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In recent years, the distribution of works of art, including pictures, music, video and textual documents, has become easier. With the widespread and increasing use of the Internet, digital forms of these media (still images, audio, video, text) are easily accessible. This is clearly advantageous, in that it is easier to market and sell one's works of art. However, this same property threatens copyright protection. Digital documents are easy to copy and distribute, allowing for pirating. There are a number of methods for protecting ownership. One of these is known as digital watermarking. Digital watermarking is the process of inserting a digital signal or pattern (indicative of the owner of the content) into digital content. The signal, known as a watermark, can be used later to identify the owner of the work, to authenticate the content, and to trace illegal copies of the work. Watermarks of varying degrees of obtrusiveness are added to presentation media as a guarantee of authenticity, quality, ownership, and source. To be effective in its purpose, a watermark should adhere to a few requirements. In particular, it should be robust, and transparent. Robustness requires that it be able to survive any alterations or distortions that the watermarked content may undergo, including intentional attacks to remove the watermark, and common signal processing alterations used to make the data more efficient to store and transmit. This is so that afterwards, the owner can still be identified. Transparency requires a watermark to be imperceptible so that it does not affect the quality of the content, and makes detection, and therefore removal, by pirates less possible. The media of focus in this paper is the still image. There are a variety of image watermarking techniques, falling into 2 main categories, depending on in which domain the watermark is constructed: the spatial domain (producing spatial watermarks) and the frequency domain (producing spectral watermarks). The effectiveness of a watermark is improved when the technique exploits known properties of the human visual system.
These are known as perceptually based watermarking techniques. Within this category, the class of image-adaptive watermarks proves most effective. In conclusion, image watermarking techniques that take advantage of properties of the human visual system, and the characteristics of the image create the most robust and transparent watermarks.
1.1 THE DIGITAL WATERMARK
Digital watermarking is a technology for embedding various types of information in digital content. In general, information for protecting copyrights and proving the validity of data is embedded as a watermark. A digital watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into digital content. The digital content could be a still image, an audio clip, a video clip, a text document, or some form of digital data that the creator or owner would like to protect. The main purpose of the watermark is to identify who the owner of the digital data is, but it can also identify the intended recipient. Why do we need to embed such information in digital content using digital watermark technology? The Internet boom is one of the reasons. It has become easy to connect to the Internet from home computers and obtain or provide various information using the World Wide Web (WWW). All the information handled on the Internet is provided as digital content. Such digital content can be easily copied in a way that makes the new file indistinguishable from the original. Then the content can be reproduced in large quantities. For example, if paper bank notes or stock certificates could be easily copied and used, trust in their authenticity would greatly be reduced, resulting in a big
loss. To prevent this, currencies and stock certificates contain watermarks. These watermarks are one of the methods for preventing counterfeit and illegal use. Digital watermarks apply a similar method to digital content. Watermarked content can prove its origin, thereby protecting copyright. A watermark also discourages piracy by silently and psychologically deterring criminals from making illegal copies.
Principle of digital watermarks
A watermark on a bank note has a different transparency than the rest of the note when a light is shined on it. However, this method is useless in the digital world. Currently there are various techniques for embedding digital watermarks. Basically, they all digitally write desired information directly onto images or audio data in such a manner that the images or audio data are not damaged. Embedding a watermark should not result in a significant increase or reduction in the original data. Digital watermarks are added to images or audio data in such a way that they are invisible or inaudible Ñ unidentifiable by human eye or ear. Furthermore, they can be embedded in content with a variety of file formats. Digital watermarking is the content protection method for the multimedia era.
Materials suitable for watermarking
Digital watermarking is applicable to any type of digital content, including still images, animation, and audio data. It is easy to embed watermarks in material that has a comparatively high redundancy level ("wasted"), such as color still images, animation, and audio data; however, it is difficult to embed watermarks in material with a low redundancy level, such as black-and-white still images.
To solve this problem, we developed a technique for embedding digital watermarks in black-and-white still images and a software application that can effectively embed and detect digital watermarks.
1.2 Structure of a digital watermark
The structure of a digital watermark is shown in the following figures.
