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Sakurai Solutions 5-1 5-2

# Sakurai Solutions 5-1 5-2

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# Physics 512 Winter 2003

Homework Set #5 – Solutions
1. This problem is essentially Merzbacher, Chapter 18, Problem 4 [or Sakurai, Chapter 5,
Problem 1]. Consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator perturbed by a constant
force
H =
p
2
2m
+
1
2

2
x
2
−Fx
a) Show that the ﬁrst order perturbation in the energy levels vanishes
Since we will need to ﬁnd the second order perturbation in part b), let us consider
the general matrix element
V
mn
= −F'm
(0)
[x[n
(0)
`
The operator x is given in terms of creation and annihilation operators by x =

¯ h/(2mω)(a

+a). Thus
V
mn
= −F

¯ h
2mω
'm
(0)
[(a

+ a)[n
(0)
`
= −F

¯ h
2mω
[

n + 1 δ
m,n+1
+

j,n−1
]
This indicates that the x operator changes the oscillator number by ±1. In par-
ticular, V
nn
= 0, which demonstrates that the ﬁrst order energy perturbation
vanishes.
b) Now calculate the eigenenergies E
n
up to second order in the perturbation.
Using the matrix element calculated above, we ﬁnd
E
(2)
n
=
¸
k=n
[V
kn
[
2
E
(0)
n
−E
(0)
k
=
[V
n+1,n
[
2
E
(0)
n
−E
(0)
n+1
+
[V
n−1,n
[
2
E
(0)
n
−E
(0)
n−1
= F
2
¯ h
2mω
¸
n + 1
−¯ hω
+
n
¯ hω

= −
F
2
2mω
2
Combined with the zeroth order energy, this gives
E
n
= (n +
1
2
)¯ hω −
F
2
2mω
2
c) Show that the second-order perturbation result gives the exact eigenenergies
(which may be obtained by completing the square in H). Explain why this
happens.
1
By completing the square, we ﬁnd
H =
p
2
2m
+
1
2

2

x −
F

2

2

F
2
2mω
2
=
p
2
2m
+
1
2

2
x
2

F
2
2mω
2
where x = x −F/(mω
2
) is a shifted coordinate. In terms of this new coordinate,
we have an ordinary harmonic oscillator, however with a constant oﬀset in the
potential. We easily read oﬀ the eigenenergies as
E
n
= (n +
1
2
)¯ hω −
F
2
2mω
2
(1)
which is identical to the perturbation result of b). Of course, in general we would
apply perturbation theory only when we do not know the exact answer. How-
ever, in this toy example, after completing the square, we see that F enters the
Hamiltonian only quadratically as an overall oﬀset. In particular, we know that
the correct energies, (1), only has F
2
, and no other powers of F in it. Now re-
call that each order in the perturbation theory corresponds to precisely that order
in a series expansion of the small perturbation parameter (which would be F in
this case); ﬁrst order perturbation gives O(F), second order gives O(F
2
), and so
on. As a result, only the second order perturbation to the energy can contribute
towards the correct answer, and this is in fact what happens.
2. Sakurai, Chapter 5, Problem 2. In nondegenerate time-independent perturbation
theory, what is the probability of ﬁnding in a perturbed energy eigenstate [ψ
n
` the
corresponding unperturbed eigenstate [ψ
(0)
n
`? Solve this up to terms of order g
2
.
We recall that the perturbed eigenstate is not necessarily normalized, and may be
written as

n
` = [ψ
(0)
n
` +g[ψ
(1)
n
` +g
2

(2)
n
` +
Since the probability is the amplitude squared, we want to calculate (to second order
in g)
P =

(0)
n

n
`

n

n
`

=
['ψ
(0)
n

n
`[
2

n

n
`
Since all the higher order [ψ
(i>0)
n
` states are orthogonal to [ψ
(0)
n
`, it is easy to see that

