 [13. 78 and 117. The properties of fibers used are given in Table 1. 0.

1979 [16] standards using 150 mm cubes loaded uniaxially. Concrete was mixed using a tilting type mixer and specimens were cast using steel moulds. All the specimens were cured in the same water tank to maintain uniform curing. Minimum of three specimens were tested to assess the average strength. Results and Discussions The results of this investigation are applicable to the material and the type of fibers used. Mixing and Curing Silica fume was mixed with cement uniformly and thoroughly till homogeneity is attained. Compressive Strength Compressive strength tests were carried out according to IS: 516. The tests were done in a servo±controlled compressive testing machine by applying load at the rate of 14 MPa/min. For each mix at least three 150 mm cubes and three 100 x 100 x 500 mm prisms were produced. compacted with table vibrator. Dosage of super plasticizer was arrived based on the workability tests conducted on trial mixes.materials has been used to obtain the adequate workability of plain and fiber reinforced concrete. Figure 1(a) reveals the failure mechanism of Silica fume concrete and indicates that it increases its compressive strength and makes it more brittle. propagation of crack is restrained which is due to the bonding of fibers in to the concrete and it changes its brittle mode of failure in to a more ductile one and improves the post cracking load and energy absorption capacity. Behavior under Compression Under uniaxial compressive loading. . It is observed from Figure 1(b) that when fibers in discrete form present in the concrete. fails violently and suddenly. extensive crack was produced in the concrete during pre-peak stage and then failed suddenly at peak load. Specimens were demolded 24 hours after casting and water cured at 27 2oC until the age of testing at 28 days.

is plotted against the plain concrete.Test results show that addition of fibers has a moderate effect on the improvement of compressive strength values. Based on the test results. fc and Reinforcing index. using linear regression analysis. RI= steel fiber reinforcing index. Vf respectively. the cube compressive strength of all fibrous concrete irrespective of Vf.0% fiber content. Vf = volume fraction of steel fiber. In this figure. 10. as follows: fcf = fc+ 1. 17] for normal strength concrete. fc = compressive strength of plain concrete.0 percent fiber content. The effect of fibers on 28-day compressive strength of concrete may be evaluated form Figure 3. MPa. RI and volume fraction. the increase in strength is about 10 percent but beyond 1. It is observed from the test results that for 1. The least square line obtained using linear regression analysis with correlation coefficient. percent RI = wf * (l/d).98 is given by: .84 (RI) fcf = fc = + 4. there is only marginal increase in strength. 7. 9. Table 3 and Figure 2 show that the addition of fiber volume fraction from 0 to 1. the compressive strength of HPFRC may be estimated in terms of compressive strength of plain concrete.5% increases the compressive strength by about 10 percent compared to zero 20 percent given in the literature [5. average density of HPFRC = 2415 kg/ m3 Weight fraction (wf) = (density of fiber/ density of fibrous concrete) * Vf Aspect ratio (l/d) = length of fiber/diameter of fiber. r =0.74 (Vf ) (2) Where fcf = compressive strength of fiber reinforced concrete. MPa.

.087 (3) The predicted values as obtained by equation (1) and the equations proposed by the researchers [5. Figure 4 (Bar chart) shows the improvement of compressive strength on the effect of addition of fiber content for different w/cm ratios.fcf = 1. The load was applied at the rate of 0. The tests were conducted in a 100 kN closed loop hydraulically operated Universal testing machine. Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) The flexural strength (Modulus of rupture) tests were conducted as per the specification of ASTM C 7894 [18] using 100 x 100 x 500 mm prisms under third point loading on a simply supported span of 400 mm. It may be seen from the Figure 8 that the predicted compressive strength by the equation (1) and different researchers are having a good correlation with experimental values. are presented in Table 4.17] were compared with the experimental values.7. The proposed equation (1) evaluates the compressive strengths with absolute variations less than 4%. Minimum of three specimens were tested to compute the average strength.1 mm/ min.

