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I-I ~:.~:L_ ~~c:h·,'_-~Idle -, :-~p_.li:--'-= J: 101 In 91 leln!.~:-ilnleer

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Th h; ma 111 u al e'Xl' m iJ nes ch ~ I~ II ed-w',ate~lr-:svste~m ,CO m pO nents, CO nftlg UI ~ratw ons, opUons" and contm-lo~ s,tnlltiegl'ies. The g}oal ls 'to plrovlde~ svs~em de's,igne,n;, 'w~'~h options 'they' Itan USiB to sa:tmsfv the bui"lding OWlnlle,rSl' desin:)s"i' but this manual 'is, 'not rnrte,nd,ed to' be a Ico,mpletf:' ,chi'l~er,;.s,y$telm detdgll'1l manuel,

,S,ys:te1m d esrn'!;Jlne (is: m alV g at: the most U:S~, 'fro m I~h ii S ma nu al~ by fa m !1~1 ii al dzii In 9 themselves 'wi'th dhill~ed""w,altloif-sy,smm basics lind undie'f'standin'g 'the b8~n,efruls 0 i Viti ril OIUJ,S 0 p:t~,olln,s,. Th e reatte ii~ whe:n a ,SIP eo '"fi:c jlolo w'j 1,1 be:'n,efiit from In ese

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ad va nta g es, CQ'n S IJI ~t, a PIP ro PrJ rlate Sle'ctil 0 n s of 'th e lmll n IJ a'l ii n de-tali ~ ~

'The E nglnl~ei,ni Newsletters that ,B re rem renced In 'Ih i s ImliJ nu a,~ are 8:va ii,1 alb~ eat:

W'V'IW',.'tra n'e,",co,m/"CJo<m,lmie~rlc'i a IJ1~ ~ b re ry'ln e:wsil11etlltJe rs.a sp

The: Tra n e! Co rnpa ny:" iiln pli'oposi~ng these s,ystBlm de,s jgln ,a nd app I j'c.atiio n

ItO nee pts, assu mes no re,splons~ biill i"ty' for th e II' I!!: rforma nee 0 r des j' ra bill mtv ota l"rV lrIE!!s,lIltrn ngl ,s,yst,em desl g n ~ Sy,s:te,ml de s:j QI n 'I s th e p lie nllg,ati\f,e~ an dI ~Ie's p 0 n:s'· b!i ~ ~t:V of'

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Condenser-water s,y,',,'ste'm

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Chllled- and condenser-water temperatures C:,hil~e!d .... , and condenser-water fllo' ~'. rates

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ilgu -'-e! 15 Fiigllu,re 16 F-igulr'B '17 F~gur[e 118 Filgur,e: 119 -':ilg1ulre ,20

Figure 21 Figure 2'2, _ {gure 2,3

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P:a ra II~~;I prefererr iiall loadl n,lg: lir~_ ,_ g~~ .' ent ~C~ ~~III ~,,'~~'j ~IIII~ I' lill ,-,- - i,.,i ,5 Sli' ".~.leSI ream IP refe rla'~' ' di a ~ loa dlr 19 a - -r,~J n 9 B~ m' e! n, " ~ [.1,.,., dI I! ~ ~ I' 111' !l1~' 1"- Ii [jllj 56

Fiilg'u' , e ,24 Fllgullr'8,2,5

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_' _ a nifol dad condenser .... wate Ir' [PU m PS;liliii ~ 111I11!l11111I!~ ~i " .. ~~I~ _ ~1~ililll~IIl!IIlII[lllili iii ii' 16~91 Co , i ~llle r-tower en[BI--gy' Iconsu m 'p -, ~o n .'ili" ~11I11.1'IIlI!IIIIlIIIII.lIIllilli'~~ ~1~1!i'11 111111'11111111 .'i I'" '7,31 Deco IU ~i '[~ edl C:[O In--:, lie n ,:= [8 [_,~' ,,' la lie Ir ,sY,S _:[B ',~', III II" i ill .111, .'~II! III I! iii I! II I. III! 'II" .'i!!! (I ~ ~ .I~ II II 1 11 7,4

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Table ,2 "'IF. b ~ - '3' , I ,II a ,:-.:1 e '_

Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 18 Table 9 -r2lb~le 10 T,able 1,1

,S"JI n 101 Ell rd 11'"'I,tj n,91 C"CI n d i:ti 01 n s fo r 18 bso rpt ion dnl i ~" II e rs ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~, t, ~!' 1 15 Standard If'ait:~nlgl eondltlons for Ich'iiI led-water s,ystlem,s: ~,~~n~,~ 116 ILcIWI ... f~ lOW' ICID nidi itii a n lSI fo r c:h'i _ ~ ed-wate r p"U,lm Pi ""!I'~ I~ll~ ,~ !J ~ '!J I~ ,!, ~'I! I ~, I til" 'I ~ 171 LICIW'~'fllo'w' ICO' nlloll tl D' n S: "10 II" ICICI 0 1111, In g'IQ'W'B r,~ ~'~~'!I,,,!!'!J,~,,'~!J 'iJ ~ t ~ ~,~ ~ I ~ Iii" i 'I ,t ,I i 11 IL!ow'- fl 'ow c"c'ln,dl ilti 101 n :5i 'f'o Ir co In de nser-water pu m p '!l ~'~II 1~1'~'I~II~II~II! ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I~I "'7

Tots ~ s,y,st:e rn IP O'WI19! f 1!!11!!11111I11111I11ill~1111 II III III I~ 11111 • Ii; Ii; II Ii, .. Ii lilli' i!!1 iii III II I~ III III III III iii II II iii Ii II Ii !!i Ii III Iii III ~ II OJ '!', Ii ., III~j 11111 ~,,, Ii ~ ~ I~ "'i!!' 118

11M: et,rlofilt cap a c,i't,v' c hila n IQ,e'! II Iii II III Iii III ~ ,," '" ,II Ii Ii .. 11111 II Ii II II III '"11"' II II, Ii II II 11111111111'" 11111 Ii III '"III !Ii'~ 1111111, I!! OJ .. ill ,I '!l ~ .. ~ I!!' ~ ,2. ~

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SVS-APMOD'~E N

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11' J!1I-Y blUl,ild!~n· owne'_ s cID,nl,j.nllU,a:I~'v search [-Qlf' s,oi~ut~on,s, th'at .UID,_·~ --led,' IbIUIS,'in,I1,I,S'BS't:DI D,ffellr hli:gllhe:r Iqlul,a~~ty'~ and =IQ Ibe more competitive ,sl'n,dl prlDlfi'tab"lle.,

I. : VA:C sterns ,-: es,iigiJ8:r's often U,Sl! le-- n:I,!"d ... wateur systems t:IO pre ~'Ii'ldte .:-ii·,Q1'hl-

qlLuaUt_,i 'CD1st--e"J-ec-t:iivl! alr cID1n1d:i'liiolni:n'LI for Ibu:i'I:di,nlg! Oiwne'f'Sii Wiilth the advent c,f Im,IDI"6 -11'BX~'lblllle 10- .Iiil~~'er:s" svs,'le.m~I!lle'vell controls, and :9iO-'··' "a.~'e' an"I~'y',s,iis tools, ':.: .18 number 'of c:·h~~led ... w',aJ!r .... sy,sltemls, options has exploded.

IChnl~e---s; that produce chflled wate:1"

Loads ~ IQiftenl S atlsfle d 'by' col II s, tha - trans;fe 'F' hie at from a ii' r to waite r

I. Ch iitl edl,,'watler disrtriibuti,olln pUi rnps a nd pi pes ch,s'! send chi Ued 'wa~er' 'tOI J1E1 pre;V'ii,o,'Uslly me'nltiione,d loads

Con d lei n s,e!lr",wslts! r 'plUl m P'Sij, pipe,s" a I11d 'C'o!'Q,I,i no t,Q"W'II!:rSI th lit, rl'j1lc,t h 12:,,1 ("or w,ste,r"'coolledl chll ersl

.1 C'ontro:s that 'CQllo,rd,i1nata 'the ,olp,@!r,athJ,n, of t,he m'B'ohanlicellll eornaonents to!g 's1'hil13 If as, a ,svs,t!~ m

There are a y';ari'ety of' w,lt,er chiller t,Vlpe,s" Most clomlmIDn~'y" the'y are absorptior

'"li:' - h I-I'· II d' II S- ~ - .' ..... ,'·'1 UI ~

'CIS ntlFll'll UQ'g _ ,,- e leal rota iry~ ill ne ~SCt'OI '. ,!',O' rn e rae _ p rIO'C:8111 n 'g 101 m ~ Ie rs ill re a 1',s0

aV'iJlilllabl e, C'h,iM,er!: ean be e!ii'ih,e'f al If'" Of' warteF .. coeled, M,ajj,or vapor-eompression ch~[II[e~r ,c,OmIP,Q neln '8, iinlicll WIde, an evapo rator, a CDmIPlf'il!SSI'CIIi~S.),p-' a condenser, a nd rein expansion d'e!'vlcehs,) i 'This, rna nuslll d i:SiCIUlS,SIe!NS, ,1the ,chillhgl!"~s ev'& porator and eendense F" ;18 nd 'thEdr rella;t'~o'n,s h i:p to' the! ohiJl~e:d ... w,ltle!1r pla nt,

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The ie'VII po ratio Ill"' sectl en of ,6 war. ::Ier C -I ii 111,IIIB~ r is lei ,shlellll~a n d-tu be, :r'le'f r~lglera nt ... t:IO Oil -w~te- r heat exchanoer De nan -~"Il1- "I 0- n th a chll ar's deslqn e-'~II'thiil:l' t he' "r-ef'Ii"~llg~ ant

"~II_:_:,",- ~'"IIIw<":I,I',~1 1~1~lliJ _I_:_~~'_'-I':"II 'a "~" ne cm ,'-' ,-:_ ,.I~,d;I:....I·II" :":"'-_, '_I~.',"' ... I~, 'I-._.I~'·I:.·'

or the wate.'r is contained w~'th~ln'::he! tubes,

n a fllo,odled shell-and-tr be evaporator, cool, liqUIII,," refrlqerant at lowpressu .-19 enters the dlstribt tion system Inside "he shell anc moves uniformly over ti "j! tubes" .~ .:= SIOI,' bilng heat f roi " W,~lrmer:',alte'" that flows thl,r',QUlighl the tubes ..

• Illn a' direct-expansion (D,X,)' S;.'_II:U and-tubs evs porator, w!arm@n'" w',a'~:er ,tilUI.' tih,!1 ,ShIIB~~ whiil,e the cool. IDw'elr~pre,sslUlre liquid re,frig,e!f,ill!nl' flows through the tubes,

Illn either de,slllgn", there i:.· ,8' lapprOl,il'lClh temperature, wh,icJ:~ is:' he temperature Idliffe~rence bletwe,el_-I' thle r'e'frilgle:r'illnt a d exit ster stream, ,lie apl~,Ii'lc,ach tempera ure is a measure of ~' __ e. heat t ansfer efflclencv of t:, e evaporator,

For i8':. lven IC~_lli~~[e'r,l ,1:,5 the les'vling c Ililled~'w',il':,e,r temperature drops, " hie ~-efriglerianit tem, ierature and pressure must also drop Conv,Brf',sely" as; the

leavl '\Ig ch[l'I[ll'-~,d-wat:ler temperature rises, ,S'" do t re rel I iI'Qlsr!I--'lt temperature ,BIl11d pressure, Whelrl the 1IIIe!,a,vi'lrlIQ! Ichlilll,ed~watler' temperature ehanqes, the 'WIOI .'.:, a com _:-, resso . must do a 118,01 ehanqes .. Tile effect o,f leavh gl ch;'[li[I[le,d'~w'la'~er'

tempe ature dh,s--Ige om power consumption can be .!!,I.,I percent \:",0 2,,2, percent per decree fahrenheit [- ,:8 aercent to 4",01 percent per deqree ce slus], AI ~ _,SlY'S consider the: lenlerglY eonsun Jp1tlonl of the entire :sY'ste 'I ' ......... not onlly 'this ICL~' . ler .. , ~t ls im1P10" .ant tn remember that althoi '91h reldl,ucl-I'g ~le;l'v,m,II'g chUIe.d-wBltIBr

. e perature aenaltzes th s cbl ler, it: mhBIV benefit the pumps necause less _at.']r is plulmp'8Idl'I'llr'DI,lghl the ,s.y'stlem~, ,Systelml interactlcns are covered in more ,d1Ie:tI811 ln '111~ie next section Ch;lllel,d-I~~'te,,~S.~stelm IOp,tion,Sa

S~-Ice the evaporator ~s; a heat exehanqer, it "91 sensitive to W'IB'I~elli 'fl,ow' rate, xeesslve flo:. ay' resul in hi';,": . I waltle!lr"v,el~Dllcity, erosion. vibi a tlo .~ or noise. lnsuftlcient flo -,~ reduces heat-transfer lefiiiciiJellncy anc causes poor Ch'i1II[llsllr'

- S d III h I f'l ,~

nerforn JsnIICB',·'IIO, -~e!2 ,es~gnIB'r's, [ ave co rcerr .. s over ow '1Io!'w' r tescausrnq

'fou[nn'gl~, l,'_!e,nl,erally:; as We_~,,'b and Li3 noted, these concerns are u,nwlllrlranltiBld

since th Q chill Q·-~w~····a-:-t'e-·Ii·1 10-: 0'1 iffC!! '!:Ii closed svstem t h-IU"I-S-::- radu ",,;'In t· A, ch ances 'D

:-,III:.:"~ _ .. ~' ~,w" '_ 11".", ~ iiiIIl g. ~':.:" ' . ,,:_; __:," _ ",",,'. ;'.., ' _:_:_ - ~'H .::J _:. ~ " .' ',:_ .. "':_"-

materiels lent:lsriilnc21 the ,I,y'sfem land ,cBI_.s;i'lng flo,unnlg,~ IC:lhillled,,,,'wllter' f~,o,'w thro ~ gh the chiller must be' ,_ er ',- with~'n s:p1ec,iI'fic: miinillmlll"m siind maximum ~I'mlilts" Contact the m,anlul'fac,tillJlre"r' for these [I[iillmliits ..

,3

4

I.

S

._ - .

I . - - - - _ -_ .- _ -

SIOlme c "11 ~Ie.r [co '~I: ols loa iii accommodate very IlKI,!l flo'w VI (tal ~~ on duri ng mlloh'"ne oJlr~ raltioni_2 Other, more sophlstlc ated, 'Chlil lie. controls IIUO' some fhlllW v:-: ri',al;i1IQI:n~, :. :oml . ,.-L iil~ era, can to~'nilte, tlIIQ'W-'rat~1 VSlrmsltli' ',n:s lof as muen IUSI3'D p~!lrcllJlt, IPler minluts! CU' [,:-Ifll'ater, _:_'hU'" Q"--;118:[f'S can oily tolerate IU ~ to 2Iple_ele-n' minute, lit ~s 'j'lmIPO'- ant ]l,at chl'l~~!lr' eapabl itles are matched te sy',slem req ul Ire: mle'n _,s" C,a n II ct. 'the Cl'jill'. er m anufact u re!' to de:telrm~ne a~ II ,WI, - >~I[e' Iralte ol'f _~ow 'v-ar:II_c'"onl -'~erf\D'rle' ',-'ervlngl th, f~o,"', tlhrloiUllgh :-Idl evaporator iln I ehlller, Fllo_-. va _ li',s1i1,Qln liS [' liscussed tn de ',alll in the sectlon Var:iablls-'P,rimlfj', -y Row 51' ~',ems~ Ipalge'40!!

"FOI eool a b JU il dl ngl 01. process, the' transf'err'led hJle'ar'~ must iUlll'~ll~ a ,ellv _~le r,e'jec: ,led.

_-he total arno __ IIii't .. :f hlelst 1 '18:je,cte!.' , ilnclllUdes, the: sum ' IOit,81110f the,' V8IPOIIi,~ 'DIll" loa,', thJle eomeressor _ :IDllrk~, ,81'_d the motor Inle'tiilc~'e'ncv", hl lei he n etle chli'ne'li~ . iheFi8 the' r rotor a '-:'.: come ressor ar- inl thel ser e I ousi g, these [faa " S SI e aU ej"8.cted 'thl"loluQlh 'th~· Icolnd'enselr~ln lin 0 ~ en c_: iiUe -~ 'whorlS 'the motor ts sepsl:, te 'from, .lhel

com IPIlr'EUiU;,'Oi _ ' a In COl - n ecte Iby a :s'~' aft" .-,h 191m cror h eat .. S re] ected :~. i If' ~.'. ct Ill' "101 " ~ e

sou rrou nd i Ii1 g Ilii! r, Th e~ lelVlal p ora tor 1,0 a d ,a n d th e co ml p 1T,IIS 8:0. r wo rk ,I re ej [8 ete d throu [gih 1he' co nd . nser SI--dI rr I: rn a ,- 01 r' h e,11: m' S': -':18 t;_ k,en C,I re of Iby 1:11 e a,ii Ii'"

F'ol a [g i VB'n eh .. ~ Il,er, as: til e le vi ngl co nd ense Ir~ ~ _- c 'I,e ~ tern IP e rature r· ii I; B B,!

