CHAPTER 7 Creating a Motivating Work Setting

True/False Questions Opening Case – Motivating Employees at Hydro 1. Norsk Hydro has a holistic approach to job design and emphasizes the significance of the work employees perform for the company as a whole as well as for society in general. True (page 202, moderate, recall) 2. At Norsk Hydro in Norway, employees are given the autonomy to decide when and where they work. True (page 202, moderate, recall) 3. In spite of longer work hours, Norsk Hydro employees exhibit job satisfaction and organizational commitment. False (page 202, moderate, understanding) Norsk Hydro realizes that allowing employees to have balance in their lives (between work and family) helps them perform better and contributes to their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. 4. The Hydroflex program at Norsk Hydro is an on-the-job exercise program designed to boost company morale and increase productivity. False (page 202, difficult, recall) Key to Norsk Hydro’s approach to flexibility is there Hydroflex program which provides flexibility in when and where one works, flexibility in the use of one’s skills, and flexibility in the kinds of contributions one makes on the job. Job Design: Early Approaches 5. Job design is the process of linking specific tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks. True (page 203, easy, recall) 6. Job design does not influence the motivation of employees and their input levels.

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False (page 203, moderate, understanding) Managers try to design jobs to motivate employees to perform well, enjoy their work, and receive the outcomes they deserve. Job design also influences the motivation of employees and their input levels. When employees are motivated to contribute inputs at a high level and perform their jobs more effectively, organizational effectiveness increases. 7. The scientific management method was developed out of the U.S. war effort in World War II. False (page 204, moderate, recall) In 1911, Frederick Taylor published one of the earliest approaches to job design, The Principles of Scientific Management. Scientific management was developed by Taylor to increase the performance of individual employees. 8. The determination of the exact types of body movements that are most efficient for performing certain tasks is done through a process called “time and motion studies.” True (page 205, easy, recall) 9. In the scientific management approach to job design, pay is the principal outcome used to motivate employees to contribute their inputs. True (Page 205, moderate, understanding) 10. Jobs that were designed under scientific management principles tended to be monotonous and dehumanizing. True (page 205, moderate, understanding) 11. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory was a driving force in the movement to enrich jobs. False (page 206, moderate, analysis) Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory was a driving force in the movement to enrich jobs. Herzberg’s theory suggested that employees’ motivator needs are satisfied by things such as having autonomy on the job and being responsible for one’s work, and that employees are satisfied with their jobs only when these needs are met.

12.

Job enlargement is referred to as horizontal job loading. True (page 206, easy, recall)

13.

Job enlargement programs tended to have mixed success.
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True (page 206, moderate, recall) 14. Job enlargement is also referred to as vertical job loading. False (page 206, easy, recall) Job enlargement is often referred to as horizontal job loading because the content of a job is expanded, but the difficulty remains constant. 15. When an assembly line worker is given some of the responsibility for checking the quality of work that the supervisor used to do, his job has been enriched. True (page 206, moderate, analysis) 16. General Mills was able to cut costs and increase efficiency by enriching jobs. True (page 207, moderate, recall) 17. Workers whose jobs have been enriched are more motivated and generally perform at a higher level, according to general findings of job enrichment research. False (pages 207-208 , difficult, recall) Not all employees want the additional responsibility that job enrichment brings, and it can sometimes have disadvantages for the organization as a whole. Enriching some jobs may result in loss of efficiency. Research evidence on the effects of enrichment has been mixed. Although employees seem to be more satisfied with enriched jobs, it is not clear whether employees with enriched jobs are actually more motivated and perform at a higher level. Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model 18. According to the job characteristics model, when workers think their jobs have more impact on the people inside and outside the organization than other jobs, their intrinsic motivation should be higher. True (page 208, moderate, understanding) 19. When employees are intrinsically motivated, they feel good, motivating them to continue to perform at a high level, so good performance becomes self-reinforcing. True (page 208, moderate, analysis) 20. The higher a job scores on each core job dimension, according to the job characteristics model, the higher the level of extrinsic motivation. False (page 208, moderate, recall)
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The higher a job scores on each dimension, the higher the level of intrinsic motivation. 21. The jobs of Subway employees have a low level of skill variety. True (page 208, easy, understanding) 22. Task significance is the degree to which a job allows an employee freedom and independence. False (page 209, easy, recall) Task significance is the extent to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people in or out of the organization. 23. An individual can score between 1 and 7 on each of the five core dimensions of the job characteristics model. Therefore, the maximum possible motivating potential score on the Job Diagnostic Survey is 35. False (page 211, difficult, understanding) The motivating potential score (MPS) is a measure of the overall potential of a job to foster intrinsic motivation. MPS is equal to the average of the first three core characteristics multiplied by autonomy and feedback. The lowest MPS possible for a job is 1 and the highest possible is 343. 24. The Job Diagnostic Survey can be used to identify the elements of a job that should be redesigned and that, if changed, will produce the largest increase in the motivating potential score. True (page 212, difficult, analysis) 25. The critical psychological state that stems from the core dimension of autonomy is experienced meaningfulness of work outcomes. False (page 213, moderate, recall) Experienced responsibility for work outcomes stems from the core dimension of autonomy. 26. The five core dimensions of the job characteristics model produce three critical psychological states that result in four key outcomes for workers and their organizations. True (page 213 and Figure 7.4, easy, recall) 27. According to the job characteristics model, workers who experience low levels of the three critical psychological states are extrinsically motivated. False (page 213 and Figure 7.4, moderate, understanding)