(0)
n

n
` = 'ψ
(0)
n

(0)
n
` = 1
and

n

n
` = 'ψ
(0)
n

(0)
n
` + g

(0)
n

(1)
n
` +'ψ
(1)
n

(0)
n
`

+ g
2

(0)
n

(2)
n
` +'ψ
(1)
n

(1)
n
` +'ψ
(2)
n

(0)
n
`

+
= 1 + g
2

(1)
n

(1)
n
` + = 1 + g
2
¸
k=n
[V
kn
[
2
[E
(0)
n
−E
(0)
k
[
2
+
2
Using 1/(1 + x) = 1 −x + , we ﬁnd
P = 1 −g
2
¸
k=n
[V
kn
[
2
[E
(0)
n
−E
(0)
k
[
2
+
which we verify is less than or equal to one. Clearly, the only possibility of ﬁnding
100% probability is if [ψ
n
` is identical to [ψ
(0)
n
`, indicating that the initial eigenstate
remains an eigenstate of the perturbation.
[Yes, this is the same as Wave-function Renormalization on p. 293 of Sakurai!]
3. Consider the 2p levels of hydrogen (m = 0, ±1) subject to a perturbation
V = Ax
2
+ By
2
−(A+B)z
2
a) Write V in terms of components of a rank-2 spherical tensor.
Using the spherical harmonic ‘trick’, we can write out the appropriate rank-2
tensor as
T
(2)
±2
=
1
2
(x ±iy)
2
T
(2)
±1
= ∓(x ±iy)z
T
(2)
0
= −
1

6
(x
2
+ y
2
−2z
2
)
Of course, the actual normalization is arbitrary. I have removed a factor of

15π/8 when compared to the Y
m
l=2
spherical harmonics. In this case, we may
reexpress
x
2
−y
2
= T
(2)
2
+ T
(2)
−2
, x
2
+ y
2
−2z
2
= −

6 T
(2)
0
This allows us to rewrite the perturbation
V =
1
2
(A+ B)(x
2
+y
2
) +
1
2
(A−B)(x
2
−y
2
) −(A+ B)z
2
=
1
2
(A+ B)(x
2
+y
2
−2z
2
) +
1
2
(A−B)(x
2
−y
2
)
= −

3
2
(A+ B)T
(2)
0
+
1
2
(A−B)(T
(2)
2
+ T
(2)
−2
)
(1)
Note that the coeﬃcients of x
2
, y
2
and z
2
had to work out just right for this to
be possible. If instead of (A + B)z
2
, we had something like Cz
2
, then we would
have an added term left over which would be proportional to r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
.
This would correspond to a scalar perturbation in addition to a pure rank-2 tensor
perturbation.
b) Neglecting electron spin, ﬁnd the “correct” zeroth-order eigenstates and their
corresponding energies. It is suﬃcient to give the energies in terms of a reduced
matrix element '2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`.
We denote the 2p states as [nlm` = [211`, [210` and [21 −1`. We ﬁrst observe
that the perturbation will not mix [210` with the other two states [because of the
3
∆m = 0, ±2 selection rule evident from (1)]. So, although all three states are
degenerate, the perturbation is block diagonal in the [210` and ¦[211`, [21 −1`¦
subspaces. This simpliﬁcation allows us to immediately write down, for the [210`
state
∆E
210
= '210[V [210` = −

3
2
(A+B)'210[T
(2)
0
[210`
= −

3
2
(A+B)'1200[1210`'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`
=

3
5
(A+ B)'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`
For the remaining two states, we write out the matrix
V =

'211[V [211` '211[V [21 −1`
'21 −1[V [211` '21 −1[V [21 −1`

= −

3
2
(A+B)

'211[T
(2)
0
[211` 0
0 '21 −1[T
(2)
0
[21 −1`

+
1
2
(A−B)

0 '211[T
(2)
2
[21 −1`
'21 −1[T
(2)
−2
[211` 0

= −

3
2
(A+B)'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`

'1210[1211` 0
0 '12 −10[121 −1`

+
1
2
(A−B)'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`

0 '12 −12[1211`
'121 −2[121 −1` 0

=
1
2

3
5
'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`

−(A+B) (A−B)
(A−B) −(A+B)

Working out the eigenvalues and eigenstates, we ﬁnd a simple result
∆E
21x
= −

3
5
A'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p` [21x` ≡
1

2

[211` −[21 −1`

∆E
21y
= −

3
5
B'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p` [21y` ≡
1

2

[211` +[21 −1`

Here, the labels x and y were chosen to be suggestive of p
x
and p
y
orbitals. How-
ever, of course, this is just an arbitrary labeling of the eigenstates. To summarize,
the perturbation splits all three 2p states (ignoring spin) to
∆E
210
=