149. varying from 16 to 38 percent of plain concrete. in its publication Industrial pavement-Guidelines for design.861. Where. Figure 6 shows the variation of the modulus of rupture fcf as a function of the compressive strength fcf of the HPFRC. Conclusion Based on the test results of the experimental investigation using crimped steel fiber reinforcement with an aspect ratio of 80. MPa (4) The Cement and Concrete association of Australia adopts the following relationship for FRC. construction and specification.70 ¥fc.0 to 1.5% fiber content and 29 percent for 1. RCSR is the ratio of rupture strength to compressive strength. ¥fc MPa (5) This equation (4) yields the values less than that obtained by Wafa and Ashour [6] of 1.019fcf 1.' MPa which yields lower value compared to the proposed equation (4).425.68 for 5 MPa < ¶c < 120 MPa. fr as a function of compressive strength ¥fc of the HPC (plain concrete). fr = 0.0% fiber content reveal that toughness will be much more than that of plain concrete.Table 3 and Figure 5 present the variation of the modulus of rupture f rf. The following equation is provided using regression analysis for the test results.107±0. frf = fr +0. varied in the range of 0.42 ( ¶c) 0. It is observed from the test results (Table 3) that there is a significant improvement in flexural strength in increasing the steel fiber content from 0. The increase in strength of 38 percent for 1. as follows: frf = 0. the peak values of modulus of rupture of HP-FRC may be expressed as a function of RI and Vf respectively as follows. on the effect of fiber content. Using the tested results presented in Table 4. Figure 7 shows the variation of the modulus of rupture.665(RI) frf = fr + 1.695 ( Vf) (6) (7) where frf= modulus of rupture of HPFRC. MPa frf = modulus of rupture of concrete.5 ACI 363-1992 [3] proposed the equation fr = 0. frf = 0. the following observations can be drawn: .5 percent for all the mixes. frf of fiber reinforced concrete using non± linear regression analysis.94) as = 0. MPa RCSR values obtained. by performing linear regression analysis.03¶ ¥fc for HSC 0. 2002 have proposed the equation which was obtained from the correlation of data by least square regression analysis (correlation coefficient = 0. The equation obtained for predicting the modulus of rupture.94 ( ¶c) for concrete strength range of 21 MPa < ¶c < 83 MPa which yields higher values to the predicted equation (4). Rashid et al.

MPa f rf = modulus of rupture of HPFRC concrete.y High performance concrete (silica fume concrete) is a highly brittle material and fails suddenly. in to a more ductile one.107±0. Notations HPC= high performance concrete HPFRC= high performance fiber reinforced concrete fc = compressive strength of plain concrete. y The high-performance fiber reinforced concretes obtained have higher RCSR values. y The tensile strength as measured by modulus of rupture of HPC (plain concrete) is closely estimated by the equation fr= 0.861. y Empirical equations that predict the influence of fiber contents in terms of fiber reinforcing index on mechanical properties of HPFRC are presented. References . MPa y The validity of the proposed expressions is limited to the type of fiber used up to 1.50 percent volume fraction results in an increase of about 10 percent in the compressive strength. fc. It was observed that SFRC improves the concrete ductility.58) is effective in increasing compressive strength which is by about 10% of plain concrete (silica fume concrete). y Fiber volume fraction up to 1. MPa Vf = volume fraction of steel fiber. The brittle mode of failure is changed by addition of steel fibers in to HPC.88). which varied in the range of 0.5 % volume fraction (RI= 3. MPa f r = modulus of rupture plain concrete. and results in an increase of 38 percent in the flexural strength compared to no fiber matrix. its post-cracking load carrying capacity. MPa fcf = compressive strength of HPFRC concrete. percent l/d= aspect ratio RI= fiber reinforcing index.0 percent (RI= 2.149. y The addition of steel fibers by 1. The improvement in flexural strength varying from 16 to 37 percent of plain concrete.