The material that contains a digital watermark is called a carrier. A digital watermark is not provided as a separate file or a link. It is information that is directly embedded in the carrier file. Therefore, simply viewing the carrier image containing it cannot identify the digital watermark. Special software is needed to embed and detect such digital watermarks. Kowa 's SteganoSign is one of these software packages. Both images and audio data can carry watermarks. A digital watermark can be detected as shown in the following illustration.
1.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS
The Internet has provided worldwide publishing opportunities to creators of various works, including writers, photographers, musicians and artists. However, these same opportunities provide ease of access to these works, which has resulted in pirating. It is easy to duplicate audio and visual files, and is therefore probable that duplication on the Internet occurs without the rightful owners' permission. An example of an area where copyright protection needs to be enforced is in the on-line music industry. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) says that the value of illegal copies of music that are distributed over the Internet could reach $2 billion a year. Digital watermarking is being recognized as a way for improving this situation. RIAA reports that "record labels see watermarking as a crucial piece of the copy protection system, whether their music is released over the Internet or on DVD-Audio". They are of the opinion that any encryption system can be broken, sooner or later, and that digital watermarking is needed to indicate who the culprit is. Another scenario in which the enforcement of copyright is needed is in newsgathering. When digital cameras are used to snapshot an event, the images must be watermarked as they are captured. This is so that later, image's origin and content can be verified. This suggests that there are many applications that could require image
watermarking, including Internet imaging, digital libraries, digital cameras, medical imaging, image and video databases, surveillance imaging, video-on-demand systems, and satellite-delivered video.
1.4 THE PURPOSES OF DIGITAL WATERMARKS
Watermarks are a way of dealing with the problems mentioned above by providing a number of services: They aim to mark digital data permanently and unalterably, so that the source as well as the intended recipient of the digital work is known. Copyright owners can incorporate identifying information into their work. That is, watermarks are used in the protection of ownership. The presence of a watermark in a work suspected of having been copied can prove that it has been copied. By indicating the owner of the work, they demonstrate the quality and assure the authenticity of the work. With a tracking service, owners are able to find illegal copies of their work on the Internet. In addition, because each purchaser of the data has a unique watermark embedded in his/her copy, any unauthorized copies that s/he has distributed can be traced back to him/her. Watermarks can be used to identify any changes that have been made to the watermarked data. Some more recent techniques are able to correct the alteration as well.
1.5 OVERVIEW OF COPYRIGHT LAW
"In essence, copyright is the right of an author to control the reproduction of his intellectual creation" . When a person reproduces a work that has been copyrighted, without the permission of the owner, s/he may be held liable for copyright infringement. To prove copyright infringement, a copyright owner needs to prove 2 things. S/he owns the copyright in the work, and The other party copied the work (usually determined by establishing that the other party had access to the copyrighted work, and that the copy is "substantially similar" to the original). In cases where it cannot be said that the owner's work and the possible illegal copy are identical, the existence of a digital watermark could prove guilt. The damages charge can be higher if it can be proven that the party's conduct constitutes willful infringement; that is, s/he copied the work even though s/he knew that it was copyrighted (for example, copying even after having discovered a watermark in the work).
2. DIGITAL WATERMARK TYPES AND TERMS
Watermarks can be visible or invisible: Visible watermarks are designed to be easily perceived by a viewer (or listener). They clearly identify the owner of the digital data, but should not detract from the content of the data. Invisible watermarks are designed to be imperceptible under normal viewing (or listening) conditions; more of the current research focuses on this type of watermark than the visible type.