3
5
(A+ B)'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`, [210`
∆E
21x
= −

3
5
A'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`, [21x` =
1

2

[211` −[21 −1`

∆E
21y
= −

3
5
B'2p[[T
(2)
[[2p`, [21y` =
1

2

[211` +[21 −1`

Note that the energy shifts are proportional to A, B and −(A + B), the factors
multiplying x
2
, y
2
and z
2
, respectively. The corresponding eigenstates, [21x`,
4
[21y` and [210` are simply the p
x
, p
y
and p
z
orbitals (which are aligned along the
x, y and z axis). So this makes perfect physical sense.
c) Show that the expectation value of L
z
vanishes in each eigenstate found above.
Of course the expectation values of L
z
take on the values 0, ±¯ h in the original
basis states [210` and [21 ±1`. Here, however, we consider
'210[L
z
[210` = 0
'21x[L
z
[21x` =
1
2

'211[ −'21 −1[

L
z

[211` −[21 −1`

=
1
2

'211[L
z
[211` +'21 −1[L
z
[21 −1`

= 0
'21y[L
z
[21y` =
1
2

'211[ +'21 −1[

L
z

[211` +[21 −1`

=
1
2

'211[L
z
[211` +'21 −1[L
z
[21 −1`

= 0
so that the expectation values indeed vanish. It is important to keep in mind that
the expectation values are not the same thing as eigenvalues! The eigenvalues of
L
z
are always 0, ±¯ h for the 2p states.
4. Merzbacher, Chapter 18, Problem 14.
For the Hamiltonian H = A

L
2
+ B¯ h
2
cos 2ϕ with A B, we may take the second
term as a perturbation. Hence
H
0
= A

L
2
= A¯ h
2
( + 1)
for states of angular momentum . For the perturbation, we ﬁnd it convenient to write
V = B¯ h
2
cos 2ϕ =
1
2
B¯ h
2
(e
2iϕ
+ e
−2iϕ
)
Although the perturbation breaks rotational invariance (after all, it is a hindered rota-
tion), we may nevertheless consider its eﬀect on angular momentum states [m`. In
this case, since Y
m

(θ, ϕ) ∼ e
imϕ
P
m

(cos θ), we see that
'

m

[V [m` =

(Y
m

)

V Y
m

dΩ ∼

0
e
−im

ϕ
(e
2iϕ
+ e
−2iϕ
)e
imϕ
dϕ (rest)
Hence we may deduce that m

and m obey a selection rule ∆m = ±2. This provides
an important simpliﬁcation, as it indicates that most of the matrix elements of the
perturbation actually vanish. We are now ready to examine the S, P and D levels one
at a time.
For the S level ( = 0)
This state is non-degenerate, and has vanishing zeroth order energy, E
(0)
= 0.
In addition, the ﬁrst order shift in the energy also vanishes since '00[V [00` = 0
by the ∆m selection rule. We thus have, for the S level
E = 0, [00`
5
Note that, while the energy vanishes up to ﬁrst order, [00` is not an eigenstate of
H.
For the P levels ( = 1)
At zeroth order, the P levels are three-fold degenerate with E
(0)
= 2A¯ h
2
. For the
ﬁrst order perturbation, use of the ∆m selection rule indicates that [10` cannot
mix with the other states. Hence it is already the “correct” eigenstate, and does
not get shifted in energy
E = 2A¯ h
2
, [10`
For the remaining [11` and [1 −1` states, we have to diagonalize the perturbation
V =

0 '11[V [1 −1`
'1 −1[V [11` 0

The two non-trivial matrix elements are complex conjugates of each other. So we
only need to compute
'11[V [1 −1` =
1
2
B¯ h
2

(Y
1
1
)

e
2iϕ
Y
−1
1
dϕd cos θ
=
1
2
B¯ h
2

3

sin
2
θ dϕd cos θ = −
1
2
B¯ h
2
Hence
V = −
1
2
B¯ h
2

0 1
1 0

By now, it should be obvious what the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix
are. Including the zeroth order energy, we have
E = 2A¯ h
2