-efrig'.irs_ t te'mlper,atu'fle! Inl,-· Iplress,u' Ie all! sal - ise- Conv',:_ rSel~Vi' ,IS II'ealving co'nldelns,-lr WUrtIB'1!" temperature drops, so diD In! , .. _ _::_ eran'_c' temperat IfI~ ,an[d pressure, A,s; 'the IreirilQlle'rarlrt pr_::SSU_8 an =1- ',emlperaUire ,chalnges .. 'tlhe w'lork a

e . _. ~: .. ressor must do a'l eo change, ;~, lhe 6,ffslct 0" 111!'Blvi'ng -conda _. se ',~wla'-' eli' tempe atu re Ie: nrQIB 10'1 [PO' ~ -e.'f consumption can b~.' '110 percent ':)QI 2~2 percent Ipe 1~I:_gre:[e flhr~·nh Jt I[ ,.- ",,:-;: Ipellr'C{!'nt to' 4~Qr per dl!gree: cJsd'us] .. , J.eys: co - sider the, enelifly ICDnSUlml _:·titID~_ [of "thle en' i'II',e :sys;I'le~lm~· nOI": just thl8' c--nl·~.rm It: iils IlmlPolrtanrt'tlD flBim[ember ' .. hs't ,all'though If ~·lis'~·lnlgl -, Ie! ~le,aviJlng[ ,condens·~ IrL'w,a',elf

te _ ~pelratu 1"1 pena liz,es the len jlllle'r~ Ii', mall' beneflt the pumps :. nd CQlolli ng to'Wlr '_chllr'ouglh 'this: use 0.: reduced fll10 W' raltls's, lind Ihlllglhe, 1 herrn all d:.-ivinQ ... f'ID ces Din ttl· 'to-' rer, Sy'stL,ml ~'-t'er,actilons are eoverad ""_. more diS: aU iiin 'I'hie. sectlon COln,denser .. S'yst6lm 'Var.i·, ' ions, IPliJl'g'[B' 6: ·~.ljJ

Sm',nlce' 'the condenser is, 18 ~I[ecl't s',xdhslnl'Q'elr, it is sa . ,s,i'live to 'waltler f~ow rate, F'or exa Ilpll,s, [e(Xcesii'v~ fiow' 1M ~V rles~ t, lin high WIII_,er' ve~ocit'tv" ereaion, vlb. ati' 'n,,· r nlol~ se, 'wh ills I. nsuffi'c:ie ,- t "I[DI'W rle!'~ uees Ihesi't "_cranl:sfe'r e' -i'cienc!'v ,E!ln,-"!'CSIUS es poor Icnilll11iJr pBrflormanc:e,~ Therefere, CIDlndls'nser...;w,stler f_ C'W 'th '0' Qlh the chi er shou d' 'be ke ~·1: will. hi n ,e s;~"le'c'ilt le 1"8 n Q16' 101'.- II"m I' .s, e.xce~,p't dIU 1 :1 nil,. trs n a 1 e lilt. sta - ( - .1

- --- --- - - ---_._

._---- _ ... - ... - - ..

c'Q'ndliil't:i:onl,Si'l C'ointa"cl 'the manefacturer lor t:hIS'S'S' limits, Some 'chiJll"~le:'s Im,aJ'V la,ll:~,olw e - ended operatton below! the S'BII'Bcts,d: 'floiw' rates,

If 'wate'lf Vlei~loci'tv' 'thr'oluglhl the condenser tubes is too :II'D'W' for s;ii'gnlilf'I'can(: periods of time 1IIIilIId the W'8Itelf' 'is extlf'!emlle~l~y' hard IOln,g ... term '.~io'ulilling O'~ the tubes Imay 811,s'D' 'DICCU'f~, Welb,b and L'i3 tested a number 101f: lnterns 1~l,v""enh'II'nl,c;leld condenser tubes at IIOiW valoei .. (,3,~511 ttl's [11,1:01' Im/s]]) and h~glhl 'watler hardness Wh,iJI~e i-"hIISY found that some 10": the i'lnlte'lr'lnia~IV-le:nhalncle~id tubes fouled, in the Iioing "19'f'ml the:v "'" 0-::-' n- /"'f!!. -I IU~ d I £iii d-: 1 ..

~'.' ;,~ "···I'~'.I,ii

B,'I'CIIU':SII olf the hliii'gh hardness and II'ID"W wI'tar v,e,'~IDIIC:i'- used ln these tests, 'WI~ dOl not Ib,e~hlv8 that the f01uIUlnIIQlls'xp!ls'risinc,e:ld iis 'i-y:pillcSlil otthat expected In commercial iil,nl St8 II II ations, ._. _':illh use, 101f: ,gio'iold maintenance IPlrac1i:,c:e:s;; and 'wiater q'u',ali"ty control, all 'olf the t.IIUI·~ as; tested are pl'rol~='a.b(y' suita ble for l,oln~g'~'lerml,~,folu~liingl applliiJ'lcati,o,ns,,~

11'_: is iilmpllolrt,llnt 'tOI remember that 31 chilllllisr s;lelllle,cts:dl for 1Il,ow fillDiW las discussed in the next section ,Chl'.'ed'~War~"er,;.Sys;~em ,Op,:I:OIl'!S'}1 Id'OHB:S: not :n,ace:ss;,a:ri.!~'Y' h.sJ've !~ow 've~laci'ty~ t;hlfO'UI'Q,h its tubes, Ilf'tu'lb,s' f:oiluU'ngl is a mliBljor concern, eonslderthe USIS lo,f'

- - - - ·t' ',- - th 'l h - - iii _. ,_. - 1'1- .- - 'h' - . - d t b - ,". th - d - , f . - f'~

~lm'-"[oO"'III'1 PLgI! '-'S"lpl .nan Illn'!ID'lr'ln'~i Y"i&!a'n iancec ,'I .g~IIII'n· necom enserror ease I~

~, _ .:::- ,::.1 '.' ;Wi ~I'U!I. II~)~ I~ I g. I I I. I!i;!i!, _I I~ ,.~.!!i;;i!i .Ju, '::.~_: ,f ._:" .. ,_.I~I~ .11 _ . .:. ,I~,:.:.~.'U I,.:::.~ _'fliiJll!i;ii11 ,._: ~ rw'~'~..:::'U_

110:111 Ie 8, n i: n ,g I~'

O,blv'~ollu,s,lll!y'~ 111:ii'r~IC!Di'DI,I,eiid ichli'II:I,.'rs do not UiS:1e: condenser ... water, ,S;i~'lnIC:e th!fV Ire:j'IB,e;'-'i'ihls'ir heat by _;."IIV'illn,lg ambient air passed across '_:'efr:igierant ... 'to ... alr heat ,e.xchanlglelrsi,~ I:n pla,ck,aIBiedl,lilr~cooledl chillers, 'the, manufacturers !I'- empt to plrla"v~,die! IDIPtiJ-.'. _,al~ performance bly l:tagiiJ'ng fans in response "to chnlhllr load and emblent, dlry: ... bujb t'e [', I_I·~ .. e ratu Ire ~

ln cJol:m,f:,olrt'~cO"Dllin,g ,a:~~lplllii'!C'ltiiJ'Dlns[~ 111'D'II,d',li are IUls;lullal~I'IIV satlsfled bv alr handlers B:q.u~plpe:d 'WI~thl cons t'IOI transfer IhIIS,B't from Ic:ondlit;i,onedl space air to circulatlnq

Ih ill III II d A"' III h III d d dl h ldlfl d lt th fl-:'-' -,

Ie]. ul_,le:~ ""wa't,8!r'~'fr IS t. ~ us 'C!OIOJ31-:- ann nenummn tee as I: basses aeross tne '-I] nnea

surface 10" the 'COOl II ii',nlgl clol~'I:s,~ S iil'n CIS: the 'PI,s'v,c·lhrome:tr'ic, processof cO'lndiil''jIDini:ln!Qllsiilr takes place 18,t 'the colls, s'B:llectii,o'nl 0'" the optimum C'Di:'I s;i1'ze and tV'lpe' from the wii'd,18: V',2IF·,~le'ty Ilv!ai'lhglbills: is lmportant fOllr' proper Sys:!:'B:lm, performsnce,

I

-- -_.-

S ' .. ~~ d· -II 'd· 0" , ,.' I I ~ ~. I '", - - d 'h· - .

_", --::,-: .. - ,'-:- .. -:' .' . I I' '\ ,". . - ", ',- ..... , .... , " I' > • ..' I, ", . . "j', '1',' ", I ". 'I" '_ -' I .. " [' "

, 0 me ,13 pe cae ~ze ,.' process soa I. s ," '0 not I nvg, ve c CH) In 9 ,alii V.i' nlsteal, " t Iley rn 'lfJly

~ Ii1vQI~ve In e Sit tran sfe!lr d ii relet!ly 'wi'hw In a p i:leC!~ of' p - -OCB:SS, eq IU ~ prn e nt, S;IU ch as the IcoloUn'Q ~:aclke,~: of an ~nJe,c:tiion-m'QlI!d1i:nQ maehlne, Heat transferred from 'the loads

- 1- __

can be conrtnJ'IlIedi ~n lEi number !orfi ways::

I Thlre,e,.,'w,s'\#' va.ve TW1QI-'way va~ve:

• Va rm alb~ e'-SIP sle!d] pu m'IP' - IU1ncontrolilied co,i Ilrs

,A t:hr~,~"'wla V contro I 'v~11 V~ rmig'llJ II alt~'s, th e a m,IO' LII nt of 'wa'te m" F-H~llssJn g 'tin ro ugh a coi:1

,i of -II d TI!... II 'Ill- d oil!- d th "'II d

In respo nse '~O . oaes. ,~i:el V',{J,_Viel y'y'p1i)SS€!'S, u nUS1e!_ Wall!Il!er aroune l~. __ e COli ~ ane

requlres 18 constant 'fllow'.of Wlli·'Bf' in the svstem, regardll~mss; of: load, A, or,i)'wba'ck !ol'f: thi:s bYIP,aJ,SSi is 't'harl: thJlB temperature of th€j~ will:eF' lh~!aviil1g ~:hl~. t'hrlee,-tWCIIY' valvli!: ls reduced al: Ip'srt-'I!cUldl conditIons" Tihrn,s ean be: ,EI rnalor cause ,cd' :so",calllll,ed ~ll~olw

ji;'T' ,- r - d- 1 ' .' .' 'tl ....Ii1"'1 '. ,- I •. 'I d 'I ' ',", I Ql~ .'- 'ili-ko "'l,,!t-'",.. C<',j!..,~,U, 'd'· '_NI":~ ,of!' -:='~ .. -,If -, I

~ ,BY n , ' . ramie ull sct:J 5S e ". 0 n pa g e u w II n I~ 11,19 S BIC'L 0 1iIi· ·1-' ~ n,e, " -1W' ~a I,ler-IU!y:8,I,e,m

Is,sues:, Th 1i1e:e'-WafV V',tll- ves, errs u sed ~ m11 m elllFiy ,ex'i,st i' n 9 :syS:ieJ!ms~

,A twa -way,,. 'W'leta Ii mod u I atiJ n 9 V',ai~'V'le a~: th e co i: I, pe rio rm s tlf1Pl~! sa m e w,atJelr

th rottl i' n 91 fu in etii O'in as, 'th e '~h Il'1ee:-IwB'V' VlBlllve ~ Th e [co ii I~ sees; nJiDI d i'ffe'W1e nice' betweelfl ,t hesle ·two meth eds, Tn e' mililed-'wst.le!r sy:SJte rn, hOI'w'leJ"Y'ler~ sees 18 Iglre,at dli'ffle;rence. II n the! ca 8 e of 'the 'two .. way !v'lal~'v'e'f alJ f~,o,w Ii' n 'Ill; is ICC ~ ~ eii reu it '":8 th rottle d" N 0' wm,'~,e i;:s by'p,asse~d1~ C:Qnse!quent~y,f 18 ,system lLJ~mnlg tW()I~WII!ly 'V'81Ives is 18 v,alri.a,lbl'e· .. ·f\~g.w chii II led -'w'ate Ii s,yste m ~ Th e ' eiMllPe r,(fJtu m'1e: of 'th e 'Wlait'ler I,e,a vi'ngl 'the OOliJII is not

d i' uted by by pia:!!: waite r SC, all: p srR;oo,llr).1 dI co Iil d iith;)1 n s, 'I he :s,yst,e m retu rn ... 'watJt€i r te'mperal,1U ra ls hi'ghe:lr t.n,8 rm wrn'th three .. waIY vel live: contrel,

- -- - ---._

---- --- - -- ----

S,y' u!ung a pump 'for' eSlcl: . con" the fl,o;w ml!IV be controlled bl'V varylinlg tl 8~ ,P,'- Pi speed, 'I,'n such :svslle.ml,sl~ there m13"V be no contmlvalves a:, ,'h,e' ICDi~1 t la can

Ire': uce both the valve and ;'1., valve lnsta latlon COSitS!~

F~gru -e 3: shows 81 control varlatton u:si'lng an u ,CQln,.rIDIUs,d or l~wUlld"c:oiiIL In this Sv,st6Iml~, contn ·:1 of' the conditioned air supplv IS executed b.·' face-and-bypass dampers that permlt 81 p .. ·,rtlj'on ofthe aliEr ;,' bY';'18SS the CIOIU surface, . I,··· antaqes

of the striat,e'gIV are the eliminatlon of control val ~ .. es Bind lim p roved part-load dehurnldlficatlen. ,A diilsB"dlvanltsJlgls is that 811U the _.FA er is pumped IDIU the :-ilm,le';

~ow.-·,velr, in systems, w'i'tl __ 'V"8Iry small wster pressure crops, this s;y,slte····· arranpement m',~·'v ','-'-10" k economlcall ,.'~

B rpa '5<5~ D'· arnpe '

• _ I) '.' . .. I

, - -

,A~lr . JJ n diller

~ ? »:

/' »: ,/

/ »: / ,/

»:

Chilled water Is circulated ~'hr~,-ghl 'fii>' :' P'~IP,i'ng --- most eomrnonlv steer, copper, Of' plastic = thet connects 1'_".8 chiller 'w:'t'h various load termmats, Pii1pinlg is sized to mIB;IBi· II pl~'DIII~.~Ct"'s pressure 101:8:811, watler v"8Iol'C~ty~, and cOlnls'"',ructiilDn 'COst

parameters. "F'leSls,ure drop i's, overcome biy the use of 81 chltled .... , '_8 liB' ~. urno,

7'

8;

- -

- - -- ---

'The purpose olf the Ichi_h:~id-wat.er p _ mp Is to IC:iJ culate c I ~nedl watler' wi'ihin the

II 0 np .. , GIe.neraU . I~' 'this pump must QI\fIB'fICO- i!' the 1'ri ctlona II pI[reSSUf'18:QSS;I!S caused

.IV the p~p" n91j' cella, and en dller and the PI"lBSSU lTle dirff'eirarnti',a'i across open Icontra valves in the SI, I,tem - he pump, 'wihas' . ~.o'rkln.--=-' tlh, sys··.,m static pressure, does not need tOI overcloml~ thils sta t'i' e pressure. IF,or e:xalm,plle." min a fOlrty-story bUli~ding' tho, pUllmlp need 'not overcome the statle prressrl"re due 'to those I ;Olrty

The pump iis ty'pmlc'"!IIIv 1101(:'0 _ ed upstream of the chilill e'f'. however it may be an'yw·he.'f'e! iin the Iys,te:[m~, p.-Iovidledl tlharthe' pump:

.1 meets 'the mlnlrnum pump ne posit,ive suctlon .. head require'me'nIIS~ T·- art iSI the! Sys·I!B.m pressure at thle pump ij'nillet [must be both pOSi.llVS' land h~lgh snouqh '0 alillow the pump ,to operate properlv:

• mh81ii . -taiinls 'the' mlnlrnum dvnam:i'c. pressure head at crltlcal syst,eml CIOmplQilnelr,-_sl {usu;aUy he ch;;Ue:r·,., •. ' the dynam~c pl'rS!SUJ e head ls no . hi!gh lerl Dug In att ese componer 'tS:~1 proper 1111 OW' wiU not ' Ie establlshed through ttle:lm.:

• accomrnodates the 'to'tal PIf"BS5,ure ts atlc his:ad p~IUS diy -ISlmiie head)1 on sy',s,te.ml components such as the: chi~~elFf.s evapora .or, v,sllvles,.;i etc,

Nlote 'that 'the JlIU ... P' heat lis adl,ded to the water and Imlu.s' be a isorbed bV I :he Ich'"~~er~ Ge.'[n,eli,allllv~ th ls 'l1'IepV!eslentsl a 'VIBry Erma ~ 'tilsmpeIT,aJl,lLIlf'S lncrease.

,~ull" lp e pumps are often [_ sed for redunda "JJ,y~ O,epending on the termlnal con" rol d'i!V'ICtHI Sind :sy~S' ern eon i,I91 "r,Bltilons:, the 10 j Iled-wIBlter p . mp.s may' be eii'the'r' constant or y',srriable-·fliiQw.

- -- _. -- - -

SYSr,-AP DO"

2'DO' A S.HRAE' HVA C ,Systems ,1',nQ E~~'ipmen,t HtJnd;:bQ'okr C'haip,ter 12,,Hydronie He'a~ing andl CoclUnm SystleHl1

n . 1i1f. .41 oJ • ." II f'

lU BSllg n I!l;:CIA;~a Ins a YJ~ I'~!'O n9 _ Wie' 'B"e,m::e

info~atj,Dn on 'I,h,e ,com~Dn8n't;s; o'f: ,!ill til iUed wate r Ida stri bllJ~io rill !fy,ste'm.,

at:

IS,y Its~'If:j' 'the dllstlrilblLI'~Jon sys:be!M ls IB'8S,Y to understand. F"iIQu'n! ;4 shows a

s j'lmp'l,iifii,e,d d i st~r'i Ib utlo n 5,ys,te m DOllns.b~t:i n'!1l 'of m III Iti pl~lle co 0111 rn n 91 col ~:s, leliJ,dl controlled by' a 'therm();s,ta,t thi~t Inl;QIUlI',fJt.lS,S this' flo'w In 'its respeetlve clojll., the,

va I~ve's mlay bel e i'th er th Fe)le~-'way' 0 r 'two-'way., A's p ,"'e.'v lo u sl V' di 9'CLI ssed. '~h wee-w,ay v,alh/le,s requlre eenstant w,slJe:r now', whi'le 'itwo-,wtav valves alillaw the warte'lr 'flow i'n the sy\S;b~im to vairy,. A.'s flll,o;w ViEllr"eS", '~h,e pump m,a'y :silmlpi!\f ride its CUiN'e or US'S' ,0 m ethlO d of: fl110w ,eo n _ iiO II su ch as a va rla bl~ e~,s,ple:ed dr "VI9 .. SOle: th €I se cti:iO n Sys rem ,C(Jn,fig'u',rations~, on pa'l;JeJ' 21, fer a detail~ed diii,sclUssiion 01" dihitr'i'blU'thJn-sysJte,mi

t'·

DIP IIDns,.

EX'J:H;I,Iri!ls:i 01 Jl 'Ta,mlk;

D

E)'i:s;t rUJllU!Jt:'i'D,n Pip'un'g

The dis,trijburtw'o'n sys:telml m ai, e,f)lln:tal'j Inl other compone nts, ,such 31S: 81 n 18XP an sil,o n ta n k,i' ,CCHl1U·O! I VIII ve:5", bral hll nel ng va h/es~ ChI8:Ck. vall~V'els, ,im n d a 11 a i r &'12:(0 a Irarto ~~ to!

