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Introduction :

The credit of conceptualizing a “Newspaper” actually goes to Julius Caesar who, in 59 B.C (approx), started ‘Acta Diurna’, an activity to inform the public about important social and political happenings, wherein upcoming events were written on large white boards and displayed in popular public places like the “baths”. The ‘Acta’ kept citizens informed about government scandals, military campaigns, trials and executions. In the 8th century the first newspapers appeared as hand-written newssheets in Beijing. The printing press, invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1447, ushered in the era of the modern newspaper. Gutenberg’s machine enabled the free exchange of ideas and the spread of knowledge -- themes that would define Renaissance Europe. During this era, newsletters supplied a growing merchant class with news relevant to trade and commerce. Manuscript newssheets were being circulated in German cities by the late 15th century. These pamphlets were often highly sensationalized; one reported on the abuse that Germans in Transylvania were suffering at the hands of Vlad Tsepes Drakul, also known as Count Dracula. In 1556, the Venetian government published Notizie Scritte, for which readers paid a small coin, or “gazetta”. In the first half of the 17th century, newspapers began to appear as regular and frequent publications. The first modern newspapers were products of Western European countries like Germany (publishing Relation in 1605), France (Gazette in 1631), Belgium (Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616) and England (the London Gazette, founded in 1665, is still published as a court journal). These periodicals consisted mainly of news items from Europe, and occasionally included information from America or Asia. They rarely covered domestic issues; instead English papers reported on French military blunders while French papers covered the latest British royal scandal. Newspaper content began to shift toward more local issues in the latter half of the 17th century. Still, censorship was widespread and newspapers were rarely permitted to discuss events that might incite citizens to opposition. Newspaper headlines did

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announce the beheading of Charles I at the end of the English Civil War, although Oliver Cromwell tried to suppress all news-books on the eve of the execution. In 1766, Sweden was the first country to pass a law protecting press freedom. The invention of the telegraph in 1844 transformed print media. Now information could be transferred within a matter of minutes, allowing for more “in time” and relevant reporting. By the middle of the 19th century, newspapers became the primary means of disseminating and receiving information. Between 1890 and 1920, the period known as the “golden age” of print media, media barons such as William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Pulitzer, and Lord Northcliffe built huge publishing empires. These men had enormous influence within the media industry, and gained notoriety for the ways in which they wielded their power. Newspapers have also played a role as disseminators of revolutionary propaganda. Iskra (The Spark), published by Lenin in 1900, is one notable example. On June 21, 1925, Thanh Nien made its debut in Vietnam, introducing Marxism to the country and providing information on the revolution’s strategic policies. Broadcast radio exploded onto the media scene in the 1920’s. Newspapers were forced to re-evaluate their role as society’s primary information provider. Like the new media technologies of today, the development of a low cost, alternative media source produced rumblings that radio would topple the newspaper industry. To respond to this new competition, editors revamped the paper’s format and content in order to broaden their appeal, and stories were expanded to provide more in depth coverage. Soon after newspapers adapted to radio, they were forced to re-evaluate themselves in light of a new and more powerful medium: television (TV). But TV’s omnipresence did not render the newspaper obsolete. Even some newspapers, like USA Today, responded to the technological advancements by using colour and by utilizing the “short, quick and to the point” stories that are usually featured on television.

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The technological revolution of today is creating new challenges and opportunities for traditional media. Never before has so much information been so accessible to so many. The amount and immediacy of information on the Internet is unparalleled, but it has not signaled the end of the newspaper’s relevance. Newspapers in print remain a popular and powerful medium for the reporting and analysis of events that shape our lives. According the estimation of World Association of Newspapers, one billion people in the world read a newspaper every day. Newspapers in India Newspapers in India started with William Bolts, an ex-employee of the British East India Company who attempted to start the first newspaper in India in 1776. Bolts had to beat a retreat under the disapproving gaze of the Court of Directors of the Company. Then, in 1789, James Augustus Hicky started Bengal Gazette, a two-sheet newspaper that publicized the private lives of the “sahibs” of the Company. In the newspaper, Hicky even dared to mount scurrillious attacks on the Governor-General and Chief Justice, for which he was sentenced to one year in prison and fined Rs.5, 000, which finally drove him to penury. These were the first tentative steps of journalism in India. B. Messink and Peter Reed were pliant publishers of the India Gazette, unlike their infamous predecessors. The colonial establishment started the Calcutta Gazette. It was followed by another private initiative, the Bengal Journal. The Madras Courier was started in 1785 in the southern stronghold of Madras. Richard Johnson, its founder, was a government printer. Madras got its second newspaper when, in 1791, Hugh Boyd, who was the editor of the Courier quit and founded the Hurkaru. Tragically for the paper, it ceased publication when Boyd passed away within a year of its founding.

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It was only in 1795 that competitors to the Courier emerged with the founding of the Madras Gazette followed by the India Herald. The latter was an “unauthorized” publication, which led to the deportation of its founder Humphreys. The Madras Courier was designated the purveyor of official information in the Presidency. In 1878, The Hindu was founded, and played a vital role in promoting the cause of Indian independence from the colonial yoke. It’s founder, Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, was a lawyer, and his son, K. Srinivasan assumed editorship of this pioneering newspaper during the first half of the 20th century. Bombay, surprisingly was a late starter. The Bombay Herald came into existence in 1789. Significantly, a year later a paper called The Courier started carrying advertisements in Gujarati. The first media merger of sorts happened with The Bombay Gazette, which was started in 1791, merging with The Bombay Herald the following year. Like, The Madras Courier, this new entity was recognized as the publication to carry “official notifications and advertisements”. Compared with many other developing countries, the Indian press has flourished since independence and exercises a large degree of independence. In 2001, India had 45,974 newspapers, including 5364 daily newspapers published in over 100 languages. The largest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (20,589), followed by English (7,596), Marathi (2,943), Urdu (2,906), Bengali (2,741), Gujarati (2,215), Tamil (2,119), Kannada (1,816), Malayalam (1,505) and Telugu (1,289). The Hindi daily press has a circulation of over 23 million copies, followed by English with over 8 million copies. Some important timelines: 1447: Johann Gutenberg invents letterpress printing, a process that enabled the mass production of the printed word.

1605: Johann Carolus publishes the first printed newspaper. this is one of the earliest “first reports” of a significant historical event. Post-och inrikes Tidninger. but at the time a part of the so-called Deutsches Reich : 1645: worlds oldest newspaper still in circulation. Michael Entzinger publishes a 24 page news book reporting on the defeat of the Spanish Armada. 1994: First independent on-line daily appears on the World Wide Web. Running until 2001. 1851: Reuters is established. The Daily Mirror introduced the concept of the “exclusive” interview. 1588: In Cologne. a periodical covering European affairs. is published in Sweden 1704: Daniel Defoe. in 1905. the Daily Mirror. the new Viceroy of India.5 1501: Pope Alexander VI decreed that printed material must be submitted to clerical authority prior to publication in order to prevent heresay. the satirical column became the longest running column in the history of newspaper journalism. now in France. Relation. 1966: Behram “Busybee” Contractor begins publishing his column “Round and About” in the Evening News of India. The first was with Lord Minto. . Although the report came months after the actual event occurred. 1880: First photographs appear in a newspaper. the author of Robinson Crusoe and often recognized as the world’s first journalist. 1903: Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe) develops the first tabloid newspaper. The news book’s front page shows a woodcut representing the Spanish Armada sailing off the coast of England. Failure to do so could result in fines or excommunication. in London. in Strasbourg. begins to publish the Review. Germany.

By a determined printing start and delivery deadline. e. radio. The distribution process. morning newspapers need to improve the production and the distribution of newspapers as well as other processes within the newspaper companies. on the one hand. This predetermined distribution time must be used effectively and therefore the planning. the www and other on-line services. the readers would like to receive the newspapers before a certain time in the morning. therefore the implementation of computer aid to improve planning of the physical distribution and the information flow can be of importance in order for the newspaper companies to remain competitive. Research regarding the newspaper distribution process & consumer buying behaviour of particular newspaper has been focused in this report. The use of computers is limited within distribution organizations. studies of newspaper distribution companies in the India are presented. the time for distribution is predetermined. readers and advertisers. The management. In order to be competitive in the media landscape of today. among other things. is a process where “conflicts” may occur between the management of the newspaper company and the customers. Besides a declining trend in the circulation. which makes it important to improve upon this research area in order for the newspaper companies to be competitive. • • • • What are the characteristics of the processes within morning newspaper distribution? How are the processes within morning newspaper distribution related? How can morning newspaper distribution be improved? What factors influence the consumer to purchase the newspaper? . The newspaper distribution is a major expense for the total newspaper.g. which is carried out by the newspaper distribution companies in India as well as in other countries. are important areas of improvement for the newspaper companies. the physical distribution and the information flow.6 Background of the Study : Today morning’s newspaper publishing is a competitive and became a very complex market. would like the start of the production and the distribution to occur as late as possible in order to include the latest news On the other hand. In this thesis. making up approximately 20% of the total cost. which is also in the interest of the advertisers. the morning newspapers compete with each other and with other media such as TV.

2) To study the relationship between the various personal factors. Therefore. widest game out of news coverage. And the aim of phase third was to find out consumer buying behaviour of the particular brand of news paper. the information flow and the connection between the production and the distribution. The objective of the third phase is to find the brand preference for newspaper among consumers. 4) To know the sources of information which provide about newspaper to the consumers? 5) To know the degree of satisfactions derived by the consumers. 7) To find out the awareness of the consumers about the newspaper brand Research: . More number or spicy bites. professional approach of news description. The aim of phase two was to find out how morning newspaper distribution could be improved. However. Prediction of economic trends / business houses. two fields within the newspaper distribution chain were chosen for further studies. the third interest needed a focus. In this study the aims at analyzing the following aspects: 1) To find out the brand preference for newspaper. such as Price. Objective of the Study: The aims of this research work have been divided into three phases. 3) To find out the different factors for preferring the particular brand.7 These three areas involve a number of sub-questions. The aim of phase one was to find the characteristics of morning newspaper distribution and to create a model of the distribution process. which were uncovered and answered during the course of the project. 6) To find out the alternative choice of consumers in case of non-availability of their preferred brand. In-depth Intelligent articles.