Both of these types of watermarks are useful in deterring theft, but they achieve this in different ways. Visible watermarks give an immediate indication of who the owner of the digital work is, and data watermarked with visible watermarks are not of as much usefulness to a potential pirate (because the watermark is visible). Invisible watermarks, on the other hand, increase the likelihood of prosecution after the theft has occurred. These watermarks should therefore not be detectable to thieves, otherwise they would try to remove it; however, they should be easily detectable by the owners. A further classification of watermarks is into fragile, semi-fragile or robust: A fragile watermark is embedded in digital data to for the purpose of detecting any changes that have been made to the content of the data. They achieve this because they are distorted, or "broken", easily. Fragile watermarks are applicable in image authentication systems. Semi-fragile watermarks detect any changes above a user-specified threshold. Robust watermarks are designed to survive "moderate to severe signal processing attacks". Watermarks for images can further be classified into spatial or spectrum watermarks, depending on how they are constructed: Spatial watermarks are created in the spatial domain of the image, and are embedded directly into the pixels of the image. These usually produce images of high quality, but are not robust to the common image alterations. Spectral (or transform-based) watermarks are incorporated into the image's transform coefficients. The inverse-transformed coefficients form the watermarked data.
Perceptual watermarks are invisible watermarks constructed from techniques that use models of the human visual system to adapt the strength of the watermark to the image content. The most effective of these watermarks are known as image-adaptive watermarks. Finally, blind watermarking techniques are techniques that are able to detect the watermark in a watermarked digital item without use of the original digital item.
3. EFFECTIVE DIGITAL WATERMARKS 3.1 Features of a Good Watermark
The following are features of a good watermark: It should be difficult or impossible to remove a digital watermark without noticeably degrading the watermarked content. This is to ensure that the copyright information cannot be removed. Table 1: Indication of resilience for invisible watermarks Name Bit-wise Noise Insertion Masking and filtering Transform domain Description Makes minor alterations to the spatial relation of an image Embed watermark within image “noise” Similar to paper watermarks on a bank note, it provides a subtle, though recognisable evidence of a watermark. Uses dithering, luminance, or lossy techniques (similar to JPEG compression) on the entire or section of an image. Resilience Weak Weak Strong Strong
The watermark should be robust. This means that it should remain in the content after various types of manipulations, both intentional (known as attacks on the watermark) and unintentional (alterations that the digital data item would undergo regardless of whether it contains a watermark or not). These are described below. If the watermark is a fragile watermark, however, it should not remain in the digital data after attacks on it, but should be able to survive certain other alterations (as in the case of images, where it should be able to survive the common image alteration of cropping). The watermark should be perceptually invisible, or transparent. That is, it should be imperceptible (if it is of the invisible type). Embedding the watermark signal in the digital data produces alterations, and these should not degrade the perceived quality of the data. Larger alterations are more robust, and are easier to detect with certainty, but result in greater degradation of the data.
It should be easy for the owner or a proper authority to readily detect the watermark. "Such decodability without requiring the original, unwatermarked [digital document or] image would be necessary for efficient recovery of property and subsequent prosecution". Further properties that enhance the effectiveness of a watermarking technique, but which are not requirements are: Hybrid watermarking refers to the embedding of a number of different watermarks in the same digital carrier signal. Hybrid watermarking allows intellectual property rights (IPR) protection, data authentication and data item tracing all in one go. Watermark key: it is beneficial to have a key associated with each watermark that can be used in the production, embedding, and detection of the watermark. It should be a private key, because then if the algorithms to produce, embed and detect the watermark are publicly known, without the key, it is difficult to know what the watermark signal is. The key indicates the owner of the data.
It is of interest to identify the properties of a digital data item (the carrier signal) that assist in watermarking: It should have a high level of redundancy. This is so that it can carry a more robust watermark without the watermark being noticed. (A more robust watermark usually requires a larger number of alterations to the carrier signal). It must tolerate at least small, well-defined modifications without changing its semantics.
4. THE WATERMARKING PROCESS 4.1 INVISIBLE WATERMARKING PROCESS
The invisible watermarking is also carried out in spatial domain.The algorithm resembles 19, lo]. The invisible watermarking we propose uses logical operation instead of simple addition. This increases the robustness of the watermark at the same time ensures the quality of the image [143. Following are the steps for invisible watermark insertion. Pseudo-random binary-sequence (0,l } of period N is generated using linear shift register[l I]. The period N is equal to the number of pixels of the image. The watermark is generated by arranging the binary sequence into blocks of size 4x4 or 8x8. The size of the watermark is same as the size of the image. We start with bit-plane k=O (MSB) of the image I’. The watermark is EX-ORed with the k’h bit-plane of the image. This gives the kti bit-plane for watermarked image. All bit-planes (EX ORed and non-EX ORed) of the image I’ are merged to obtain final watermarked image I”. If SNR>theshold, then we stop; otherwise we go to (iv) with k incremented by 1 (for next lower bit-plane).