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When jobs are high on the five core dimensions, employees experience the three critical psychological states and are intrinsically motivated. 28. The job characteristics model helps explain why employees may respond somewhat differently to an increase in some of the core characteristics of their job. True (page 215, moderate, understanding) 29. Workers who are dissatisfied with their work context spend significant amounts of energy dealing with their dissatisfaction and are not able to appreciate and respond to the potential for intrinsic motivation on their jobs. True (page 215, moderate, understanding) 30. Cultural differences may have an impact on the relationships between the core job dimensions and psychological states. True (pages 215-216, easy, recall) 31. Research on the job characteristics model has shown clearly that the five core dimensions discussed by Hackman and Oldman best describe the job design of all jobs. False (page 216, moderate, recall) It is not clear that exactly five dimensions best describe the job design of all jobs. Research shows that job dimensions have the most significant effects on intrinsic motivation and on job satisfaction.

32.

According to research on the job characteristics model, simply adding up the scores for the characteristics may provide a better way to calculate the motivating potential score than the multiplication suggested by Hackman and Oldman. True (page 216, difficult, recall)

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Redesigning jobs to increase the levels of the five core dimensions listed in the job characteristics model will universally increase job performance and absenteeism. False (page 216, moderate, analysis) Research shows that job dimensions have the most significant effects on intrinsic motivation and on job satisfaction; the effects on actual work behaviors (such as job performance, absenteeism, and turnover) are not as strong.

Job Design: The Social Information Processing Model

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34.

Social information processing and the job characteristics model highlight the same aspects of job design. False (page 217, moderate, understanding) The job characteristics model is complemented by the social information processing model.

35.

The social information processing model of job design proposes that co-workers and supervisors provide workers with cues about which work outcomes are important and how these work outcomes should be evaluated. True (page 217, moderate, recall)

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Social information processing theory would predict that, all other things being equal, highly paid executives who earned their positions because of family connections are less likely to be intrinsically motivated than similar executives who competitively earned their positions in the company. True (page 217, difficult, analysis)

37.

Once employees have gained first-hand experience with their jobs, the social environment may play less of a decisive role in molding reactions, and the actual design of the job itself may be come more important. True (page 219, moderate, understanding)

Job Design Models Summarized 38. Approaches to job design that stress extrinsic motivation promote designing jobs to closely link performance to compensation. True (page 219, moderate, analysis) Organizational Objectives 39. Organizational objectives contribute to creating a motivating work setting because they can provide employees with a sense of meaning and purpose. True (page 220, moderate, recall) 40. Google’s organizational objective dictates that users’ experiences are paramount. Therefore, employees are continually collecting data on what users like and don’t like. True (page 221, moderate, recall)

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Employees typically focus on achieving their goals tied to their own job and rarely realize what the organizational objective is. False (page 222, moderate, understanding) Although employees typically focus on achieving their goals tied to their own jobs, they are more likely to realize that by meeting their individual or group goals, they are helping the organization to reach its objectives, too. In addition to general organizational objectives, the individual goals employees work towards play an important role in creating a motivating work setting.