- -

ns me iii ]few',. The die InJisdtV,r a, nd the rlef'DllrI8: 1th liB vo,~ I!J me, lof 'the Wcl'~)e'r 'i 111 ,(1 It C lesed #'

ch i III ed-'wata 11"' d ~'S;b'~ b u'~'i gin s,ys,te ml va Irii,EHs a,s; ~'~ u nd e rg 10 es eh 81 nl~Qles, ihm temperature. Thiel E!(l(pSlnISilon tank :alilows, 'folli' ~hm:s expanslon alnJdl,col~l~ractlon of w,a11et 'VOI~ l:J m €li,;

9

10

1--- _ -_.- . -

As! ii n dhl~llied-w·ate'lr di':slIFib,uti,oln s,ystems:" condenSle~F"'wa;ter' scy,stem 111'1 pll'n,lg = most eemrnon IV' steel, CDIPp·er~, or p~asti:,c _, i's :siJz.ls:d to, meet a proiecrs eperatl ng pressu re, p Ire ssu riB II'OIS,S,~ 'w',at:,er ve II CH:=iitv~ ani d conatructio n C'CI:S;~ para m eters .. Pr·e·sJ's u re' d F'O P th rtllUIQ 1m p'i P i In gl ,and tl __ e ch ~':I ~ 'S:'Ii'S, co,ndS:lns er, plus t h lei coo til tn[Q'lOiw,er statlc II,iift:." 'i:! overcome b'y' IJJse: [olf [a. condenser ... water pumlp,~

TOl r\e!jIBlct hermit" w',at)er is passed thlf"1DU!gh ,til co'o~ii'ngl tower whelre IfJ portion olf'ii! lev-,a porates, thus ,e:oollii' nllgl 'this! ra rn a :i' nl i In g 'W',;J·teF;; A, pa'rlUc,u ~ ar ICCIO~ j' n '9 'towe'lr"~s ,efl'ec,,'iV'en,ess: attra lfiis~,er_ ~'ng h[e:;s.1, de p,@'n,ds, 0 ~n water 1:~ow rate, Wiart'9'f' ·te~lmlperiat:lll re, ,Blndl al m b:ie nt 'Wi8!t bu 'I b,~ , . he .. [e:m pie ratu re difference b,stw,een the walte'r !e·nt,le!'r~·nlg and ~e,av'i·n'g the c:Q!ollii'nI!Q tower "8, the ra:n'g'le!,~ The temperature ,diffe·reliilce betwee·n the Ileav,iilng watlt:Hi ·1:,smlper·,B'tu_',e and the' e:nt:'l¥!l'i1ngl 'wet-bu-[b temperature is the s[pplr'O ach ~

A:s the: bu Ud:ingl load ,~ Dr heist re,fiec,ti'loril _, decreases, ra nge and alp P roach alse deerea se, Thl 9, ml eans 'th art 'wh,en the b u 'i Id in'g hi at, part load the lcool'i:n..- law,lr C,9'n provide coider 'wats'f at t:he lUlml1 amb'i'l!lnl't: we;-bullb 'temlp'!:lialturelO

As; ambient w'e~l-blUll b 'l1r!![mlple:'1I"2Iitur'B d IrOP:S1f,· he' 8'PIP1f08Ich _, at: al constant lo'ad , .......

i ncre'I·!U!Si,~, Thl s must b,. 'C'O'IrnS,i d terre d wh,enl co 0 II j' n Q,-tower"c·ontrlol st F',a't)e:g ii 0,&; ars de:ve.llolple!d~, ID,ei1U3Iilled dl'Bl,sic,roip lens of these corrdhions appear in the subseetlun f IChlill,e'r~towe!,r· en'erg.v bs'/ancel/ paJlgl'E! 7:2~ ~·Olr add iti,on,a II lnformatlon, re 'er 'to ,2'00£ ASHRAE HVAIC' Systems' al1l,d l~Q'uipm'len't Hs'n'dbo,okr Chapter 3,6r 1~·C'cJlloliing 'liO"WIS r;s: ~ r:l 1 ._-

SYS:-A!P MOOr1 ~

_. -- - -- . - .- . ~I

-- -

T'_'-~=: chUIIB:d~,w',alttB'r ,SUP1P~IV temperate re ~I--I usuallv CIO '-ltlolUe"d at t_,-'SI ,chiUer'I' MOls,t C·OI· nrnonlv, S;UP'_,-l V wlat,er' temperature is used as the sensed variable tiD permit controlof chll le . capaelt ,:0 meet svstern l'I08Id' demand, SU1Pplly,~,t,empe,r!a_'ullre eontrolstrateqies may be UI.~ ad on oi'- her constant- or- va'rilabllille-'~lol'w svste ISII~ As previo .. _~:~·I'V' discu ssed, I'IIIOIW control is IS.X:leCI-. ted 21'1 the load terminala IU Sill in,gl three ... W81V IOlr'_~~JO wa-~, valves, lor separate pum ,~:ISi for each coll.

'Today's chiller eorr rols are can .. able of .: DI~ng more thsr slilmpl_~_,- tu I-'il 'g the

C- '1IIIa-r' .... n-' an '.- 0'" ff'" A-" t .-' rn ln ''"I-1m':' urn '-l-h:' e se e 0-: - rtrots s ho ·"1 -I.·~.·.-: o· n' ltc Ir·1

~;' 1 .. ,1 _--' I _. '." III ',., t:__:_ . 1 . , . I.=~!..:...:: .' .:'. ty-, .... '11 .... _. II:. I' !. I II -'. '1;1

,S,afety points such 8:S b'~arlln::~ temperatures a Id electrical -:Io'inl-S' that, WI~'~lnl out o'f ra;nge, may cause motor flUu' e.

- ata polnts tha _ Imia'y' causa operational preble '_,S: jf correcnve action I_',S nIO'I' taken, An example rs 110'. chllled-w ter Dr refriqerant tem aerature, wlhliICll~_ Im,a'V result 11'--'1 fl"ee!z~lngl in or around the evaporator tubes,

G eneral ooints that s "_O'UI,d' be ~olgIIQlel= daUlv'l:o " .. ns I '8 112 ropier c tlller performance.

ClonldelflSlelf' 11·I,ha:t IPrles;,s_ rei W:Sltellr

. ater

- -,~

IC' ·-)0'. Ini d:- e .- no' 1i2i'S"

'. II II': __:_' I '1IiiJ.-

LeV'B,111

l'

I -_. __ ._--

lin addltlon to monltorl i'iIlQI data, iI-' [s ·yiitall·tli'u:lr!· ·thel Clhiill~er controls i!llller1 Op1EH1'81mr.s to po,ss:i~lb ~ e p:nl1b lems. DI~',al gno,;s:tli'iC messa ge.s: ,aline n".cessary' 'fDf the: lope rater tD respondtc saf:ety· issues sind datal p'Qmlflts t:nat air'! oUltsj'de normal' lo,per~t'inQ

ra n'Q as.

Whilile C1o:mlmUI nh:;:iart'ing these d'"agnDstJc meSSDIIQieJS is 10 requ irement, 5iHJlme chiUer 00 ntro ls ii nlC~ ud e 'f,s ctC:H"y,-i nsta 11:1 e d P Irlog ra 1m m i IiiiIQI t halt re S plo n ds to tlh~: d Lal g, fli()15~ic

- - - .

me:ss!ag'e,s~ F'ol'" fJ':x:almlpl e, when:he Ich iillied.:wcwl)srit,em perature -lleSlrs ftie!e'2iln,g, '~hE

eh iJII ler sends a dtag'ncstic: 'm,esssIIQle! and !sds,p:ts'ils o'ipeirali:,on bV Ireduc.i'ngl 'the eo m p 1ri12:SS0 r ,eal pa city, Ira i s'i n g he ch i ~ ed",w',!EI .. ter ts!m p e 1I"!i3itU Ire 'f'IDI a s!afe r co nd Ulon

FI ne II'y ~ tlh e c. i II ~ e r controls is n e u - d lCOllm m un illc81~;e 'wiith ,II s,ysite m =11 eVle·11 iCQ ntrolll er. The re a Ire rna !"Y s,y:stielm ,81:slP'e1ots 'th at a file 'D U ts i de I he' ,eln w ~. e r~s di reet eO'lnfr,oil~, sud as co nden se r~wla:te:lr' te m'petatUi re a n d th e' ,81 rne u. nt of f~ lIi ld III ow·.j' n gl th If\OliU1g h the enJ.81 p,ol:ra.·to,,r' a nd It ondense Ii:~ 'To, mIn i: mille th e g,y',steml Ie ne:lrgv costs, the system lelQ nil ro I S 1m U Sit COilO rdw n me en w illl,e 11':, pu m p" IC'OIO! II n g·~towe 1Ft and te rlm i n a ~'-1lJ n if I controls .. Thls ICSI'n on~v be donie lf adaq uate hil~ormhatli'OfUl ii,s comm,ulr1li'cated fro .. 'e,iJloh syst~!m corn pone nt: to the :sys,te m .. leve·ll,c'()nr'IIf{)111 s,

~n so ... ca~ I,ed COlnstanrt: fllow :svste'ms,~ ·the pumps lire eilth,er 101ft or off,. ptovwdj'ng

I ." I f h 'i, t-h .. ,'~ flO "'II

lie ,atlve_IY constant '_~CJW! W.· en In t: e ,DO IPlc,srutu:n~i~ lIn pn~llc]cm,~ some I! ,!DIW

va r:li atl 0 n ww ~I ~ oee ur a:s s,'y:st"lellm pre S:S IUJO IdroJ)i dh a n,g'ENS;. 1111 a V',81Iii'IEI b I e~'fll O!W 5,yst,em, P um tPI CD nlJ'loII ~ s most ofte'n pie ric :rm e d by' rna 'j' nita ii '11 ~ In gl a Pi Fe 3·5 u reo d 'iffe re iirfw 91 ~ a a ,ENa] li!ectled pnolw nt m tn th e Slv',stel'm ~ Fa r ex:·a m p le i' a va r~ 81 b II,e-s:p'e e dI dl ri ve wU II I nc:r1eas~ ii'·t~: speed if the sensed pressure diJffe~enf,ail is tOIDI IlciWt or s_ow down lif""t:t'le

IP rEHS,S;U re d I'1Fnf,e tie iiilti! a II is, K'JIQI: _ i'ial h. Th e centro I point rn S: seleetsd to mlii' n i: m ':zm lOVe!" Ipltre'ss,u _-inQ the! ,s,y:stelm Ind 'to SISSU re adeq~u,aite! fllow' at ~~II cliltical' I~o,ad.s~ Op~'im,a PIU ml p iJ nlgll cent fa II :st~alt!:,g i,~s ia' f~ ad dI reseed ~ n Critic's',I' 1f;{li/v,'e1 !re.sfjlr$ IP allg@' 'lEt

'I :2000 A SiHRAE' HVA,C System'S) tJ',ntj' Equip'ffl'enf Ha'ndblook", C·hap,t,er 12~

H.ydrn,nic H'e,tllti'ng and ICoo~rungl tem Desi'g'n Sind C:hap:tl!'lr ·36~, C,cHJlinQ

'1i7awe (:S:" .AJm ~ rlc a. n S'D,eli e~ty' of ,H leatm ngl IR efrilg e rati'QI nan d Ai r-C 0 n dltm 0 n iJ nlQI IE nlg 'I' neers ..

,2 ,Sichwed tier, M"!l' PiE and IBr,adh!v" B.,; ,~1A,n ldea for Chmlll'edl ... 'Wal'er Plaln~s Whosel Timl,e Has Co me., i,VSI rl talbll e-Pri mllrv""F~ ow' S"VS11'IB rns, tt En'g'l.neers ,N'e'wsl:~u:-er, 'Vo~umle 28:;.. No~ 3,., 'The TrSlfM! ICQilmp\slny:, !11!999~

11 'Webbr :Ftl." and lJ" 'W.,; ~'F!ol!u[liilng h11 iEnhalr'u:le.d Tube's; IUI,s.wnlgi CooUngl Toweli 'Wa'b~ rr Pa rt II: ILo n g -,17E!J'Iiffil Fa u I'I ng ICh!JJta ti' J'I In t.e',ms·tiofl'sll' Jvurn,al oi M'ea't and MiaS's Tran\s:'el.~ ,2.10001;;

1:2

ftefar to A~I SJtalllda rd560/590= '15t98~, Slsndard (.a'r W:ltl~r Chilling' ,Pat:kag,(1s Using fhe' 'VapDr Caml,p're,uion Cy1cJ,e and

he AR I S~a nels I'd !5 50 -1992, .s~a'nd,flrd tor Abso'PtiOR Wiler ,r;tdUer ,an rj' 'Wa;t.~r

He'al;ns Pa"I,ge~ fCIr' ad d~ti on8 III

Inform a[io~. IB:CJ1ih a ~e pu b U s h sd by the

Ai r·Conililitilrllli n:9 & 'Re'Flrig enlt:~o n I n sti'~u't,e. twww.ari.Qry )

c

,

-~ .

,

. - - - _. . __ . -- .. ---

'There ,H re m,IIOV' Ichiil~~,ed-w,ater-'SiVrste'ml de'si g,n optlons; hOW,e'Vie'rf j'n a bsslc sense, e'adh lo'p,lilt)ln bli a f'urn,c.tirnon of fll'OiW" temperature, ,sy,sb;;'nM, 'c,olniiglulr,f)tJ,on., rInd

co ntro I co 1111 rns ,~H!CltiJ,O' rru td rnsc[uss:es: t:h e effeict of 'III ow rate a[ n d tern p eratu re

deeis lens .. ,

II t is imp 0 rta nt ito relm e m ber th Sit te m [p e Ii',a:tu rss 8, n dI 'f1lolw retes a If€: va rl a bles, IB;V j ud Ii c:i' OIUS sels ctm 0 n of the S,B 'val rrn 61 b I e.s" vn ~ I h3:d-'wratE!:t pl a rds; ca In bed esl ,g n ad! to Ib oth :sa'ti,s:fy' dh i III ed .. 'wate:r re:q u il re m e nts a nd iOI[P e rate co st 1e;"ff~ctlvledIY,"

ChIil I~ e d-water 5y'st,e'lmls are ofte n d es:i 91 ned !J s:j' Ii1 9 flo w rate 5, :21 nd tern p erst UI -le,S; applled ~m1i te:di:ng standards develliolped by' the ,Aiir-ICondli'tii'on'i'ngl and IRIe.fr~,g'e!r,at~on Insti~ut.e: (ARI)I" AR~ 5J50f:590~"19t;H~1 'ior V,EI !P 0 Ii' cornpresslon chillers

:2' -

and ,AfU ,5160'-·1919~2~' 'fn r ,81[b!~N:J1 rpt ion ch ii lters, T1I1 ese bench m a rks P rovl d e

re g u rn re m e nts fo r test" nlg ,EI 'n d 'ratl! n 91 chi ~ le rs u nd if: _ - m lUI ~~:i~plll e 11lit:i1 n gl co nd ru'~'i:'D n s, Th,ey ,8 rs thOt.' lntanded to prescrlbe 'the: Ilnfope'm"' or optifm,all fll,O'w rates or ·lle~m[,ple~r,a'tWJ re dw'fisFle ntl1a~:s for' any palrtih:::u lar sv,stIEun~ In fact .. as component

,effi c~i'e n cy ,8 n dI eu storner req u i reme nts chi,i! n g,IB:, these sta n da Ird TaJtru m1i1g C,O' nd it i on s are seldom tnile: optima loondltlons f\olr 81 real system,., There ls gll1'eart Il,atitJluide Win sel ~Ictii ng fll('JiW' IPltJe'sl te m pie rat U res, and tem pile r,iil't.u re d wfl:e renees,

Clh'" ~lllllle"-:-' - B:"- n ", d' ,'" c 0""" n" d ,'-Ia:-" nser-wat 8" I'r-"- te m "" 'IP' '11!IIi'r.'s'" "t' 'U' res

"II ,_' _.__ _, _ _~ _ ,~, I ,'" ,~ ," ." _ I" , ,'.," _ '.-:-' I '. U I ,- [II I /' .I

Leavln 91 chil[1 ~dI"wat:le!,r lind elnte!rilnlg condenser-water tem peratu re sel eetion ca n be co n s ld e (led i: n de p en de IIltl!y of' In 6:; r re's;pe c~,i ve fl ~J.W retes, H o"we ve::r~ temperatures itlndi 'fllow rates should bel l,elle'c,'~:led '~\Q,glether to design an ,e:fii'cmen~' and 'fll ex i bll e dh ii IIIB dI ... 'wat,g1f-s,ys,1 ern ~

[. EV'ls [P DilralJo'f I {H~;VW n g w,olte r te m IP e ratu rs:: 44 0 F (16 . .1' 'D.'C]

'. Wa'te'r"",ca D!!I e d-ee n dense ~~, ~ nrte-rrl n g ... w,aitet tem peratu re: 85,0 F [,2:9,,4, ~C] I. Am IF-iCO OJ I e d-ec n dS'lnse mo:, e nte,lri n gl-8 ii Ir d rv bu ~I b: 9510 IF 1[',35,.10 DC]

iRa 11'" 'yealif's" th ese 'telm p e nature defi n iitil 0 n s w,e"e ,t he: be ncbma ;rksi in s,y,steHm d ss ii'Q'nls:;o 170 dr.iry:" de1s:rn'Qln,e rs a pp ~y a va lFiJ ety of d ilff1ere nt tern pe ra'~u r'€!,s~

AIR 550/65uJ f,m[iects this 'tre~lnd by illll'o'wiin'Q th'B thi:llled·"wiiJter land C!o'nd,en:se'li~ wart,€!'f telm'lpell"i21'~.ures ":0 be selected at non-standard p!Q;i'nt:s and the ,chiJl[ieii' 'b) be testedas ,siplelc;fw1edJ by th e stain da rd ~

ehlU ed 'wa'te r (,wah 0 urt ,al n'~if're elm', ,aft' 34 QiF ("1 ~ 11 °e) m:s po·:ss:j b le w'i'~'h some dh U I B'rs th;aJt u se SiD p,lhii s:~h::lll~ed IrV,II:pO ria t'O'Ifi. de\s;'i'~ n a WiIIdl chii! 1'~e'lri..cID'ntllfo I rnethcd s,

e

C:u Firenlll V if ,c:olm'fa n' C:OIOI~ il' n 9 sys,tem s a lie des jig n B d wHh IchJ I ~ EH~f-'w'at)e! F"',S:1lm p ply 'teml:pleratu.Ii"~;s: tha,iI: n!llnge fli'O,ml 44,of [[6,,'7"'C] 't)OI ,3,B,~:F [[':3!3~"C]" and, in some Ic;a,ses~ aJI lo'w as 3'4 aF [[ 1lO'~ 'at:] ~ R:eaISD ns to' decrease the chllled-wsllsilr I'eml peramUl1'el

ii nelu de 'th e 5Ie::

- Tt:1 tel ,S;V:st:e1 m d esw 91 Inl mo rni relaid i'IIV aeeem MI odat,e'$ wild,tar tern penn~l'tlilfe ,diik'fenCf}!S' ('II o,we:1i filow Ir,Bll'!9!S:t ~:hal:n, 't he sta In da, lid Irati n g ICIOI ndi" t~o filiI; fs.ee 'tln e s u beu!,c:t;'cll'iI ,Ss,leering' :flow' ,altels~ pa gliB " 6:~ ~