1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([11` +[1 −1`)
E = 2A¯ h
2
+
1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([11` −[1 −1`)
We see that the perturbation completely lifts the degeneracy of the P states.
For the D levels ( = 2)
The D levels are ﬁve-fold degenerate at the zeroth order, with E
(0)
= 6A¯ h
2
. In
general, we may have to work out a 5 5 matrix for the perturbation. However,
the ∆m selection rule again helps, and indicates that the ﬁve states split up into
two subspaces, one with ¦[21`, [2 −1`¦ and the other with ¦[22`, [20`, [2 −2`¦. For
the former, we have
V =

0 '21[V [2 −1`
'2 −1[V [21` 0

6
where
'21[V [2 −1` =
1
2
B¯ h
2

(Y
1
2
)

e
2iϕ
Y
−1
2
dϕd cos θ
=
1
2
B¯ h
2

15

(sin θ cos θ)
2
dϕd cos θ = −
1
2
B¯ h
2
The eigenenergies and eigenstates in this subspace are hence
E = 6A¯ h
2

1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([21` +[2 −1`)
E = 6A¯ h
2
+
1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([21` −[2 −1`)
Finally, turning to the three-dimensional subspace, we have
V =

¸
0 '22[V [20` 0
'20[V [22` 0 '20[V [2 −2`
0 '2 −2[V [20` 0

We evaluate
'22[V [20` =
1
2
B¯ h
2

(Y
2
2
)

e
2iϕ
Y
0
2
dϕd cos θ
=
1
2
B¯ h
2

5
16π

3
2

sin
2
θ(3 cos
2
θ −1)dϕd cos θ = −
1
2

6
B¯ h
2
and note that '20[V [2 −2` gives the same result. Thus
V = −
1
2

6
B¯ h
2

¸
0 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 0

It is easy to check that the matrix of ones and zeros has eigenvalues

2, 0
and −

2, with eigenvectors ( 1

2 1 )
T
, ( 1 0 −1 )
T
and ( 1 −

2 1 )
T
.
Hence the correct eigenenergies and eigenstates are
E = 6A¯ h
2

1
2

3
B¯ h
2
,
1
2
([22` +

2[20` +[2 −2`)
E = 6A¯ h
2
,
1

2
([21` −[2 −2`)
E = 6A¯ h
2
+
1
2

3
B¯ h
2
,
1
2
([22` −

2[20` +[2 −2`)
7
Finally, to summarize, we ﬁnd, for the S, P and D levels
S : E = 0, [00`
P : E = 2A¯ h
2

1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([11` +[1 −1`)
E = 2A¯ h
2
, [10`
E = 2A¯ h
2
+
1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([11` −[1 −1`)
D : E = 6A¯ h
2

1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([21` +[2 −1`)
E = 6A¯ h
2

1
2

3
B¯ h
2
,
1
2
([22` +

2[20` +[2 −2`)
E = 6A¯ h
2
,
1

2
([21` −[2 −2`)
E = 6A¯ h
2
+
1
2

3
B¯ h
2
,
1
2
([22` −

2[20` +[2 −2`)
E = 6A¯ h
2
+
1
2
B¯ h
2
,
1

2
([21` −[2 −1`)
Note that the P states are split just as they were in problem 3).
8