However. Scope Of The Study • Market Size And Growth: The Market: The Display advertising component of the Newspaper market in India for calendar year 2007 was valued at Rs.9. The main reasons for this are: Willingness of emerging advertisers to pay for impact • • • Expansion of traditional media into new markets and formats.8 This research has and is covering information logistics as well as physical distribution. which is helping them demand value A strong business environment that supports this growth Increase in advertisers’ spends on traditional media to maintain status quo and their willingness to look at new media (which also tend to be cheaper options) to create differentiation and grab attention • Shift in focus from conventional target consumers (Housewife. who are the primarily being targeted through new mediums like Mobile and Internet. and consumer buying behaviour of newspaper. This research has mainly been focused on vehicle routing and scheduling rather than on the connection between production and distribution. This project also fuscous the consumer buying behaviour of newspaper and analyses the different factor which affect the customers buying behaviour. New media have grown at high rates in line with their expected potential.) as .290 cr.7. This is a growth of 18% over calendar 2006 (Rs. and Radio and Niche Publications. the related research has addressed problems that are important to consider when planning production and distribution.856 cr. What remains to be seen is whether recent downtrends at the stock market will moderate media growth. though their share of the total media pie has expectedly shown a slight dip. traditional media have not been disadvantaged by this. Work has mostly been valuable for the understanding of which processes that are included in the total distribution process. aged 25-45 years). However. to include the Male and the Youth. and they have continued to show strong growth. Significance of The Study: The Indian Media market has been on an upswing in the last 5 years.

Print. despite being the biggest incumbent medium. While this has been made possible due to the continued dominance of publications in their home markets. While some players have grown on the back of increased offerings and entry into new markets. Typically the big players have got bigger. Leading publications are also creating new avenues for growth through forays into other languages and formats. which gives them over 75% of the total hits. The India Print story is in stark contrast to the threat being faced by the medium globally. 60% of total volume consumption in 2007 was in colour as against 52% the year before. publications are increasingly targeting retailers and cashing in on their diverted OOH spends. However. Real Estate and Jobs. Publications which promoted their Classifieds portals as separate entities have succeeded in penetrating segments like Matrimonial. Publications are also actively looking at ways to tap into the local advertising market with “Go Local” drives by way of new Supplements. Rate hikes have taken place at both the premium and the popular ends of the product spectrum. Publications are using e-paper versions by targeting NRI population. others have done so on the back of Rate Hikes and improved Colour to B/W ratios .9 against the 17% predicted by us in last year’s report. The Players: Within each language there are one or two players that have seen over 25% growth and others which are closer to 10% levels. Here increased colour options helped publications improve their yield from advertisers. The major reason for the revenue growth has been the consistent hike in Card Rates of major players. rate hikes in some part have also been imposed to offset their entry into new markets. in spite of increased competition in the top 8 Metros and stagnant Average Issue Readership (AIR) numbers. continued to attract the largest share of advertising spends. With restrictions on OOH medium usage in some cities. it would take some time before this avenue begins to generate real value. Expensive English print became even more expensive with leading brands making forays into new markets or improving relative readership contribution from smaller markets. On the other hand the local retail market continued to strengthen its media investment in regional publications.

For instance. While existing print players will diversify in related genres and enter new geographies. he or she has a choice of multiple flavors and publishing houses are more than willing to cater to his or her tastes. While 2 years back everything appeared plain vanilla. with Metro Now being the pioneer. Growth in transport infrastructure will result in the launch of commuter newspapers across cities. • The Future: 2008 will continue to be an exciting year for print. • The Reader: The Indian reader has never had it better. today. daily. Delhi's underground. While some players have grown on the back of increased offering and entry into new markets. . non-print players will enter print to diversify. this year will see a host of new launches.10 • The Players : Within each language there are one or two players that have been over 25% and other which are closer to 10% levels. This will put pressure on margins. which did not exist before 2002. other have done so on the back of rate hicks and improved colour to B/W ratio. Just as in 2007. forcing publishers to look at new formats and revenue streams. mostly in the age group of 15-45. We do not expect the digital wave to dampen our attachment to the morning daily. Private Equity players and bankers will also continue to explore investment opportunities in Indian media houses. Rising literacy levels and limited access to Internet will be the key reasons why print will continue to grow. This is the TG most coveted by advertisers and media houses are already launching publications to tap in to this bunch. Typically the big players have got bigger. Newsprint prices are on the rise and the next few quarters will continue to see increasing prices and shortages. will have 100 stations in three years' time and is expected to carry 3 million commuters.

Like in the case of setting up stalls in IT companies where a larger section of our targeted population can be met it becomes essential that we first fix up an appointment with the facilities manager asking his permission to set up the stall. It is first necessary to identify that the potential customer has the willingness. before launching the newspaper in the market company first decides which class of people they are targeting. In this stage need to analyze what are the product features in which the customer will be interested and focus on those during the presentation. students preparing MBA students and other institutions like Hotels. Because as the different class of the people there are different class of the newspaper are available. way of writing news are differ as per the class of the readers. Air lines or weather it’s designed for ordinary lay man etc. This is the stage where potential customers are found and evaluated. 2) Pre Approach: In this stage the process of approaching the client is decided. ability to buy the product. This stage involves deciding whether it will be enough to do a simple cold call or to set up an appointment which is needed in case we want to set up a stall.11 The selling Process of Newspaper The selling process of newspaper in India involves various steps like: Promotion of New product i.e. the style of language. In the case of newspapers customers could be Financial Institutions. This would involve first generating sales leads.e. Newspaper in the market. 1) Prospecting & Evaluating : In this stage i. . This involves deciding on the approach establishing objectives of the sales call and preparing for a presentation. IT employees.

and The Smart Investor by Business Standard are highlighted to entice the consumers to purchase the subscription. And of course the magazines which are offered are another reason why most of these customers get ready to buy the subscription. Also 'The Compass' which is a small segment in the Business Standard Newspaper assists people in making their investment decisions as to which sector they should invest their money in was also of interest to people who were more investment focused. While pitching to younger customer salesmen focuses on the monthly magazines which are more enticing to them. 4) Handling Objection: The most common objection which is encountered during the selling is the fact that most customers who are regular readers of others newspapers are very loyal and are unwilling to change. Some of the customers are worried about the implementation time this is where sales person had to tell the customers about how we will be ensuring that they get a regular supply of their business . This is the time when distinguishing features of the products need to be highlighted for example Business Standard highlights the fact that it has has various sections like the BS 200 which gives the complete analysis of the 200 companies that were traded the most on the stock exchange the previous week. the discount and the magazines that are on offer. Life by Business Line. While selling to Financial Institutions sales representatives focus on presenting the various Business magazines that the customer will get if he subscribes. This section on the paper is something unique only to Business Standard. While making presentations to corporate the focus is on the operational efficiency and convince the Facilities Manager that the implementation will be starting in 2 weeks time from when the employees start signing up for the subscription.12 3) Approach: This stage involves getting in initial contact with the customer by meeting him and generating interest in the product. Also the supplements like Brand Line. Once the salesmen we are with the customer they would make a presentation making him aware of the characteristics of the paper.

Media partners etc. Social campaign. also some incentives.13 standard by interacting with their vendors and start the delivery of their newspaper to their home in 2 weeks. while others stick around to try and see what they are getting for their money. Radio adds. Then various scheme provided to vendors so that they can keep their copies in their stall give them proper visibility. company can distribute maximum amount of newspaper as per the competitor’s circulation in the market e. . if no. I. If the subscription are attractively priced most customers prefer to go for the plan offered and want to first get a look at the service being provided. and determine the exact amount of production of newspaper for the future and to avoid the wastages. gifts material are provided to them to increase the sales. 5) Closing: At this stage the customer is more or less aware of the product and has made up his mind to either go ahead with the sale or not. Also various campaign and program are adopted to reach the target audience which includes Schools. 7) Branding: At initial stage the branding are done through some social campaign and also some advertisement campaign are adopted through media & other players in the market. of copies is return. Thus most people will either back out at the middle of the presentation.e.g. 6) Find Out The First Readers & Brand Visibility: At initial stage when your brand of paper is new in the market that time the numbers of customer are not knowing to any one so at this stage to get the idea of 1st reader. TV commercials. return copies are 7200 then 2800 are the your first readers. They produce 10000 copies as per the competitor’s quality & circulate in the market for one month and observe the no.

The head office decides the targets for all branches in the country and this is communicated to marketing manager of branches across the country.The main source of revenue for a newspaper company is the advertisements and they can charge more for advertisements only if their circulation base is higher. XAT etc. In this industry the training is mostly on the job where executives have to go and sell the subscriptions to the customer. corporate offices. all the planning is intended to increase the circulation base of newspaper .14 Sales management: 1) Sales Planning: It is the first step in the sales management process Sales planning guides the organization in achieving its objectives in a systematic manner leading to profitability and success. In case of newspaper industry plans are formulated keeping in view the overall sales strategy and objectives of individual organizations. Since circulation is the main thing in the news paper industry. 2) Organizing & Directing Sales Efforts: Most of the newspaper companies hire graduates who are well versed in local languages as selling newspaper require interacting with vendors and intermediate agencies. . This circulation base is increased by eating into the competitor's circulation. They generally do not hire MBAs or Post Graduates as they are more prone to attrition. educational institutes. The marketing manager of the branch then allocates targets for every sales executive in the branch. The attrition rate is very high in this industry especially in the second rung companies. Segment can be hotels. 3) On The Job Training: The sales force is briefed about the newspaper and supplements and then they are sent to the field for training. The marketing manager asks each sales executive to target a particular segment. IT companies students preparing for competitive examinations like CAT.