p. Singh. S. Z. Sarma. E& FN. ACI 363R. A. Chin.´ Indian Concrete Journal.P. p. and Gupta. Bureau of Indian standards. p. G. ³Effect of steel fiber reinforcement on fresh mix proportions of concrete. in Civil Eng. N. ASTM C78-1994.´ ICJ. mixing. P.. N. A. and Kumar. Civil. 353.429. Indian standard methods of tests for strength of concrete. American society for testing and materials. New Delhi. p.4R-93. y Standard test method for flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete. ³Stress±strain behavior of steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete under compression. India. ³Normal and high strength fiber reinforced concrete under compression.. USA. Statistical Concepts and Methods.92. Dhang. and Soroushan. R. Balaguru. American Concrete Institute.A.y Balaguru. M.. P. ³Guide for specifying..´ ASCE. y Wafa. American Concrete Institute. and Wee. y ACI Committee 544. New Delhi.  y IS: 383-1970. placing and finishing steel fiber reinforced concrete. 66(2) (1992)..S. p.. India. y ACI Committee 544. 369-374. ³Mechanical properties of high strength fiber reinforced concrete.S. p.K. 1992. F. y IS: 516-1979. y Attcin.. S.´ ASCEJournal of mate. M. 13(1) (1999). Journal of Mate. Recommended guide lines for concrete mix design.´ ACI materials journal. London.K. New Delhi. A C I Manual of concrete practice 1999..H. McGraw Hill international edition. L. India. (July 1998).. M. y Bayasi. New York. Detroit. 90(1) (1993).179.1R82. Guide for selecting proportions for High strength concrete with Portland cement and Flyash. 1992. p. New Delhi. C.. Spon. 448-457. y ACI Committee 363..´ ACI materials Journal. BIS 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards. Annual book of ASTM standards. 1st edition. ³Compressive strength of fibrous concrete.´ ACI Materials Journal. M.F. Specification for 53-grade OPC.T.P. y Bhattacharya. S. and Ashour.. 445.. S. High performance concrete.N. P..art report on fiber reinforced concrete. 1977.´ ACI Materials Journal. 89(5) (1992) p. State-ofthe.. Wiley. ³State-ofthe.A. y IS: 12269-1987.. Effect of Fineness of Sand on the Cost and Properties of Concrete .S. Y. y ACI 211. Fiber reinforced concrete composites..356. ³Stress±strain relationship of high strength fiber concrete in compression.C. 415. y Nataraja. and Hsu.. 89(4)(1992). eng.214. A. Johnson. Bureau of Indian standards. 91(4) (1994) p..A. 4(4) (1992). Specification for coarse and fine aggregates from natural sources for concrete.455. y Hsu. 99±102. ³Steel fiber reinforced concrete in compression. India. (1992). 1998. y Samer Ezeldin. 21.C.P.´ ACI 544..29.art report on High strength concrete. y Saluja. and Shah. 94-101. y IS: 10262-1992. Bureau of Indian standards.T.. y Mansur..

Medium. The results indicate that with the change in fineness of sand. These were mixed with coarse aggregate in different proportions so as to keep the combined Fineness Modulus (all-inaggregate) more or less the same. Suryakanta Bal.Prashant Agrawal. Allahabad. the latter gives harsh unworkable mixes. and Coarse. flexural strength and other properties like permeability & durability of concrete. Gupta. Introduction Fineness Modulus is a term used as an index to the fineness or coarseness of aggregate. which is most suitable. economy. Further a cohesive mix is also desired for the pumped concrete produced by RMC Plant. cube strength. produce the most suitable concrete mix. Allahabad Bypass Project. Review of Provisions in Different Specifications . BCEOM-LASA JV. aggregate constitute 80 to 90% of the total volume of concrete. porosity and shrinkage of concrete etc. Experience has shown that very fine sands or very coarse sands are objectionable ± the former is uneconomical. Improper blend of aggregate influences the cement and water demand for a given concrete mix and affects workability. influencing durability are reported in this paper. They affect relative proportions in mix. This is the summation of cumulative percentage of materials retained on the standard sieves divided by 100. Y. Dr. It is well±known that aggregate plays an important role in achieving the desired properties of concrete. HCC Ltd. QC Manager. The details of findings and its effect on compressive and flexural strength and permeability. Sand has been sorted in three categories i. yet very littleattention is given in controlling the grading and surface texture of aggregate to optimize the properties of concrete. and cohesion characteristics of pumpable concrete mix. Materials Consultant. effect of the grading of river sand particles has been investigated for a good Concrete mix. flexural strength and permeability. QC Engineer. which do not have a deficiency or excess of any size of aggregate and give a smooth grading curve. Thus the object in this paper is to find the best fineness modulus of sand to get the optimum grading of combined aggregate (all-in-aggregate). and for economy. The grading and maximum size of aggregates is important parameters in any concrete mix. HCC Ltd. Fine. workability gets affected. Though. It also influences the compressive strength. UP. In the present investigations. Effect is studied on concrete workability. Various proportions of such aggregate are mixed in preparing M 30 grade of Concrete mix. compactibility. workability. In general.P.e. the grading of aggregates.