4.2 THE VISIBLE WATERMARKING PROCESS
In visible watermarking of images, a secondary image (the watermark) is embedded in a primary (host) image such that watermark is intentionally perceptible to a human observer whereas in the case of invisible watermarking the embedded data is not
perceptible, but may be extracted/detected by a computer program. Some of the desired characteristics of visible watermarks are listed below . A visible watermark should be obvious in both color and monochrome images. The watermark should be spread in a large or important area of the image in order to prevent its deletion by clipping. The watermark should be visible yet must not significantly obscure the image details beneath it. The watermark must be difficult to remove; removing a watermark should be more costly and labor intensive than purchasing the image from the owner. The watermark should be applied automatically with little human intervention and labor
4.3 INSERTION OF WATERMARK
The steps for watermark insertion are discussed now.
· The original image I (to be watermarked) and the watermark image W are divided into blocks of size 8x8. (Both the images may not be of equal size). · The DCT coefficients for each block of the original image are found out. · For each block of the original image I, the normalized mean gray value m’n is computed using eqn. and are scaled to the range 0.1-1.0. · The normalized image mean gray value m is found out using equation . · For the AC DCT coefficients, the normalized variances s’n are computed using equation and scaled to the range 0.1-1.0. · The edge blocks are identified using the Sobel edge operator. · The an and bn are found by using equations (2) and (3). · The DCT of watermark image blocks are found out. · The nth block DCT coefficient of the host image I is modified using equation (1). The IDCT of modified coefficients give the watermarked image.
5. DISTORSIONS AND ATTACKS
In practice, a watermarked object may be altered either on purpose or accidentally, so the watermarking system should still be able to detect and extract the watermark. Obviously, the distorsions are limited to those that do not produce excessive degradations, since otherwise the transformed object would be unusable. These distorsions also introduce a degradation on the performance of the system as measured by the probabilities defined in the previous section (i.e., PD and Pb would decrease for a fixed PF ). For intentional attacks, the goal of the attacker is to maximize the reduction in these probabilities while minimizing the impact that his/her transformation produces on the object; this has to be done without knowing the value of the secret key used in the watermarking insertion process, which is where all the security of the algorithm lies. Next, we introduce some of the best known attacks. Some of them may be intentional or unintentional, depending on the application: Additive Noise. This may stem in certain applications from the use of D/A and A/D converters or from transmission errors. However, an attacker may introduce perceptually shaped noise (thus, imperceptible) with the maximum unnoticeable power. This will typically force to increase the threshold at which the correlation detector works. Filtering. Low-pass filtering, for instance, does not introduce considerable degradation in watermarked images or audio, but can dramatically affect the
performance, since spread-spectrum-like watermarks have a non negligible highfrequency spectral contents. Cropping. This is a very common attack since in many cases the attacker is interested in a small portion of the watermarked object, such as parts of a certain picture or frames of a video sequence. With this in mind, in order to survive, the watermark needs to be spread over the dimensions where this attack takes place. Compression. This is generally an unintentional attack which appears very often in multimedia applications. Practically all the audio, video and images that are currently being distributed via Internet have been compressed. If the watermark is required to resist different levels of compression, it is usually advisable to perform the watermark insertion task in the same domain where the compression takes place. For instance, DCTdomain image watermarking is more robust to JPEG compression than spatial-domain watermarking. Rotation and Scaling. This has been the true battlehorse of digital watermarking, especially because of its success with still images. Correlationbased detection and extraction fail when rotation or scaling are performed on the watermarked image because the embedded watermark and the locally generated version do not share the same spatial pattern anymore. Obviously, it would be possible to do exhaustive search on different rotation angles and scaling factors until a correlation peak is found, but this is prohibitively complex. Note that estimating the two parameters becomes simple when the original image is present, but we have argumented against this possibility in previous sections. In  the authors have shown that although the problem resembles synchronization for digital communications, the techniques applied there fail loudly. Some authors have recently proposed the use of rotation and scaling-invariant transforms (such as the Fourier-Mellin ) but this dramatically reduces the capacity for message hiding. In any case, publicly available programs like Strirmark break the uniform axes transformation by creating an imperceptible non-linear resampling of the image  that renders invariant transforms unusable. In audio watermarking it is also quite simple to