Within this short span they have to meet the vendors and ensure they are regularly supplying the newspaper.30 a. The whole process of printing & circulation of newspaper is difficult part of distribution process normally the printing of newspaper are started around 12:30 and it gets over at 3:30 and after that delivery van gets ready for the delivery. Most of the activities happen between 3.30 a. commission and other type of incentive plans. they are continuously motivated and it also provides sales person with the advantage of both a fixed salary and variable income. in the morning to meet the vendors to ensure the timely delivery of newspapers. Morning centers are places where all the newspapers are dropped and vendors come here to collect newspapers for their locality. This type of plan includes a combination of salary. Every executive is given a minimum target to achieve and on exceeding this target they are given an incentive.m. As sales people get regular income in the form of monetary incentives. At the end of the month they collate how many subscriptions have been generated by executives and on the basis of subscriptions generated salary is computed 5) Compensation Plan: Generally combination salary plans are followed in newspaper industry.15 4) Evaluating Sales Force Performance: The performance of sales force is measured in terms of the number of subscriptions generated by each sales person. . Circulation of the Morning Newspaper 1) Time Management: Time management is very important as the executives have to visit morning centers at around 5 to 5.30 am to 5.m.

g. Thane. Public bus i. etc. After that such agencies can transfer the newspaper to the vendors such vendors can provides copies to the sub vendors. Only the delivery till the depot is done by manufacturer after it gets handed over to the agencies and remaining circulation are done by this people. Only some magazines and Outlook are exported. In this process first news is type and set as per the requirement then the positive copy of that news are get after that it get’s transfer to the alliumenium plate then this plate goes through various process and then final print gets ready.e. In Mumbai such depot are located at junction places such as Dadar. One machine can produce 45000 newspaper gets printed. 3) Delivery model : Once the news paper gets ready it gets delivered at various depot through the company van. So that paper gets available to the various places at same time. International distributions are carried out through Airways but. This process gets continue till the 3:30. In Mumbai Dhanjat Newspaper Agency. railway. door to door providers. Ambika Newspaper Agency are the big players in the markets. So finally the responsiveness and efficiency play an important role in newspaper distribution channel. now day’s because of e paper concept international supply gets over. Once the final print gets ready as per the requirement the bundles are getting packed and first it transfer to the long distance and then short distance paper prints gets transferred. On the other hand efficiency is the cost of making and delivering the newspaper to the readers. Responsiveness includes supply chain's ability to respond to wide a range of quantity demanded (due to demand fluctuations) and meet short lead times. . Normally the long distance transportation is take place through the public mode of transport e. news stall etc.16 2) Printing Efficiency: Once the design of news gets over immediately it passes to the printing department. 4) Transportation : Normally the transportation till the depot are take place through the personal vehicle and after that it takes place through the agency distribution network & finally the vendors and agency forecast the circulation. ST etc.

17 5) Maintain the Circulation Manpower: It is very difficult to maintain the manpower at lower level of circulation process. And now days due to increase in size of newspaper it is very difficult to carry the large amount of newspaper. From Last three years the wage rate of this delivery boy has increase from Rs. 6) Maintain Own Distribution Network: For small Company it is very difficult them to maintain the own distribution network due the heavy cost involved in it. That’s why they use other agencies distribution network. And company is not able to hire such number of employees because it’s two costly. 200 to 1000 and more then that. because those people are not the permanent employee of the company due to the improve in standard of living of the people. But in Mumbai the biggest player like Times group of India has their own distribution network Diagram of Circulation Network Production Unit . And increase in education level it is difficult to get the delivery boy.

g. For paper Rama Newsprint and Papers limited. Ink manufacturing.e. For printing plate the suppliers are Techno\.18 Various Depots Use agencies Network Vendors Newspaper Stall Final Customer Procurement of Raw Material: In India as such no any newspaper company has its own raw material producing unit i. Paper production. so normally they out source such material from outsiders e. Plate required for printing etc. Nirag are the biggest player News Positioning Decision: .

. kiosks and services and nearly two percent to the international level through the airways. About 16 percentages are delivered through postal services. About 13 percent of the total volume of newspaper is bought at shops. So the newspaper information is needed to change region wise.19 In newspaper industry the first news is always the last news so the first news decisions are very important for newspaper sale. Though the main news of the paper is same for all over the India but the some news are changes according to the area it means that are design to attract the regional crowed of that area. Model of Distributing Newspaper In India significant share of total volume of newspaper distributed. about 69 percentages are delivered to people’s home during early hours of the morning.

Distribution of Newspaper in Rural India . Saturday and Sunday delivery.. Normally 13 percentages of people gets product through this stage. Early morning delivery is always carried out under contract. The target time can be a little later at weekends. Each year. magazines and periodicals.30 a. Reverse Logistic: In newspaper industry unsold newspaper i. approximately 70 per cent of the total number of newspapers ordered on subscription. but in practice the overwhelming majority of items have been delivered several hours earlier than that.m. Early morning delivery covers about 90 per cent of all households in metros.20 1) Early morning Delivery: Early morning delivery is a typical mode of distribution used in urban and semi-urban areas. 3) Spot Selling: This is the last stage of distributing the newspaper at this point normally the rate of marine is high. So they need to take the proper decision regarding the quantities of prints such extra newspaper can pick up next day by company. excess paper are scrap so it send it to the recycling which is completely outsource. newspapers. The forms of contract delivery that are agreed with newspaper publishers include early morning. About 16 per cent of newspapers that have been ordered on subscription are delivered by the postal service For example. a person who has moved away from a small locality and wishes to keep informed about events there by reading the local paper can typically have it delivered to the new address with the postal service’s regular delivery. 2) Regular Postal Delivery: The items delivered include letters. The time by which it is expected to have been completed is generally regarded as being between 6 and 6. Because its end of distribution channel.e. reach their readers through the early morning distribution system. The relevant legislation requires the regular delivery round to have been completed by 4 p.m.

Some special reporters concentrate on crime and development issues in the region and believes that while newspaper in the world over are dying. Compensation Plan in rural India : “Earlier. In rural area local dialects changes every 40 km. at least 3 hours after the bundles have been delivered in various places through the various modes of transport. It makes its way around 40 km. the van has already dropped copies of the newspaper at specified place. has improved its reach. The copies of the newspaper wrapped in neat bundles. every day. the information providers were paid a fixed monthly remuneration but after the growth of market. blocks and villages. to tap local news and issues that have a bearing on people’s lives. By 4am. they make curiously small package for delivering to readers in neighboring district. when nondescript roadside tea stalls in villages are wakes up to business. Local news network in districts. Newspaper’s sales strategies in rural India : For the newspaper’s sales strategies. rural markets in India would to read them for decades ahead. It has been more about accessibility then volumes. such as the postman. milkman bus conductors and drivers in small places like Raghopur in Bihar where boats are the only means of transport when floods engulf each year. Reflecting rural shift : . away. 2) To encourage local vendors to sell the newspaper. penetration of rural markets involves a two pronged approach : 1) build varied network of information providers from throw regions. which in turn. the three levels at which local administrative bodies in India function. Rural India is a key market for the newspaper and part of its aggressive plan to access places in difficult terrain. various vendors are appointed on a commission basis” Developing grapevine through local news : One strong USP or unique selling proposition is the news paper’s emphasis on localized content and regional dialects that its readers can connect with.21 At 3am a newspaper distribution van of printing press of sets out in the dark with bundles of paper.

Bundles of paper are loaded in vans for distribution across bazaar . Weather it is advertisements for locally made tobacco products. It has also served as an information provider on job vacancies. Kisan Credit Card camps in villages and newer. Fuel-efficient motorcycles.22 The newspaper’s advertisement spaces also reflect a rural shift : In excess of 905 of advertisements come from either local sources or government departments. advertisements in newspaper reflect the testes and aspirations of its readers. Jewellary stores or motorcycles. Paper at 2 : 30 am.

.23 By 315 the van is battling traffic on the national highway Milkman makes his way to deliver the paper through sand.

24 Boats are the only means of transport when floods engulf. Newspaper reading is now a community pastime .

debate & discussion issue. .25 Group of people sharing news.

2. opportunities and threats (SWOT) which will help in the framework of new theories that are emerging. its strengths.000 2. weakness. STRENGTHS:  742million people  Marketers can make effective use of the large available infrastructure 1.26 SWOT ANALYSIS The more you think about it. 2000 daily newspaper in 100 languages 6.1 million rural readers 4.Through understanding of the market is necessary before it can be served To formulate and implement effective strategies a clear understanding has to be obtained of the rural as well as urban environment. WEAKNESSES:  Understanding the rural consumer  Poor infrastructure  Physical distribution  Channel management  Promotion and marketing communication  Disposable Income Is Low  Individuals Decide About Purchases  Illiteracy . due to the transformations taking place in rural India. Large number of Public distribution shops 5. Entry of IFRA worldwide research services industry for newspaper 3. Helps to educate the people  Abundance of circulation in rural area also. the more you need to understand one of the largest and fastest growing markets of the world . Post offices 1.38.

in the next 10 years another 30% would be linked.27  Brand loyal OPPURTUNITIES:  Infrastructure is improving  In 50 years only 40% villages were connected by road.  More than 90 % of the villages are electrified.  Social Indicators have improved a lot between 1981 and 2001  Rural literacy level improved from 36% to 59%  Penetration rate in rural market is low so there are many marketing opportunities.  Develop number of employment opportunities THREATS:  Natural calamities – One of the main obstacle of circulation is market is that natural calamities  Increase Competition  Lack of workers in ground areas  Increase the use of internet . though only 44% rural homes have electric connections.