I. Lower Wiaite~:r- te!'mpell";a'tlllnD: a~llows: ~owe~r' ajr temperatures ~and 'fll,ow:s:J, 'to be Ise. EHlt)ed res u [I'tm In'g ln redu Qed a i Ir.S ~ de ; n s,tSIII'I ed and 0 pie rat'i' n g eOS;~8"

Co,~ldefli' 'W,i1rtelf inl the samJle dhilll,ed",w',a1teilr coll msv Plfo'vii'de belb!1r

de,hu:mildJ ilfiic8'tw,on,,!,

_I CO Iidle ii' warite!ir ca n' Ib e use d 'tOI iJ rile reese th fl, C SI!P'BIC ily of ,8 n lex ihs,t.i' ng' 'Chli 11[1 eel .. 'w,a!b~~'r dist:ribrut,i'o'ill :sys,t,em", ~n sOlme ,i nstanees, thls can save sIgni'fj'c,alnt cap[tall ,e(XpeindiJt~u.res; "~O atdld c'alpacity 'to' ~am"\gl~ ee Ifill ra - plants 'that have' fEh3Jlcd1J1ed the i' r t~I,ow' ~ i mllts;~

.1 the chii~ ler willill become lies:!;; !effrnc;il~nt ,As, dlscussed e'811iIh:!'r" ,Inwe'r chml,ed~ W,t!jrtS'f' temperature makes 'the dh~llhlr 'wQ'rlk hlllf'de!r~ Hloweve,~, whw~le the II'IFII"'''"","' W,i5Iite.r tern p e r-a:tul fie ii ncrea sas dh Ii ~ ~Ile r e n e rlgl\, CD ns IJ 1m pI i 0 nl~ 'red IUl!cii ng thl! 'cih i,1 led-wate r fl:,OiW Irate lI",ed uees 'P1u rn p e In,efr'1g)I'., Th is CO mllb~ n,a'Uo'n o!ftle~n Ilowe s,yste'm sri'll e!lr'QIV' leJal iii'S u m pti,o, n [I,

I.: II,o'weir chIli [I ed 'wat;elf' tern p e Ii,BrtU Ire s, 'milsy req u iJ fie m 0 [!'lIE! in stili atil o!ln on JJ'i pin,g prevent cQ'lndllens:ati'g'n (~':sweat'i'ng,tl~" IEnsllJ Ire 'theft ,p,iipe,{; are prQIP!e~rly' wnlS !I ,81t is 1I1I wete r 'te'ml peratu res, LO'Wlet' 'te!mpie!fram.u [Fe wal,~ r wiU. iii ot ,8 I~wa 'IS req ~i m 0, Ire' i nS;lu .• lJt'jiQ,:n ~

Tod!a'V'~5; ch j' I'iI €ilfS ca n fU fli ,f):t V',I !rIo U,S EMnte rl n QI co'n de n.se::r';"W,srte II' t)e'M IP f,;rraltu Ii"les~ v'aryiing from dell~gn temperature tlo the ,I,oiw)est"",a~.ow~abll,m temlperat.IJrre for i' pa rti,c:tJ II ar ch rill e r ,desi g n, IH owerve r, :m a ny !e.:)ClsU 111 9 cd d@:f Icn i ·I~ a fa a m'1f:!1 m m ited in t:helr ,aIIIIOrw,ab~le conde:rliSeHI",,'w,a:te!f tsmperatures, C,ontaet the chUle·r man, ,1'!IoI!,""'!I;Iil~ fo r th s se Iii milt,:!" O'ptl m a II Icon deu~lls;er~,watie'r-'te rn plerra'tlll n~ eomrol is dI j seu Sisled ~ n thllB ae clllo' rt, Cond'ensll",.-,SystBffl' IVaria'f,;;on',S', pm 9 e 1619,.

SYS..,AP

_._-- -- --- ----

- - - -- - - - --~

'Th[8 s,e- 0ICt'~Oli" [of ehllled-wa ~8-- and conde: sar-water '-llc-~ rates 'is, a powerful tool that Ide[s,ign/~.!rs, have at heir disposal. KedlV an[d Chan", and So -:we!dle and IN:ror[dee,[n'~" found that {adulc,i'lng flo,w rates can reduce the C[OI'I,t,! 0 - chilled-watersystem installation and/orl cperation,

2~,4 glpm/to[_-_1 [[10.043 I~p-,:Jlk-' ]1 for evaporator '~I~IO gp 1111,' ton [[10[.1054 [~ps/k-- ] [or COl . [dire . ser

hls evaporator II[DW rata corresponds " a '1rOO!F [5~,6DC] -~,eml[~le!rali-··-re diiffl='-e-:rce~ -sp-= , dr~ g on the compressor efffi'citency~ t ' e ccrrespcndlnq cc ndenser temoerat ure ,dilffierel-<e Is 9[. '11°F' to 1[01°1 - 1~,5 11 PC tOI 5,~I_"[C]

'0 S""O'

Will" '.,

S't:eam a If' hot wI.rer

4.00

D- - '8-'-

I .•

. ~ [,<'.1

.. ' ,5

_._--

ID'es'"g ners lml,ay use 'the· sta ndsrd rat'i:n,Qi condltlcns to compare m,Brlu,f:actull'er:s,' Iperiorm,!;Jflc'es ,at exacth/' the: same eonditlons. H!o'we:V€!~lr, 'tbe:stE:~ stand'stds al:h,w any 'fil~ow rSles 'fOI be used ,and certir]ed ,comp,a,risons to be: made at these

eo nd if 0 rts .• f'o II" al 19 rnv'le:n I a,m.di" as fJl~,ow' rate d eereaae s, 'th e 't;,e!,m pIEnat,'!Jj m'I!!, d ~fie lie:n't~1 ii nerea s es, 'Is bl e :I lie.~~1 aets al i41j:D-'to n [, 1 ,~'5BO-kW Ii',efr i'g'e' rati Q n ~ dh i'l ~ ed,,'w;rter St~',st,emi' bo,th as; a base case and w'i'th Ilow flow"

1 ~.080 [68."]

IEnteringl

54,.0 I~2.,2:]

Chil ~le d 'wa'~e r

'19 m ple'r,al~u re gf [9C,]

C- ;il"'i;ndla'n~a,1I!!' '~l~o- ,,,,.. rate ,II"II9II'm' [I'"s:] 'Id! I'!a! a '!a I~ 'i I 'Ill' - IS;!! ~:!' Oil! 1"" - 1""'-

1 3' '5' 0' [95' '2 '-~I

_ 'I.:'. "1'

tJ! .. :. ., .:_. _ ••• "

Co aden self 'wcl'~e r ~e'm pii!W,i!ltu f\e~ ~IF [i:I'C]

~ ii1 thb~, exa m pll a" I"rn,c,tlor! ·'th.at ~he II eavi 'n·gr-·ch!i ~ ~,ed'iiw-;a,'te r tern p'e Ifat U mle' deere a sea and the I~,eavii nIQ,-cQ; ndens'e:r",w,ate r 'tie mlp eratu lil~~! m nerea se s, Th ii:s m ea n s th :alt the ,chii[lleF ~s compresses must plnJIV j'de more ~ift 'lIn d USI! mere 'plowlsr" H OiW' does '-In is ~mp'alc~: sysb3Jml energy cOlnslU,mpitii,on? IUs,jng the 'f'OI,!lOWWflQ assumptlcns, Wre can cliIl'l cu II m'trf!: ;sy',ste men If! rn-gy u:s a !;lIe,:

:801 feet of wate I)"' [[:2,:EU:11 ,kIPa] pressu Il'le d ro p 'tin nJIU gl h ch will e d-'wate 1"' p'i IP:i In g

'301 feet of wart~ if' [[8,9,,1 IkPa] p ress UJ rei d 11'0 P' th rOI U 91 h 'co nld e n SiEU~'w,at!e r p'i pi rI 9

• '78i '0 f [25,)6 °C] de.sii 9 n wet bu I b

91,3 !prerrcE!,n:t motor reHI",clenrc,y fOIl" pumps and tower

• 75 IJ ercent pu m Pi eH;j ele In cy

• _ de nUcill1 ,ii ;:M~: s~z,e ~ In ch m II e d~ ... ,m. ndco nde nsa ,..·wate r ~I QIOIPrs; h~Uh er a d es,llg n

de,c:[s,jro n, o r lnd mlCr81-j n!g Ich 81nrQ Ii WI 9 flllOw.s, ilirli al n exw stii 11'91 ,sys,te.m)

The IPIi"eS5Ure dro,p 'thro'LllI'gh 'th,e: ,chilleli' 'wUI: ehanrg,e., 'Whe,n lJ:s~ng thl'B' ssme slze p-ip~", the pressure drro,p chalng!~·,s w:it:h n'~N~,l1'mV the square of the ~mow ra:te" While this is tru e for stra fI 9 ht pili piiJ n g, tin e' pres s u riB d ro p! de es n of: fo II ow tlhi s excu:1t

rail alii 0 n sh ilp f'O r CIO mtf10ll 'v81~ve s 0 r bra nctM;~ s s erv i' n 91 II oa ds of' va ry'm n 91 dive FSi't.y,

i---- - - - --

- -- - - - ---

IBe sureto calculate jhle! actual pressure dilropi throuqhout the :sy:steml H'- zenW';;~lii[a'ms and DI!Blrc:y:-Wei'slbl;ach call1c,IU,~lalte! the c-I"_,al'nIQIB: ~~S, 110' 'tine '~,:85 -'~ nd 'i~90

IP-: O"":"w' '_ air re'-: e-- B~·;V' '8'" "y- Th'lIcih IDlx:---;a-' -m' P'- 1118'" Sc' h e- "':-', - - (-', :-" * -h- 0 m--":--'" ",,', :-,' ,,',---: -'l--' -, atl ,-' ," 18' ')5-" , " '-' "

_I', :IVI_, ,~Q,-r~~IL":.:_:~,[ii ~ ~,~-·,,[_,_I I,~~,-:- [-,IIrIB, ruse Itl._,~ _ ore c,on,SreN[aIJVIB 1,-""-,, pOlwler,!

[B' 10'," 1 0::' [27''0 9~ I]

! .. 1IIl' -I~.'- ••

2' i s 7' 1'8:- '8' Qi'l

,; -~I_i' ~:_:,< \,f;;;(_

39- [9111'2::19:-'1 B'-:-:·' ,

'.~ . ',Il",' m,1 " _, - .

GrV'81n dl'iJ'ff'9Ire_' '-t f11lo'w rates anc ents Ilringl water temperatures, [8':-' lfferent coollnq tower can Ibe selected tor the IIO[W, ... f~lo'w' condition;

n~111"1 '5, ,6,::' e:-,]

iiJlU u 11L.~ I ... ~I.: ...

'19[01 1 [[5llll,

, 2",6 13l,1'_[

'T, '_',," , " ,':'", , 'I'" , ,,'- '=' --: [' a. rte 'to"~ L:- I[--:'k- ,;'W· - " ~

~Iower, _ _I [power oupu_c, ~[IIPI .. ,J

30' 01 [-2··~·2~-' 4: ']1

_ .: ...... III '. .._ -!Ill

F_ow rate, glpml [lps

3- - 1[' 7'~

1·' :_: I I •

! ! ._. ,." . i!1/ ..

, 4-1 ~ [ j-'2'" - ,5'- 'm

_ t liHiltJ .', "~i ,.,JJ

"101 9;- fI5':'9; 5-:: '-I

"~II "'.' I .': ···.it_i.

12".,16 (,31,7]

25··;.;,2

L __

8 8',:,

! J~ __ .

'17

- 'I Ie '" "'[-:- ,

". . ',,'

- -

,,' '-tl,

S " ""e

. I '. _.

. . I- _

_---

--- ._-

l"Ir.-b'lI ~I 1i1 '-"-,- -I ' ,u-,,*,, ii'iI'ii 1;iil!!i;'ii;JiIilBIil'

,II,B, -II_,~ _ U D "_',,, SII!, ,,11111 ,U'IM1!!!!',' 1'-

Low' flow'

'"'lI!j§;I~ 10. ' £,~U.l .

29,2.,0

l;""ie" nden 'i:!'j..::!l,II'!' 'W~ ter "U rn In

!!;.;;;'"I!'II e" Irw~ l'OiiI!'I!;i'II-' :,_'!Iii!IfL '~ , " , '-f""

16,,0

2,4 .. '1

33'i1.3

' "

I _ -~"I~ '[Iii -,'

~t becomes eleer t:tua1' ef~IOW' rates ca n alfie'ot fu -11 ... load ~evylst:e'm power, E:ve.!rIJ thouQlh the chili II II e r 1f"le,qj U ilr1es more III ower ~ n the Ilow-fllO'w ls,yst,e rn, the POW,I! r red ucf 0 Ins

- -

experienced by' ''lthle!: PllI1mlP'S and cQlloliilng to;we'r resul in ani o'V'erEdl~ sa'vinigs fUIIi'the

Sivs,te1m '" Wlhel't happens alt, part ... load Icondi'itii,ons:? IF-i1gure ,5! shows the part-load pie rll10l'If rna nee bas ed lOin ,ti:he fOI!1 ~owi' nlg assu ml p'tii !O' n s:

Th e chi ~'IU ed""'v~~l'at\e'r p U m p j'W[I c~ u des a '\/'al rJ 81 b,f,e-'f're'q U Ie! n cry' dl ii~'Vle~ - Th IS conde n ser-wa'tis,r' ,., tmlm'ifl rerna i iMJ,S at 'COI n sta nt IPow,e r

I. The ICOO~ Ii n 9 tDwie't ~s cNJ!nfIIiDIJ~e d to Pi ro d u ere waite:,. temperateres lower than de:s;ii'gn

__ ._._- - --- - .

- --_.. --- - .

35:::-10' 10' "T' ---- ........................................... ~=~-----............ ........................... .........-----~_......,

I (. . .... !ll ......

kW

BSI,s,e; Low F-OiW

50,,10 =t--- .......

'/"E:,01' l,ngd"

_·v 701 _Y""'-I.

FUlII L081d

Wlhli':~'B, the ,m,agnl'i1t:u,de' of this benefit of' Ilow'-' -'IOiW chanpes depends on the ,ch~'~llie~r tyP II! used (: CJB In, ~[r'i'fuigi II'~ " abso rpt i on, h 8' leal- r 81 ry, S:C'Ii'O II: I :)~! a ~ I ch ~ ~ lad-water ,sy'st:e:ms can benefit from ju,di',c~"D'IUS use of reduced flow rates,

,A, coil Is a ,s~'lm,ple heat exehanqer, ~f 'we w,snlt i~'t tOI deliver the same sensible and

II - t 'i h i-I .. t lth I - - '-h 'i'lll - II d ~,ate~n·_ c'api8Clty' 'W'III~le w'le :sluIPlpIV' I·'. W'II,_ cooter 'w8rtler-,; tne C:Qlh-·S con .rors responc

Ib'y' reduelnq the amount 'o,f wltelr IP~n;,singl throuqh iiti Because the amount 'of wat:'B!f' dec'r'B,6IS18S w'h:il'BI the amount of heat exehanqed remains constant, the ~Ieavinlg'''- W'BltlB,r ternoerature lncreases, Thus, by~'" producinq C,DIO~B~lr w'ate'lI 1IIIow-,

. It"" , I .

f~,o!w' s:y'srtem can bile GIPlplliledl to an exi.stling bulldlnq. lIn a retrofit appllcetlon it [is;

~I I th I'~ ii' - h- " "I ' '01 -

wise to reseleet tl e C'Oh~. lus,~ng the m!s:n,UI'II18IC·tuIF'B'rs SB ectton proqram, a= a ,nIBI'W

, - -

,c.!hi'lll~e',d·""w,alte:r'temlpelral-'"llLIlre ·10 ensure i1ts performance will meet requirements,

WheJil11 C'D'i'I performance data is not ,a'v',aih3Jlb~e from the lori',g'ilnsd manufacturer,

d ~ - "- ,-- - ,-, hl - - -- -- - - - _'i' __ - sti - F' , h '1 D'F- 11 ~ 01 fl'O'-'" 6""i!JC' , 1 1 DC" ']-1 '*IL..,

some _ ell~'gL_elr's; use '_,_'J,5, app oxirnanon. lor 'B:,8CI ~' - ,,",,""' i,UI'- ~,~!i,~J~-"""~, 11- .~.'IU~I!

wat:e~lr temperature en s:ri'lng the c'o,i'll decreases. 'the' W,grter' returns 11 o'F' [1[l!!6flCll warme'lr' and Igi"v'es about the: same sensible enid 101,111 clllpacltiieull!'

F'or' example, consider ,8 coil operatinq [Bit 44°';' [6 .. '1"QC] lelnter~nlg temperature and 541~F [12102'~C.] Ileav~ln.'g temperature. IBy chla'nlg~n,gl th,!, e1rlnteir',~nlgl ... wa'te':rt:,emlpe'ra't:ure t:IOI 1411 ~IIF' [5!,,'O!~C:11 the coil ... le~!avi'ng' temperature 'w[Jll~ be approxirnatelv '56c1IF -517'oF [11,3:~,3'DC~13:'i,:9°IC]I@ Let's lloo:k at thls example in a table,

- ..

---_.

IChill_ed}- __ Sfls'r' '.-, I ,ei. -"0 . 'lUi'r ,-=-, __ IChl ,- til lieturn W8ltJ-:-lr

til n,C:IIolhac,., Q - ~ ,e]

ceu 'warter' "18'"1 pe n1:lrtu Ire

41 [ !j,.)lll 56, 1-,' 3,3:~

ALII, I[-',~ 1-;'1

~ Ul~ I

5411,2.,2]1

IDlne 'piO IS i b.I!II' COl nee rn lo,f ~QIW;"SIIJ,PP~'Y' WIJbi1f' te m plel'n!rt ures iis: the: ISlbUfty {JIJ 1:I1e' va hie, te C'CInl'tlr'oII _II CiW IP'lfaps :-1\1' Ilit: _CIW~ lead cOlli1diJ,ti'olnl:s;,j A prOlJllell" V''''sized v slll,ve

- ~ - - ~

wii'th 91010 dI ral n.gl'!' e an, W,D' rk wle'~11 fn Illow, .. f· IO'W' s;y;stiem!t II n exms:tlln,QI 'S'VSilsm 5" V'laIIIVle!

m al" n e ad to be rep I aced m f "hey es 'nl n ,ot IOI,P e:'1i"8'I.le '~\;-itlh 't'h e ne"w ra n 9118 of tllows;, ' •• ill I he co [11:8 do nat need t'ID bel F1B:IP'- s:c:ed jj

B,- . a -. I. 'r-·-' t, 'D'" - -ia --,

- 1_. " __ ~.,:",:".I_ ~I._:_ _.-_!!g

Li ke co iJ ~ s 'C'O'O II'" 'ng 1t!tl'Wle~,IiS 81 re heat exeha n,g e rs _, all,tih'Q'lblQj h ofte n mllS:IIJ n d e: n~;tool h e·,I,·t: Il!lx:,cha, n gl'(!'lf',S:;, The tIQ'WII!' r I!!,ca:jh an'ges: heat, b etwle e n ,the lei n ,eringl (wei . mestl wat.le::r 't:lemlpi8'lrS'lII'lI"rei land 'the: ,umbi'e,ni-: 'wlet, .. ,bulb te:mpleriature,~ 'The'lre"CHil!r' "n a n,e~ 8I'v~s:tem ,cn' __ hen a ICQ!oUng'ower' is, r8'[pl,au:::e ~- f' is low' .... ~low s:V,I_e:m de:s,igln a --01 _S s,mal'll'Iller~, more ,efnci'en't Icolol~i'ngl tOWII!'r" '01 be selected, How iJ:s thls P'OSSi~_,~,e'?