perform a non-linear transformation of the time axis that considerably difficults watermark detection. Statistical Averaging. An attacker may try to estimate the watermark and then ‘unwatermark’ the object by substracting the estimate. This is dangerous if the watermark does not depend substantially on the data. Note that with different watermarked objects it would be possible to improve the estimate by simple averaging. This is a good reason for using perceptual masks to create the watermark. Multiple Watermarking. An attacker may watermark an already watermarked object and later make claims of ownership. The easiest solution is to timestamp the hidden information by a certification authority. Attacks at Other Levels. There are a number of attacks that are directed to the way the watermark is manipulated. For instance, it is possible to circumvent copy control mechanisms discussed below by superscrambling data so that the watermark is lost  or to deceive web crawlers searching for certain watermarks by creating a presentation layer that alters they way data are ordered. The latter is sometimes called ‘mosaic attack’ . Lossy Compression: Many compression schemes like JPEG and MPEG can potentially degrade the data’s quality through irretrievable loss of data. Geometric Distortions: include such operations as rotation, translation, scaling and cropping. Common Signal Processing Operations: They include the followings. D/A conversion, A/D conversion Resampling, Requantization, Recompression.
6. DIGITAL WATERMARKING APPLICATIONS
Digital watermarking is rapid evolving field, this section identifies digital watermarking applications and provides an overview of digital watermarking capabilities and useful benefits to customers. This section deals with some of the scenarios where watermarking is being already used as well as other potential applications.
VIDEO WATERMARKING. In this case, most considerations made in previous section hold. However, now the temporal axis can be exploited to increase the redundancy of the watermark. Note that perhaps the set of attacks that can be performed intentionally is not smaller but definitely more expensive than for still images. AUDIO WATERMARKING. In this case, time and frequency making properties of the human ear are used to conceal the watermark and make it inaudible. The greatest difficulty lies in synchronizing the watermark and the watermarked audio file, but techniques that overcome this problem have been proposed. HARDWARE/SOFTWARE WATERMARKING. This is a good paradigm that allows us to understand how almost every kind of data can be copyright protected. If one is able to find two different ways of expressing the same information, then one bit of information can be concealed, something that can be easily generalized to any number of bits. This is why it is generally said that a perfect compression scheme does not leave room for watermarking. In the hardware context, Boolean equivalences can be exploited to yield instances that use different types of gates and that can be addressed by the hidden information bits. Software can be also protected not only by finding equivalences between instructions, variable names, or memory addresses, but also by altering the order of non-critical instructions. All this can be accomplished at compiler level.
TEXT WATERMARKING. This problem, which in fact was one of the first that was studied within the information hiding area, can be solved at two levels. At the Digital Watermarking printout level, information can be encoded in the way the text lines or words are separated. This facilitates the survival of the watermark even to photocopying. At the semantic level (necessary when raw text files are provided), equivalences between words or expressions can be used, although special care has to be taken not to destruct the possible intention of the author. EXECUTABLE WATERMARKS. Once the hidden channel has been created it is possible to include even executable contents, provided that the corresponding applet is running on the end user side. LABELING. The hidden message could also contain labels that allow for example to annotate images or audio. For instance, a movie may contain a "watermark" revealing the date of manufacture, the actors who were in the film, web sites for selling paraphernalia, as well as the owner of the movie. FINGER PRINTING. This is similar to the previous application and allows acquisition devices (such as video cameras, audio recorders, etc) to insert information about the specific device (e.g., an ID number) and date of creation. This can also be done with conventional digital signature techniques but with watermarking it becomes considerably more difficult to excise or alter the signature. Some digital cameras already include this feature. AUTHENTICATION. There are two significant benefits that arise from using watermarking: first, as in the previous case, the signature becomes embedded in the message, second , it is possible to create 'soft authentication' algorithms that offer a multi valued 'perceptual closeness' measure that accounts for different unintentional transformations that the data may have suffered (an example is image compression with different levels),instead of the classical yes/no answer given by cryptography based
authentication. Unfortunately, the major drawback of watermarking based authentication is the lack of public key algorithms that force either to put secret keys in risk or to resort to trusted parties. Certification is an important issue for official documents, such as identity cards or passports.