700 million Indians may live in rural areas. products need to be affordable to the consumer. agent stock use milkman.2 million sq km. postman. capacity. And for that various promotion tools are need to use such as . 00. They are highly dispersed. Affordability: The second major challenge is to ensure affordability of the product or service. finding them is not easy. has built a strong distribution system which helps its brands reach the interiors of the rural market. We need to develop a customized paper for various regions. A solution to this has been introduction of advertisement in newspaper. Large amount of revenue is generated through this adds in newspaper . Bihar etc. Therefore. approximately Rs. bus conductors and drivers. 9 to 10 its available in the range of Rs. Marketers must trade off the distribution cost with incremental market penetration. most of who are the daily readers. and so it is possible to reduce the cost of paper. likes and dislikes of the target audience. With low disposable incomes. To service remote village. it is a greater challenge to regularly reach products to the far-flung villages. Even though the production cost of paper is huge i. 2 to 5 Acceptability: The next challenge is to gain acceptability for the product in market. and even boats in the backwaters of Kerala.28 4A’s of Newspaper marketing Availability: The first challenge in newspaper marketing is to ensure availability of the product or service. Marketer should plan accordingly and strive to reach these markets n a regular basis. there is a need to offer products that suit the market.000 villages are spread over 3. India's 7. Given the poor infrastructure. To accept the paper in the market we need to identify the tendency. Awareness: The fourth important things in newspaper marketing are creating the awareness of the product in the market. India's largest paper manufacturer.e. Hindustan Times.

Some factors that decide the place are transport facilities. are done to create the awareness. Place is another key marketing mix tool. involvement of media partners. etc. quality. coverage area. 4 P’s of Newspaper Marketing.e. Marketing mix has a classification for these marketing tools. And it includes various activities the company undertakes to make the product accessible and available to the customer. . Price. It also includes discounts. advertising. Promotion includes sales promotion. branding. allowances. etc. public relations. Promotion is the fourth marketing mix tool which includes all the activities that the company undertakes to communicate and promote its product to target market.29 advertising. features. The most basic marketing tool is product which includes product design. Place and Promotion. and packaging. Free sampling. MARKETING MIX (4 P’S OF MARKETING) Marketing Mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives. Product. credit terms and payment period. the amount of money that customers pay for the product. social awareness campaign etc.e. These marketing are classified and called as the Four Ps i. trade events. channels of distribution. sales force. A critical marketing tool is price i. direct marketing.

30 Product: In marketing. a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. Reusable paper are also preferred and are seen as value addition. This is mainly because of his income levels than his perception. The product packaging and presentation offers scope for keeping the price low. service or asset. It is of two types: Tangible (physical) and Intangible (non-physical). All products offered in a market can be placed between Tangible (Pure Product) and Intangible (Pure Service) spectrum. It is therefore the complete bundle of benefits or satisfactions that buyers perceive they will obtain if they purchase the product. the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a goods. and service attributes. Since services have been at the forefront of all modern marketing strategies. symbolic. some intangibility has become essential part of marketing offers. Price is also central to marketing where it is one of the four variables in the marketing mix that business . not just the physical merchandise. Pricing: A customer is price sensitive and shops for value. It is the sum of all physical. psychological. In many paper manufacturing company. Hence the marketer has to find ways of making the product affordable to the consumer.

such as young . Multiple tiers push up the costs and channel management is a major problem for marketers due to lot of middlemen in the process. target market. Pricing is a big part of the marketing mix. The price may act as a way to attract target customers. a group of people (a segment) to whom a company wants to sell its products. an industry. Some times the price of the product has got nothing to do with the actual product itself. The price of the product is decided keeping many things in mind. The price of the product is not something that is fixed. though in a sense of a location identified with that which is located there. Lack of proper channels of communication like telephone. competitors. Placement or Distribution: Place is a term that has a variety of meanings in a dictionary sense. defined as "the market place". professional or middle-aged family men etc. • Availability of suitable dealers . place refers to one of the 4 P's.31 people use to develop a marketing plan. • • • Transportation of goods in rural areas is also a problem for the marketers. There are some problems of rural distribution: • Transportation has not been fully developed. These things include factors like cost incurred on the product. and so on pose a lot of problem to marketer to service the retailer as it is difficult to the retailers to place order for goods. but which is principally used in a geographic sense as a noun to denote location. Choosing the right price and the right pricing strategy is crucial to the marketing process. consumer buying capacity etc. On the other hand the price of the product depends on many other factors. In marketing. It can mean a geographic location. postal services.

Social campaign etc. This is very important to create a mind share in the rural consumers. Promotion comprises four subcategories: Advertising Personal selling Sales promotion Publicity and public relations The specification of these four variables creates a promotional mix or promotional plan. Newspaper manufacturers are also apprehensive to "Go Rural. it is customized to reach each area also offers necessary coverage at times. An effective promotion should plan for a proper mix of media. new product acceptance. A promotional plan can have a wide range of objectives. or creation of a corporate image . including: sales increases. rural reach. Radio. Low literacy rates. and how much money to budget for each. The most common conventional media include: Print. The Non-conventional media include: Free sampling. talking to the customer in a language known to him. Posters etc. culture." Since. the rural consumers are scattered and it is difficult to predict the demand in the rural market. Few agencies that are trying to create awareness about the rural market and its importance. Media. advertising the functional benefits and demonstrating the product go a long way in capturing the wide market. traditions. Television and Print. Hence. less expensive and create a better impact. Promotion is one of the four aspects of marketing. A promotional mix specifies how much attention to pay to each of the four subcategories.32 • Poor viability of rural outlets Promotion: Communication to consumer is through organized media like TV. The conventional media have excellent reach. creation of brand equity. competitive retaliations. positioning. attitudes and behavior are the other problems in rural communication.

While there are varying estimates on how the new newspapers are doing. DNA was launched on July 30. With the introduction of these newspapers.719.000). this is hardly a bothering dip. Most of the stories in all of the newspapers are the same. Months before DNA and Hindustan Times launched in Mumbai. etc. Mumbai is now a major print medium publishing centre. called Mumbai Mirror. As Charudatt Dangat. The Indian Express. unfortunately. put it.745. Surprisingly. The Times Of India was far ahead of earlier competitors like Indian Express (58. a product hastily put forth by The Times of India in anticipation of DNA and Hindustan Times. the competition is taking place on the marketing and sales front. Hindustan Times. Traditional market leader ToI continues to rule the market with a readership of 1. Next came Hindustan Times. was the first off the block. rather than selling it at the counter at Rs. Mumbai Mirror. The journalists keep shifting. The almost-170-years-old Times of India leads the pack. for Rs." With a six lakh circulation. market sources estimate that DNA sells around two lakhs and Hindustan Times 1. Now. the Asian Age. a vendor stands to earn 45 paise more per copy if he sells DNA in the raddi (recycled paper) market.33 PRINT COMPETITION IN MUMBAI AND THE MARKET OF NEWSPAPERS The print medium in Mumbai has been rapidly expanding. Mid Day. followed by DNA.4. DNA's counter sales are giving the afternoon tabloid Mid-Day a run for its money. which was launched on July 14. The Times of India reader gets more than 100 pages. DNA claims that it is printing 2. as a newspaper agent points out." Another industry insider added.90 lakh copies and Hindustan Times says it sells 2 lakh copies. Given the readership of 1. "We . The Times of India went on the defensive and started a new `compact' newspaper. 2. "What choice does the reader really have? It's more in terms of price. rather than the editorial. with the introduction of three major newspapers in 2005. so The Times of India started distributing it free with the main newspaper. somewhat like a tabloid. But it did not sell much. Mumbai's largest newspaper agent. In fact.47 lakhs) and Mid-Day (1. But.000. "Even though the readers want better content.40 lakhs) that trailed in second place after The Times of India in Mumbai. it was The Economic Times (1. There are other small newspapers like the Afternoon Despatch and Courier and the Free Press Journal. However.000 that it had in the last round. from The Times of India to DNA and back again.40 lakhs.

and so we started an alternative to broadsheets .has the lion's share.1. In comparison. with even The Times of India growing.65 lakh readership figure.85 lakh readers. . of which only one player . The new entrants are vying for a piece of the pie. The half period figures released by MRUC (Media Research Users Council) in the IRS 2006. Mumbai's market will expand by up to 75 per cent.02 lakh." HERE AND THERE TECHNIQUES Why has Mumbai's lethargic newspaper industry suddenly become a `hot market' for new competitors? First. It's for the supersonic age where people want to scan news without going into too much depth. there are other platforms.The Times of India . "In the next few years. 000 crores. the tabloid launched by the TOI group has managed a 7. "Advertisers are happy that there will be competitors. The results show that although Hindustan Times has managed 2.a compact. advertisers have felt that they have been held to ransom as they have no choice but to pay exorbitant rates to The Times of India in order to reach Mumbai's up market consumers." It is essentially a `blockading' strategy you flood the reader with so much that he/she does not feel the need for another newspaper. For long. The Times of India's advertising rates are the highest in the country. Round 1 don’t show that these papers made a noticeable dent in the Times of India’s popularity. Nothing definitive coming from there right now but DNA is elated. By including Mumbai Mirror with The Times of India. But. DNA has a readership of 4. Now. Mumbai Mirror. "A normal reader spends 20-25 minutes on newspapers.34 always knew that there was space for a second newspaper in Mumbai. there won't be a dramatic shift in ad spends in the short term. Do you think he/she will spend more time reading just because there are new newspapers?" asks Das. "The Mirror is a newspaper for the new generation who want news-on-the-go like McDonalds. because it has the country's largest advertisement revenue of Rs. but they will have to prove themselves before advertisers start considering them an option.