:Sinc,e! the ameunt IIlf: hais·· liie'j'ecl.iI'QI'nl ls ,lpprQ,xima ,elv '"hle' same 'in stalnaal.l drall:i'lng"icon"~'i,tliiolln and Ilow'-'fll,ow' s'y',stem:i;f' 'we ean estlmste the he,tart exclhsln,gei ,f,!Ir'1E n eeessa Iry to fif!ll',eict 'thll!: ItM!:fJllt:

la, =: IU A11 A: ' ii' w'here A =: area, IU = coefl:i,ciJ,e'lnlt ,of' hea transfer, and AT' :::: em p e~ ratu re d,ij'ff,e:re n cle,

Us i "lSi sta n dard Ifs'tiingl ,co~diJ'tli'oln S,,~, 't:he fe m psral'tu'Il"IS dil ff'E';!!'r1en,ce b e"tw'e en I-,o,wel'r Isn- erilng '!!I!'mp'B ratu re and a:mlbient we Ibullb 'follr a:,T', .. s:

it 'T BiO' t1I _ ''']'Q ,_ 2-·' "if ;f 'Q',~' 1'~'7'3=-' - 2~·,t:: ,e: - '1'~' '7.1 ce' 1

u , 2 ~, .~.~ .. ~Ij !II - , g ~ " ," ," 'lEI! ~I lr' II:fIl!'ll;~ .) - / ·ll~t.;~1 1_ ~ ~'ilj ~.: .:_:" ",

- - - -- - . - . - - --

. - .. - . . _. - . _. ._.

_lnl a cool~[ng tower, the hea exchange capaclty can be chanped IblV either surface SirieSI O'lf ,airfI1ow", ,or S:ID,me co!mlb'li'nlatiio,nl 0 I the 'tw'O',;oi A, 'C1D'D,lilnl!QI, ... ,tow'IS!r'

rn ani u'f.a,ct'u rer'lls, ,se,~,elct~'o'n p'f",ogralml Ciani ,give' - his; leX,8ct size' and ,POlw"8!'r ,reqluiJr,e'mle'nlts,,,, ~nl 'the' e'xa~lmplil[e lonl pl,alg!e,s; 116-'1'8:., both i,f"e' CQ!ollii'n'g-'t:,ower sl~ze ,alnld airiilo,w' (hlellnICle!~ re:,quililedl 'f,Bln pOlwerJI Wlelre! Ire',dluc:ed~

Another option is tiD UISIS ,'~'hle' same Ic,ool~I'ng 't:D"W'8r at a lower fhJ'W' rate, In IfJ nlew system thls ls ,iI diesign decision, but ln ,an ,exh;;;tinllg svstern, iit is often a

eon ralnt, Gil've'n the same hies! lrs',ject'i'olnl load the low-flow ,sy'stem ,a~IIID'WII the clolollilng ; :,o'we!r' '1:10 return colder water: that is, the tio'w'ler~s; a Pi [Pi roe chi to this: ambient wet-bulb temperatura decreases. In the previous example of' 4510, tons ['11~58,0 kW]I, the same CID'D,li'nlg~'D'wler' 'w'lould have resulted in an lentle'ri'lng condenser ... 'w8'; er temperature of 83,~,!5°1F' [[2!B'I,6;I~C]1 Instead of the 85CIF [',2,9~,4IgC] with the smaller cool~i~nlgl tlow;8r~ lt ls lmportant 1:01 realize that' the ,snterinlgl temperature 'fair' the tower WIDUI~,d be approxlmatelv ~97~IBoF' [36~4,IO'C]l., 'The 'le!f'ol're~1 the effect off reduced f'lolW' rate 0"1 cl-_nl~ler' le,lnlelrgy' consumption is, Pl,srtti'alUy offset Iby t:he lower Bln't:'Br'in,gl'~ condenser water temperature.

'Q'nI8! retrofit option that benefits mlllinry builild'iing ewners ~B, in:s:t·,allll,i'ng a tn8W',~ larglsr' chiller and uSli'ng the exlstl '·.llg cool~i'nlg tower, condenser-water pump, and condenser-water pipes, lin 'm,HlniV C:ClIS:!SS", this ,,-I~DWS this bu:i1'lldi:n,g owner to increase ,t:hle' c - lil~~e!,d''''i'w'altelr .. ,sy's,telm capacitv for an expanslon, w;i'tlh a limited Ibluld:get~ Table 9 shows the eondltlons for ani e:xis:ti'nlg1 45,D,-'tlon [[1,,5BO--t.W]1 Chilililier replaced b'V a 6;71,5~::oln [:2~3:'710-k,W] chillle!r~, This ls 01 cspacltv increase of 5110 percent, A more extensive dlseusslon lof: this exampl e ls contained in the next S'ect~Djnl'f ,Sys'tsml Co,nfigu!rati;rJl,n,s~ ~t, is important tOI select the nle:_: ehllier based enthe nllBW conditions.

Cap,lei! v. tons

- - Ire·'r~ g,eu",IiI'ti'D1n]

'1 ~ £: [J~I ~ Cqc:: '2~ 1 f';;:"~:: It a g ~ ~ "

ioa [-~I~, iI

.Ur~ UI~[Il JI

801 1'3·0111 1]-

' .. 'gi tr .)·1. !II ..

Amblent 'w\e':-bl lb t.e'ml pile r,a t:u re ~ 'i) F (,0 C.lI

2,'

Selv,e ra I co . s id [9Irff:ion s S,hOd~ I d b Ell ke!p'~. ;j n m· nd w'h II d,ete r m II n ~ n gl sizes fa If new' systelm s. As; IP,i/IIl'e s,ize is de cl"leasedl SOl . 'r,e vallve illnd :spEH::ia ltv S'iZlBS ,al '.rd' [co&:t:$. A,emembe'f tha" reduc~l'lg plpe 5.iz'e

i ncreases pressu re dro;p" II( erpl ,9 DstanCBl between ·fir.st C!og~: ,Bind ,opeli~JJtflln,gl costs, ThIs CI nl Siri"gl fDlfi'ea n'~'ly' f\1!'dUl ell till B s'y'S!' _ rn retl·ofi'·· costs since ,axis in'Q, IPili,pes Im,ay bel

used~,

, .' )t' -:-'

. ,

, -

I • " •

. .. .

, --

----

B,y Ire duel ng rsilthS:Ii' chi Ued- Dr condens[eli~" ater fli,ow rates 'S[I CU1[e" :'~ 18 foUc" 11m11~1 'j'n sta I[ . [8 d-cost n~d u ctmQ n s a fie PrOlS S'] bl [B:

- [Reduced pUlm'IPI ,s'lze!r valves, stralne ·s~, fJ'ttings,1P lellrBctrica con ne etl 01 ' :9

• II n 11 tiJ'W s,yste. ms, Ired ueed p,i pie si ~e,s

,I[nl elx·,s: in!; s,ys,tlem s, ml ore rcap,s:city from lex:istlln,. en illed-wa r,er' p[;j p ~ng systelms,

Reduced coollinl[g:-'lower size, f'oortprint';, and fan power

AII,tI9'rrn, . tlve 'V'; ,al phy,si ea ~ ~V:-,s ma ~ Iller IC:O 0.1 i n Q towe II" mlrSIV be' :819 ~ scted WI s;r no II o fl,OIW~ A :·educed fooprlnt can beneflt bUlii[lding owners ln a number of W,iSI'V,S:

• Red ueed ··e,all estate re Ulllil~!imell1ls. I(ofte!n" ore impo'll1,an than l!'\eal!i~e:d)1 R"educed ,SI,liu,ctUl.·,al re1Qluw re --pent" srnce~ the am,ou n't. of' '!.IQ1wer 'waite Ii,s redu ..

• R'educ,ed 8'XCiI'va _lIon, and malte:r'ia~ costs iI· the case oif a I:rsrge,t bullt-u p '16 ~.~ w:j'th II rconcrete sump

l[mlpl'Ii'Orv'ed aesthetics be:ca se 10f"I',' e reduced ·0·· er height

[II nl add iit'ilo n to re diu eii m'gl ii' nS,it2l111 ati Q In costs, 0 pie ret I n IQ; CO:9:1 red lU,ctii'o ns fo r '~h s: 'wholle svstem are also avai able. Due to a smaller pum a and/or tDWEl'Ii~ this flU ,Brrnd 'to,war opleratulllQ' ICOS:ts can bre Ireduced substanf,all'y w'th lies's ,adverse:

IlmlpllrClt 0.'.-" thel chi'"I[ler 1DrIPs'rartii'ng cost, AnI 'V5.~5 p. ogr:slm,s, sueh ,a:s-IOE 2~ 1~

' Tl '.rA,C:E r or SIVs:tIB An,al~vze'f I ,s,oftw,{t e cain be! used to demrl:i'ne: annual

o p eratl n[g, ,cD's,1S I, NDrdeleJ n ,SI n d S'c· w\sdllel'flc: :S how[eid th sr· [Or[p1e.ral'i'n g eests f'o r ,ch" ~ ~ e. d-wate rsvsterns IU si ·'llgl abse rptirD[ n: dh i I ~ e rs c a . .1 ben e.,fi:t 9 rest I V fro m reduced !c,oinds'ns[91i-waterf' 'hlW,., IPjgun~,. S shows 'Olp."C.'lratilngl costs ;BS ,ge-~elrr9l~ed wi'th S'\fste!m, Ana[IYZ91l',m ,an,al'ys~si so:~,are.,

- .. -- .

--- ----- ----

$·4JD.·~. ID~·.·D: D .• ·.

. . 'II .. ..

1·-··"3-·'·0::-· 0·:-:··0:-:·0:-:··

•.. ie" - .1. . .... I .. I

. . _ - 11·- .- .-.

-3-': 10::- ,9-:'1 .. . ·'nY-t· , .

.. I ··.~,"P ·0· n

... !! ... :=1 l ... "."

"aUy and Chans comparethe operatlonal costs of chitled-weter-svstem deslgns in si~)e locations, Their sumrnarv states:

ln eoncl uslon, there! are 'ti~me:s 'V'OIIIlJI Ciani ,'c1haIY'8 'y'our cake and eat it tOD,~·1- ln most CBI,SIB,S" 111,sr1glsr AT'~sl and the assoclated lower flo,w rates wiill~ n101'-: o:nl'v save installation cost: but '-.~.,~'~I~I: U,SIIlJI,slllly eave Is·_-_e:rQIV Q'V'8r' the course of' the 'v,ea,r'~, 'Th~'BI ls el:s:pelci'!a~,lv true ~'f' lEI ~ •. ortlon of: the flrst cost s:a'v'inlgs, ~s ~i~IBiiJlnlvB:sltedl In more efficient Ichliilt~:e::rsi~ W1litlh the same cost chlllers at 'wor.st:~ the annual operatinq cost Wi-;.Ih t liB! lower flows w~ll~ be! about equal to "standard" 'flll,o'ws: but stlll IBt 1& lower flrst COIS:!"..

------.. I

'11 LOiw flow is lonlly IgloQld fOIF"llolng p'ip,ing runs:

2 l.o"W· thlW Q,nllly' wcui'ks 'well [I 'fOlf' sp'l!cii flc manufeetu rers' ~h 'i~~le,n;, 3 lOiW' fl,Oiw can 'onlly be i8'pp,llii'ed 't,QI nlew ch'j;!II:led-w,slter ,syste1lms

Mlisc'Dnceptio ~ , ,- Lo,w fll,QIW ls lonll:y go,od for 110,nl'lll

i!i iii!

pi p'l~n 9 runs,

On e W,IV to exa rn ii' n e 'th ~ 5: eli a iJ m ~',5, to, UI se DiU 'F prev lou s exa m p 11,m" bI~lt ,t)O

'CO'In ee' nrir,8jt,e 0 n 'J1118 conde Iillse'F"""'water sii',d e, Wi'e.' ~ I~ sta rt wil~:~.1 'lh Ie er)C:amIP II e Ie OiVl ,on p1ages: '16-·1 ril, Usw ng the sa me! ,cJhiiUelr', but ,al ,s:lman&Hm '(::0'01 i'n,g tow'IEU' and II WI 'C(lIJn se N,flrt'j'v'e 21e friO ICIO ndl,e nl:$ler-wa1e'iF';'IPi Pi e ill ress U lJie d Ira P,w we lei n e:x:a m rn In Ii th, e!ffe,ct of Ire!d u cln 9 fl QW rates,

'1.,1 [13,.2]

'19'."1 [:01;," ']

2,4\

1_,

---_ ... __ ._ -- ---_. - - - - _. - .

- - --~

350,.0 -~------------____,- ---------__..... -

c .250J) ....f- iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ......... ---

10

!!!'

~ tc...

E

~ 2DDD ,~-----------~~------------

1£11

C

Q u

.. '

'1)'-- ~I onl .. ~ _ ........ ._UI!JW

IE

WI ....,' 001

>, .~·nlln -'~_

,V) ;;JIU ~U ""l1l'"

!I!!

l~

"'1f:':'Q'/~ I~J~ ;ra

50%

Ene!.rlgy ennsurnp '[ani for the Ic:hnl~IBr" condenser-water pump, and cooflnq-to -~Ierr fans is Slhllow'nl in Ifi'gure 7rPJ,~IIDtle that on,ly at full load does the! total PIOWI8!f' of the Ic,hlii~~led,-,'w'a~:e'r plaint Increase, Rlelc:,a~11 that 'th~s, ls wit'h 01 ",."s;o,lllutlf3IIV ['_ID pressure d rop through the eondenser-wa r p,i;IP,i'n,g.~, valves, 10F' 'fi',~j'ngis;~ lit ls lnteres !_i'ngl t:OI note that the break-even 'POI i' nit: ,at 'fu[111 IIDI,adl is approxlrnatelv 8, feet of' Ih,fl8,d (Wiater) [23,!,9 'ka]j .. A,II.lol note that at an IPO- i~: ... load condltkms, the total power of the Ilow' ...

'flo,' sly'sl'lle:ml 1:8 IIB!SS, than that 0" the base svstem, It ls lellllSV to se,le that 18VSf'J _~Dr' short P::'lpillnlQ] runs, reduelnq f,lo'w rates can Improve plant ,snI8!rIQY consumption.

n:-:I- ""~'-"Jh"~" ;" ',,'.' "-113: IE-:-I"'", ".' and IS"-""'h"'-'--"'d'I'" and N"" irde .. ,.::.' Indenend I'---'t~···· sho ""-"I'd'uB,mlrc_ ran, lot at, f" ,ey ,~an_"cl_I'_W8~ __ er ,81n:_ '0 I BHB:n rnuepane enllV '&1 :OWIEL

that s,yst:S:lm IB'n8:rgy consumption clan be reduced b'V' reduclnq flow rates, ~t: Is i'nit'B!'ries'li'nl!91 to [nIDIJ:8 that in the s;ystlsms studied, three dlfferent chlller

,-, - Ii - ~ '" d II 'i!! III '"' d f-:::'

manufacturer's dh~~lller,s we re exammec ,j1 ya'I' the 8:'ne[rIQ'V savtnqs on~v' vanec ._ rom

:2~iIDI '~DI 6~!5 percent, Illn al~I~1 cases Jr'egll,rd~IIIBS:B 101f: whi'chl manufacturer's chlllers 'WIB!r-e, USB,d, the svstem e,ne'rIQY' consumption 'was re!,dUCIB'Id~ Illn addition, De'[m~rlchli'an~, et

.. ill 2, , . d IS·-:I .. Ih' " " ~ , d .1- -I :;;' ,'---" -,-' d-:-'- 'N' I .:;-:-. -- d ... . .. - CI .. ·I~ I ': . .. , .... ,.. .', d , 'e" 'd:-: I -. , ~ .. ;-:- .. d f!!! -:-' '- t, , "" ,-,' I .. ,t' y c,'

ar, ,~,anl, --0 wei, er ani __ nrneen asso noteo [r,JUCIB:__I_lr,s~ CICS -,BIll!

21·.

_l •. ·./

.. ~yst

-------- - - -

Miil,sconcelpti'on 3 _I l--o,w' fllo,w' can o'inly be 8,IPpliil,ejd to [n,ew chli'I~led'"'"'wate!lr' S,YSI ~elms;,~

I-U- p' 0-"1:'1 DV'O m- . iil'l ii"i >!ijfi;; '0' '11l"iio ;t!, 'I!I"~ -c· '-'-I'I,a ~ r fI''-h at n~w' - Lf- ~ '0' w" -, '~y~lfioll!:i"lm' . ,t!' ~'III·t"ii.'w' ~ ~ .. ·,,'1'1 In nl~ aV£ilIli'"ii 10' In s·'1!.. 1i"iI'

.'-".- _ · __ .. ··1: II !!;i;:oii'!i.i!:;!!, I, 1111'1!li!!!!j,I!"~ ~,t ~!i;, ,d ',.- '~II!:i!II_ ilL _to! -'_ , ur• , __ om"~ !I'. 'd,q~",,",. L I~~ i!';;;!~,'.!!Y"~ ~'!!'.!II'Y .. 1 ~~' .... _ 'Ioi,;;l~11 ' .. ' . __ '11 !'u, ,

pm p iI flJlgl ru ns, wo rk 'wiith ,a, III ml,a nufaetu Ire r5t chl IIII E!:[f,S;, til n d c al n be used il n ret rofiit appllic!artij"ons" ,As: ,al des,i'glne'f~, Ii,em,emlbe:r to revie'w the benliefits 'to 'the Ibuii~dingl D,wniej'r~, Oftein, r,educ~ngl f~,ow' rates can provlde si'gnirfi'cmnit Va~llJe"

1 A,R, I, :S,'ta,ndallfd ,560/5:90,= 1'9:98" S:ta',fl,Qard :fo( IWalt~,r Ch,i,Uing' Pa\cta,ges' Us'/:ng [fhl tis'po',' ICo,m,p'ressJ;OifJ C-ycle~ A,ir.-1Condwl:ionii'n'Q &; R:efrri'ge!ratii'oln IIn.stli'tilJte~"

2: A,R II :Sta In d,arlid EH50 -' 1 ~992" ,Sta'n'a,'s'rd fv'r' ,A,ilst')l,rpttioM' Wa:t-er CtU:i:ter and' Waiter ,HlfJa:tingl ,P,s'Ck:a.g'lel, ,Ali 'r;.,C:o n d ~ti,o n; In 9 &" IR,e'fli i:IQ eJlrs1til,o n II nstJtUlt,'e",

3 C'emllrchii'a n, GI .. H~ PE: alnld Mal rfl'g,8 ree ~ i' M,.A., IPE ,,: "The beneflts 101f' h ru gh~ r co n den !ler-wa'te:1!" A:T at: La gan Ilnrtelrln,8rt:iio,n a~ A:iilipa n: ce'lnt:r,8111lchii I II ed-'W,siter' p1ihJI nt, 1:)' ,~'DEA 88rh ,A nnutd' Co,n:fe,liel,nce Pt,oceed:i'ngSt 1'991, 'P.IP~ 29111 ~OIO.