second order gives O(F 2 ). after completing the square. ﬁrst order perturbation gives O(F ). However. in this toy example. Now recall that each order in the perturbation theory corresponds to precisely that order in a series expansion of the small perturbation parameter (which would be F in this case). only the second order perturbation to the energy can contribute towards the correct answer. We recall that the perturbed eigenstate is not necessarily normalized. it is easy to see that (0) (0) (0) (0) ψn |ψn = ψn |ψn = 1 and (0) (0) ψn |ψn = ψn |ψn + g (0) (1) (1) (0) ψn |ψn + ψn |ψn + g2 (0) (2) (1) (1) (2) (0) ψn |ψn + ψn |ψn + ψn |ψn +··· (0) (1) (1) = 1 + g 2 ψn |ψn + · · · = 1 + g 2 k=n |Vkn |2 |En − Ek |2 (0) +··· 2 . Sakurai. we ﬁnd H= F 1 p2 + mω 2 x − 2m 2 mω 2 1 p2 F2 + mω 2 x2 − = 2m 2 2mω 2 2 − F2 2mω 2 where x = x − F/(mω 2 ) is a shifted coordinate. we know that the correct energies. Chapter 5. and this is in fact what happens. We easily read oﬀ the eigenenergies as En = (n + 1 )¯ ω − 2 h F2 2mω 2 (1) which is identical to the perturbation result of b).By completing the square. and so on. In terms of this new coordinate. in general we would apply perturbation theory only when we do not know the exact answer. we have an ordinary harmonic oscillator. 2. however with a constant oﬀset in the potential. As a result. only has F 2 . we see that F enters the Hamiltonian only quadratically as an overall oﬀset. and no other powers of F in it. (1). In particular. Problem 2. what is the probability of ﬁnding in a perturbed energy eigenstate |ψn the (0) corresponding unperturbed eigenstate |ψn ? Solve this up to terms of order g 2 . we want to calculate (to second order in g) (0) (0) | ψn |ψn |2 ψn |ψn = P = ψn |ψn ψn |ψn Since all the higher order |ψn (i>0) states are orthogonal to |ψn . Of course. and may be written as (0) (1) (2) |ψn = |ψn + g|ψn + g 2 |ψn + · · · Since the probability is the amplitude squared. In nondegenerate time-independent perturbation theory.

we had something like Cz 2 . we can write out the appropriate rank-2 tensor as (2) T±2 = 1 (x ± iy)2 2 T±1 = ∓(x ± iy)z T0 (2) 1 = − √6 (x2 + y 2 − 2z 2 ) (2) Of course. This allows us to rewrite the perturbation V = 1 (A + B)(x2 + y 2 ) + 1 (A − B)(x2 − y 2 ) − (A + B)z 2 2 2 = 1 (A + B)(x2 + y 2 − 2z 2 ) + 1 (A − B)(x2 − y 2 ) 2 2 3 2 (A (1) =− + (2) B)T0 + 1 (A − 2 (2) B)(T2 + (2) T−2 ) Note that the coeﬃcients of x2 . 293 of Sakurai!] 3. In this case.Using 1/(1 + x) = 1 − x + · · ·. y 2 and z 2 had to work out just right for this to be possible. ±1) subject to a perturbation V = Ax2 + By 2 − (A + B)z 2 a) Write V in terms of components of a rank-2 spherical tensor. If instead of (A + B)z 2 . then we would have an added term left over which would be proportional to r 2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . [Yes. the only possibility of ﬁnding (0) 100% probability is if |ψ n is identical to |ψn . It is suﬃcient to give the energies in terms of a reduced matrix element 2p||T (2) ||2p . This would correspond to a scalar perturbation in addition to a pure rank-2 tensor perturbation. we may reexpress √ (2) (2) (2) x2 + y 2 − 2z 2 = − 6 T0 x2 − y 2 = T2 + T−2 . Consider the 2p levels of hydrogen (m = 0. ﬁnd the “correct” zeroth-order eigenstates and their corresponding energies. Clearly. we ﬁnd P = 1 − g2 |Vkn |2 2 k=n |En − Ek | (0) (0) +··· which we verify is less than or equal to one. this is the same as Wave-function Renormalization on p. |210 and |21 −1 . We denote the 2p states as |nlm = |211 . the actual normalization is arbitrary. I have removed a factor of m 15π/8 when compared to the Yl=2 spherical harmonics. Using the spherical harmonic ‘trick’. b) Neglecting electron spin. indicating that the initial eigenstate remains an eigenstate of the perturbation. We ﬁrst observe that the perturbation will not mix |210 with the other two states [because of the 3 .

the labels x and y were chosen to be suggestive of p x and py orbitals. |211 − |21 −1 |211 + |21 −1 Note that the energy shifts are proportional to A. |21 − 1 } subspaces. the perturbation is block diagonal in the |210 and {|211 . ±2 selection rule evident from (1)]. this is just an arbitrary labeling of the eigenstates. B and −(A + B). y 2 and z 2 . To summarize. of course. This simpliﬁcation allows us to immediately write down. respectively. for the |210 state ∆E210 = 210|V |210 = − =− = 3 2 (A 3 2 (A 3 5 (A + B) 210|T0 |210 + B) 1200|1210 2p||T (2)||2p (2) + B) 2p||T (2) ||2p For the remaining two states. the factors multiplying x2 . 4 . although all three states are degenerate. we write out the matrix V= =− 211|V |211 21 −1|V |211 3 2 (A 211|V |21 −1 21 −1|V |21 −1 211|T0 |211 0 (2) + B) 0 21 −1|T0 |21 −1 211|T2 |21 −1 0 1210|1211 0 0 12 −10|121 −1 12 −12|1211 0 (2) (2) + 1 (A − B) 2 =− 3 (A 2 0 (2) 21 −1|T−2 |211 + B) 2p||T (2) ||2p + 1 (A − B) 2p||T (2) ||2p 2 = 1 2 3 5 0 121 −2|121 −1 (A − B) −(A + B) 2p||T (2) ||2p −(A + B) (A − B) Working out the eigenvalues and eigenstates. However. 2p||T (2) ||2p . we ﬁnd a simple result ∆E21x = − ∆E21y = − 3 5A 3 5B 2p||T (2) ||2p 2p||T (2) ||2p |21x ≡ |21y ≡ 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 |211 − |21 −1 |211 + |21 −1 Here. the perturbation splits all three 2p states (ignoring spin) to ∆E210 = ∆E21x = ∆E21y = 3 (A 5 + B) 2p||T (2) ||2p . |21x . The corresponding eigenstates. 3 5A 3 5B |210 |21x = |21y = 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 − − 2p||T (2) ||2p .∆m = 0. So.

since Y m (θ. c) Show that the expectation value of Lz vanishes in each eigenstate found above. Here. we see that m |V | m = (Y m B. This provides an important simpliﬁcation. 4. ϕ) ∼ eimϕ P m (cos θ). y and z axis). as it indicates that most of the matrix elements of the perturbation actually vanish. however. it is a hindered rotation). we consider 210|Lz |210 = 0 21x|Lz |21x = = 21y|Lz |21y = = 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 211| − 21 −1| Lz |211 − |21 −1 211|Lz |211 + 21 −1|Lz |21 −1 211| + 21 −1| Lz |211 + |21 −1 211|Lz |211 + 21 −1|Lz |21 −1 =0 =0 so that the expectation values indeed vanish.|21y and |210 are simply the px . So this makes perfect physical sense. h For the Hamiltonian H = AL 2 + B¯ 2 cos 2ϕ with A term as a perturbation. We thus have. ±¯ in the original h basis states |210 and |21 ±1 . py and pz orbitals (which are aligned along the x. 5 |00 . For the S level ( = 0) This state is non-degenerate. Problem 14. E (0) = 0. for the S level E = 0. ±¯ for the 2p states. the ﬁrst order shift in the energy also vanishes since 00|V |00 = 0 by the ∆m selection rule. we ﬁnd it convenient to write V = B¯ 2 cos 2ϕ = 1 B¯ 2 (e2iϕ + e−2iϕ ) h 2 h Although the perturbation breaks rotational invariance (after all. Chapter 18. we may take the second ) VY ∗ m dΩ ∼ 2π 0 e−im ϕ (e2iϕ + e−2iϕ )eimϕ dϕ × (rest) Hence we may deduce that m and m obey a selection rule ∆m = ±2. Merzbacher. Of course the expectation values of Lz take on the values 0. Hence h H0 = AL 2 = A¯ 2 ( + 1) for states of angular momentum . We are now ready to examine the S. It is important to keep in mind that the expectation values are not the same thing as eigenvalues! The eigenvalues of h Lz are always 0. and has vanishing zeroth order energy. In this case. For the perturbation. we may nevertheless consider its eﬀect on angular momentum states | m . In addition. P and D levels one at a time.