It has a blend of rich cultures and a renowned cuisine. defends and promotes press freedom and the professional and business interests of newspapers world-wide. the global organization for the newspaper industry.35 Invitation From World Association of Newspaper The invitation was issued at the Annual General Meeting of WAN.800 newspaper publishers. Representing 18. the capital of Andhra Pradesh and India’s fifth largest city. newspaper companies and individual newspaper executives in 102 countries. World Editors Forum and Info Services Expo 2008 in Göteborg. chief editors and other senior newspaper executives attended the Göteborg meetings. Hyderabad. It is a centre for the pearl trade. The Paris-based WAN. being held at this year’s World Newspaper Congress. is a cosmopolitan city now vying to become India’s Silicon Valley. . India has than 2000 daily newspapers in 100 languages with a combined circulation of 90 million. Sweden.000 newspapers. 12 news agencies and 11 regional and world-wide press groups. its membership includes 77 national newspaper associations. More than 1.

set-off. The centre is also supported by major Indian newspaper publishers such as ABP. colours. located on RIND premises in Taramani. is the first of its kind and offers testing of newspaper printing materials and research services. Ifra’s CEO. ink tack. tackmeter. screen angles. Extensive testing equipment available: Initially. Printability Tester from The Netherlands. printable colour gamut.“The industry has long called for an independent and professional laboratory where all newspapers can test their printing materials and this Ifra-RIND centre will answer this need.” said R. Other equipment that is planned to be added later will include: a special spectrometer for paper. Spectrophotometer from the USA and Grindometer from Germany. they can result in savings for newspapers. rheometer. viscosity. screening: screen ruling. ruboff and ash content. The centre has the following testing equipment: Precision Balance from Switzerland. India. Malayala Manorama. surface roughness. tensile strength. print through. These tests play a vital role in the quality of the printed paper and if properly controlled. abrasion tester and ash content meter for testing Newsshade. Germany / Chennai. tensile tester. – Optical characteristics: density. tone value increase (dot gain). Manipal Media Network. . dot shape. mottle. colour of paper substrate. digital micrometer. sheet thickness. roughness tester. Deccan Herald. the following testing services are being offered by the centre: – Paper grammage.Mittelbach. Dinamalar. Chennai.36 New IFRA services for the Indian Newspaper Industry Ifra-RIND Material Testing & Research Centre inaugurated Darmstadt. which was inaugurated on 22 January by Reiner Mittelbach. – Printability tests: ink mileage and consumption. Two inks suppliers – DIC Inks and Micro Inks – complete the list of the centre’s initial supporters. The facility. 30 January 2007 – Ifra India and the Research Institute for Newspaper Development (RIND) have joined forces to start the IfraRIND Material Testing & Research Centre. linting. It will be a one-stop centre for newsprint and newsink testing needs. tear tester. printing penetration. mid-tone spread. tearing strength. fineness of ink grind. picking. Mathrubhumi and The Hindu.

Also. An initiative of Ifra: The Ifra-RIND Material Testing & Research Centre is an initiative of Ifra.37 Becoming a ‘Regional Quality Competence Centre’: In the future. Ultimately. the centre plans to conduct research to improve the overall quality of newspaper printing. . Ifra is launching a full-scale exposition in India. the centre will be a “Regional Quality Competence Centre” for testing newspaper printing materials in the entire South Asian region. It will undertake studies on standardizing newspaper consumables as well as trends in Indian newspaper printing. The Indian office. the services will be open to any newspaper. As such. The event. the standardization project for Indian newspapers.com/india).ifra. the first of its kind for Ifra outside of Europe. Currently. Ifra India (www. seminars and workshops dedicated to the publishing industry and also offers consulting and training programmers’. Ifra Expo India 2007. the world’s leading association for newspaper and media publishing. is one such effort. Ifra acts as a platform for decision makers from the newspaper industry. Based in Darmstadt. but will also cover magazine printing and other newspaper-related printing areas on request. Its main task is to help its members keep pace with the rapid changes in technology. there are more than 35 Ifra members in India. These activities will not be restricted only to newspapers. Ifra India organizes an annual conference. is based in Chennai and helps bring Ifra services closer to companies in India. The ICONS initiative. magazine or commercial printers offering printing services to the publishing industry. will take place from 4 to 6 September at the Chennai Trade Centre. Germany. Ifra has long followed the growth of the newspaper industry in India and gears its services to reflect the needs of Indian publishers. including most of the leading publications.

.38 Best Business Newspaper in India: So here are the winners: 1. Which newspaper do you think comes out with the most number of indepth/intelligent articles? Winner: Mint Ever since its launch. Mint has always positioned itself as a newspaper that analyzes developments in the financial worlds and presents them in a way that is easy to understand to the reader. It has also put focus on coming up with more in-depth feature stories than providing short news bytes.

Which newspaper do you think comes out with the most number of inside stories/or spicy bits of companies? Winner: The Economic Times The Economic Times.the kind of things the journalists out there always seem to be after.39 2. . has come out with stories that have created many crisis like situations for many of our clients. as we know. inside stuffs . Exclusives.

40 3. No wonder this is India’s largest circulated financial daily. Which newspaper do you think comes out with the best predictions of economic trends/ business houses? Winner: The Economic Times It is interesting to note how The Economic Times has swallowed up a majority of the pie on this question and the above. .

41 4.Which newspaper do you think provides you with the widest gamut of news coverage? Winner: The Times of India Some people have questioned that why include the dailies like The Times of India among the financial dailies. . But perhaps the widest gamut of news coverage might not be limited to only business news here. Our take was that these dailies today come up with sections of 8-10 pages of business news that have become financial newspapers in themselves.

or others sections of the market. The results are interesting. intelligent. There were around 382 responses out of which around 300 valid and completed responses were chosen. as we know. based on personal experiences. Disclaimer: The results above are based on an online survey taken at India PR Blog among readers of this blog who chose to participate. helpful. The voting is done and the results of the recent ‘Let’s rate the media’ survey on India PR Blog.knowledgeable. is one of those newspapers that puts journalism ethics above anything else. modest.42 5. though not very different to what many of us already know but might help in putting a number and validating what we think. The survey is educational and for research purposes and it does not imply the actual standings of these newspapers among its readers. stakeholders. Which newspaper do you think has the maximum number of journalists who are very professional in their approach? Winner: The Hindu Business Line The Hindu Business Line. The staff there are also superb. especially as the votes were from PR professionals who deal with these newspapers day in and out .

11 per cent. published from Delhi with a circulation of 9. Over the years. came third. published from Chennai was the largest circulated single edition daily with claimed circulation of 9.236 in 2001. English Daily.09. English Daily. There are three main categories of perishable goods: Goods that are perishable only when considered by the customer. advertising. Distributing a perishable product The newspaper production/distribution problem is an example of a perishable-good production and distribution problem. Bengali Daily. A newspaper industry consists of five major functional areas.78. production. the number of dailies has steadily increased.44. one can easily realize the commonalities in the functions.e. The key area of sales of the product is dealt by circulation. whereas The Times of India. The total circulation of daily newspapers was 5. was fourth. Their number increased to 5638 in 2001 from 5364 in the previous year. If the same is compared to a manufacturing industry. The Hindu.43 Literature Review In India. due to the perishable nature of the product. With such huge number of newspapers and such enormous circulation. The marketing function is performed by advertising and management is done by administration. hence the importance of distribution channel in the newspaper industry. the supply chain model for the newspaper industry is a challenge in itself. Anand Bazar Patrika.37.222 followed by Hindustan Times.278. administration and circulation. In 2001. Newspapers . Editorial supplies the raw material. i. and Goods that are perishable to both the manufacturer and the customer. Goods that are perishable only to the manufacturer. Moreover. which is transformed to the finished product through printing. newspapers are published in about 100 regional languages and dialects other than Hindi and English. by 5. A perishable good is one that either loses significant value if stored or a good that will cause economic loss if delivered late. These include editorial. an English daily. its distribution needs all the more importance.

The distribution channel consists of stages involved in fulfilling consumer requirements. The newspaper distributor has sole rights to distribute the newspaper in his area.44 fall into this later category. especially in the large. The editorial is fed with news from various places by reporters. is supplied by the editorial. correspondents and news agencies. The channel includes manufactures. Therefore. news. metropolitan markets. The final news is sent to the printing facility where the newspaper is printed. Additionally. newspaper production/distribution is the problem of distributing highly perishable products under severe time constraints. The hawkers’ remuneration is based on a commission system and is the highest in the entire supply chain. who in turn pass it on to hawkers. Hawkers. He achieves circulation through salesmen appointed and salaried by him. His revenue is based on a commission on the sale of every newspaper. vendors and customers. suppliers. with the increase in commuting times. Raw material for the newspaper industry. which is a functional area in the newspaper office itself. it is a daily task of producing a total of several hundred thousand newspapers in many editions and delivering them to home delivery customers in . vendors and book stall owners are the last link of the supply chain before newspaper reaches readers. For a major metropolitan morning newspaper. The most important issue to deal with in distribution of newspapers is the distribution of newspapers to subscribers at minimum costs all the while presenting the correct edition of the paper to each subscriber on time. Transportation is normally through private contract carriers within local area. transporters. late delivery is also not entertained. Newspaper companies cannot print the news sections of the newspaper in advance because of the requirement that news be timely. public transport in case of longer distances and through couriers in other cases. The printed newspaper is dispatched to various distributors across the country through transportation.

the industry gets most of its revenue through print advertisements. This helps in achieving a strategic fit between the supply chain and the customer needs. a newspaper has to be published from various locations. Thus on the basis of the analysis so far. Consumers also demand faster response time because of the perishable nature of the product. The products may differ in editorial content. say. the newspaper needs to have regional publication units with both national and regional news varieties in the same newspaper. This is depicted graphically in the following figure: . All these imply that newspaper should achieve a critical mass of customers to achieve economies of scale. On the other hand efficiency is the cost of making and delivering the newspaper to its reader. As stated earlier.45 approximately six hours. 6 a. Responsiveness and efficiency also play an important role in newspaper distribution channel. The design of the distribution system involves solving several location-allocation routing and clustering problems. newspapers produce many editions of the newspaper for different demographic/ geographic regions. The newspaper industry is becoming very competitive with the national players competing with the regional players. newspaper readers do not want to spend more on reading a newspaper. In order to economize on the costs of the supply chain. say at midnight. newspaper is a perishable commodity and in order to cater to needs of the customer in various geographical locations. Thus an economy of scale is very important factor for a newspaper. and in advertising inserts.m. The key timing parameters are the start of the press run. Responsiveness includes supply chain’s ability to respond to wide a range of quantity demanded (due to demand fluctuations) and meet short lead times. in run of paper advertisements. As has been shown by various studies. In order to better serve their advertisers and subscribers. The consumers are primarily looking for a national newspaper giving regional news as well. It is also known that revenue earned through sales of a newspaper is many times low compared to its production cost. one can say that newspaper supply chain should have high responsiveness than efficiency. and the requirement that each customer receives her/his paper before.