Goal Setting 42. Hackman and Oldham are leaders in goal-setting theory and research. False (page 222, easy, recall) Edwin Locke and Gary Latham are leaders in goal-setting theory are research. 43. Goal-setting theory focuses on how to motivate employees to contribute inputs to their jobs. False (page 222, easy, recall) Goal setting theory focuses on how to motivate employees to contribute inputs to their jobs. The theory also stresses the importance of ensuring their inputs result in acceptable job performance levels. 44. Goal setting theory states that specific and difficult goals lead to higher motivation and performance than do easy, moderate, or vague goals or no goals at all. True (page 223, easy, recall) 45. Feedback is not necessary for goal setting to work. False (page 223, moderate, recall) Goal setting seems to work best when employees are given feedback about how they are doing. 46. Research shows that goal seeing affects motivation and performance only when employees are given extra extrinsic rewards for achieving their goals. False (page 224, difficult, recall) It is important that research shows that goal setting affects motivation and performance even when employees are not given any extra extrinsic rewards for achieving their goals. 47. The Coca Cola/Burger King test on frozen Coke is a reminder that any efforts to attain goals must be defensible on ethical grounds.

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True (page 225, moderate, understanding) 48. Setting specific and difficult goals reduces performance when a considerable amount of learning is important to the task. True (page 225, moderate, understanding) 49. If creativity is desired and employees are given specific, difficult goals, it is likely they will focus on achieving the goals rather than being creative. True (page 226, moderate, understanding) 50. The objective of MBO is to make sure that all goal setting contributes to the organization’s effectiveness. True (page 226, easy, recall)

Goal Setting and Job Design as Motivation Tools 51. In terms of the motivation equation, job design and goal setting focus primarily on how to motivate employees to contribute their inputs to their jobs and organizations. True (page 227, moderate, understanding) Multiple-Choice Questions Opening Case – Motivating Employees at Norsk Hydro 52. In Norway, Norsk Hydro is known for its extensive efforts to A) provide unconditional job security. B) enrich jobs using scientific management. C) promote diversity. D) promote job satisfaction. (page 202, moderate, recall) All of the following are common at Norsk Hydro EXCEPT A) flexibility. B) long work hours. (page 202, moderate, recall) C) autonomy. D) intrinsic motivation. The key to Norsk Hydro’s management approach is A) goal setting. B) extrinsic motivation. C) scientific management.
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D) flexibility. (page 202, moderate, understanding) Job Design: Early Approaches 55. Job design is the process of linking specific tasks to A) the abilities of specific individuals. B) specific jobs and of deciding which techniques, equipment, and processes should be used to perform them. (page 203, easy, recall) C) specific techniques, equipment, and processes. D) specific motivational tools within a specific job. Managers use job design to accomplish all of the following EXCEPT to A) increase worker motivation. B) encourage workers to perform well. C) allow workers to enjoy their work. D) raise the level of outcomes provided to workers. (page 203, moderate, understanding) All of the following are true of scientific management EXCEPT A) scientific management was developed by Frederick Taylor to increase the performance of individual employees. B) Taylor believed in the principle of job enrichment. (page 204, moderate, recall) C) Taylor believed there was one best way to perform any job. D) all of the above. Many auto shops that promise oil changes in 30 minutes or less accomplish such by having one person assigned to put the car on the lift, a second whose job is to drain the old oil, a third who is responsible for putting the new oil in, and a fourth person who checks to be sure all of the other jobs are done and all of the other lubricants are checked. This method of breaking down a job into these various elements is known as A) time and motion studies. B) simplification and specialization. (page 204, difficult, analysis) C) job enlargement. D) job enrichment. Josh Bishoff is an industrial engineer who measures exactly how long a task takes and works on developing ways to complete the job in minimal time, including specifying the exact body movements workers should use to do the job most efficiently. The process he uses to develop the optimal way to perform a task is known as A) time and motion studies. (page 205, difficult, understanding) B) horizontal job loading. C) job enlargement. D) job enrichment. The principal tool used to motivate workers in the scientific management approach to job design is
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56.

57.

58.

59.

60.

A) B) C) D) 61.

worker satisfaction. pay. (page 205, easy, understanding) time and motion studies. specialization.

