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Naval Sea Systems Command

Basic Operation of the Open-Circuit SelfContained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
SCOTT Air-Pack 4.5

D A H L G R E N N A V A L

D I V I S I O N W A R F A R E C E N T E R

S U R F A C E

SCBA Issues
- SCBA Upgrades, Changes and Options - Technical and Operational Information - Carbon Fiber vs. Fiberglass - Flash Hood Interface

SCBA Upgrades, Changes and Options
Cricket Alarm Exhalation Valve 4 Strap Head Harness Black Harness Material Spectacle Kit Carbon Fiber Cylinder

OBA Con Chemical canister stowage/cost/disposal Nearly 100% O2 delivered to face piece No positive pressure Deflation of breathing bag

SCBA Pro Positive pressure maintained NIOSH and NFPA approved as required by OPNAV Compatible with equipment used by most contemporary FF orgs In conjunction with BACS, can recharge in 60 sec while user is still breathing on system

SCBA: cylinder-fed, open circuit, provides breathable air to fire fighter Replacement for A-4 OBA

Principles of Operation

SCBA Components and Component Parts

Air Cylinder and Valve Assembly
Cylinder Holds 4500 psi compressed air Fully wrapped composite construction Breathing quality air (Grade D) not oxygen Only durations of 30 and 45 minutes are used by Navy Stored in lockers throughout ship on SCBA backpack and as spares 15 year service life, requires hydrostatic testing every 3 years Label contains manufacturer s name, date of manufacture, hydrostatic test information and DOT exemption number

Air Cylinder and Valve Assembly (Cont d.)
DOT Exemptions:
Fiberglass Carbon Fiber

Luxfer

E9634

E10915

SCI

E7277

E10945

Air Cylinder and Valve Assembly (Cont'd.)
Valve Located at neck of cylinder Open and back off ¼ turn Connection: CGA-347 (standard for breathing air in the pressure range of 3000-5000 psi) Burst disc: actuates when pressure inside air cylinder reaches about 7200 psi

Air Cylinder and Valve Assembly (Cont'd.)
Pressure Indicator Located on valve assembly at neck of cylinder Provides continuous indication of air cylinder pressure Does not require calibration (shall not have No Cal Required sticker)

Air Cylinder and Valve Assembly (Cont'd.)
Cylinder Hang Plate Located on valve assembly at neck of cylinder Provides mechanism for securing air cylinder to SCBA backpack

Backpack and Harness Assembly
Backpack Corrosion resistant wire frame and cylinder hook (mates to cylinder hang plate)

Backpack and Harness Assembly (Cont'd.)
Cylinder Band and Latch Assembly Adjustable band and latch that secures air cylinder to backpack Fine adjustment can be made using vernier adjustment while toggle lever is open (proper adjustment = not able to turn with finger pressure when latched)

Backpack and Harness Assembly (Cont'd.)
Harness Assembly Consists of two adjustable shoulder straps and an adjustable waist strap with pads Waist belt has quick-release buckle and adjusters and houses holder for second stage regulator Shoulder straps have pull up, push-to-release adjusters for quick adjustment Flame and heat resistant Kevlar

Backpack and Harness Assembly (Cont'd.)
Remote Pressure Indicator Located in front on right side shoulder strap When air cylinder valve is open, provides continuous remote indication of air cylinder pressure Face is fully luminescent Does not require calibration (shall not have No cal Required sticker)

Backpack and Harness Assembly (Cont'd.)
Bell Alarm (Cricket Alarm) Located in front on left side shoulder strap When air cylinder pressure is at 23-27% of capacity, will provide a steady dinging sound to audibly alert the user of the situation

Backpack and Harness Assembly (Cont'd.)
High Pressure Hose Located between cylinder valve and First-Stage regulator ( pressure reducer ) Delivers air at cylinder pressure to the First-Stage regulator Hose is attached to air cylinder valve by the coupling nut. The high pressure seal is made by the coupling nut o-ring. Before disconnecting the coupling nut, ensure all air is bled from the high pressure hose. Air left in the hose may cause the o-ring to dislodge, resulting in inability to make a seal.

First-Stage Regulator (Pressure Reducer)

First-Stage Regulator (Pressure Reducer) (Cont'd.)
First-Stage Regulator Mounted to the left of the air cylinder Reduces cylinder pressure to about 100 psi Uses a redundant dual path reducing system; secondary path automatically supplies air if primary path fails

First-Stage Regulator (Pressure Reducer) (Cont'd.)

Pressure Relief Valve Located on the side of the First-Stage regulator Reseatable relief valve; actuates above 185 psi

First-Stage Regulator (Pressure Reducer) (Cont'd.)
Quick Charge Assembly Located adjacent to the waist strap on the left side of the wearer Air cylinder refillable without removing the air cylinder and while continuing to breathe on the SCBA

Second-Stage Regulator (EZ-Flow Regulator)
Low Pressure Hose Located between pressure reducer and second stage regulator Provides pressure of ~100 psig to second stage regulator

Second-Stage Regulator (EZ-Flow Regulator) (Cont'd.)
Regulator Located at the end of the low pressure hose and connects to the face piece Demand regulator maintains a positive pressure in the face piece at all times If face piece or seal is broken, air will flow freely from regulator

Second-Stage Regulator (EZ-Flow Regulator) (Cont'd.)
Purge Valve Red knob located on the left side of regulator (as viewed when wearing) Purge valve manually overrides the Second-Stage regulator Provides a constant flow of air to the face piece Used for emergencies only; exit space immediately if breathing with purge valve Can also be used to clear fogging in face piece Rotate handle ccw (away from wearer) to open

Second-Stage Regulator (EZ-Flow Regulator) (Cont'd.)
Air Saver Switch Black button on top of regulator Stops air flow from the Second-Stage regulator Press and release to actuate Inhale sharply to disengage

Second-Stage Regulator (EZ-Flow Regulator) (Cont'd.)
Removal Lever Black tab on right side of regulator Used to unlock Second-Stage regulator from face piece in order to remove it To use, push tab away face and hold while turning

Second-Stage Regulator (EZ-Flow Regulator) (Cont'd.)
Vibralert Alarm Assembly Housed within the Second-Stage regulator Alarm will sound when 20-25% of cylinder air remains Alarm will also activate to indicate a problem in the First-Stage regulator

Face Piece

Face Piece
Face Seal Available in three sizes: small (green), large (black), and Xlarge (red) Made of a blend of natural and synthetic rubber

Face Piece (Cont'd.)
Lens Single, replaceable, wide angle, clear lens Made of polycarbonate with a silicone-based coating to resist abrasion and chemical attack

Face Piece (Cont'd.)
Head Harness Connected to the face piece by quick adjusting buckles and snap retainers Made of synthetic rubber

Face Piece (Cont'd.)
Voice Amplifier Located in a mounting bracket over the right side voicemitter Powered by one 9-volt battery

SCBA Donning Procedure

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Inspect SCBA: quick visual inspection for any obvious damage that would preclude safe and proper use of the SCBA

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Inspect Face piece: Inspect Head Harness: deformed, or missing; Inspect Lens: rubber deterioration, cracks, tears, holes, tackiness breaks; missing straps; loss of elasticity; buckles corroded, damaged strap serrations worn cracks, scratches, loss of tightness to face piece, regulator inlet coupling deformed or damaged

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Inspect Backpack: cuts, tears, abrasions, signs of chemical or heat damage, inoperative buckles, damage to wire frame

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Inspect Cylinder: minimum pressure allowed is 4000 psi; check cylinder for charring, dents, gouges or cuts that may have penetrated fiberglass or carbon fiber

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)

Inspect Hoses:

cuts, cracks, abrasions, bulges, wrinkles, loose or inoperative connections

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
EZ-Flow Regulator Check casing for damage, dirt or debris Actuate purge valve, air saver switch and removal lever Check sealing gasket

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Don SCBA (coat method or over-the head) Most of the weight (85%) should be carried on the waist/hips Check all straps for correct adjustment

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Don Face Piece Spread face piece straps from inside with thumbs Place chin in chin cup Pull harness over head and smooth straps Ensure all hair is away from seal Tighten neck straps first, then temple straps

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Perform Negative Pressure Check Place hand over face piece opening for second stage regulator Inhale and hold your breath Listen/feel for inward air leakage Adjust face piece as needed until seal is maintained

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
Open Air Cylinder Valve First depress air saver switch Ensure purge valve is closed, Open cylinder valve, close ¼ turn, and listen for Vibralert to sound during initial equalization (the bell alarm may or may not sound at this time)

SCBA Donning Procedure (Cont'd.)
To Begin Operation ( go on air ) Attach Second-Stage regulator to face piece lock in place Inhale sharply to begin flow of air Breathe with purge valve open to experience breathing in free flowing air Close the purge valve, press air saver switch and disconnect regulator from face piece Wait to engage the air saver switch until just prior to pulling the regulator away from the mask

Breathing Air Replenishment

Breathing Air Replenishment
Air Cylinder Change-out Assume leaning rest position Assistant closes air cylinder valve Wearer bleeds system through purge valve and stows regulator in waist clip Assistant disconnects air cylinder coupling nut, unsnaps toggle latch & lever and locking tab and removes cylinder (Grasp cylinder valve securely while doing this!!!)

Breathing Air Replenishment (Cont'd.)
Air Cylinder Change-out (Cont'd.) Assistant obtains full cylinder and announces cylinder pressure to wearer Assistant replaces full cylinder on backpack making sure it is secure The cylinder may easily be installed by running the cylinder up through the bottom of the cylinder band Check coupling nut o-ring Attach hose Open air cylinder valve (back ¼ turn) Check for leaks Verify air pressure on remote indicator

Breathing Air Replenishment (Cont'd.)
Quick Charge BACS operator will: * inspect cylinder and backpack * remove dust cap from quick charge couplings and inspect couplings for dirt or damage * grasp hose below coupling and push couplings together until QDs click Air flow starts automatically; monitor pressure increase on remote gauge Air flow stops automatically when cylinder is full

Breathing Air Replenishment (Cont'd.)
Quick Charge BACS operator will: - disengage quick charge coupling - reinstall dust caps on both couplings - ensure quick charge hose is attached firmly to harness before dismissing SCBA wearer

SCBA Doffing Procedure
Ensure purge valve is closed, press air saver switch Disconnect regulator from face piece Close air cylinder valve Bleed air from system through purge valve and stow Regulator in waist clip Doff SCBA using coat method (Do not hold by the hoses) Perform MRC R-1 and R-2 after each use (R-1 refers to M-1 which is in-depth inspection of unit. Read/perform M-1 with students.)

SCBA Doffing Procedure (Cont'd.)
Mix 2 tablespoons of Wescodyne G in a pail containing 1.5 gallons of water not to exceed temperature of 110°F Prepare two more buckets containing 2 gallons of fresh water each. Temperature should not exceed 110°F Agitate each face piece for 15 seconds with a total immersion time of 2 minutes in the bucket containing Wescodyne Agitate each face piece for 15 seconds in each of the buckets containing the fresh water rinse