For the former. Including the zeroth order energy. However. Hence it is already the “correct” eigenstate. the ∆m selection rule again helps. |00 is not an eigenstate of H. h For the remaining |11 and |1 −1 states. with E (0) = 6A¯ 2 . while the energy vanishes up to ﬁrst order. |20 . the P levels are three-fold degenerate with E (0) = 2A¯ 2 . For the D levels ( = 2) h The D levels are ﬁve-fold degenerate at the zeroth order. we have V= 0 2 −1|V |21 6 21|V |2 −1 0 . For the P levels ( = 1) h At zeroth order. h 2 1 √ (|11 2 1 √ (|11 2 + |1 −1 ) − |1 −1 ) We see that the perturbation completely lifts the degeneracy of the P states. h 2 h h E = 2A¯ 2 + 1 B¯ 2 . |2 −1 } and the other with {|22 .Note that. For the ﬁrst order perturbation. So we only need to compute 11|V |1 −1 = 1 B¯ 2 2 h (Y11 )∗ e2iϕ Y1−1 dϕ d cos θ 3 8π sin2 θ dϕ d cos θ = − 1 B¯ 2 2 h = 1 B¯ 2 − 2 h Hence h V = − 1 B¯ 2 2 0 1 1 0 By now. and indicates that the ﬁve states split up into two subspaces. |2 −2 }. we have to diagonalize the perturbation V= 0 1 −1|V |11 11|V |1 −1 0 The two non-trivial matrix elements are complex conjugates of each other. we have E = 2A¯ 2 − 1 B¯ 2 . In general. we may have to work out a 5 × 5 matrix for the perturbation. it should be obvious what the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of this matrix are. one with {|21 . use of the ∆m selection rule indicates that |10 cannot mix with the other states. and does not get shifted in energy |10 E = 2A¯ 2 .

h 2 h E = 6A¯ 2 + 1 B¯ 2 . ( 1 0 −1 ) and ( 1 − 2 and − 2. It is easy to check that the matrix of ones and zeros has eigenvalues √ √ √ T T 2 1 ) . turning to the three-dimensional subspace. h 2 3 1 √ B¯ 2 . h E = 6A¯ 2 + h 1 √ B¯ 2 . h 2 h 1 √ (|21 2 1 √ (|21 2 + |2 −1 ) − |2 −1 ) Finally. h 2 3 1 2 (|22 1 √ (|21 2 1 2 (|22 + √ 2|20 + |2 −2 ) − |2 −2 ) √ − 2|20 + |2 −2 ) 7 . with eigenvectors ( 1 Hence the correct eigenenergies and eigenstates are E = 6A¯ 2 − h E = 6A¯ 2 . we have 0 V =  20|V |22 0 We evaluate 22|V |20 = 1 B¯ 2 h 2 = 1 B¯ 2 h 2 (Y22 )∗ e2iϕ Y20 dϕ d cos θ 5 16π 3 2 1 sin2 θ(3 cos2 θ − 1)dϕ d cos θ = − 2√6 B¯ 2 h  22|V |20 0 2 −2|V |20  0 20|V |2 −2  0 and note that 20|V |2 −2 gives the same result. 0 T 1) . Thus 0 1 h V = − √ B¯ 2  1 2 6 0  1 0 1  0 1 0 √ 2.where 21|V |2 −1 = 1 B¯ 2 2 h (Y21 )∗ e2iϕ Y2−1 dϕ d cos θ 15 8π (sin θ cos θ)2 dϕ d cos θ = − 1 B¯ 2 2 h = 1 B¯ 2 − 2 h The eigenenergies and eigenstates in this subspace are hence E = 6A¯ 2 − 1 B¯ 2 .

Finally. for the S. h 2 h D: h E = 6A¯ 2 − 1 B¯ 2 . h E = 2A¯ + 1 B¯ . 8 . h 2 3 1 B¯ 2 . h 2 E = 6A¯ 2 − h E = 6A¯ 2 . to summarize. we ﬁnd. h h 2 E = 2A¯ 2 . h E = 6A¯ 2 + h E = 6A¯ 2 + h 1 √ B¯ 2 . E = 2A¯ 2 − 1 B¯ 2 . P and D levels S: P : E = 0. h 2 3 2 2 |00 1 √ (|11 2 + |1 −1 ) − |1 −1 ) |10 1 √ (|11 2 1 √ (|21 2 + |2 −1 ) √ 1 (|22 + 2|20 + |2 −2 ) 2 − |2 −2 ) √ − 2|20 + |2 −2 ) − |2 −1 ) 1 √ (|21 2 1 2 (|22 1 √ (|21 2 Note that the P states are split just as they were in problem 3). h 2 1 √ B¯ 2 .

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