To find out the effect of fineness modulus (FM) of sand on concrete.1.B.0 to 3. made with the fine aggregate under consideration. U.standard specification for concrete aggregates´±The fine aggregate shall have not more than 45% passing any sieve and retained on the next consecutive sieve and its fineness modulus will not be less than 2.0. it is demonstrated that concrete of the class specified. from Zone I to Zone IV.S. AASTHO Designation: M6-93. sand of different FM from 2.It indicates that the fineness modulus of sand will not be less than 2. The combined FM is determined like All-in-aggregate FM. These specifications do not specify any limit for fineness modulus to be used in concrete.3 and nor more than 3. the effect of Fineness Modulus of sand has been investigated. Zone I±Sand being very coarse and Zone 4 sand is very fine.50 and not more 3.0. These were mixed in different proportions to get a consistent combined FM. The Fine aggregate (Sand) taken is Yamuna river sand and coarse aggregate taken is Dolomite limestone in crushed form.IS 383: ³Specifications for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete. In the present study we have selected M30 Grade of concrete mix.1.3 and not more than 3. with the exception that a reference fine aggregate be used which is selected from a source having an acceptable performance record in similar concrete construction. Rest is the same as for AASTHO M6-93. Experimental Investigation In the present investigations.e.´ This publication deals with specifications for Coarse and Fine aggregates from natural sources for Concrete. It has been sorted in several categories starting the Fineness Modulus (FM) of sand from 2. provided.0 to .R: The code has specified that the fineness modulus of sand shall not be less than 2.³Standard Specification for Fine Aggregate For Portland Cement Concrete´. or in absence of a demonstrable service record. Further. fine aggregate failing to meet the fineness modulus requirement as above may be accepted. ASTM Designation: C33-93. It divides the sand in four zones i. provided concrete made with similar fine aggregate from the same source has an acceptable performance record in similar concrete construction. It is generally recommended by code to use sands of zones I to Zone III for Structural concrete works. will have relevant properties at least equal to those of concrete made with the same ingredients.

Crushed Stone (Average 1155Kg) The material properties are given in Table 1. of FM 3. The admixture dosages reduced considerably as fineness of sand increases as shown in Figure 2. are slightly adjusted in the mixes to keep allin. and very coarse sand (i. Cubes (150 x 150 x 150 mm size). the mix may become very harsh or not give correct results. admixture dosages were varied. Effect on Workability. will result in different water demands. Effect of varying FM of sand is studied on concrete density. Observations & Discussion of Results Table 3 gives the total observations recorded during the experimental investigations. The slump observed was about 50 mm in all cases.94 to 4. Workability of Concrete Mix: The workability of concrete mix was measured with the help of 300 mm standard size slump cone. Concrete Mix Selected: Concrete Grade : M30 Water-Cement Ratio : 0.45 Cement: OPC 53 grade (350 Kg) Aggregate to Cement Ratio : 5. A little amount of admixture dose was added to concrete mix.aggregate grading within envelope of desired all-inaggregate grading given in IS: 383. So in present study proportions of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate.0 is chosen.97 as seen from Table 2. Workability of mix is also fixed in range of 45 to 55 mm slump.0). workability. No segregation or bleeding was observed in the mix. A. The FM of combined mix is kept in range of 4. and Permeability due to variations in FM of sand is discussed here. water demand in the mix got affected consequently workability gets affected.1 capacity for preparing M30 grade of Concrete mix.0). Strength. which are generally used in standard concrete mix. so watercement ratio is kept constant and to adjust workability slight adjustments in admixture dosages has been made. The Figure 2 shows that: . When we choose very fine sand (i. segregation and Bleeding etc.3.e. FM 2. Since water-cement ratio is kept constant.52 Admixture: Super plasticizer (as required) Fine Aggregate : Yamuna River Sand (Average 777Kg) Coarse Aggregate: Dolomite. cylinders (150 Ö x 150 mm height) and beams (150 x 150 x 700 mm length) are cast. were chosen for the investigations. Two sizes of coarse aggregate particles: i. Each time concrete mix was examined for the behavior in slump.e. compressive strength. flexural strength and permeability. 20 & 10 mm.e. The results indicate that with the increase in fineness modulus of sand. and if the proportion of sand is fixed in the mix then due to poor all-inaggregate grading. In this study water-cement ratio (W/C) of mix is kept constant for all the trial mixes with sand of different fineness modulus. so to keep workability in the same range of 50 mm. Since mix with so different fineness modulus of sand. Various proportions of such ingredients are mixed in laboratory mixer of 0. Figure 1. Density. shows the type of slump observed.