~. E,II'eV, IC",:;: "E n1e:rg'v talns I'ys" s-repl aeement of' ich'j!:llle:rs 'fo,r buiil~ d j'ngs 43lr 41" and ,48"i ,'1' E II,e'y' A,s socl ates, CAr ,Apri II 199:1~

5], IKe IIIV~I ID~ Wi! a n d !e,he,In" 't,; ,N 0 ~ 1m b!~ ng chi II ~ e:d--'WEI'tEur pl a nts~,,'j' H,'es'tlfll,gIPipi:n,gl

,;4 lr Conditi"oning~, J1a:n ljJ,iJj rv 1 ~999~ p p ~ L1415 .. l

1& Sohwledllle'f~' M .. " p; E 'J an d. NOlrde'1! n, ,A;.,; 1~ Low f~ow wor,ks; f'o IF absorbers teo l" ,CO(J't:r.B,cting ,B'u8,~~ne,s8" INI,o:ve~mlbelr 19198~, IP'p., 1108-,'11, ,2"

- - - - ---

- __

. -

i·, lul_tii' ~,~Ie,,~chnlle-' svste II'S alr[" nore IC[O'~'~[--~[lDI-'1 I' ran ,IlL ~,.~ le ... chiller svsterns tor the same reason that most cornmerelal ali' rplanes have :-.~ I~' re , [hi n O[ ~ =1~1_'~_g ilne- .' he 'Ia.[a-·, :1 of rB_i'slbij'-r-v and [CO:S~II The most . plcal sy,s, -:I~m c,.·fiigl[_.ai:,iion,ly far,

>II:.~ S ,,-:,' 10 [c;~ illers, Slnce s'vstlem Ioads [can val _ th ouqhout a 'w-'de spectrum, multlole-chlller systems clan often 0 aerate -: ··'Ilth 01n[81 ,chi'l_le -'i' DUI i· Igi t -. ese aerlods, iil the SY'S,i-:·.m iils_I'-sig[[n[e,d plroplel--'lly~[.,e energ·'" required tc operate al

d [ II~'I d iii 'il'I" b

secon c ~ 1[111 er lall'l~_ 11'[-:& 011-' X[I sarres can oe conserver

-'~gulr'e B ,Sh,[O--'-S 81 sy'steml. ~~-h,:, - 0 chillers Ipi_, led :i'n parallel, uslnq a sin'gl,':

Chl'illlle~ld"'wlartIBlr rump,

I _ I, _ ,

15 o· 1220C) 1

~~.~

ICOlln'stan[t

Flolw

01

II

Clhlilh~' - "

-_ ._ Ith consta nt I_-'~O'-'--o ds, a .e f~O'WI~' In' olt:·~ ehillers C'.' -, rtln uallv, . -- hethe -.' the le'-li'II I e ' i:s 0 peratin ... ~ 10 -. not, Clea r[IYi this can disrupt the S[_·_ ppllV c_~jIUI'ed....· ate .. r ternnerature \.,--hen onlv one c-, iller ii's operatinq. The te .~, ers t ires 'i -: .. ~ icated in Filglurle IBI=lho~ - hID'WI t .. ~. ::~-IUIP I~'~Y -'-'-I;~ i-I" r temperature rises whl6:n Cline chill Iller 1:-' cveled off in response to 18 1_ iart ... [I'OBI,d condition. Thls rnav result ln lnadsquate

(, lehumid i ~i'cBljoln eapabil rjes or the ill .~ ~j[1 itv tOI~'alt:~sfy specific loads,

-'ll'ter '_8Itivlelv, 1110 runnlnq Ich'~~~e 'Ciani 'be Ire,· -Iet to produce a 110 eli SluIPply te . [. __ ~,e 'at - r~· [al~' t I~ is condltlon.In this - - ~,av;~ the mixed Ilf rstem-su ~. -1-: IV'-'_- rate -~,

temperature m.~·y· b .'. main -aii ' __ 'd at 18 rnm e acceptahl I tempers ~I~ re!l. This

CO[- plicates the ,C,O ·tro,~ ~;vstIBI __ a . d plr. ·,'-e· tSI tr 1.1 possl :',i![Ij' 'I," ,o,f Increaslnc chll er IB[n,err'gv consumption due to the reouire -,~ ent tor 110 ~[-~'.-tB[mperlaltu_le ·--~ter~ There. "_-JIIU alse be 18 10 :~ limii't tc thls water tlelm-I~ erarure, Idlsl- ~~nl.= ent on t-·- e

chl lIe!rlls 11··:.iW IP[_"BIS:S[·I[fO ICI._:.-·-:-: out control, ~o,,_ '~e'~:'~a pllorlatlolr-r'I.~fr~:_ eran .. II: _-I _I oerature

limits, or IOiW Illealvi~'ng ... ehilled-water limits.

27

-

-- - -

P,an:i'a., F[~ow (S, Ned CoH:sl

~f S·.p , rate, , edleatedchlller pumpls ,8Ir!B IJJsed!I(IFigiUtrOI 91'r a c,' '1'1 I sr-p ump ,-sliir ca be leyelled 'togethe1f Ih~s 101\l',e51 t'_ e '::llo,w mixing prr'ob' [em describedl,above.!,J.' bUI presents lEI new preblem. 'W'j'~lh tin'ly 01fi8' pump opera~.ing~ ':lotElII 9;vs~em water flow wU_ decrease signifi:c'n-Iv, ,slccord!'lnIQ' 'to the pump-svstem ,CUlVe'

II 110 'OJ A III .. L. II d' '.. I ~ .. 'I.-;. .', "III '" II ,-

rle.8'I!JIIOns,. IIP~ . ~. __ tne 'OiL ter -IHl!:9 In ·tl-:.9· sysl~em WI Irece~rve ess W,B'ter,

regalfld~e.ss; ef their need, ICon!U!lque·ntIIYJ1 i't iis p[oss'ilbille to' starve sorne l'ICH!Jid:s'thB' B're stU I h jig' h, per . .I,e IP 5, rh ase' servl n 9 iI nts - n a II,s p aces w'ilh co n sta nt.! oad S,f Dlr to starve the loads f'al "_htu;,t frnrn U"Iilei pump,

. .

~~ I

I

'11"',··· s····, /,-

. I ,,::... 't .

. . .'

If chl~Ue!rs are plped lin ,S!!riUIS'f' as i'n 'Fillgu'fB 101~ the lmli':xiingl problem disappears

. d t t iii - '.'~ b ~ h-I f-:- -, h ,,". iii ,~

an 1_, e sil~:,arv'~ln'g C:O_IIIS, prcmem, 'w-:-Ie'n ona 01 the Pi umps ts not r'Ulnn'~lnjlgf 111:5

r,e,SIDIIV'B!ld~ :S,sriiles f~DW' presents a nJI8"W' set of temperature and 'fl'OIW control eha llenges.

Iii:: 4-I''''I~ F ,-' '2'-" 2- '"'" r'

'!;J . !iii' IF' t II ..... 'i"/ '!Ii!'I~",-

10

. I'

Clhillle'ir 1, Set P,oj"nt =: 44°_,' 16[fi,le;''''I(~:]

The 'flow rata ,throlluligh, eacn chiller is the entire sy'BtlB'm f~DW~ that is, double the individual 'f"IIDIW rate ofthe parallel chillers (tw,DI IclhliiJ~lersi')I,., ' "his means that the chiller evaporator - IU,S! accommodate this doubled Wlal~er ,quan'tity~, U t:--;Jntg,s: beiilng equal, this results ln 'fewe'f' W81tI8!lf' passes and deereased chiller efflilc':en'cy'~, H'OW'IB:vIs:r:r this IB:ffli1c~,e:ncv IIID,S;S is mora than offset b,y' incressed chlller ,effic'i'ientCY becai ise the upstream ehlller operatea tat w'arms:lr temperatures. A-,SrlO'1 pressure

II[ O' . Ie 'so a. tC! a riil3i a d d ,- ;'1" '~I-' V· 01 11,,111' h 'e' " n:·· th ~ c c:h 'i ~I ~I m, rs '!!:IiI re p .. , Iii p e d I Iii' n 'S- e IF':' e s 'Tlh" ~ I:!"' m gt'V ii n if"ii'Iit"'D '9 C e '. ot '9" ~

I .t~ -.~~ I~ _ l!!!;ii _ I~, III . '. I~, '11"11' I 1· ... 1 . _I~ ' __ I,~ ~,IHw"_'~ u _111!i",i ,___I - .'. . . _ . .I~; I-'=:',!!! __ I_I U'~I _ IQ .... ~ 1!Li!i'11i t!!l;;;!"'l;:~ ~') Ill,ly _' . I

svstem pressure loss ,e'i'Q'. 'n° l;f'-'lill,~gln"lt'-'llly::' On the other IL'~-~d'" tEOtA· ;Bct!il p._h·-; ;~I' 'ers m-I'Ii!iiIV···· w· . ork

,~ J' ~,,:_ I. ~.:. 't;;ji"~:I!i~' ~,~.,~I~ ~iI~ i ... _,~ __ I~U __ ,:,,_ . 'i!!'':''': '. ~" . I '. lit _ I_'~ __ :...._,'-' ~~ _ IlI;iut ~ III .,~ ,~, .. ,- ~ >" -..:...: - ....

V"E9:ry welill in 1IIID'W .. ,.f'loiw svstema, w'lhle,rl!! the ,sy,st:slml temperature Idi'ff'e~e,nlce ls 'glre',a~e,r than "16;~IF !~'9°'Cl'fI r'Bs,lullijn'QI in IIIB:S,:8, pressure loss, lo'w-'fIIIIDIW sy'stlBlmSI are dlisc:u,s.:s,s',dl in dI8taj'~ IbIBlgi"nnil'nllg on paqe 116~

:30

··s··· -'.

I . _'

." '··1

I' _ -- -- -- .. _--

Temperature control ean 'be e:xec:ut:,ed ii:ln SIIIV'l!lr,a W'ISYS;,! Figure 10 shows a st r~ate.gy W .ere the COl ntll"'D~ Il,e r DII1I e a ch Ich i I. er is, sat: at 'the svst,em des i'Qln :s,el point. Ern'thle!ir c:hi! ler can be UI;I,d tc meet the :SVste'm d'em,and for up tOI

501 percent D': the~ s,ystem lead, At' Sly's,t@:m tosds grel,arte,r 'than !6iQ percent, the upstream chiUllller ls pllriefle,lie1nf all' V loaded because 'it 'w"'I- attempt to produee 'thl des iJg n ~ea'vii: n'Q en 'i~ I e d''''W',i]11 I:V tern p eret u re, Any' portion of the ~oa dI ·th!a! re'maJn is d,in~ct!edl tD the: Id!olwnst:r'B!am ch 'i II B:'Ii~

Ilf ,ch ii ller set 'p'oiJ nts I'r'e' S'tSI'QltQIB Ir,ed! I(Ul(ll,strea ml et 490 IF' ~,91",4,IO C.] an dI d:o,wn,s,t ream at ,44,'OF ~:6'i,1,o'Cll, the d.O'WIn:5tlfl~!U!llml Ichi~h!!lr is; hlsdledi firs .~, 'Tnl's ups 'realm maehlne '~he, m,eHJts Illny' portion c,'f the ~svs;te'ml load that the downstream chill.le'r cannct rmei' Th i ,S co! nt I1"OI~ st:r',flltie!lgy' effe rs severe ~ be neflts, Th e f rst ~ s t halt 't hie UIP,st.tea'm, ch i[1 e '"5 all'w,eIY!: 101 pie riB'ti'n'QI at Ian e evated temperatura. This 18 lows, ~t, ',' 0 operate at a h'i'lghelli"' ,eftii,c:~e'ncv:~ ,A~S,D'~! ID,I,iJllci'ngl an 121 asorptlon ohii'~lle'r lin the! upstream IPO:si'tion

i' nClli1!8,seS i' 5; IG,a p,EJj,city'" As, a n example, ,al n 81 b sorpt i 10' n chi II e r t:h,8 t Ie an produ ce 5010 tons ['.- ~716tQ"'k:W] at a ~eavii'ng chilli ed",w',a:terr temperature o,f ,44·'0 F U5.,7'O'C] ma~ prod u ee 1600 t:IO ns [2" 11 0 ... "W]I at 5 01 Q F' ~:11Q~' C] i. C:I:n' rii'fugat~, he i,c'al~r'o!ta ry', reIC~p"Il"Dlcatii n i9, ,SI ndl selF'D'1 chillers ex p er-i e nee! c alpac~ tv ,al in d leffiic;~eln cY' ch,alng]'I!! ta is lesser d,leglree,., IB,y judicious IUI,s,a of the aeries c:o'n·f,i'lgIUllr,alt~on., these be!n,B'fifts Ci

- id d d ~ t' II~ dOl ' - f' I-I ,"1-1 ib "'II it -I lib, '"'I dl"

pnov',Ir! rec ueec II'nS,jl=1Jl~ieli~ cost ano I. lUSt I_ _a'x] 'II IV' '10' rt -.S! uU1111 •. ~ Iln,gl owner,

Equ,all,loadi:ng of t.hJte two, 'chiJ-'I:I:'rs: 'm,I'V' be aecernp ished bry trI,s~ing ,S ch'i~'1Ie.' p',an~ mlanage',mel'nt Slvsl:,em tOI reset th e u pstre aim, ch:illll e: r"s; ,IN!t, pe ii' nt ~ n response 'to cha nlglllS in s;ysilJ!m load ~

----- -

-- - --- - -

The root cause' [of easentiallv all [of' the difficulties with oarallel chillier' co nit ro III is .' he ftxed rellrati'ol"lhipl between chiller end svstem flow rates. I'fi instead, W,!: lean Ihyldr,aulli'c'a~lly decouple tn B, production I(chillls,,) pi ,:ing rrom the distributlon 1(llload') pipl~nlgl" lit is possible to control them separatelv, T1h'! fi.xeld relationships a,'BI then broken a part,

IF;'g"'11 re 111 sh D--:" 'S' -Ih e b'a"I!~;IC' d ec 0'·;- upled ~Iy' st ern Th ;'e st ra ce-" :-"Y "'I"S S'IIS' o I eferre ,- to' . 'So

_ III,. I__:_ I -, -,I__: .. .:__I .:. __ I ..• ' ~III,-, I:_~._~~._ ~I~~, ~ . u ~', __ ';Q.I C 'III_I ',_ '::::. ,_" '.'.'_: I)'. _~, : _). . " _.

a pr:imalry~sec;o' ,dary [pumlp~ngl a_ ralnlglement~ S'<11111 r/ te Ipl. imps are dedicated to production [ani = dlstributlon, WhUe the sarna wa "'8'r is pumped '_,_ Jce l(b'Y d'~iJ'e'rleln": pUI· ... s)" there ls no' dupllcafic .. [ of purnplnq enEL'[gy~,' hls is aecausa the production pumps overcome olnlly the chiller and prodactlon-slde pressi Ire d_ 0-:', whiile the diis,trributi'on pumps overcome onlv the dlstrib utlo .svstern

P -'esslU rei drops.

,. ."

-I U -~ -_

[01

31

:3:,2

The unrestricted bYIP,BSS, llne hydrauli'c,al~'v dle~oo'lUpll,esl tibe pI[r'Odu,ctiion and distlrii'blUlti'o[nl pumps SiO that they' cannot eperate .'n II series coupled [pumJ'ping' a rra [nlg em e nt,

A!ltlhou[gih the tW'[Q, [p Impi'ngl s,'ys,tem:s, are ilndep,@'n:d,ent" the'y have three thi'ngs i' comsnen:

bYlpass; pi[pinQ.

no-fl ow' :startii'c head I(,'from 'the blundi'ng1 walter c'D,I:ulmn)~ lind w,ate,r:1I

C:hanige:s: in f~l,o'ws Or' pressures due to varii:aili'Olns ~rn IcJ'vnl;amlilc head Of 1: I Ie' nlllimiber of ,chill[lle'r,B op,e!lratii n'g Ii ea n '" et ICli10lSS the' ibVIPSlfUJ IliJn,el~,

'T, [8 o'xtent of ::' ' ,eic'Qu"p,[I:i n Q[ dl[B'pre nds s 0 ~Ie,- V Q n '~he rest fiiJ,ctio n (or [I a[ick, ,of restrletion in th a bvpi!!iis~ P- "'I' P- ~ 'ToJ "t- g~ d'- eAA U pllilln g '~I S aceom [p-I['" 'h-- - d on' -11\.1 '~.il:J ' .... ,£11 II ~'Q,l. I IbL.' ,I nil __ )~! '~'l' :.,g,~_::'g, :.:..·~i~ 11[U;I,u~ :_,~ ~~I ~J_~_'_I!:' ,I:'~_-.: :u,11 _:. I[!!l' :'e'l: .: _' II, n ~JII~!

b'Vpa:ss pip:iing[ has zero pressure loss at ,sniv'_I'Qw Since thls is: not pos:l~bll,e" S:Q me 'il n,ld 91 n lf cant PUI rn P ell] lUI pl Ii n QI wi: II.. ex iJ,sl:~ Th e to m [P.IQ'lrt81Int i:ss,u e ::8 '1)01 "J!'8 Pi : bv-~,a9S piping free' of unnecessary restrictions such ,;IS, ,check, valves .. Sle,e' . vsive ,in ,the bl),p'a,ss I,;nsf [paglle[ 6,:3;. for fUlrthsr dlscussicn ..