The products may differ in editorial content. newspaper is a perishable commodity and in order to cater to needs of the customer in various geographical locations. The newspaper distributor has sole rights to distribute the newspaper in his area. The key timing parameters are the start of the press run. Transportation is normally through private contract carriers within local area. He achieves circulation through salesmen appointed and salaried by him. say at midnight. in run of paper advertisements. In order to better serve their advertisers and subscribers. Hawkers. who in turn pass it on to hawkers. newspapers produce many editions of the newspaper for different demographic/ geographic regions. and the requirement that each customer receives her/his paper before. and in advertising inserts. it is a daily task of producing a total of several hundred thousand newspapers in many editions and delivering them to home delivery customers in approximately six hours. This helps in achieving a strategic fit between the supply chain and the customer needs. The hawkers’ remuneration is based on a commission system and is the highest in the entire supply chain. The design of the distribution system involves solving several location-allocation routing and clustering problems. say. vendors and book stall owners are the last link of the supply chain before newspaper reaches readers. The newspaper industry is becoming very competitive with the national players competing with the regional players. .m. 6 a. The most important issue to deal with in distribution of newspapers is the distribution of newspapers to subscribers at minimum costs all the while presenting the correct edition of the paper to each subscriber on time. His revenue is based on a commission on the sale of every newspaper. a newspaper has to be published from various locations. public transport in case of longer distances and through couriers in other cases.46 The printed newspaper is dispatched to various distributors across the country through transportation. For a major metropolitan morning newspaper. As stated earlier.

He achieves circulation through salesmen appointed and salaried by him. . Responsiveness includes supply chain’s ability to respond to wide a range of quantity demanded (due to demand fluctuations) and meet short lead times. Responsiveness and efficiency also play an important role in newspaper distribution channel. All these imply that newspaper should achieve a critical mass of customers to achieve economies of scale. Consumers also demand faster response time because of the perishable nature of the product. public transport in case of longer distances and through couriers in other cases. Thus an economy of scale is very important factor for a newspaper. In order to economize on the costs of the supply chain. who in turn pass it on to hawkers. The hawkers’ remuneration is based on a commission system and is the highest in the entire supply chain. vendors and book stall owners are the last link of the supply chain before newspaper reaches readers. the industry gets most of its revenue through print advertisements. The newspaper distributor has sole rights to distribute the newspaper in his area.47 The consumers are primarily looking for a national newspaper giving regional news as well. Hawkers. It is also known that revenue earned through sales of a newspaper is many times low compared to its production cost. one can say that newspaper supply chain should have high responsiveness than efficiency. As has been shown by various studies. This is depicted graphically in the following figure: The printed newspaper is dispatched to various distributors across the country through transportation. the newspaper needs to have regional publication units with both national and regional news varieties in the same newspaper. Transportation is normally through private contract carriers within local area. Thus on the basis of the analysis so far. newspaper readers do not want to spend more on reading a newspaper. On the other hand efficiency is the cost of making and delivering the newspaper to its reader. His revenue is based on a commission on the sale of every newspaper.

In order to economize on the costs of the supply chain. say. The design of the distribution system involves solving several location-allocation routing and clustering problems. As stated earlier. a newspaper has to be published from various locations. newspaper is a perishable commodity and in order to cater to needs of the customer in various geographical locations.m. newspaper readers do not want to spend more on reading a newspaper. and the requirement that each customer receives her/his paper before. For a major metropolitan morning newspaper. As has been shown by various studies. All these imply that newspaper should achieve a critical mass of customers to achieve economies of scale. say at midnight. newspapers produce many editions of the newspaper for different demographic/ geographic regions. Responsiveness and efficiency also play an important role in newspaper distribution channel. Responsiveness includes supply chain’s ability to respond to wide a range of . 6 a. The newspaper industry is becoming very competitive with the national players competing with the regional players. and in advertising inserts. Consumers also demand faster response time because of the perishable nature of the product. In order to better serve their advertisers and subscribers.48 The most important issue to deal with in distribution of newspapers is the distribution of newspapers to subscribers at minimum costs all the while presenting the correct edition of the paper to each subscriber on time. The key timing parameters are the start of the press run. in run of paper advertisements. The consumers are primarily looking for a national newspaper giving regional news as well. Thus an economy of scale is very important factor for a newspaper. the industry gets most of its revenue through print advertisements. This helps in achieving a strategic fit between the supply chain and the customer needs. It is also known that revenue earned through sales of a newspaper is many times low compared to its production cost. The products may differ in editorial content. it is a daily task of producing a total of several hundred thousand newspapers in many editions and delivering them to home delivery customers in approximately six hours. the newspaper needs to have regional publication units with both national and regional news varieties in the same newspaper.

In fact these are recovered through the advertisements that newspapers publish in their editions. the cost in such a case is high. This is depicted graphically in the following figure: As can be seen. it is held to counter uncertainty. which is what is happening in the newspaper industry. However. i.e. Applying this to the newspaper industry. . On the other hand efficiency is the cost of making and delivering the newspaper to its reader. just to cover up some free space that might creep in any edition. It bears a large impact on both responsiveness and efficiency. one can say that newspaper supply chain should have high responsiveness than efficiency. Faster transportation allows a supply chain to be more responsive but reduces its efficiency. These may include special columns. transportation. This model states that inventory is held just in case demand exceeds expectation. Inventory exists in the supply chain because of a mismatch between supply and demand. Transportation moves the product between different stages in a supply chain. weekly columns etc.e. they need to be worked upon well before in time. The main drivers of supply chain are inventory. inventory of the raw material i. the reader is not burdened to recover these costs. As stated earlier. Moreover. facilities and information. newsprint is maintained based on the safety inventory model. responsiveness is more important for newspaper than efficiency and hence the need for a faster transportation. Also.49 quantity demanded (due to demand fluctuations) and meet short lead times. Since these are to be published periodically. Thus on the basis of the analysis so far. even some of the news items can also be considered as inventory. some articles should always be ready with the newspaper.

demand is forecasted on the basis of past data. use of information technology can cater to the need of high responsiveness. The tradeoff here is whether to centralize to gain economies of scale or decentralize to become more responsive by being closer to the customer. Warehousing in newspaper industry follows cross-docking model to a good extent. the agents and the hawkers have different set of objectives which might not always suit the objective of the overall supply chain resulting in reduction of overall profitability. the second option is desirable. special articles in newspaper is an obstacle towards optimizing entire supply chain. Moreover. The competitive environment pushes players to increase their market share. Increasing varieties of the product with respect to demand for regional. In addition to this the circulation manager has to formulate his own projections. The product from printing facility is carried to the agents from where it is further transported to salesmen and hawkers. Normally the demand falls during vacations as families move out. due to very nature of the product. where everyone is vying for the same pie. which is rule of the game. . linguistic. Deciding where a newspaper should locate its facility constitutes a large part of design of a supply chain. The company alone has to the loss arising out of any demand irregularity or failure in demand estimation. In case of newspapers. In case of newspaper industry.50 Normally newspapers use private carriers to transport the product from publication facility to various agencies in the region. Fragmentation of supply chain ownership is another cause of concern in the newspaper industry. public transport such as rail and air are used. The design process of a newspaper supply chain is based on push mechanism. Projection for the forthcoming week is also based on estimates given by the hawkers. Newspapers have resorted to mass customization in terms of regional editions of national dailies to overcome this obstacle. There is also a seasonality factor attached to the newspaper demand forecasting. The private carriers. In case it is required to transport the product across states.

Information technology also plays an important role in designing of a newspaper. This shows the critical role information technology plays in modern day newspaper printing. It is evident that without this usage it will be extremely difficult to print multiple editions of a newspaper from various locations. Information technology helps gather news and advertisements from all sources across the country and put to one newspaper edition. The master newspaper is designed and finalized at the head office of a newspaper. Consequently. the production and distribution operations are tightly coupled and must be modeled as such. For example. The local editions are normally generated by making suitable changes to the master copy on the intranet itself. However. Even the printing of various editions is done at a common printing facility. some distribution centers may be farther from the printing facility than others. If said in one simple sentence. This makes the problem substantially more difficult than if the production and distribution operations could be treated separately. Moreover. The geographic locations of the distribution centers suggest a preferred sequence in which the distribution system receives papers. use of information technology has made the life of newspaper industry much easier and simpler. this production plan may not be consistent with Production's preferred sequencing. It also saves on critical changeover time during printing. to save on additional costs. including its layout. Distribution would prefer that Production produce papers for the most distant distribution center first. It is then made available on the intranet of the newspaper company. The communication of news between various offices of a modern newspaper is achieved through networking. On the other hand. Optimization model .51 There are also two sequencing problems. Since the printing facility produces several different products. there is an ideal sequence in which the production would take place in order to minimize total (including time spent on set up) time spent on production.

This sequence can be developed by arranging the routes in descending order of the total route length distance from the production facility to the last hawker. At this hawker. Starting at the first hawker. and costs directly attributable to the perishability of either an input or an output. a lost opportunity and the cost of processing the complaint. Usually. an infeasible solution would be one in which not all newspapers are delivered by the deadline. Costs can be divided into two major categories: costs associated with the actual production and distribution activities.52 The overall distribution problem can be viewed similar to the traveling salesman problem. based on the vehicle capacity constraints. For each route. newspapers for the farthest hawkers are produced and shipped first since the total delivery time is greater. newspaper requirements are accumulated until the vehicle limit is reached. The procedure is continued until all the hawkers are included in some route. the distance along the route. In the newspaper problem. The latter costs will be accrued only if the schedule is not feasible. After the routes that include all the hawkers and that satisfy the vehicle capacity constraints have been constructed. Distribution centers rather than warehouses . the commodities cannot be produced or purchased in advance for inventory. The costs associated with this infeasibility may include the cost of the newspaper. The routes describe the distance the vehicle must travel on each route and the sequence in which hawkers on that route are visited. For example. The time the vehicles stop at each hawker also needs to be considered. The entire distribution network can be segregated into various hawker points and an optimized route proposed for each of them. another vehicle route is begun. the time constraints must be checked. from the production facility to the last hawker point visited can be calculated. The distribution of perishable commodities has a number of features distinguishing it from other distribution operations. The production schedule can be deduced by arranging the routes in a sequence that will ensure delivery of all the newspapers by the prescribed time.

It is also a problem that has not been adequately addressed in the operations research or supply chain literature. Consumer Buying Behavior : . These distinguishing features increase the complexity of the production/distribution problem for perishable goods. and production and distribution are necessarily intimately related. the total time devoted to both production and distribution may be severely limited thereby further tying together the design and operation of the production and distribution functions.53 play an important role. In addition.

E.: you are planning to buy a DDA flat in a particular locality. You would agree that decision to buy toothpaste.g. You would agree that all the flats are similar in size and construction.: Automobile The consumer will spend lot of time in discussing and planning about the purchase of such a product.This type of buying behavior is involved when low involvement is there but there are significant differences between the brand. you may want to change the cookies that you had last time not because they were bad but you want to change the taste. bought infrequently.: When you want to buy product like salt you don’t even think when you go to store whatever brand is available you would have pick it up.: Think about cookies. a tennis racket.This type of buying behavior is involved when purchase is expensive.g. which have low involvement and the absence of significant difference between the brands. E.This type of buying behavior is involved when the product is expensive. Once you decide to buy a particular flat you will be more concerned that you should not have any problem after buying it. E. E. personal computer and a car are all different.g. .54 Consumer decision making would vary with the type of buying decision. There are 4 types of buying behavior based on the degree of buyer involvement and the degree of difference between buyers: - High Involvement Significance Difference Complex Between the Brands Low Involvement Variety seeking buying Dissonance reducing Buying behavior Habitual buying Few Difference Between the Brands Complex buying behavior: . Variety seeking buying behavior: . These products are frequently purchased. infrequent and risky but there is not much difference between the various brands.This type of buying behavior is for the product. Habitual buying behavior: . Dissonance reducing buying behavior: . Now when you come to know about dustbin you would not have buys that flat.g. Let us assume you wanted to buy a flat and you have not noticed a dustbin close to it.

various products will have different attributes on which they would be evaluated. POST PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR: Once the consumers have purchased the product. sales person. camera size and price PURCHASE DECISION: As the consumer has evaluated various alternatives. dealers. to consume biscuits INFORMATION SEARCH: Once the need has been identified the consumer would look for more information about the product. etc. This information he may get from personal sources {family friends. EXTERNAL STIMULATION: say when we are passing through a bakery shop you smell the freshly baked biscuits based on this you may want to buy. If the consumer is satisfied. picture sharpness. he would either satisfied or dissatisfied.55 FIVE STAGE MODEL OF CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS NEED IDENTIFICATION: the buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. INTERNAL STIMULATION: say when we are hungry we may want to eat something. he would then purchase the product. he will tell his friends about the same and as such a better word of mouth is spread of the product. For e. But in case the consumer is dissatisfied he will tell to all his friends and associates about the dissatisfaction that he had after using or consuming the given product.g. He would to evaluate the various alternatives that he has. This is the final act that the consumer performs after evaluating all the alternatives. displays} EVALUATON OF ALTERNATIVES: Now that consumer has got information of the product and the companies that are selling their product.: cameras. camera speed. neighbors. Methodology: .} or commercial sources {advertising. this need could be because of internal or external stimulation.

Source of data: The study is based on primary data only. . marketing and handling of newspaper are collected through unscheduled interviews with the various expert. Sampling: Totally 50 respondents have been interviewed and the data have been collected. Graphical representation & Chi-square test is used while analyzing and interpreting the data. The area of study has been restricted to 50 respondents were selected at random for the purpose of the study.56 This study aims to identify the impact of brand preference on newspaper among the consumers for its purpose data were collected by survey methods through questionnaire. Frame work of analysis: The study of brand preference for newspaper has been made through questionnaire method. This questionnaire contained the questions regarding various attributes of newspaper. 50 respondents are selected randomly and were asked to answer the question based upon their answer the classification of respondents are done and are analyzed and interpreted. The required information was collected through the questionnaire from the consumers directly by interviewing them and information regarding the physical distribution.

57 Analysis & Interpretation  Age of respondent : Below 25 0 1 2 3 7 1 3 2 4 23 Above 30 0 1 0 2 2 2 0 0 3 10 Preferred Brand The Hindu Business Line Business Standard Hindustan Times The Economic Times The Times of India The Indian Express Mint The Hindu Other 25 .square value : 22. 14 out of the 50 respondent are loyal to the .30 3 2 2 1 5 0 4 0 0 17 Total 3 4 4 6 14 3 7 2 7 50 1) Chi .12196425 As per the age of respondent.701 3) Degree of freedom : 16 2) P – value : 0.

square value : 4.e.93717707 .58 Times Of India brand & P-value is 0. relationship between age of respondent & their preferred brand newspaper is not up to the level Which Of The Following Factor influence you to choose present brand? Price In depth Intelligent articles More no. of inside or spicy bits prediction of economic trends / business houses widest game out of new coverage professional approach of news description 1) Chi .12196425 > 0.214 Belo w 25 1 7 4 4 2 5 23 25 30 0 5 4 2 2 4 17 Abov e 30 0 3 1 2 0 4 10 Total 1 15 9 8 4 13 50 3) Degree of freedom : 10 2) P – value : 0.05 therefore result is non-significant i.

there is no relationship between factors influence to purchase present brand of respondent & age of respondent. Have you ever changed your brand? Yes No Total Reasons Price raises lack of availability Other specify 0 11 12 23 1 7 9 17 1 8 1 10 2 26 22 50 Below 25 14 9 23 25 30 3 14 17 Abov e 30 6 4 10 Total 23 27 50 .e.93717707 which is much greater than 0.05 therefore result is non-significant i.59 15 out of the 50 respondent are interested ‘In depth intelligent articles’ Pvalue is 0.

P-value is 0.338 2) P – value : 0.square value : 8.07995265 3) Chi .square value : 8. result is not significant therefore there is a relationship between changing of preferred brand & age of respondent How do you know your preferred brand? friends Below 25 7 25 30 5 Abov e 30 2 Total 14 .05 i.338 27 out of the 50 respondents will not change their newspaper brand due to the lack of availability or any other reason.e.60 1) Chi .07995265 < 0.

square value : 12.23541868 > 0. therefore there is no relationship between preferred brand awareness & age of respondent.05 i. P-value is 0.794 3) Degree of freedom : 10 2) P – value : 0.61 Advertisement Relative Shopkeepers Teacher Other 3 5 0 5 3 23 4 4 1 2 1 17 1 2 3 0 2 10 8 11 4 7 6 50 1) Chi . result is non-significant.e.23541868 7 out of the 14 respondents have an age below 25 years well known about their newspaper through friends. .

62 Will you change the brand if your family income level is increases? yes no Below 25 0 23 23 25 30 4 13 17 Abov e 30 2 8 10 Total 6 44 50 1) Chi .square value : 5. result is not significant therefore there is no relationship between changing of preferred brand & age of respondent. .05281289 3) Degree of freedom : 44 out of the 50 respondents will not change their newspaper due to the changes in family income of respondent. P-value is 0.05281289 i.882 2) P – value : 0.e.0 < 0.

square value : 15.165 2) P – value : 0.04601544 3) Degree of freedom : 8 As per the gender of respondent. Times of India is most dominant .63  Gender : Femal e 2 1 2 3 2 2 6 2 2 22 Preferred Brand The Hindu Business Line Business Standard Hindustan Times The Economic Times The Times of India The Indian Express Mint The Hindu Other Male 1 3 2 3 12 1 1 0 5 28 Total 3 4 4 6 14 3 7 2 7 50 1) Chi .

of inside or spicy bits prediction of economic trends / business houses widest game out of new coverage professional approach of news description Male 0 8 4 7 2 7 28 Femal e 1 7 5 1 2 6 22 Total 1 15 9 8 4 13 50 1) Chi . out of those 12 respondents are male & 2 are female.108 3) Degree of freedom : 5 2) P – value : 0. Which Of The Following Factor influences you to choose present brand? Price In depth Intelligent articles More no.40284253 .64 newspaper brand preferred by 14 respondents.square value : 5. result is significant.05 i. therefore there is relationship between brand preference & gender of respondent. P-value is 0.04601544 > 0.e.

P-value is 0. result is not significant.e. therefore there is no relationship between factors influence to purchase preferred brand & gender of respondent.65 8 out of the 15 respondents are male & 7 are female who are interested to know the In depth intelligent articles.40284253 > 0. Have you ever changed your brand? Yes No Total Reasons Price raises Male 13 15 28 Femal e 10 12 22 Total 23 27 50 0 2 2 .05 i.

005 3) Degree of freedom : 2 2) P – value : 0. therefore there is a relationship between changing of brand & gender of respondent.99750312 > 0. P-value is 0.05 i. result is not significant.99750312 Almost equally male & female have changed their preferred brand due to lack of availability of preferred brand.66 lack of availability Other specify 15 13 28 11 9 22 26 22 1) Chi .square value : 0.e. .

P-value is 0.66303942 > 0.e.square value : 3.24 3) Degree of freedom : 5 2) P – value : 0.66303942 8 out of the 14 respondents are male well known about their preferred brand through friends.67 How do you know your preferred brand? friends Advertisement Relative Shopkeepers Teacher Other Male 8 6 4 2 4 4 28 Femal e 6 2 7 2 3 2 22 Total 14 8 11 4 7 6 50 1) Chi .05 i. result is non- .

23307449 .68 significant.422 3) Degree of freedom : 1 2) P – value : 0.square value : 1. therefore there is no relationship between preferred brand awareness factor & gender of respondent. Will you change the brand if your family income level is increases? Yes No Male 2 26 28 Femal e 4 18 22 Total 6 44 50 1) Chi .

 Family Income : Which newspaper is preferred by you? .05 so the result is not significant.23307449 > 0. So there is no relation between income & gender in newspaper consumption. Pvalue is 0.69 26 out of 44 respondents are male and remaining 18 are female will not change their brand will not change the newspaper even though the family income is increased.

51754588 > 0.51754588 As per the monthly income of the family. Rs.05 result is not significant. 10001 to More then 2000 Total . there is no relation between income of the consumer and newspaper Which Of The Following Factor influences you to choose present brand? Less then Rs. then Tota Rs. 10000 20000 20000 l 0 2 1 3 0 2 2 4 1 1 2 4 1 4 1 6 5 4 5 14 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 7 0 0 2 2 4 3 7 14 19 17 50 1) Chi .square value : 15. 14 out of 50 respondents of different income level preferred same newspaper. P-value is 0.70 Preferred Brand The Hindu Business Line Business Standard Hindustan Times The Economic Times The Times of India The Indian Express Mint The Hindu Other Rs. again Times of India is a most preferred brand. 10001 More Less then to Rs.097 3) Degree of freedom : 16 2) P – value : 0.

So there is no relation between income level and factor which influence the newspaper.3867342 7 out of 15 respondents are having income of Rs.square value: 10. P. .634 3) Degree of freedom: 10 2) P – Value: 0. 10001 to 20000 are not interested in depth intelligent articles.Value is 0. of inside or spicy bits prediction of economic trends / business houses widest game out of new coverage professional approach of news distribution 1000 Rs. 0 20000 0 1 0 3 7 2 4 2 0 6 14 4 3 1 19 0 5 3 2 1 6 17 1 15 9 8 4 13 50 1) Chi .71 Price In depth Intelligent articles More no.05 so the result is not significant.3867342 > 0.

72

Have you ever changed your brand? Yes No Total Reasons Price raises lack of availability Other specify

Less then Rs. 10000 5 9 14

Rs. 10001 to Rs. 20000 11 8 19

More then 20000 7 10 17

Total 23 27 50

2 7 5 14

0 11 8 19

0 8 9 17

2 26 22 50

1) Chi - square value: 1.838

3) Degree of freedom: 4

2) P – Value: 0.76552318

11 out of 26 respondents that income level is 10001 to 20000 are not change the newspaper even though the newspaper is not available in the market P- value is 0.76552318> 0.05 so the result is not significant. So there is no relation between income level and change in brand

73

Less then How do you know your preferred Rs. brand? 10000 friends Advertisement Relative Shopkeepers Teacher Other 3 1 3 0 3 4 14

Rs. 10001 to Rs. 20000 6 3 5 2 2 1 19

More then 20000 5 4 3 2 2 1

Total 14 8 11 4 7 6

17 50

1) Chi - square value : 8.715

3) Degree of freedom : 10

2) P – value : 0.55934784

6 out of the 14 respondents have a monthly income Rs. 10001 to > 20000, well known about their preferred brand through friends. P-value is 0.055934784 > 0.05 i.e. result is not significant; therefore there is no relationship between preferred brand awareness factor & monthly income

74

of family.

Will you change the brand if your family income level is increases? yes no

Less then Rs. 10000 4 10 14

Rs. 10001 to Rs. 20000 2 17 19

More then 20000 0 17 17

Total 6 44 50

1) Chi - square value : 5.998

3) Degree of freedom : 2

2) P – value : 0.04983688

44 out of 50 respondents from different income level i.e. 10 out of 14 respondents have less then 10000 income, 17 out of 19 respondents have less then Rs. 10001 to 20000 and, 17 out of 17 respondents have no willingness to change the news paper. Pvalue is 0.04983688 > 0.05 i.e. relation is significant, therefore there is relationship between different income levels and family income.

75

Findings: As per the age of respondent:
 7 out of the 14 respondents having age of below 25 years who preferring

Times of India brand.
 7 out of the 15 respondents having age of below 25 years are interested

In depth Intelligent articles.
 14 out of the 27 respondents having age of 25 – 30 years preferred will

not change their brand. Even though there is lack of availability.
 7 out of the 14 respondents having an age of below 25 years well known

about their preferred brand through relatives.
 23 out of the 44 respondents having age of below 25 years will not

change their brand even though the income level is increased

As per the gender of respondent:

  

12 out of the 14 respondents are male who preferred Times Of India as a lead brand. 15 out of the 15 respondents are male who are interested In depth Intelligent articles. 15 out of the 27 respondents are male preferred Times of India a best for their regular brand. And they will not change it due to the non availability.

 

8 out of the 15 respondents are male well known about their preferred brand through friends. 26 out of 44 respondents are male will not change their brand even though the family level is increased.

10001 to 20000 and 17 out of the 44 respondents having a monthly income more then 20000 will not change their brand due to change in income level. And they will not change it because lack of availability. Conclusion • From the above findings. There is a relationship between following factors. majority of the population preferred Times Of India brand mainly below the age of 25 Most of the consumers preferred Times Of India Mouth publicity i. • As per the gender of respondent.  17 out of the 44 respondents having a monthly income Rs.000.000 well known about their preferred brand through friends.  10 out of the 27 respondents having monthly income more than 20. Times Of India is most . through the friends and relative are the most important factors for the awareness of preferred brand. • • According to Chi-square test.000 and another 5 out of 14 respondents having monthly income more than 20000 Rs preferring Times of India Brand as a lead brand.  6 out of the 14 respondents having a monthly income Rs.  7 out of the 15 respondents are required in depth intelligent articles having monthly income Rs.000 Rs preferred Times of India for their regular brand.76 As per the monthly income of family  5 out of the 14 respondents having monthly income less than 10.e. 10001 to 20. 10001 to 20.

The information flow within the distribution process can be improved with electronic devices used by the truck drivers and the carriers so the problems can be maintained. a model was created in order to find which process could be improved. . The proposed changes might increase the costs initially for the distribution company. However. the distribution can be more effective. The improvement of physical distribution may involve an improved information flow with new electronic devices and an optimization of physical flow. both in terms of investment costs and in running costs. in the long run. Conclusion on present distribution system of newspaper: By understanding the process it becomes possible to determine where improvements can be of value. each process must be a project of research. The distribution of these products may involve physical distribution as well as electronic distribution. By changing the information flow and the planning of the loading process. however. If the copies could be loaded onto pallets before they are loaded onto the trucks. It may be possible to improve each process. In this licentiate thesis. improved planning and faster information low with correct information can bring about rationalizations and an increased delivery quality. It was found that it would be valuable to improve two processes within morning newspaper distribution: the information flow and the coordination between the production and the distribution. The coordination between production and distribution is important since the time for distribution is dependent upon the production output. New businesses for the distribution companies may involve both tangible and intangible products. The model can serve as the basis for finding processes within the field of distribution to be improved. the time spent by truck drivers on the loading dock can be decreased.77 dominant newspaper brand • Respondents have no willingness to change the news paper even though the family income is changed.

Gender 3.20.78 Questionnaire Personal Profile 1. 000 Female Unmarried 5.10. 001 – Rs.20. Age 2.000 Rs. Income (per month) : : : : Male Married Less than 10. Which Newspaper is preferred by you? The Hindu Business Line Business Standard Hindustan Times The Economic Times Other The Times Of India The Indian Express Mint The Hindu 2. Rs. Marital Status 4. Which of the following factors influence you to choose present newspaper? . Family Size : : 1-3 members More than 6 members 4-6 members : Brand Preference 1. 000 More than Rs.

No. State the degree of satisfaction in the following (for your preferred brand) Sr.79 Price In-depth Intelligent articles More no. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Highly Satisfactory Not Satisfactory Characteristics Price Information More no. How did you know your preferred brand? Friends Advertisement Relative Shop keepers Teacher Others (specify) 4. Do you know the name of the manufacturer of your preferred brand? Yes No 5. of inside stories or spicy bits Prediction of economic trends / business houses Widest game out of news coverage Professional approach of news description 3. Of articles News coverage Advertisement Satisfactory .

In case of non-availability of your preferred newspaper brand. Have you ever changed you brand? Yes If yes. Mention the reasons for selecting the next brand: Same Price Same Information No other alternative . Brand 1) 2) 3) 9. mention the reason: Price raise Lack of Availability Other (specify) No 8.80 6. Name the substitute newspaper par brand for your regular newspaper brand with reason. Will you change the brand if your family income level is increases? Yes No 11. what will be your next best alternative choice? (Name it) 7. Do you feel that your preferred brand of the newspaper enhances your knowledge rich? Yes No Reason 10.

Mediaedge: CIA. . Motivator. Kinetic ‘Let’s rate the media’ survey on India PR Blog. Dialect. Mint. Sources: Article on Indian Media Forecast (April 2008) Group M Specialist Practices: Trading. Maxus. MediaCom. mConsult. Interaction. Have you ever suggested your preferred newspaper brand to your friends or relatives? Yes No Bibliography Unplanned interview with industry expert 1) Danker Kokitkar ( Circulation head of Sakal newspaper) 2) Vijay Jagtap ( Production head in Dhangat media ) 3) Sachin Sir ( Marketing head of newspaper company ) 4) Shrad Survase (Marketing head of newspaper company) Various articles in newspaper i. ESP GroupM Communications Agencies: MindShare. Times of India etc.81 12.e.