0. The figure indicates that: y As fineness modulus of sand changes from 2. each cube was weighed using electronic balance and density of concrete was calculated.e. After curing.0 to 3. several 150 mm cubes were filled. From this figure. when fineness modulus increases from 2. strength increases by 14%.07 to 49.2 percent as sand fineness modulus increases from 2. admixture dosage reduced by 0.0 percent to 0.80 to 1. Effect of Fineness of Sand on Compressive Strength of Concrete Cubes of 150 mm were tested for compressive strength at 7 and 28 days.00 MPa. 0. These were cured in water tank for 28 days. On the other hand by .e.1%.0 to 2.0. y For Every 5% increase in FM of sand.0 to 3. The variation of density with FM of sand is shown in Figure 3 for different cases. i.y Admixture Dosage reduced from 1. it is evident that there is slight increase in density i.20 percent.5 there is an increase in compressive strength from 43. This compressive strength is given in table 3 for varying FM of sand. Effect of Fineness of Sand on Density of Concrete After measuring the slump. The variation is shown in Figure 4.

Strength = P x 1000 x L / (b x d x d). for a > 170 mm but less than 200 mm = Result is discarded when a > 170 mm Where. y For Every 0.00 to 56. the strength increases from 4.0 to 3. Effect of Fineness of Sand on Permeability of Concrete .0 to 2.5% y The increase in strength is more towards coarser side of sand. 28 days Compressive Strength increases by 2. for a > 200 mm but less than 200 mm = P x (3000 x a) / (b x d x d). y For Every 0.0.0%.82 to 4.25%.increasing Fineness Modulus from 2. The variation of flexural strength with respect to different parameters is also given in Figure 4. On the other hand by increasing Fineness Modulus from 2. y 7 days compressive strength also increases in the similar proportion.1 to .1 increase in FM of sand from 2. There is faster increase in strength towards coarser side of sand. Flexural Strength increases by 2. b = width of sample beam (150 mm).1% increase in strength. strength increases by 11.25 to 4.81 MPa resulting in 13. Flex.0. Compressive strength increases from 49. d = depth of sample at the point of failure (1500 mm). y Effect of Fineness of Sand on Flexural Strength of Concrete Flexural strength is calculated from 28 days testing of beam of size 150x150x700 mm by using following formula.1 increase in FM of sand from 2. L = total support length of specimen (600 mm).5 to 3. a = distance between the line of fracture and the nearest support (recorded for each sample after test).25 MPa i.0 to 3. P = failure Load.83 MPa resulting in 16% increase in strength.5 there is an increase in 28 days flexural strength from 3.e. This figure indicates the following: y As fineness modulusincreases from 2.5 to 3.5 to 3.

Permeability of concrete is determined by using cylinder specimen having 150 mm diameter and 160 mm height. Average depth of water penetration in cylinder is 2.e. It is seen from figure that permeability coefficient is more or less constant with respect to fineness of sand. The Permeability Coefficient of concrete Vs FM of sand is plotted in figures 6. The depth of penetration of water in cylinder was measured as well as volume of water lost is recorded. The results are interpreted as: 1. They were applied water pressure of 7 Kg/ cm2 for 96 hours in the Permeability Apparatus shown in Figure 5. Thus FM of sand has very little impact on Permeability Coefficient of Concrete and the value remains more or less constant. . Coefficient of permeability is calculated as volume of water lost divided by volume of concrete penetrated with water i. Immediately after 96 hours cylinders were split under line load test. of water lost / (Area of cylinder x Average depth of concrete having effect of penetration of water). Permeability coefficient = vol.

30 per Kg. The variation of rate of sand depends on market which can have much more difference. 40.8 to 3.Failure Pattern of Beams & Cubes 1.31 per Kg. No labor cost has been added in the calculation as it will remain constant.75 per Kg Admixture: Rs. In flaky aggregate.32 per Kg. This is given in Table 4 (b) a) Cost of concrete is calculated in terms of quantity of material used & market rates as given above.4 to 2. and for F. On the basis of cost calculated for concrete and the corresponding 28 day compressive strength. for FM 2. some voids are observed at the interface of concrete and mortar. b) Cost Benefit Ratio is calculated as: C/B ratio = Total cost of Concrete/28 days Compressive Strength .00 per Kg Water: Rs. * Rate of Sand for FM 2. Coarse aggregate. 0.30 to Rs. 2. Admixture and a nominal cost for water. the cost benefit ratio is calculated as follows. 0.32 per Kg (depending upon Fineness of Sand) Coarse Aggregate: Rs. Cost of concrete is calculated by taking above rates and quantities given in table 4 (a). 0. 0. Mortar matrix isgenerally crushed. 0. Cost Benefit Ratio Cost of Concrete mix per is calculated on the basis of unit cost of each ingredient material in the mix. It is generally seen that the failure occurs at the interface of aggregate and mortar. Elongated aggregate pieces are broken.3 is Rs. 0.0 to 2. 3. Cement: Rs. 0.7 is Rs.10 per Kg. 4. The quantities of ingredients for one of concrete are given in table 4 (a). 2.25 per Kg Sand*: Rs. M. Sand. The following market rates have been taken for Cement.0 Rs.

The results indicate that with the increase in FM. the Cost/Benefit Ratio reduce by a very large factor. y The optimum value of strength can be taken when workability of concrete is also good.0 to 3. It is evident by cost benefit ratio that overall concrete mix is becoming economical if we use sand with higher FM. It increases by about 2. Thus. it is advisable to use coarser sand in Concrete. it is seen that C/B ratio reduces considerably as the FM of sand increases.3% as the FM increases from 2. 1999. results in higher strength of concrete. Sand.M. That means we can get large advantage by using concrete having Coarse Sand. properties and materials¶. 2005. The cement demand also gets modified. New Delhi. y MEHTA. New Delhi.M.' Indian Road Congress. This is 29% when FM changes from 2. From FM varying from 2. References y NEVILLE. New Delhi. workability gets affected considerably. Conclusion Fineness Modulus of Sand affects Compressive and flexural strength of Concrete.0 to 3. µProperties of concrete¶. Site Laboratory at Allahabad.' BIS. y IRC 2001: µSpecifications for Road and Bridge Works. y As the fineness modulus of Sand increases.0 to 3. µConcrete microstructure.5. . It is obtained when Fineness Modulus is about 2. y ASTM Designation: C33 ± 93. IV edition.5% for an increase of FM from 2.0 to 3. The authors are thankful to them and QC staff of M/S BCEOM and HCC for their help. It reduces by about 6. y AASHTO Designation: M6 ± 93. P.0 the C/B ratio reduces by 71%.0. A. y A well adjusted grading (all-inaggregate) of concrete mix is also suitable for pumped concrete produced through RMC Plant. MONTEIVO. Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates. Some of the observations are given below: y Fineness Modulus has larger impact on 28 days Compressive & Flexural Strength.A curve has been plotted between FM of sand Vs C/B Ratio as shown in Figure 6. From this graph. µSpecifications for coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for concrete¶. y SP: 23-2001.7. BIS. Optimum value of density and other parameters are obtained when FM is 2.0 to 3.0. Permeability coefficientis changed by about 2% for FM from 2. µHandbook on concrete mixes based on Indian standards. y The net cost of Concrete reduces when FM of sand increases. ICI. y Fineness Modulus also affects the density of concrete. y BS: 812. y Fineness Modulus has very little impact on Permeability of Concrete. Ltd. y IS: 383-1970. µStandard Specification for Fine Aggregate for Portland CementConcrete. Pearson Education Pvt. PAULO J.0. This is achieved by using a sand having FM of around 2.0.K. µBritish Standard for size and shape of aggregates¶ Acknowledgment The work has been carried out in M/ S HCC Ltd. with higher FM.8.

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