Ani i'lnlldi'vidlulcd p[""ducticln ('chi'Uollri p -mp needl on~v' pump w'ot,e'r fr'Om tlhe rs'1tul byp,ass; tee (po-nt ,A i'n [Fli"gure '12l, th'r\ou,glh iits Ich[i~llelr, and "nt,o, the tere at the ,SIlJ[pp~:v-end lof the bYPS[S'Eii Une (potnt 8, iin, figJure 12) .. This represents 11 :r',e:~iI't , small pressure Idliii-~erent'iia~ and a ~ow pumpilngl.-:pow'e,r' equirement, [I'n addrf'o:1 ea chi i nd i v:i'd LlI iii [I [p u [m IP 1€lIP erate s [0 [n Ill' wh e n lts ICO rrespond ii nQ' ch rj'[1 ~ er rUi rrliS.

P'ro!du,ct,iDn loo[ps are in,dupe: I d1le:nit~ one: 'from, another, as weill ,as f'roilm th d~str'~,blut'i,on, ~.'o,o Pi ~ Th'6V' 'mia/v' CQ,nsi,fj,t, Q't 'p.ur'mp~hinef' Ipa;, ta, th,a,t, B,et a's independent Ich'.lh~rs,., Or" m,a,nilfo1Ided and st,U'PPiB,d pumps; can 'DIe 'tealm'e,dl w~"'n

au tomslt'i e, two,",p'Q:sitJ'Qdn ,dh i Iidell vs'llve,s 'to ,o,p,e:'Ii;ste in t:he s·~ me 'wtay las: pu mpdhU~e'r' paiJ'IiS;,!; figln'"!1! 112, sho'ws ,th, lSi tatte. arluulg'e:ment, Temperaiture !calnit,o,~ ls

a[1 so '!' n d-'~'p-:c"'[e' I', n d e nt' The cOinlv8!nfilo,nlal· ohilled-water tarnperatu riel C'D ntro ~ ler

- I I,g._. ,I I .I .. ~I .' ....:_-, ,'... _ . III - - -' . - - .. - - • . , -

fu rnishe d with the ch Ii: II ~e.f, S BINes, t hi s fu n ct iI ,01 ml '.

.. . . - -

._---_ ... __ .... _ .... _-_ ... - .. _----_. - _ .. __ . _ .. ---- _ .. _- . ... . . -_. __ . "" -

Producl,lion Pumps

Clh'iIlhillf' 2,

A

_. OJ

...

Chillers Imlay be lof' ,I Jy tyPISI" ,algB~! :SI'i'ZIB'f' air manufacturer, ,S,y,st[em operatlon ls

S-I~'-m:-":- plest ho ·w-·e·"v··s·· '-r ~I'f; 'S' lUI ·0·····'-' t- he chlllers are d eskmed to 0:- nerat D w- - -~I'I'Lllh"" th e .. · s arne

_ I. I .. II'_:I·'·f' .1[·[ [" _I .... · 1111' ~I .,_~~ I.:... _I,) I.=_'_'I __ ~I_'····· IQ_I~, I:..._I~'~I_I:::J-:I_~ ... ,.,IU:...·~~ ,~.,~ .... I,. It.I.· .. ·.b - .~,

Ile',a'.·~'iilnlg: llled-water temperature and through the same s'vs,tem temperature rise [temperature d~ff'elrlenlc:e) across the, Ich~~le'lr:11

lit is i1nt:[e:rs's,tin'g' to note that i'f' the chillers in ,8 dacoupled svstern make the same chllled-wster tempereture.jhen ,a II II - he 10 pie ratlr "[g ,ch~IIIIB'I_-S are loaded to ec ;Iual' pleircentalgles~ There 'mIIBIV bile times when preferentially IIO[IBI1di'ng a chiller ls

- -

r lesired Thls rs dlscussed ln he section [Ch'i",ad!~,'Wat'ef~S'y r ·s'te'm Vs'riatians- P'18'Q'-:19

. _I'g .. I~l~ -.,:",:,.1< __ 11 _ _ ! . ..:...:...I [ . .::....:.1 .. :....' <: ' ' , 1 .. .' __ • . ," ...•••. ,1 __ •...•• _ ~ . ..:..._:.. l _ ~I . .:...._ '. _ ! I~ I~_"" .. "':_:: "," J1• l _' "',L. _I ~ __ .• _::_ _ .. _~, j:_' _: .-:-- _:_

54."

I ~_ Ii

'~;'?I t3~

34

O:s,t.rlilbuti 0 n IPU m IP s .ake wate r from the sUIPIPII'V wetter - ee 1(,p[OW nt IBI 'i In Fi gure .p. U s; h i'l 'th re ugh ;8 III 'th e ~-. st IfW blut'i' Q[ rrI P ~ IP in 19 ill ndl I IO[ a d 'tie! rrn 'i' na 18" il nd the 111 0 n to return wa,te 'tee I point A In Figlunl 2,')1~ Thli:sr pump, can (a,' d should] ,sUow varlal ~e, . ~OW~

SUP'P y

Purn p Curve

II -

_, __ , --+, - _,_I

II II

II II

II II

I i i ~

Distrlbutlen

If~ow

L -. - - - oa' 9,

By '1"1-' 'Iil:!' iI!::Ii Ilf~' t h - £iii d' 'il st -Ii'I"I' but I"' 0 n' ~V~·.t!Ii rn iJ C!" 0 g E!'y to Ii II n-' d ersta n d IF- ~I 91 U 1"0 '13' ~ h' 0-' w- s a

_", ,~I"",: I III" I", ~ , .1', ' I _,(_lIJ_ ,=-. ,J~.;:J ~ ~,', Ii,d! ~1IEI1:g" u u. -,',_ ~!_ ~ _,,g _ . '" _ ',.,' II g:, ~ ":" .', ',' i '

,silmpHf~ed diii:strl'butii[Oln ,sVstolm cOin,s'istii'ngl of rnult iptle ie,CIlDIII Ing eel Is, eaeh controlled bV a via ve that ~egUlII;atles; 'I he 'f~orw ln its, respective colt, ~'11l this, clse~ f'-I[el f:~ow control va~'VBsl shou -.~ not be th ree- __ aly because 81 constant fll[ow iis de's ~ red ~ Ilnl,sti!,8 d, '-W'[Q""'W'SY' m[o,dUl~,at~ngl 'val"v'e,s are IJJS e dI i A:s: the aJrg Ig Ifle. ga'ie 11[0' .' change sys;t:lsm f~owit t" constant speed pump woulld "ride" ~1;s flow-rate-vet

head _- - ,'."',', I " 'Th' ,.ii ,-_-; -",',- , ,'.':' th -:-. e .. -; ,- :1":"-, ,,. ,,,,, '.', '. ,,' 'fi,h'" ehs .- ,,",::' '-'f ~I"" =,-.- '~',::: d "

11'11 .. ':":' .' -pres,5L, re~ ,_ I S mllsaln,s I a Ul li[e,slPolns,e ~O ~. [e Ie ,iI 1m. ' e. 0 ~ I ow lr,e,lqu~n~" ~

pu rnp 'will II 1n n dI al new eqlu iI ii b rii' __ m poi! nt iJlllonlg its, 0 pile! rat iI nl gl C:_ - '~'[e~, An [BXElllmp!:e

, - -

A,llt,le:rnat;'v'elly" mullt~p~lei iPumlPS '0_ 'varli,s,' le-speed pumps, can be used to, Umit I dYI1,8lmi'c pu mlpiJ nlg head, ,s~ m ta,lf '1,0 'VAV f,B n rCD ntrol, Plrc[fU;J!'f~I. V' des," g nl8!di,J' p,sn, ..

~ d '" ....J .... ,·h 'h-' ,." II '1...'" '11 ," h'" "I

WOSIC. IPU rnpu g power cain ap _,. roec ~ tl_ : e tl reoret 'C2h cumc re at~[Dns-Hlp I 0 ',II OW,.

thus, reducing ener :IY eonsumptton sic nific'an,:Jv,~ Todav, Im[QIS- deeoupled svsterns use, a variable ... "sple'ed drive on this! dfstrlbutlon pump,

IDis,t ribl-_: -,Ii:ulin Ib: i_,iic;s The d~ s- r ~ butl 0 n s,vstelm beneflts fro 1m 't h 18 abf ~'tV,o., aeeornrnodete load dive'lrsilty, the tact that syste,m fl'ow is va iable, and ~iJn a prope ·~V clpera1:i1ngl ;syst[e'lm') thlel fact that return 'wat[er is rrsalntalned a,1

tern pe ratu re s nee Ir d esi'[g n ,0 The II ast as S'U m pt iJ 0 n ~ 5; 1fu rthe r d: i,SICU ssee ii n ., he: subsactlo ,[,ow.d T syndrome, pagl[e 6:S~

- - ._- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -

- - - -

lUI, d "II~ -'~'r,,11 ~y IN'Oit ailchi led ... - ~~ ater loads peak slrnultaneouslv, There i"D,r,e'j the quantity o'f' water that flows 181'1: 8ln:y one time is reduced from, the: "sum of tlhe'

k ,,' II dl tlh - ld b ,. d ,~, ,- I-I dl - lb -., I T-hli!

pea ;8,' roao 'I-:'~ ,81:: wou= ae required rn ,8 constant- QIW""'-lstrll,,=I- non IIIIOIOIP'I ' '~In;

presents the posslbilltv 10-'_-: reducinq c~- iller, pump, and p,iIP'B' sizes siqnificantlv,

__ 'II'~.",.tedl r'~,I~ __ l'I'-' '~~I'~=',' t!~,!---IPII~' ,t ,I'l~,-, BSIIC:I!11 se ' nU::SI,s1d c'h~III~lel,d wa't:e'f does

no I: byp'lassL~e c:oolingl cells, all~1 water that ls returned eccornpllshes serne coo~~ng,~, Theoretlcallv, the return-water tIB~mIIPIB!rla'~,ur8 wiiU IBlllw'BIYS be at: IIIBEIlst 81,S hJgllh as ~t is at: full II081dii From ,8 practical standpoint 'it'll's ls not 11111-. -ay:s possible, but ill: hSI c:lol:se~v approached in a properlv operatinq sy',s,tem~, lin fact, at most partload conditions, 'w'811:er - e iurns from properly fun ioninq alr-condltlonlnq coils; 181: hiigher-i_:h'lan',-,dles~gln term seratures. In ,SVSI_lemIS that use counterflow c:oo~li'ng cDI~'I~s,,,, this OCC,_' r:s, beca: se the 'w',atlor [~eai'v'i!n,g the coil tries tal approach the temperature olf t ha en -I,sringl a~'1i stream,

'W-rm return 'w'16'I:s!r provides advantaqes ii'n system ,dles~'g --I'I 1:1: permits "preferential" ~IDa,diing~- of chlllers.for example, IWarmle~r retu 'n _-_,a'tler is useful

1_, _

w'ith all :s:vs1:o :5.;", :_IU~: particularly so w'~I-'h heat recoverv and free coollnq

applicatior S'~I '-hie section ,Chli'I'/eld~,'te',r S"-Iml Valri:at:io,n,s~ Ip1age! 5,4 has further

~ f-' t'·'

II ru '10 rrna ,[10 n,

35'-"

, ,

[FI'g_lra '1[,4\, C - I p'lI Blrl". i'gem"

Se,conlc,irry ID!smlribu' ~ID'n fUlmps

,A varhs;:tv of d~strj~buti'on svs'~:e!m sllirang'leHmlents ls posslble. A s,iinglile" largel IPumlJ)IL ~g 1,1;6)")IOln" lIS s,hown lin FJIQIIJIr'e 1,2,. can be. used, The. station may' oons~ D' Sil!1,g I"e 0 r mu~ti p~exed plum IPS sl8lque.nce d1 on or ,off I

A!lternal'tivle::~y" e,a.d1 of s'ever'la~ seee ',dalFY diis trib Jth:u!l siystem.s can Ibe piped in pa alii [I el, fo r' exa ml.p.I~ 8" Fiilg Ul rs 14, sh OWl se. pia 'fa te c i~ str~. 'uti 0 III :SV,SI ~ ems fo r es '. three ~Ioads. Clealifh~', this; ar 'engeman'·' ends i1tse'~f to the [pOISSii bUw'tV' lof plaAt expa I1ISIQ'rli by :s~m'lpiy [add~ng secondarv distrlbutlon pumps; to 'the exi'sti;no pl

'Tartiary lor Idh;llrib ,Ie"

lie'rtij arry pu m Pl~ ng II:S an ex.te. na i 10 nl lof prl mary ~SIe.'C)O n da ry' p!lUi m p ~ Inrg wh Ie n ,t -"!I dli'strib_l:ionl o . s:eeondalry pllum' must overcome dlverse and severe pumpi:requlrements,

System IllDUds can al:so be' de'coulpl'f.!'d from the .slEujonderv db;tributioln sv,s'lel" Ti -I is; s fl!ieq lJI e'nt~y do new" ·h 'vie ry' I a rge s·yste,m II I. Fli g ure 115 sh OiWS 0 n e: Ime~hnd plrovidi'in'QI ~'te,rtla·rv' pUlmIJli:ns;Ji" at the loads, ,A "lead" [MI,ly be somert-i~ng as L' !(!J:S [an entire building,~ or as small as an 'jrndrvidusll icooUng cD,i~., When one or mere - oads have le'xtJeme head relqYmremlelntsl, '.he, degna:e ofang;abUi'ty, om ~s distrlbutlon pump jis: :sevelrell'v' lculrtaih:=d" 17erl!mslry pumpi'nlE[l aillaw,s I .. he excess; pumping !i'e.-] I lrementa to be ,PI sicedi on a thwlrd ]pumi:ng system thus 81hieldi " f' .lIe di:st,riJ but·j 0 n IPU rnp 'fro m di verge tnt pre S:S ura ra qu~r'lelmelnts'"

M\Olst i'mp'o,rtantl'v~, 'the Iloads, mu:st 'be 'ClOlntroll,sd S'Qr' hs'I'onl'v the! water needed perform ICo.ofnlQ [a taken f ·glml the distrlbution ~oop., Water must not bel allo iii' 'JlI fllow into the retum pmpii'ng ulntiBI it has su:stailned a sipeci"'nc 'tie! 'Iperal ure ,~, " Te'rtrnarv pumps can be! leli~tne" eonstant flow or varlab e flDWr 'tQ bas, lmee.'t't'he

.. .

---- ._--- .... - -- .

_. .. -_ .... _-_. --- _._- ._._- _. -----_ .. _._-------

tlhlll:-e'~ _~_-II-' ·_-llltv'.' ~ - fll o 'w:""IC:O nt ro II V',S lve 'wit:h three "I u ld-flow openl nlg:s~, It

controls constant fl,O'W througlh air' a round the load,

'valve" i -ilrDI'-~ll-gl ,A, smz IU V21!1'VIB' used plr~lm,altr'ii~'V' 'in gliJlugle! lines to shut off the lina ber ~~'ee'nl re,ad:~lnllgs~, enid to thro le the IliI'lnle, to prevent f uetuatlons during rle"sdli:ngsi'

P.. ""lIi1 I.!O U lila " .#

'I'

III (FI:e'Q,1;J m red)

II

I

(Opi~h)nal:t A

I

I ~Opt'iDnal) II

E, ~OIP,'t'ionaIJ' [Fh:N:lliUWrEM:n B

I ,

._- -- ._---- - - - - _.- -

MI ueh of .' ·n e tlme, suppl V lexce eds de ml8 nd sind the: su r;pllllU s 'fllow,s, to the iif3"turrn tee., :111 a ,chii'liIe:1r' pump i's stoppled premallur.e.,_'y:r. the bi~lP,assl,,'~liJn:lel fl,l()iW 'w-iilt! again :S_ .. OW'iiI deficit and 'thl9i IPII[JI'M,pt wilillbe: ,cyc:leNd IOn agai:n" The amount cd' surptus

f·~· d d th '. fl· n t1~III~ - _ t· - [b h- t" ff'''''' Th - - 1- i-I

,.,--', -_··'·····1' , . .: -. ' .. j ., .•...•. , ..•.•.•.. ' .,".J ]1' ... ···· .. ' ," J" I ~~'- .. ",,",,' ""1' 1"'- r ..... ,. 1,-, I' J' .•

ow ifu~:cess,ary eepen _.'S' on ~. _e, srze 10r.l ne,IC. II e,1 0·· e 8, U·· 0 ." I ,Ie surp us 0

m ust l8lx:c\sed a eerta I' FII I~U a flIil:j'ty b efore shu tt~ mlJlg o,ff a eh i III Ie: r-p u m P II=' a ii r, 'Thii:s is d W,SOLll sse d in iChiUer .tequ e'fI'clng", IP'8 QI e 39,. ~'f· ,altl on i lillie rs a r:~' eq u all ~ n siiz:e; the ,eMU rp I u s .. f~ OW' s:i g nalll cal n be Ito Iii sta nt ..

TOI P 11'101 ple,'rh~' 10 pe::rat'B lSI IP wi! 1iIfI18 ry-SB:QO n d'a Iry' svs:t€!:mlj 1(1 I1i ~ n d i catio n ('lIf' ell j' recthJln of I 'fllo,w ,I nd 'th II! flo W Ii',eib!' thrDU'9 hi the' bVlpa,s,s II ii ne, i,e n e'CE! ssa'rv'~ Thls ,m,t)iY be do m I erntlh sr dl i lie:ct!I~1' IO'1i ~ IndI r~ cr.l'y I' Wt'M~i n by pa IS s '~I 10 w is from :9 u pp I "I' to retur n, ii t i~:s

_. -"t: II ~ d d So' '.'