The disadvantages of scientific management include all of the following EXCEPT A) workers have no opportunity to acquire new skills. B) the work is monotonous. C) workers are often paid by the piece produced. (page 205, moderate, recall) D) workers feel they have no control over their work behaviors.

62.

A significant problem with the scientific management approach to job design is that it A) ignores intrinsic motivation. (page 205, moderate, understanding) B) ignores extrinsic motivation. C) does not produce measurable improvements in productivity. D) gives workers too much control over the job. Job enlargement is a form of job design that A) increases the number of tasks on a higher level difficulty performed by a worker on a job. B) increases the number of tasks at the same level of difficulty performed by a worker on a job. (page 206, moderate, recall) C) designs jobs to provide for worker growth in an effort to increase extrinsic motivation. D) designs jobs in accordance with Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory in order to increase extrinsic motivation. Job enrichment is also known as A) horizontal job loading. B) job enlargement. C) job desimplification. D) vertical job loading. (page 206, easy, recall) A driving force in the movement to enrich jobs was A) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. B) Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory. (page 206, moderate, understanding) C) equity theory. D) expectancy theory. The most common ways manager can enrich jobs is by allowing workers to do all of the following EXCEPT A) check their own work. B) decide how the work should be performed.
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64.

65.

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C) do several tasks. (page 206, moderate, understanding) D) plan their own work schedules. 67. General Mills was an example of how A) Betty Crocker produced more cake mixes. B) job enrichment can also lead to efficiency gains. (page 207, moderate, recall) C) added responsibility does not always work. D) cost cutting requires job re-design. The warnings associated with job enrichment include all of the following EXCEPT A) not all workers want the additional responsibility job enrichment brings. B) job enrichments may be expensive. C) enriching some jobs may decrease efficiency. D) intrinsic motivation is sometimes decreased by job enrichment. (pages 207-208, moderate, understanding)

68.

Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model 69. The job characteristics model’s primary focus is identifying which job characteristics contribute to A) extrinsically motivating work. B) intrinsically motivating work. (page 208, easy, recall) C) how workers interpret past behaviors. D) workers’ growth need strength. The five core dimensions of the job characteristics model include A) skill variety, task identity, and skill significance. B) task variety, skill identity, and task significance. C) skill variety, task identity, and task significance. (page 208, moderate, recall) D) task variety, task identity, and skill significance. In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job involves performing a whole piece of work from beginning to end is referred to as A) feedback. B) task identity. (page 208, easy, recall) C) autonomy. D) task significance. In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job requires an employee to use a number of different skills, abilities, or talents is referred to as A) feedback. B) task identity. C) skill variety. (page 208, easy, recall) D) task significance.

70.

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72.

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In the job characteristics model, the degree to which a job allows a worker the freedom and independence to schedule work and decide how to carry it out is known as A) autonomy. (page 209, easy, recall) B) task identity. C) skill variety. D) task significance. In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job provides a worker with clear information about his or her effectiveness is known as A) autonomy. B) task identity. C) task significance. D) feedback. (page 209, easy, recall) In the job characteristics model, the extent to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people in or out of the organization is referred to in the job characteristics model as A) feedback. B) task variety. C) skill identity. D) task significance. (page 209, easy, recall) Keith Parks is responsible for testing all products for safety before they are shipped from Chrismer and Park Company. Keith is highly motivated to do a good job because he believes ensuring product safety is important to the company’s customers, the company, and all of his fellow employees. The job characteristics model would rate Keith’s job as having A) high task variety. B) high task significance. (page 209, moderate, understanding) C) high autonomy. D) high feedback. Bill Simmons enjoys that his job as quality assurance coordinator allows him to see when he is being effective and when he is not. The job characteristics model refers to this as A) autonomy. B) task significance. C) outcome significance. D) feedback. (page 209, moderate, understanding) When you are considering the five core dimensions of the job characteristics model, it is important to realize that the key determinants of intrinsic motivation are determined by the A) objective characteristics of the job. B) workers’ perceptions of the core dimensions. (page 209, moderate, analysis) C) managers’ assessments of the core dimensions. D) perceptions of co-workers.
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The questionnaire that is used to measure how workers perceive the core dimensions of their jobs is called A) motivating potential score (MPS). B) job diagnostic survey (JDS). (pages 209-211, moderate, recall) C) job diagnostic inventory (JDI). D) growth needs survey (GNS). According to the job characteristics model, the overall potential of a job to foster intrinsic motivation is called the A) motivating potential score (MPS). (page 211, moderate, recall) B) job diagnostic survey (JDS). C) job diagnostic inventory (JDI). D) growth needs survey (GNS). According to Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model, the motivating potential score is equal to which of the following equations (using the initials of each of the core dimensions)? A) (SV + TI + TS) × A × F B) (SV + TI + TS) + A + F 3 C) (SV + TI + TS) × A + F 3 D) (SV + TI + TS) × A × F (page 211, difficult, recall) 3 The range of motivational levels measured by the entire Job Diagnostic Survey and reported as the MPS is from A) 1 to 7. B) 1 to 35. C) 1 to 241. D) 1 to 343. (pages 211-212, difficult, recall) Hackman and Oldham suggest that an average motivating potential score (NPS) for jobs in the U.S. corporations is around A) 78. B) 128. (page 212, moderate, recall) C) 200. D) 300.

80.

81.

82.

83.

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84.

Recent changes in the engineering department at Faye & Cy, Inc. have given individual engineers increased responsibility for projects from start to completion and more information on how well the engineering on each project met the needs of the customer. As a result of these changes, and according to the job characteristics model, management should expect A) increased task challenge. B) decreased task significance. C) a decrease in the motivating potential score. D) an increase in the motivating potential score. (page 212, difficult, analysis) A supervisor has the opportunity to change either the extent to which one of the workers’ jobs impact the lives of people outside the organization OR the extent to which a job allows one of the workers the freedom to decide how to carry out a job. If the supervisor can change only one of these two dimensions, and whichever core dimension is chosen will experience a two-point increase in the score for that related dimension to get the biggest increase in the MPS, the supervisor should A) change the skill variety. B) change the task identity. C) change the autonomy. (page 212, difficult, analysis) D) change the task significance. The three critical psychological states that determine how workers react to the design of their job are A) skill variety, task significance, and task identity. B) experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work, and experienced autonomy. C) experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of results. (page 212, moderate, recall) D) experienced responsibility for work, experienced autonomy, and experienced skill variety. The extent that workers feel they are personally responsible for their job performance is known as the A) experienced responsibility for work outcomes. (page 213, easy, recall) B) motivating potential score. C) experienced meaningfulness of work. D) knowledge of results. The key outcomes of the critical psychological states in the job characteristics model do NOT include A) high intrinsic motivation. B) high job performance. C) high job satisfaction. D) high organizational citizenship behavior. (pages 213-214, easy, recall) The job characteristics model assumes workers will have increased job satisfaction when the critical psychological states are A) at a steady and consistent level.
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85.

86.

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B) decreasing. C) high. (page 214, moderate, understanding) D) low. 90. The extent to which an individual wants his or her work to contribute to personal growth, learning, and development is the A) worker’s growth need strength. (page 215, easy, recall) B) experienced meaningfulness of work. C) experienced responsibility for work outcomes. D) worker’s satisfaction with the work context. The three individual differences identified by the job characteristics model include A) skill variety, task identify, and task significance. B) growth need strength, the worker’s level of knowledge and skills, and satisfaction with the work context. (page 215, moderate, recall) C) core dimensions, critical psychological states, and growth need strengths. D) experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for work outcomes, and knowledge of results. When employees do not have the necessary knowledge and skills, the relationship between the core dimensions and the psychological states and the relationship between the psychological states and their work/personal outcomes may be A) weak. B) nonexistent. C) negative. D) all of the above. (page 215, moderate, analysis) According to the job characteristics model, how satisfied workers are with pay, benefits, and job security is called A) knowledge of results. B) experienced responsibility for work outcomes. C) growth need strength. D) satisfaction with the work context. (page 215, moderate, recall)

91.

92.

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94.

The research on the job characteristics model has found that all of the following are true EXCEPT that A) the effect of the core job dimensions of the job characteristics model on actual work behaviors is weaker than their effect on job satisfaction. B) the job characteristics model has received modest support from other researchers who have studied it.
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C) job performance is clearly higher when the core dimensions are higher. (page 216, moderate, understanding) D) it is not clear that job performance will be higher when core dimensions are high. Job Design: The Social Information Processing Model 95. Salancik and Pfeffer proposed that workers’ perceptions and reactions to job design are influenced by A) five core dimensions. B) workers’ past behaviors and information from other people. (page 217, moderate, recall) C) emotional, affective, and behavioral factors. D) critical psychological states. In the classic movie Twelve O’Clock High, the misfits and poor performers in a bomber squadron during World War II are put into one crew and forced to fly a plane named The Leper Colony as a form of punishment. Salancik and Pfeffer would predict that having this group of disgruntled men working together in one social unit would A) increase the level of job satisfaction due to the weakness of comparative others. B) increase the level of job satisfaction due to the close cohesion such a group would generate. C) decrease the level of job satisfaction because of the negative social environment. (page 217, difficult, analysis) D) not affect job satisfaction, because all of the workers are misfits and poor performers. According to the social information processing model, the social environment includes all of the following EXCEPT A) other members of the work group. B) supervisors. C) books and movies. (page 217, moderate, understanding) D) co-workers.

96.

97.

98.

According to the social information processing model, workers’ past behaviors affect A) how they view their current jobs and work outcomes. (page 218, difficult, recall) B) how they currently view past experiences. C) their extrinsic motivation. D) their future earnings potential.

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Tom Siegmund joined Chrismer and Park Co. as a security guard 30 years ago and after many years of hard work is now the company’s security manager. Tom has received several job offers from other companies over the years, but has always chosen to stay with Chrismer and Park. Jesse Black is also a 30-year veteran who works as a clerk at Chrismer and Park. Tom and Jesse see each other only at the annual veteran’s awards ceremony. This year, Jesse told Tom how unhappy he was in his work, but that he couldn’t do anything about it, because he had never received a job offer from another company. According to social information processing theory, if all other things are equal, Tom’s job satisfaction could be predicted to be A) the same as Jesse’s, as they both joined the company at the same time. B) higher than Jesse’s, as Tom is a manager and Jesse is a clerk. C) higher than Jesse’s, based on Tom’s past choices and personal sacrifices. (pages 218-219, difficult, analysis) D) relatively high, as he has been with the company for 30 years. Research has shown that once workers have developed their own experiences on the job, A) autonomy, a part of the job characteristics model, is no longer an important issue in motivating the worker. B) the actual job design in terms of the five core dimensions of the job characteristics model eliminates the effects of social information processing. C) their past experiences play a greater role in determining job satisfaction than do the components of the job characteristics model. D) the social environment may play a less-decisive role in molding reactions and the actual design of the job itself may become more important. (page 219, moderate, recall) Social information processing theory suggests newcomers should be trained A) with other groups of newcomers to develop a cohesive group. B) by extrinsically motivated employees. C) by work groups whose members are satisfied and who like their jobs. (page 219, moderate, understanding) D) by using extensive stories of veteran employees’ past experiences.

100.

101.

Job Design Models Summarized 102. All of the following approaches to job design focus on some degree of intrinsic motivation EXCEPT A) scientific management. (page 219, Table 7.2, moderate, recall) B) job characteristics model. C) job enrichment. D) social information processing. Job design affects the level of motivation primarily by influencing the level and amount of _____ that workers contribute to their jobs and organizations.
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103.

A) B) C) D)

psychological commitment persistence psychological effort inputs (page 219, easy, recall)

Organizational Objectives 104. Organizational objectives A) contribute to creating a motivating work setting. B) describe the overarching purpose of an organization. C) provide employees with a sense of meaning. D) all of the above. (page 220, easy, recall) Employees at Google concentrate on A) giving users exactly what they want at breakneck speed. (page 221, moderate, recall) B) being top engineers. C) gaining additional benefits. D) gaining flexibility in their work. Which theory postulates that people tend to classify themselves and others into social categories? A) Social information processing theory B) Job characteristics model C) Social identity theory (page 222, moderate, recall) D) All of the above

105.

106.

Goal Setting 107. Goal-setting theory proposes that difficult and specific goals lead to A) increased extrinsic motivation. B) increased absenteeism and turnover. C) higher motivation and performance than do easy or vague goals. (page 222, easy, understanding) D) higher stress and conflict on the job. All of the following are important to the use of difficult and specific goals as a motivational tool EXCEPT that workers A) accept goals. B) be committed to the goals. C) set the goals themselves. (pages 222-223, moderate, analysis)
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D) are given feedback about how they are doing. 109. An important element for successful use of goal-setting theory that allows workers to believe they can attain difficult goals is A) commitment. B) self-efficacy. (page 223, moderate, recall) C) participation. D) quantitative goals. The reasons that setting difficult and specific goals lead to consistently higher performance do NOT include that it encourages the individual to A) direct more attention toward achieving the goals. B) put forth more effort to meet the goals. C) create a plan for achieving the goals. D) have increased belief in the necessity of the goals. (page 224, moderate, understanding) The use of specific and difficult goals, if not properly monitored, could reduce A) intrinsic motivation. B) extrinsic motivation. C) organizational citizenship behavior. (page 224, moderate, understanding) D) performance. The use of goal setting will not increase motivation or performance A) without extrinsic rewards for goal accomplishment. B) if organizational citizenship behaviors is important to the company. C) unless the workers are involved in setting the goals. D) when workers lack the skills and abilities needed to perform at a higher level. (page 225, moderate, understanding) The information systems department at Wilson and Davis Co. was given the specific and difficult goal of learning how to program a new computer system within 20 days of the equipment’s arrival. Although the department has experienced and qualified programmers, two months after equipment installation the department has not yet learned how to program the complex system. This incident illustrates that A) employee participation in goal setting is critical to its success. B) goal setting may not work for complicated tasks that require a considerable amount of learning. (page 225, moderate, analysis) C) organizational citizenship behavior is important. D) goal setting will not work when the workers lack the skills to perform at a high level. The formal system designed to ensure goal setting takes place on a periodic basis and contributes to the organization’s effectiveness is referred to as the A) job characteristics model (JCM). B) Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS). C) Scanlon plan (SP).
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D) management by objectives (MBO). (page 226, moderate, recall) 115. The three basic steps of an MBO program are A) setting goals, implementation, and evaluation. (page 226, easy, recall) B) planning, autonomy, and feedback. C) goal setting, goal getting, and goal rating. D) goal planning, goal organization, and goal control. The necessary elements of a successful MBO program include all of the following EXCEPT A) specific goals. B) difficult goals. C) rapport and trust between the manager and the subordinate. D) penalties. (page 227, moderate, understanding) With MBO, when conditions change A) a willingness to change objectives in midstream can be important. B) objectives may no longer be appropriate. C) there is no point in continuing work toward inappropriate objectives. D) all of the above. (page 227, moderate, understanding)

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Goal Setting and Job Design as Motivation Tools 118. A key challenge in an organization is A) to deliver superior customer service. B) motivating employees to contribute their inputs to their jobs. (page 227, moderate, recall) C) saving money on salaries. D) setting easy objectives. How to motivate employees to contribute their inputs to their jobs and organizations is the focus of A) job design and goal setting. (page 227, moderate, understanding) B) motivation and job design. C) goal setting and motivation. D) none of the above.

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Summary 120. One of the earliest systematic approaches to job design was A) job enrichment. B) scientific management. (page 227, moderate, recall)
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C) job enlargement. D) vertical loading. 121. Both job enlargement and job enrichment attempt to overcome some of the problems that arise when jobs are designed according to the principles of A) job simplification. B) job rotation. C) scientific management. (page 227, easy, understanding) D) social information processing. When employees are performing very complicated and difficult tasks that require all of their attention and a considerable amount of learning, A) specific, difficult goals should be set to increase performance levels. B) specific, difficult goals should not be set until the employees have mastered the tasks. (page 228, moderate, understanding) C) easy goals should be set to guarantee achievement. D) none of the above.

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Essay Questions 123. What is job design? Answer: Job design is the process of linking tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks. Page 203 124. What is scientific management? What principles were stressed by Taylor? Answer: Scientific management is a set of principles and practices stressing job simplification and specialization developed by Frederick Taylor. He believed that following the principles of job simplification and specialization would help managers make a determination of the one best way to perform any job. Page 204 125. Briefly define job simplification and job specialization. Answer:
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Job simplification is when all the tasks that need to be performed within the organization are broken up into the smallest possible parts and the jobs are designed around the smallest possible parts. Job specialization occurs when workers focus exclusively on the small, simple tasks identified in job simplification. Page 204 126. What are time and motion studies? Answer: Time and motion studies are analyses conducted to determine the one best way to perform each narrow task by calculating how long it takes to perform a task and the optimal way to perform it. Page 205

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Contrast job enlargement and job enrichment. Answer: Job enlargement involves increasing the number of tasks a worker performs when all of the tasks are at the same level of responsibility and difficulty. It is also known as horizontal job loading. Job enrichment is the designing of workers’ jobs to provide opportunities for the growth by giving them more responsibility and control over their work. Job enrichment is also known as vertical job loading. Page 206

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How can managers enrich jobs? Answer: Managers can enrich jobs by allowing employees to plan their own work schedules, allowing employees to decide how the work should be performed, allowing employees to check their own work, and allowing employees to learn new skills. Page 206

129.

Name and define the five core dimensions of the job characteristics model and explain how these core dimensions are combined to produce a motivating potential score. Answer:
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Skill variety is the extent to which a job requires a worker to use a number of different skills, abilities, or talents. Task identity is the extent to which a job involves performing a whole piece of work from its beginning to its end. Task significance is the extent to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people in or out of the organization. Autonomy is the degree to which a job allows a worker the freedom and independence to schedule work and to decide how to carry it out. Feedback is the extent to which performing the job provides a worker with clear information about his/her effectiveness. The motivating potential score is calculated as follows:
(Skill variety + Task Identity + Task significance) × Autonomy × Feedback = 3 Motivating Potential Score

Pages 208-212

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At a social gathering, your new boss has just stated that the motivation provided by a job may vary across workers due to individual differences. When pressed to explain, your boss suggests that you could probably answer the question better, as you are a recent college graduate. Please summarize your reply using the job characteristics model. Answer: There are three types of individual differences that would affect motivation according to the job characteristics model. These include the worker’s growth need strength, level of knowledge and skills, and satisfaction with the work content. Growth need strength is the extent to which a worker wants work to contribute to personal growth, learning, and development. The relationships between the core dimensions of the job and the related psychological states and between the psychological states and work outcomes are both stronger when individuals want their jobs to contribute to personal growth. These individuals will be more responsive to increased levels in the core dimensions and the critical psychological states than will individuals who are not interested in having work contribute to personal growth. The individual worker’s knowledge and skills will also affect the motivational level of the job. The linkage between the core job dimensions, psychological states, and outcomes are less for someone who lacks the knowledge or skill to perform the job adequately. Such individuals are struggling to perform the job and may become frustrated by efforts to increase motivation. Those with the needed skills and abilities will be more open to motivational efforts.

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Satisfaction with the work context is another individual element. It describes how satisfied workers are with the extrinsic outcomes of the position, such as pay, benefits, and job security. Workers who are dissatisfied with extrinsic outcomes or the work context are not able to appreciate or respond to the potential for intrinsic motivation in their jobs. Pages 214-216 and Figure 7.4 131. Discuss the role of the social environment and past behavior on workers. Answer: Workers’ perceptions of the motivation offered by their jobs are influenced by information from other people and by workers’ own past behaviors. The other individuals workers come into contact with at work provide information about what aspects of their jobs they should pay attention to and how they should evaluate their jobs and work outcomes. The actions and conversations of co-workers, supervisors, and other individuals at work cue the worker as to what is important and what is not important and how various behaviors will be evaluated, rewarded, or punished. Past behaviors also play a role in the social information processing model. The workers’ past behaviors aid in shaping how they view their current jobs and work outcomes. A current outcome may be more valued because of all the sacrifices made to achieve it; these help to justify the sacrifice. Similarly, outcomes may be less valued if they are the result of little or no choice by the individual. As a result, the social environment and past behaviors affect the motivational level of the job. Both social environment and past behaviors vary with the individual. Pages 217-219 132. What are the major characteristics of goals that lead to higher levels of performance? Why? Answer: The two characteristics of goals are that (1) specific goals lead to higher performance than do no goals or vague goals and (2) difficult goals lead to higher motivation and performance than do easy or moderate goals. Specific and difficult goals accomplish this because they prompt the worker 1. 2. 3. 4. To direct more attention towards goal-relevant tasks, To apply more effort towards performing the task, To create a plan to achieve the goal To be more persistent in efforts to reach the goal despite obstacles or difficulties than do easy, moderate, or vague goals or no goals at all.
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