Example on the above of a protected identity card. The identity number "123456789" is written in clear text on the card and hidden as a digital watermark in the identity photo. Therefore switching or manipulating the identity photo will be detected Digital watermarking allows to mutually link information on the documents. That means that some information is written twice on the document: for instance, the name of a passport owner is normally printed in clear text and is also hidden as an invisible watermark in the photo of the owner. If anyone would intend to counterfeit the passport by replacing the photo, it would be possible to detect the change by scanning the passport and verifying the name hidden in the photo does not match any more the name printed on the passport. COPY AND PLAYBACK CONTROL. The message carried by the watermark may also contain information regarding copy and display permissions. Then, a secure module can be added in copy or playback equipment to automatically extract this permission information and block further processing if required. In order to be effective, this protection approach requires agreements between content providers and consumer electronics manufacturers to introduce compliant watermark detectors in their video players and recorders. This approach is being taken in Digital Video Disc (DVD).
SIGNALING. The imperceptibility constraint is helpful when transmitting signaling information in the hidden channel. The advantage of using this channel is that no bandwidth increase is required. An interesting application in broadcasting consists in watermarking commercials with signaling information that permits an automatic counting device to assess the number of times that the commercial has =been broadcast during a certain period. An alternative to this would require complex recognition software. FORENSIC TRACKING Forensic tracking locates the source of the content. The key advantage of digital watermarking is that it enables tracking of the content to where it leaves an authorized path. E-COMMERCE/LINKING The digital watermarking enables the user to purchase or access information about the content, related content, or items with in the content.
Counterfeit deterrence using digital watermarks is being employed by national
governments and central banks to protect the integrity of currencies across the world.
• Tracks and monitors where, when and how content is being aired via cable, satellite and terrestrial delivery • Automates manual reporting system, resulting in cost effective tracking and reporting solution • Real-time reporting enables faster responsiveness to broadcast information (e.g. programming changes, ad frequency changes, etc.)
7. WATERMARKING SOFTWARE&SERVICES
1. Alpha-Tec: watermarking software for copyright protection and infringement tracking. 2. Digimarc: For document verification, copyright protection, embedded messages and more. 3. Stegnosign: For creating, embedding and detecting watermarks. 4. Signum: Allow digital fingerprints to be embedded into grahics, audio, video e.t.c. 5. MediaSec: Provide software for various media types, partial encryption, and internet tracking.
8. CASE STUDIES
8.1 Piracy Deterrence:
• End User– Digital cinema producers/distributors • Market Need– Illegal copying is estimated to cost the movie industry more than $4 billion per year, with camcorder recordings made by cinema goers identified as one of the most important sources of content leakage • Business Solution– By embedding date, time and place watermarks into the picture and soundtrack of digitally projected movies, moviemakers are able to trace camcordercaptured copies back to the cinema in which the illegal copying took place • Real World Experience– Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) has made forensic antipiracy technology a mandatory requirement in its Digital Cinema System Specification.
8.2 Document Security: • End User– Document security company • Market Need– Protecting digital documents and image files against fraudulent or accidental alteration • Business Solution– Digital watermarking is used to authenticate digital documents and image files • Real World Experience– Company uses digital watermarking to ensure the integrity of digital images such as bank documents, checks and other negotiable instruments
8.3 ID Authentication
• End User– State of Nebraska • Market Need– Growing number of young drivers involved in alcohol-related fatal crashes; identity theft and fraud; wanted to improve traffic safety and enhance ID security by authenticating driver licenses using digital watermarks • Business Solution– Machine inspection and authentication of driver licenses using digital watermarks within retail, law enforcement and DMV environments • Real World Experience– Today approximately 60 percent of the Nebraska licenses in circulation carry a digital watermark with age-specific information. By providing reading devices to law enforcement, bars, and retail outlets, the state enabled retailers to authenticate the age of individuals trying to purchase tobacco, alcohol, and lottery tickets.
9. DIGITAL WATERMARKING - FUTURE TRENDS Business of online delivery and distribution via CD/removable disks of multimedia products face huge obstacles due to unlimited perfect copying and manipulation at the user end. Digital watermarking is the technology used for copy control, media identification, tracing and protecting content owner's rights. The internet is an open network, being increasingly used for delivery of digital multimedia contents. In the digital format, content is expressed as streams of ones and zeroes that can be transported flawlessly. The contents can be copied perfectly infinite times. A user can also manipulate these files. However, good business senses necessitates two transaction mechanisms - content protection and secure transport over the internet. Content protection mechanism attempts to protect the rights of the content creator, distributor and user. The content owner deposits a unique description of the original to a neutral registration authority. This unique distribution may be hash value or textual description. Registration authority allots a unique identification number to the content and archives these two for future reference. This unique identification number is also conveyed to the content owner. The content owner derives suitable parameters, usually digital watermark pertaining to this unique identification number. This mark is secretly and securely merged with original content. Watermarked content's quality is minimally degraded. Owner can also attach a 'label' that is related to a unique identification number. This label is a public notice that informs a user about the 'Intellectual Property Rights' (IPR) of the content. The secure transportation of copyright protected content over the internet requires a secure channel between two end-points for the content transport. Cryptology is an affective solution for secure transport of copyright protected. Digital Watermarking content. The implementation of a cryptology scheme requires specialized hardware and key management system. Cryptology prevents eavesdropping and manipulation of copyrighted contents during transport over the internet.
Digital watermarks have been used in the last few years to protect the ownership of digital data. Various techniques developed make use of the human audio-visual system. Legitimate business and webmasters have nothing to fear from copyright law or new form of on-line enforcement technology found in digital watermarks and tracking services. By using audio files and images only when they have obtained permission of the appropriate owner, webmasters should be free to continue making their sites audio visually appealing. Watermarking of digital survey plans is simply a next step in the process of converting from paper to digital format that has been ongoing in all areas since the computer revolution began. Broadus noted that, "digital signature technology does a better job of protecting the integrity of a document than does a paper signature". Digital watermark is better than traditional watermarking and the stamp of a surveyor or engineer. Applications for watermarking include the ability to trace a document transferred via the internet or to store information about the author and intended recipients. The most important application however is for protection against copyright violations. Registered authorities accept watermarking as proof of ownership and this can be used in court of law. Watermark algorithms used for video streams are generally similar but embedding methods vary. This depends on which format the file is stored in. Drift compression is used in compressed video files, for example MPEG-2. This method is used to ensure that image quality remains. Watermarked frames are discarded if the bandwidth is greater than the unwatermarked version. Modulation of the inter-word spacing was found to be a common technique used to embed watermarks into text documents. This was achieved easily using Adobe acrobat. Watermarked information can be destroyed by attacks, like lossy compression, especially JPEG conversion in the images. Other recent developments in this field include the use of artificial intelligence to detect attacked watermarks.
With these improvements, watermarking is becoming an increasingly reliable method of storing important information and protection of digital documents.
1. Techniques and Applications of Digital Watermarking and Content Protection Michael Arnold, Stephen D. Wolthusen, Martin Schmucker. Artech House Publishers, July 2003 2. www.wikipedia.org. 3. www.digitalwatermarkingalliance.com 4. www.digimarc.com 5. A TUTORIAL ON DIGITAL WATERMARKING Fernando P´erez-Gonz´alez and Juan R. Hern´andez Dept. Tecnology and Comunication, ETSI Telecom., Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo, Spain 6. www.watermarker.com 7. www.watermarkingworld.org 8. www.digital-watermarking.com
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