(:,811111 e:d surplus'.. B'Y11~H:IJ:S:S f ow m ovil fll'QllifO ml f,etullrn to rsu P PI_'V 11:8 terme '.'. ~~ as ,'c~,t,

D'iln"c:,t 'fJlow"s,ens'i'ng 'in t Ie bVp,sss, Iliil!1J,e can be aecompllshed iin, s,eve!n3,~ w,s'V,s .. ,A number of 'flowl..met,." riing 'tech nolo 91 les have been used successfu IIV ~ These wlillcllllJde: Pil.,ot ,tube" 'V;entulf:i';, IO!frilfic19: J,date:~, d;off'erentblll pressure, turblne, impelie,; 'V\f) ria'x" m 8,(;11'" ef",c;t a rild 1Ill't ras 0 nl' e tran s~t'~'I:ii ml e, Th e ;9 ee ILl' ra cY'~ sass of i nstell ati fr mlint;aii'nabil'i'tV~ and cost lof meter te:ohnoll,olglle's V',alry w~d!le:~'y'., To gli've ,8CICuliate rENsulitsj, a f rOw meter must be: ca~iJbr;Erte:d plerhJdh:'allllv~ with so/me' 'llow meters re;Q III ii ri; nllgl m10 l1'e!-'if'lreq,u e flit ca II ii b rat ~ 0 In 'th a In lath is: rs, W'hen IU,S in 9 'fl (),w-:sle'I~lslm n g!

d e:'viJlca~s~, it. ~,s' 'j'lm p 0 rta nt to ILl n d e Ii,S tal n d I:h e 1[',0 in g,1l! 101:' 'f~,oW!1 II dreviil,c:,e! Ita In (J1f':OIP e~'v m e 8:S U Ilie a rli dI i'ts: ea II iI b Irtl,t'i 0 n re:q U' i reme nits:", Th e read ii n 9 s wi ~ ~I 01 n I 'v be :I,S go ed a th Ii 'i nstru m e Iflrtatii'o n, ,A~S'OI nat.e thl at 'm a Iny fl OW-'lmI9:i8 su ~e rnent d e,vli ees reqlui [f,e several dlameters o:f sltn.'1li'ght pipel for accurate tre,tlldiingsl.,

-M'-'-'I~lv;Od" ·W,-, -~"IOi:'" strea . 1m" . e at th 0 O"IU' 'iI!'llafio1S' of fi;' .... iI!:li, ~-u" nlln~'u~ and retu rn-water tees

,.1 ,1"i;i!W,. ,1Ii;1lj1!!"wll r.;!!1" w'_ ,I ';;:!I' " !J" I ~ I~, "",,I~ . U !J,!'!,,,,",,, ;;;!!' .. ..::_ w:r !~ ~ ~ '. !I;;;e l, - li I~ '_ "",,!J,'I!;;<. 'I!;<!!;¥;;;!!','

Fligulre '11'1;~ can be used to i1lf1iCtilrectly d.ete~rmifile' the su PiIP~'V-dIre!m,and relat:i'onsJ~j~ :S;ta n d tal rdl tem pie ra1tu 1f1ef""ml b::ii' n 9 !eq IU at ion sica n [be used 11:0 d lete rm Ii nile 'the Ir;!'j(;oct am OIlJ nl of su rp I LlI S or defi!c,j't f~low ru n the' bvpa 5:5, I j: n e.

The: 'fli vel te ml:p1e'flillttu res sensed ,_ ,Sit: pe iI nits ,A, B, ~ C, D, a nd IE ,_. ,8 re re ce iJ'v"e:d by lEI P IrIO'!;) r a rn rna bl~ e controller, (.so mJle co n1t.li1olll ,syst.e'lm S IU se 0 n IIV' 'tw"o sen 510 rs, £lIt po'!' rifts Band 101, ii n co n J IJ nctli'Oi(1 w lt h f~ P re-p rOIQ' ra m Imled trl' a _I QI,e!lbrali e m wX'i nlg e,qll!Jl,at,Io'f~ 5,~)1 Processl n 19 sJofltwa re ,8 IPlp11 tea 'th e e I a s'si e m ii )cii'nIQI leq U etlo n s a nd

d ete rmi n e s 'the fiesu II;til iTlIlg, a c,t lo n '~:O pro IP e Id y co mrol 'th e Ich i [~~I e d-'W,fl'[,er ,syste moo

- - ._. -

_. -_ --- --- -

Note that ,81a nl 'S 10 r ID needs 11101 _9 VI·-!_·Y lalCICIU,rBI-e, esplellciaHy' li'f the re ariel manv dhiiUe-r,B" a'L tee small temperature chanqes mav wa rra nit chililluir sequencinq,

- _ .

IE t Ih t I - tra h . d f~ ~ 'Il I"' . d - 'lIf'

=~I'~ler temperature ... sansmq :'_cral_'egy' 'IBIS a C:Oist ,anl_"_ JIB:)(] : . Iity a .. v,an .age 11- a

bUliU[d:~nlg or chiUe -pian .manaqement s,ystel--J_ a~ready exists" Of' irs plannee ,_

Given the' IlmIOIUln:: and direetior off ow ln th .. : b'ypass Iinle -'hUI . irs can be added or subtracted,

'Whalnl there '~,s defillclt fllo!. i ,- the IbiYP,slss llna, the' sys;telm ls F'elce'i1'v~' '_Ig wallB'r ,8'-: al temperature ebove the ,Iy,s;tem [dles_:glnl temperature, ( lso see t 'Ie ,l.al'w'i~ T syndrome dlscussion, Ipls!ge 183:1,')1 At this point i '_ time, a chiller ,8 '. d pump msv ne a~.·I~.IBI'~- ii', -Ian'v 01- ierators sense deficit flo ' '. for a na i Icular ar TIDd~_nlt. 10'_- 'time: I~ -IOlf' example, '115 minutes) to ensure that the deficit flo- -_~ ls not a result 10lf '··Y,S, '~) "':-1 tva ~Sllen't:SI This F1e,duc'B'SI the chances 10lf IC'vclii'nIQI,B chiil~le'r,; that is, turnl .. "_IQ Din 81

c-' ~'I~ie.r' 19 "lid ths I 'I rn'ln'g iit off I_: fter a short time,

~ .. ': chiller may be turned IO[-~~ ,. -~18'ln elnloll.I'glh surplus - - ",·tle· is 'fl.10'·-'[nI9 ·t_·OI .. gh the

bY'I"iolss I~ii.-,e'i'-: IOlw rnucr is, IsnlDulQllh? Enouqh S,OI that the el ~nlh31i' does not c:y'lc: [I on ,ega'in ln a sho .' time period, Malnv s:ys,_,em operate s "·0_'-_' pare the amount of ,SI' i I. : .. IUS, 'fl,ow WI'tII- the f~ID" rate of the C!hi'Uer they are co:nsjlde:riinIQ tUlrlni'nlg offl' I

t._1 1,&; ratio is . "II~' ,0 1'1 !5 percent, . hev t:urn the Ichl'Ule'_' off:", Let'=- 11011' ;~. at an example:

Clhlir err 1 can maka S610[ Igpm [BiOiIS lps] 01' 14DIBJif ' .4QC chllled-water

·.,_lhilh3 Ch~nle:-- 2, can rneke 11,.1440 gpllm [910~lj lps], Atpresan '~' there ls t ~ 110101 gpll 1:169_41:~I:s] of surplus 'f~ow' in the bV'lass line,

J;hI8' surpl ,s' _::'YPSISSI '-'low iSI plreslen't~I'y:_" 5 percent of Chlller t's '-'~O'W'I lf 'we turn Chillier' 1 off~, 'w'e wlU Ihlavl: ,40 gplml [18,~:8 I P9, of surpnrs fIIOIW' left,

::'-Iote that the surplus bypIIs,s -·~o'w is presei ",IIV on~'v '6 percent of IChnl~el- ,2,'s: flow'i If w1e tin n C.~lillller 2, .• :ff~ 'we wi'lll have :3401 gl>.m [,2, 'i51 lpsj of ,defier iliIIO-~--"'i ~t 'S clear that we w'oulldl hsve 'tOI cyc:llie that chiller back D,n soon

In this case, we could turn Chiller 1 off~ but leave iC·h~lner 2 on I or hie . ~IIOI:st e jlcilen't use 0: the chillers,

\

--_.- --- --- -

.- - . -----

An other meit'hod for b a an Cii ng ·t h e pred u ctlon a.nd d ii stributi 01 n flows 'is to rna th em e q IIlJl a II '. Va r tal b I,e,-fillow s:yste rns re q il1I ii ,'Ie ch ii 1111 e rs t halt. !C'iI n CJ'P e r,alllie :PIIrO p e r~v whe n evaporetor 1:11 QiW varies.

Co neept uall '1'". tlh e va ri able-prl rnarv-f ow I~'VIP'F) slys:t:eml resern b .es the fa m iii ar constant p ri m a'ry:~v,aria bl e! Sl8!1CO ndarv des rn gn MIQfie corn mo nly' kno wn a s ~t1e deeou pl led I.J' svste MI" 11 F,o Ii exa m p II e, bot h Ii€NCI u ii 'fie ,al bYP8 SS,. Th 18: bvpass ~ i n e for 'V PIF syste m tis IiI~qulmlFe'd to lenl:SUlrs! that min rn mum fl OiW 't:l!1rcr . g h oh m 1!le rs c an be m ai'n'I,BI i' ned, IE,.ilICh chllle I!" 'j: n the 8,lrranglle m ent shown has ,al ,deciiilc'at.led PIU m P wh O!S e 0 p e! F',ar 'i!o n col n e ldes with th e ch i II ~ e r it se rves,

Che,ct Vall-ves

,s:'ys1:!e m eOI j II:s,_,

. Twol=,WalV ICO !iltFO'~ Va 11~'l'e's;

Val ria bile, . Flow .. Chiille'r IP'ump,si

OIIP{m:'jlol n al

NB,y'passiti

,Muir/pie 'fhlres'-Wa'y VS'ivfI,s M a V Requlred

ICO mitnJ I VSllhJIB:

,For Mini:mu'ml C,hiUer' f,low

!lln ,3 'VP'f ,s,vste:m, walier f1~ow' VDlile,s, 'th'DUgh I;) utt h e enrt'i1r8' :s,y',stelm - throu g n tn~ II!V'aIPOf',8Ito'f' of le,sl,oh o,pleliar~:iln,g dh ii ller ,m s we:I~11 as th reu 91 h the IC1QIOIlii ng coiJl~:s.,

TW'lo'-'WElY CQlntrD,11 valves 0 n eol ls, che(:k I{(lr' isolatl on) va IIvl9S on chll era land B Ib'VP,8:SS, pl'i'p,e 'wrnth a co ntro II V'Cl'V1e1 are re q uired t,o im pi Ie mien-I: a V,PF svstem. IHo'weve:r::

.1 val trm a loll e-·fll ow dh ii II eli P!lJ] rn ps e lim i Iil ate: th e n ee d f'o r a separate d i1:st rl but ii 0 n P urnp .

• 1 ttl e IbYIP'~.s s ell n, be po.s i1tiJ 0> n led Ie it:h er lUI pst rea m 0 r dJ.o'wnst Ina,al MI orf: th e ICOO Iii n IQ] 100 i~ II s.

a ClonrtlNl, va I~N~ in th e: Ibv pais 9, Ie In S,I res that the ,a m OIU nt: of fllow' t.h F'IO ugh the QIIP!8 f,cwffiig chi'llllerl( S) In ever "a ~~Is bello'w the rn j' nimurn I wmlt

iSJ IUlin' I A, C:oH'll1illan M'iscon,ceipl'iron s' or hJlse':, 'DCh~i, lers Dp,e,ra'l e more

[·ently 'in ,9 system with vadalble: Ira'i,h,er ft, c:ons.an.'~ p llmsry 'flow because o.f '~ne ~ea~er legl mei'J[ln[ t'S[mpIIBJ[li'stu ra d:~'f£er:ence

I I DJ.

- 'm!.! e that' 1: trile rs 'i urn wati8[f temp e ratu Ire' a P rOlPe'r~lv DiP mrati'm[rg 'V-P[F s,ys't'em,

. ins DCn SII nt as thel a mou nt O'f f DW ,Ilgas., It is also tr~e that the t, rID c,an - inc.reased by challmiJ[g mn'QI thel p,"o di[lllIlrcti:Q Ii1I . nmarv) sidle: off the ,ch~iIle-d .. wate'r IOrop 1Jm ~ons,ta,l'~ 'to va ri's bh~' 'fl OW'~ EhJt: II he'~e athef' ·f.aets 'Ie[ co ns id ef.

a synem with cOlrlshill,I_'~ IPlrilmary 'nOfW~

• nttr·!ng",e.va p 0 ir·alt)D'If' ·te'm pewatu re ,8 nd

.. eM' 1:)1 faU 1(5 '1 hie, eoon A'gl [o,alo dimi'nhi;-; es,

I " 8' convec:t'ive he,at. '~ilrans;ft;u' cO€.lml~,iEHnit"

.9.[ the: .plr1i1marv fl,o'-w" Iremla~1Iil1 CiOln~s';ant

, Pl~ lieductlD,ns in load,

_ system wj·t h '~,a J ~ a ,II e IPldlM a ry' nOW!

, 8 IW:lvecti v'le: h eet tra n s:h~ r le'De./rtf· el Ell nt iI n

[e dli ler evapors' "Dr dillu::n3B:SlliS wU:h a

, 1!Jl~~jo~ i I1!i f'h::liW'i

_ued 'now, IdlDcress'81 the DvedIFlll1 heatft$~lr effocthl'e. nre'S,5, ef '~h[e chm 11[lle r

~, el, eled lis: ttl at -, hi! ' p owe r

swnp~:iOln 'fa I a glwVfJ.!l11i [c~~ I 8[1" i 9, V'~I rtu,a II V mme w hethe r th 8' c 'i I I~e'r 's 'eva ,~ '01 r,a~o II! is \1'8 r;iabrl,e .. 0. If leo n:sta ot:.,

'-'m-"'-'.-

. . ,- ..

'I., .-_ .~

- -,

V[PF S'YS,I8 ms P res e nt b. I il d m " 19 lown e S: 'wit ' se:V',e Ir;B II cost-s a[v~ n 91 be n[e1f lts 't - at a rrB: dI j' re e.tlly re late dI 'to tll1 e PIUI m IPIS.. 'Tll11 B most obvl 0. U ,~ cost saviJ II1lrg 5, re s u 1:'1, 'fro m

01 im inatii'I1'91 the seconds IV' dlj':strilbu,li'oln purrtp, wh idlil, ~ 11 turn, avolds 'the rnaterlal and labor expenses ~lIuL_rre.,d 'wir1h the a:ssio[c'ii,arted fl,i'p,ilng connections, ele ctrlcal s;ervli'cei1 a ndl variable-,frle.quliency d'ri'Y[e! .. A,II't'houg h th[e numlberr o:f purnlp,s i:s reduced 'the' sizes of both the IIJIU mps and the variab[le~·fre[qUlencv' d r~vle's [i'- 'Cfe'2US8 sii rn eethe pu m p S m 1UI:St be s lzed to overeom e ·th 19' e nt j' re ,s,YM'i!!m's p ressu re d r'OI P ~ Ih~.s., offsets some o,f'--he: ~ns;tall'led ICOst sBvii'ng:s due !.I01 few'[elli pumps

IB ulld i na owns rs often ,c:i:t,e p urn p-,mllat·edi e'neliUY s8vi nl918 as, the' rrea:son tin at prompted them to lnstall a VP'IF svs,teml. 'WiI'h Ihe' [slpllof a softw81re ana y:s;i1s tool: su eh a's Syste'm ,A[n al,yze rIM, T1RA,CE@ eoa[~ 0 r 0 OlE 2~ 1 ~ you C'fJ n deterrn i' me

w'· le1tlher 'the ,8nitJicm'"catedi ener[9Y ,sav;ing:s, j'ustify the use oif varlab [&-pri'm,ary 'fIIID'W' i:n a partleuler appl ieatlon.

I't may' be' ea s i e r· )01 a p pl Y a V,'[ar ~ a b le-p ri ma ry .. f ow s,yste~m rath er 'th SI n ,8 P mil mlil ry ..... s ecc ndi[a rv sy'.ste m t[o a n ex~·stii' 11 g chi I ~ e d",wslt[er,.I,B nt, Un' i k:e th e p rli m S[r'Y'-' s,erco'nda,IrV' des~gnl, the, by'pas,:s can be pos:Lt~o.nJed almost ,arnywhere iin the c.hilille.diw,a'te 1[[00. P and a n add wtl '0 n SI II [pU ml pi is; I!J n n ec es s ary,.

So,qu.iI'iO[c:j'ngl chii~~ller:s f'elquim"les a lihre,rough undelrstandi'ng of s'ystem dyn.armh:s since fllOrw rates willi vary t:hro,uglh every opleiirtllt:ing ,chUle~r. The control s'trllte,g'~l

, - -

n e ad ed t.o' ,alv'c)i d rC,yc~ i 1\119, 0'11"' re stiR rtl n 91 "he ch m I 'I ei r too sOrCI n, b eeernes

[cQlmpllli[c·aflted as the number' olf [chiiUe'rs: 0 thecapacities of' 'the diifte!r,e~n I,' c~'_liiUel·s i nereases, : he :sys; em diENS:i'QI n er m lUI,S': tn 0 rou g h Ily d Ia,Wi; ne~ 't,1 .. e cent ro ~I :SEU!IIU 8'nce ea ,-Iy h'-he~ des,i'!gn proeess and cll,tJailrll'y' communh:ate, It to the eontre :8 )llrio1vldle:lri BIErtter yet, on such a s,Y:$tem[" a partne :,s,h'iIP[ amo'rng rO'wneliJ.' operator; d'es:ligrl1erl} [and chilll'[er pilant pr!olVi'de, Oln[c'lud~ng controll:sJ' can [be formed,

[Clo"ntr[D~]nlg '~,he.' flow' rate flluretllJl,s'lhJrn'11 iis ,c;~i'lh:a " 'Conf'ir"1 the' ,anQwabh~: ·"Cr'w fllu.ctuBrtion.s, with the [cnii~lll·er Imonlufacture·r and des,iI[Qln,tihe s:ystem so ··rhat the ra'[[e: of '~I ow' tih a n g e 1 s n eve'lr [BJ()c)e.s,d ed, 0 pei'rar'o Ii.S, m U st UI n d ersta ndl ho,'~' VP F'

sy'ste., ,s work" thelrefore 'traiining Is mandai,lory., The success [olf·,_ s,ys;~[em desiign ~s' di'i'rectl'V rtell' tilted to. the' oipsra'to ~s abll i''ty 'to. c,alrJr-Y' Olut t,he: diENs,iQln ifil~,elnit

,Am imIPon:ant: consiJd!eirath~u, whe.n ~I,',ve'sti;lg:at"iJn,gl 'var'jablle-jpri'm"ary 1Low' systems: 'is:he 'hu:t tiheft VIPIF s,yste ms take more tJilm e' is n d pilla nnli'n g 'tn Bin other' sys,t[em.s to de,s;i'gn and ,commisisiion pr-o[pislilly J tJhiis tiim,e and p~,anniinQI can~t~, (1 "Wl()n~'t.f be

- , -

ii niV'o!ste d", '~l'0 u wii ~ II P'fO ba b I V have bettie r re'su lilts 'wit h 'the.l use rOlf sv:ste'm S iQ;th e r ijt'-[ V'P-["~

IL - ,8 n . " 1 '[r.;: