BASICS .

OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS

Authors :

P.K. MUKHERJEE

S. ILANGO

B.E. (Mech) B.E., PGDIT., MBA.,

f

FLOWLINES ENGINEERING PVT. LTD. W-124, 3rd Avenue Anna Nagar Madras - 600 040 INDIA

Second Edition : 1996 © Copyright : Authors

PREFACE
Oil Hydraulics is a fascinating field in engineering. Many of us take this specialised subject for granted. Indian Universities generally do not offer specialisation in oil hydraulics in graduate level or in post graduate level, even. Generally, it is the international companies involved in oil hydraulics like Rexroth and Vickers who have brought out publications to spread knowledge relating to the basics of oil hydraulics as well as constructional details of hydraulic elements. These books cover the principles behind the constructional details of the hydraulic elements and other components extremely well. We however find that the basics of hydraulic circuits have not been given adequate coverage. The information / knowledge given in this book is prepared and pretested by the experience, we have gained in making oil hydraulic systems at our factory for varied applications. Further, the experience gained in training our own engineers is also used in the book i.e. in making our engineers capable of designing the hydraulic circuits to meet different applications of customers. The book starts with a set of questions that an application engineer in oil hydraulics should be aware of, before the design of hydraulic circuit is even considered. Step by step procedure is laid out from thereon about circuit design, chapters are then devoted to designing the circuits for new applications. At the end, we have tried to appraise the different problems that can come up in hydraulic power units so designed. And a chart is given for trouble shooting.

Price : Rs. 102

THANKS We thank M/ s Flowlines Engineering Pvt. Ltd., Madras, for having sponsored this book

- Authors

Lasertypesetting at: Sri Maruthy Laser Printers, 174, Peters Road, Royapettah, Madras-600 014.

We sincerely hope that the book serves everyone interested in learning the basics of hydraulic circuits. - Authors

V

Chapter 1

BASICS OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS
Knowing the Questions 2. Basic Block-Reservoir and Accesories 3. A simple Hydraulic Circuit -1 4. A simple Hydraulic Circuit -2 5. Machine Tool Hydraulics Hydraulics in Simple Plastic Injection Moulding Machines 7. A Simple Press Circuit . Few more Applications 9. This way to Hydraulic Circuits 10. Common Problems. 11. Standard Graphical Symbols

KNOWING THE QUESTIONS
Understanding hvdra^lic circuits and hydraulic powerunAs starts with the end. In hydraulic circuits design, we must first understand the actuators, that are normally the end points of a hydraulic circuit.

Actuators are nothing but hydraulic cylinders (linear actuators) or hydraulic motors (rotary actuators).
We must know what the actuator does and we must know what are the specifications of actuators from the customers, before starting to design a hydraulic circuit. Designers can study little more and find out where the actuators are used (i.e.) in what kind of machine.

A standard list of questions to be asked by a hydraulic circuit designer to end user is presented here. Once we have the answers, the hydraulic circuit can be designed. For simplicity sake, let us assume only hydraulic cylinders are used and not hydraulic motors; Most of the users of hydraulic power unit will be in a position to answer the questions listed here. List of questions to be asked 1. Is the cylinder single acting or double acting? 2. How many cylinders are used? 3. What is the sequence of cylinder movement-one after other or almost together? 4. What is the function of each cylinder?

5. What machine all these cylinders go to make? 6. What is the bore size of cylinder? 7. What is the ram size (rod of a hydraulic cylinder) ? Customers may not know this end hence answer is not an essential one. 8. What is the stroke length of the cylinder? 9. Does the customer require manual/solenoid operated (electrically operated or automated) movement? 10. What is the force acting on the cylinder? 11. What is the speed of movement required? 12. Do they require single speed/double speed or multiple speed for the same cylinder, if so what are these speeds: Suppose the customer is better informed and can answer your questions as below:
Question Answer

9. Manual / Solenoid operated Manual 10. What is the force acting on the 1. Clamping - 500 kg cylinder? 2. Drilling - 300 kg 11. What is the speed of 1. Clamp - 2 meters/mt movement required 2. Drilling -100mm/min Armed with above information, you have to start working; One step at a time 1. We must know how much or what quantity of fluid is required to do the work. Hence the first step is to find,-ihe pump capacity. The capacity is expressed in litres per minute and can be calculated from the following formula. Q Capacity in lit/min = Area of cylinder in sq.cms X Velocity of movement of cylinder in cms/minute From the above example
i) Q Capacity in lit/min = 78.5 sq.cm (Clamping cylinder area) X 200 cms/min clamping speed 15700 cubic cms/min. 15.7 lit/min

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Single acting / Double acting How many cylinders Sequence Function of each cylinder What machine all these cylinders go to make? Bore size of cylinders Ram size of cylinders

Double acting 2 cylinders one after other 1. Clamping 2. Drilling Drilling Machine 1. Clamping 100 mm dia 2. Drilling 63 mm dia
I don't know. Standard

size given by any reputed manufacturer 8. Stroke length of cylinders 1. Clamp 20 mm
2. Drilling - 120 mm 2

ii) Q Capacity in lit/min = 31.15 sq.cm X l0cros/min incase of drilling along area of cylinder X drilling speed = 31.15 cubic cms/min 0.31pm 1. Since the cylinders have to actuate one after the other, we can consider a pump having a capacity of 15.71pm or near about. This will take care of both clamping as well as drilling.
3

2.

We know the pump size , what about the working pressure? We go back to the age old formula (i.e) Force Pressure = area

Generally hydraulic pumps are driven by motors of 1440 rpm. Thereis a thumb rule forcalculating the HP of the motor required, given the flow capacity and pressure. ower in KW Where P = o mg pressure in bar Kg/cm2 Q = Flow capacity of pump in lpm As per the example, 9.6 Kg/ 2 x 15.7 lpm 0.25KW600 HP 0.25 0-346 0.335.0.5 HP

2.1

Clamping pressure

Clamping Force Clamp Cylinder area 500K g = 6 78.5cm2

Clamping pressure

.36 Kg/cm2

2.2

Drilling Pressure

Drilling Force drill cyl. diameter 300 Kg 31.14 cm2 9.6 Kg/cm2

P 600

Note 1 : ,,Z ,Aar = 1.03 kg/cm2. For sake of simplicity in calculations we take I bar to be equal to 1 kg/cm. Note 2: Generally the above formula of-EQ for KW is only a thumb 600 rule and will not be accurate, especially closer to extremes of the characteristic curves of the pump. It is better to refer to selection curves to decide the exact HP/KW required. The above type of calculation, tells us following 1. Capacity of pump to be chosen 2. H.P. of the motor to be coupled to the pump. 3. Working pressure 4. Size of reservoir
This is only the beginning, in the design of hydraulic circuit. 5

The maximum working pressure is the higher of the above two. (i.e) 9.6 Kg/sq.cm So far we have found the 1. Capacity of the pump ( i.e) 15.71pm ; 16 ^P'^n' 2. Max working pressure (i.e) 9.6 Kg/sq.cm 3. We can decide about the reservoir size of power unit. The Thumb rule is that it should be about 4 times the capacity of the pump (i.e) the pump capacity say 161pm . The reservoir size should be 16X4=64lit. As standard reservoir come in 50 lits, 75 .1its, and 100 fits. We can choose 75 lit capacity reservoir. 4. What about the Motor HP rating?
4

Chapter 2

BASIC BLOCK - RESERVOIR & ACCESSORIES
BRE AT HER /FILLER

In the last chapter, we have defined the four parameters required for designing the Hydraulic Circuit. (i.e) Pump Capacity/Horse Power required to drive the pump/working pressure and size of the reservoir. The reservoir serves as a store for hydraulic oil. The reservoir has certain accessories and these are explained in this chapter.
The Reservoir in a hydraulic circuit is illustrated in Fig 2 (1) A breather filler is indicated as 1. and an oil level gauge as

FIGURE- 2 (1 )

2. The function of the breather fill er is to allow the resen oir to breathe - (i.e) when the oil from the reservoir is drawn out, it rushes in to fill in the Qap, vacated by oil and as the oil returns through return line filter, air is let t.
Breather filler also help us to fill/refill or empty the Reservoir with oil.

Choose a breather filler of 5 cfm airflow capacity when the resevoir is less than501its . For over 50lits, 25 cfm airflow capacity breather filler can be chosen The oil level indicator (2) indicates the oil level in the reservoir. Normally the level indicator comes in sizes indicating the length - (i.e). 3 inches , or 5 inches or 10 inches. It is fixed close to the top edge of the reservoir or (say) 100 mm below the top plate of the reservoir.
6
FIGURE _2(2)

7

The hydraulic circuit starts with the reservoir and with accessories . Please note further addition in building up the circuitFigure 2(2)
PR RELIEF VALVE

Please note the addition of pump and the suction strainer. If the pump is say 61pm the , suction strainer size should be atleast 4 to 5 times the size of the pump . This will reduce cavitation possibilities of the pump . Further the suction strainer filtration level is generally 149 microns. We have added two more to the circuit building up. These are the relief valve and the return 'line filter. The relief valve is selected based on the required working pressure & flow. We must be in a position to set the working pressure with the relief valve and the range has to be chosen accordingly. The return line filter is selected on the basis of jThe volume of flow back to the reservoir. This can be 4 times the capacity of the pump Type of mounting on the reservoir (i.e) Tank top or Inline or tank immersed types The filtration level is generally 25 microns or 10 microns. Please refer figure 2(4). We have added a gauge isolator and pressure gauge in this figure. Gauge isolator is to isolate the pressure gauge and only when the pressure is to be read , we press it (in the case of push to read gauge isolator) to read the pressure . This helps to prolong the life of pressure gauge. The pressure gauge is chosen^for twice the working nressnr_e range. Suppose the working pressure is 30 k sq .cm - It is better to choose 0-60 kg/cm .
8
P

SUCTION STRAINER

FIGURE. 2 (3)

T

BASIC BLOCK

OF CIRCUIT

FIGURE-2(4) 9

For industrial hydraulic power units, it is preferable to choose 4" dial panel mounted pressure gauge.

Chapter 3

In most of the hydraulic circuits the basic block almost remains same. So, till we come to circuits including double pumps, this basic only will be common. Hence to simplify illustrations in the chapters to follow, we shall just put a rectangular block to indicate the basic block with its features. To Summarise Reservoir size - 4 to 5 times pump capacity suction Strainer - 4 to 5 times pump Flow capacity iii. The Basic block of hydraulic power unit comprises of a. Reservoir b. Suction Strainer c. Pump coupled to electric motor d. Pr. relief valve e. Return line filter f. Pr. gauge with gauge isolator g. Breather filler

A SIMPLE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT - 1
Before drawing a simple circuit, we must know that the circuits can be drawn in conventional manner or using modular valves. conventional manner means - involving more piping work (i.e) connecting the individual valve with properly sized tubing. The better way of doing is using modular valves with manifolds. Our first attempt here is to make you understand the conventional way. We shall illustrate subsequently the same circuit - with modular valves. Let us consider a system - where the hydraulic cylinder (say one number) first pushes a load into the furnance. The basic block, we have understood in the previous chapter. From the basic block, we have a P line (pump line) coming out. We have another end of the circuit (i.e) the T line that gets back to the reservoir. Refer Figure 3(1) The P line is connected to a direction Control (DC) Valve a three position DC valve where in its centre position all ports are blocked . From the service ports of the DC valve, connection is taken to A 1 and B 1 ports of a horizontal double acting cylinder. When the pump is working and solenoid X is energised, oil gets to the Al port of the cylinder. This would push the piston in the direction indicated.

h. Level gauge

10

I

11

When solenoid Y is energised, the oil from P line gets thro to B and to B1 of the hydraulic cylinder and the piston moves in the opposite direction. At any point in time, if neither X solenoid nor Y solenoid is energised (i.e.) at the neutral position of the DC valve, the piston does not move.
(V) CCV_ DIRECTION CC NTROL VALVE

A

B

P

P

T

This means, wherever or whichever position you want, you can position the piston by not energising either of the solenoids. (i.e.) at the neutral position of the DC valve.
At this neutral position all ports are blocked and hence the oil does not get into the cylinder.

Hope you have understood completely fig 3 (1) 1. If P and T ports are blocked in neutral position, and the pump, keep running, what is happening to the pressure in the `P' line ? 2. A and B ports of the valve is also blocked in the neutral position would this mean that where ever the piston is stopped, it cannot be moved by manual force? The pressure in the P line keeps building up as long as the motor is running which is coupled to the pump. As the pressure keeps building up, a stage can come as the oil has no place to go, the pipe line can burst or the motor can stallunless relieved of the pressure. So we must have the relief valve in the system. In the begenning before starting the motor/pump, the DC valve is not energised. This means, in the begenning, itself, as the motor/pump is started, (Before energising the valve) the `P' line is pressurised. So, when the pump /motor is on, it starts on load. Is this desirable? It is not:
13 2

FIGURE - 3 (1)

TROL /ALVE WITH REVERSE CHECK

P T - A,B_SERVICE PORTS OF DC VALVE At Bt_SERVICE PORTS OF THE CYLINDER

FIGURE- 3 (2)

12

In the neutral position, once the oil is in the pipe lines, the cylinder cannot be just pushed manually ; is this required for the application in mind? Any designer would like the motor (prime mover) to start on no load.
A B

P

T

So in such a case, you must choose a DC valve that has a route (spool configuration) which will allow the oil flow back into the reservoir in the neutral position. Look at the DC valve , spool configuations 3 (3) and 3 (4). In these types of DC valves, the oil can get back to ` T' line in neutral position. Hence no load starting of motor is possible just by choosing a right DC valve configuration . So far we have discussed oil route that can go to the cylinder and that comes out through the DC valve.

FIGURE - 3( 3)

FIGURE-3 (4)

FLOW CONTROL WITH REVERSE CHECK VALVE

Please refer Figure 3 (2)
Al

B
T

We introduced another valve here. This valve as it is shown will allow the oil to go through a restriction which is adjustable. Now consider the implications of this flow restrictor (Flow control valve with reverse check ) you can reduce the quantity of oil that will flow through this valve. Result? The speed of the actuator .during the direction of movement indicated comes down - depending on how much is the restriction. But in the opposite direction it is as free as possible. Why? Because it can lift the check valve and flow freely and move the piston in the opposite direction. But, the flow control valve allows only limited volume of oil to flow through . What happens to the oil volume that gets pumped into the system which is much more. 15

FIGURE _3(5)

BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE_3(5)

14

Well. This excess oil is relieved/blown through the pressure relief valve. Remember - all this is applicable only when you consider a double acting cylinder movement is to be controlled. Suppose the application requires only two positions of the cylinder without any intennediate stop. In this case, we can choose a DC valve of two position, as illustrated in Figure 3(6). We shall consider a slightly different application in the next chapter.

Chapter 4

A SIMPLE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT - 2

Consider an application where a load is to be lifted up (say) a stacker. What are the pit falls1. The load should not drop down but stay in desired positions. 2. If the load is lifted and has to be brought down slowly, it should not come down with a 'thud.' (i.e.) without any control-if this happens it means that the load is driving the system.
Now look at the hydraulic circuit in figure 4(1).

Take figure 4(1). A three position, solenoid operated DC valve with all ports connected (in neutral) is in use. So, when X is energised, the load is brought down - and brought down with a thud. (i.e.) The oil takes the path A to Al and pushed the piston down. Already the load is also acting on the piston and it comes down fast as the outgoing oil through port B I has a free passage. While going up - energise Y and load is lifted up and in the neutral position, again , the load will drop down - as all ports are connected. If a dc valve, where in neutral the P and T lines are connected in Figure 4(1.1) (A and B blocked), for short duration, the load can be held in any position (i.e.) when the solenoid valve is not energised.
16 17

However, we must remember that all conventional sliding spool valves allow a leakage (quantity of leakage depends on the size and pressure differential) and so the load can creep down. Please refer figure 4(2). The additional valve shown is pilot operated check valve designated as POC in the figure. This valve is a poppet design and hence gives zero leak characteristics.
DCV _ D^RECTON CONTROL _A-E

The POC valve is located on the B line. The advantage is that the load can be held in any mid position without the `creeping' mentioned earlier. One problem remains: When solenoid X is energised the cylinder can still come down more driven by the load and can cause uncontrolled dissent. Please refer figure 4(3). We have added one more element a pressure control (i.e) Counter Balance valve designated as CBV in the figure.

BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE -4(;)

The idea is to control the dissent. This is done by setting the CBV at a particular pressure. This pressure is set at a value equivalent to the load divided by the bottom area of the cylinder. Now the load is counterbalanced and cannot come down due its own weight unless solenoid X is energised and the set value of CBV is exceeded on the ram side of the cylinder. The CBV has a built in reverse check valve. The advantage is that when the cylinder is to be lifted up just energise solenoid Y. The oil flows into the port B, of the cylinderlifting the reverse check of the CBV. In furnace gate lifting application, this circuit discussed can also be employed. In effect, it means that for such high runaway loads, it is better to have a CBV in addition to POC - so that control is possible in the runaway direction. One more illustration is in the case of a vertical drill where at the opening out of the material, the drill tries to break out of control as the load is not there - suddenly. Even in 19

a

FIGURE _4(77)

FIGURE-4(2)
1

8

a

LOAD

such applications we must have a CBV in the circuit - to reduce such undesirable and uncontrollable movements of the drill or the cylinder. Please refer figure 4(4). Suppose further speed control is required during descent of the cylinder, then we can have a flow control valve, designated as FCV in the figure 4(4). This application just discussed is also possible with a pump driven by an engine and with manually operated dc valve. For example, in any lift platform used by airlines for cargo loading. To summarise, in this chapter, we have seen practical usage of a pilot operated check valve (POC), counter balance valve (CBV) and Flow control Valve (FCV). All these valves are also available in modular form but the idea is that we understand by illustrating the tine diagram.

I L
81 ROC ,BOTTOM AREA

I

CBV

FIGURE _4(3) LOAD Al Roc

For beginners, (For whom this book is meant), they must imagine the consequence of not using anyone of the valves in the circuits discussed.

FIGURE _ 4 (4) 20

21

Chapter 5

MACHINE TOOL HYDRAULICS
Machine tools are generally differentiated into two classes. (i.e.) special purpose machines (SPM) and general purpose machines. (GPM) General purpose machines are those which are standardised and common like lathes, drilling, milling etc., which are available off the shelf with standard specifications. The SPM's are tailor made to suit particular component in large volumes. For example, an engine manufacturer, may decide to have a special drilling machine which can gang drill all the holes on the engine head at a time. Let us discuss a few circuits generally used in machine tool hydraulics. Clamping Circuit In machine tools, the job or the tool or the fixture is to be clamped or held during the machining process. Please refer fig 5(1) Here we have two clamping cylinders with one direction control valve (Two position , solenoid operated , spring offset dcv) and one pilot operated check valve . The DCV has only one solenoid . In the de energised position (X side of the valve), the cylinders are in clamped position . The solenoid Y is to be energised for declamping operation. What will happen? Incase the solenoid is energised , the clamp opens (or releases), and (say ) the job is either removed or being put back. Imagine in this position , the job is being placed for clamping.
22

BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE-5(1

BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE-5(2) 23

Suppose there is a sudden power failure - then immediately, the spring offset position of the dcv, takes place and the job gets clamped . Perhaps even before the job is in its place . In all possibility the hand holding the job also gets clamped , instead of the job - if the power fails . It is because the pump continues to deliver for few more moments even after power failure due to inertia. Please refer figure 5 (2). We have a different type DCV in place instead of a spring offset solenoid operated dcv. This valve is known as two position solenoid operated detent type Direction Control Valve. The advantage is that this kind of DCV has a mechanical memory and even in case of power failure, the position of the spool of dcv does not change-because of a mechanical detent which keeps the position of a dcv unchanged incase of power failure. In figure 5(2), you will find wehave two additional elementsa pressure switch (PS) and a pilot operated check valve (POC) The function of the POC valve is not to allow leakage of oil in the clamped position of the cylinder. this means slackening of the clamp cylinder does not take place. The function of the pressure switch is that - once the clamping is done, it is quite likely the function of some other operation has to take place. We can get an electrical signal from the pressure switch once it is incorporated as shown. The pressure switch converts a pressure reading into an electrical signal - This electrical signal can be used to trigger some other operation like energising some other solenoid. The pressure switch is normally set for a particular limit (say)the clamping pressure; Once the pressure switch line reaches the set clamping pressure limit, a microswitch in the pressure switch, makes a contact and sends an electrical signal to start the next operation.
24
FS

BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE-5(3)

25

Please refer figure 5(3). We have changed the POC valve to a double pilot operated check valve- what is the significance? Well. The significance is that by installing a double pilot operated check valve, we are ensuring the locking of fluid (i.e.) hermitical sealing on both lines of the actuator. Hence even if there is an internal leakage (in the cylinder across the piston), the cylinder remains rock steady. Please refer figure 5(4).We have one more member to the family of valves of this circuit. A pressure reducing valve (PRV) is in place. This PRV reduces the pressure to the clamping circuit as very often, the job or the tool has to be held positively, firmly and also delicately. For this purpose, it is not necessary to go upto the system pressure limits. If we do not have a PRV in place, then the pressure in the clamping circuit will reach the level of the system pressure which can distort or deform the job. Feed circuits in machine tool applications We must first understand what is usually defined as feed circuit in hydraulics relating to machine tool applications Very often, once the job is clamped and the tool is held (say a drill), the tool is moved rapidly towards the job till tool reaches the job then (say) the drilling starts (feed), After drilling, the tool is retracted rapidly.
BASIC BLOCK

The above is common for any machining job,, like turning, milling etc., The process as explained involves two speeds; rapid approach, and a feed speed (lower speed compared to rapid speed and rapid return) Dual speed ( feed) with meter in flow control valve
Please refer fig. 5(5). 26

FIGURE-5 (4)

27

With this kind of circuit, it is possible to get two (dual) speeds in one direction and one rapid speed in the opposite direction. Situation 1 : Solenoid X is energised; Flow is through Flow Control valve FCV to port A2 of the cylinder. As the oil has to go through the FCV (free flow is not allowed by the check valve of FCV) the rate of oil flow through part A2 is controlled and hence desired reduced feed speed can be obtained in the direction indicated. Oil from port B2 flows freely to the tank. This situation (1) happens when DCV 2 is not energised. Situation 2 : Solenoid X is energised and DCV2 is also energised. In DCV2, you will observe that port P1 and B I are plugged. The purpose of plugging is to make this single solenoid DCV to function like and on/off valve (or two way valve). In situation (2) oil flows thro' Ti to Al to A2, thus by passing the FCV. This means there is no restriction to the rate of flow (as in the case of situation 1) and hence rapid (fast) speed can be obtained in the same direction, indicated. On the other part B2, oil flows freely to the tank.
/ Thus in one direction indicated we are in position to get two s'eds. One for rapid approach and the other slow speed for feed (machining) purpose. Situation 3: Now solenoid Y is energised and DCV2 is not energised. The FCV is by passed and rapid return is possible in theopposite direction. This is because oil flow through part A2 comes through the check valve lifting the check valve and to the tank. Situation 4 : Solenoid Y is energised and DCV2 is also energised. This situation is superfluous as the oil returning from part A2 can return freely thro' the check valve of FCV and we are creating an additional free path for the oil from A2 by energising DCV2. However, if FCV is not having a built in check valve, then to obtain rapid return, it is necessary to energise DCV2. 28

n

Al I 81 CCV2

BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE-5(5)

T Al

A

1 1e

DCV.1 P T

FIGURE - 5 (6)

29

3

Dual speed (feed) with meter out now control valve Please refer figure 5(6). compared to fig. 5(5), the difference here is the location of FCV. It is now fixed on the outlet of port B2. The check valve position is such that the flow coming out of port B2 has to go through the control orifice of FCV. Situation 1: Solenoid X of DCV 1 is energised and DCV2 is not energised. Oil flows freely to port A2. The flow of oil from port B2 has to come through the control orifice of FCV before going to the tank line. Hence feed speed is obtained in situation (1) in direction indicated.
Situation 2: Solenoid X is energised DCV2 is also energised. Oil flows from P line to Port A2 and oil from B2 flow freely from B2 to Al to T1. Hence rapid speed in the direction indicated is possible.

FfGURE.5 (7)

Situation 3 : Solenoid Y is energised and DCV 2 is not energised. Oil flows for movement of ram in the opposite direction. Oil flow is from P to B. Since port PI and B I are blocked, the oil flow takes the path through the FCV. It flows lifting the check valve and onto B2. As the oil flow is not restricted rapid speed is obtained in the opposite direction to the arrow indicated. The return oil flow from A2 is free flow to the tank.
Situation 4 : Solenoid Y is energised and DCV2 is also energised we are creating and additional free path for the oil flow as in situation 4 of meter in circuit.

The above meter out circuit is especially useful when runaway loads are to be controlled. For example while the machining takes place and ends suddenly, the tool may jump forward. The meter out circuit is useful in minimising such jumps. It must be noted meter out circuits are well accepted and meter in is not popular. Only for the purpose of theory we have explained the' meter in' concept. 30

FIGURE _5(8)

31

Tank line feed control Please refer figure 5(7). In both meter in and meter out controls, speed/feed is obtainable only in one direction. But with tank line feed control, this dual speed is possible in both directions. To have uniformity of speed, in both directions, in figure 5(7), we have drawn a cylinder with ram on both sides of the piston. The idea is that the equal area becomes available on both sides and hence same speed is possible in both directions. Situation I : Solenoid X of DCVI is energised oil flows through to A 1. DCV2 is not energised. Oil flows from B 1 to tank line but has to go through the FCV. Hence feed speed is obtained. Situation 2 : Solenoid X is energised oil flows through to Al. DCV2 is energised. Oil flow from B 1 to tank line and goes throughTI to T4. Unrestricted flow and hence full speed is obtained in this direction. Section 3 : Solenoid Y is energised and DCV2 is not energised. Oil flows from P to B I and Al to T. Since DCV2 port T3 is blocked, oil flows through the FCV and feed speed is obtained. Situation 4 : Solenoid Y is energised and DCV2 is also energised. As explained above, free flow through to tank line is possible and hence rapid speed indirection of line arrow is obtained. Standard feed block We have discussed three standard ways of obtaining feed speeds. But there is a very popular standard way. Please refer figure 5(8). This is a standard block manifolded to take on two DCV's, one FCV and one back pressure valve (pressure control valve) The function of the back pressure valve is essentially to take care of varying load conditions, jumping of tools or runaway load conditions. It can be adjusted to reduce the `jump.
32
FULL AREA AVAILABLE AREA AVAILABLE REDUCED AREA

FIGURE _5(9)

33

One advantage of this standard block is that the FCV is connected to P line directly unlike in other feed circuit . This means the response time (of hydrostat in the FCV) of the FCV is much better. This standard feed block is a meter in circuit and you can get feed speed in both the directions. But one point to note:0 The area difference on either side of the piston in case ordinary double acting cylinder is used in the place of double ended rod. This area difference results in speed difference in either direction. Please look at the figure 5(9) for better understanding. Another feature of the standard feed block is the back
pressure valve. This back pressure valve allows us to fix the back pressure at different values. For instance, in a light turning operation a back pressure of 5 bar is sufficient. But in heavy intermittant milling operation, an increase in back pressure limit will help rigidity and to have more control over the movement.

Chucking The emphasis is on rotary chucks which are used in high production machines like CNC lathes. Following points to be kept in mind while developing the hydraulic circuit.
1. The construction of rotary chuck is such that there will be a continuous leakage of oil thro rotary joints. Hence there will be a clamping pressure drop when there is electrical power failure.
BASIC BLOCK

FIGURE -5 (10),

This has to be taken care of by adding an accumulator backup in the circuit.
34

35

Further because of continuous leakage pilot operated check valves are not of any use in rotary chuck applications. 2. The chuck sometimes will have to hold slender jobs. This m eans reduced pressure adjustment is required. 3. Internal and External chucking is to be taken care of by two position double solenoid detented valves (mechanical memory type) 4. Once chucking is achieved a pressure switch sends a signal for starting the next operation. Please refer figure 5 (10) On the basic block, we have an accumulator back up, a pressure reducing valve. A Direction control valve for selection of internal/external clamp (DCVI) (Detent, two position), another direction control valve for champing/declamping and the pressure switches. In solenoid operated DC valve, (DCV2) the clamping position is in non energised condition of solenoid. the reason for choosing such position is explained in the earlier pages. Please remember what would happen if there is a power failure while clamping. Hence DCV 2 can also be of detented type. Even if proper DCV position is chosen (i.e.) the clamping is done in non energised condition ofthe DCV, there will be a problem. with the operation of rotary chuck because of leakage. While the chuck is on (clamp is on and running) and if there is power failure, there is a pressure loss in the clamping line - due to drain line of rotary chuck. this can lead to a situation where the job held gets released from the chuck. If it is an eccentric job that is held or it is a high speed spindle the sudden release of job can have the effect of a flying saucer hurled at the unsuspecting person nearby. As per the circuit in 5(10) the DCV2 position hold the job
36

C ',ING_'EA-

P7 ; CURE 5',! I1

FIGURE - 5(12)

37

and the accumulator backs up the pressure loss till the rotation ceases - depending on accumulator sizing. The pressure switches serve the function of sending out electrical signals for commencing next operations. These electrical signals are sent once the pressure switch set limits for internal/ external clampings pressure are reached. Counter Balancing Let us understand Counter Balancing. In a conventional machine, (say) vertical boring machine, the boring head weight is counter balanced with mechanical counter weight running on pulley or chain as illustrated in figure 5 (11) This increases the size and weight of the machine. In figure 5(12) a compact hydraulic cylinder (single acting) replaces the counter weight. Immediate advantage is the reduction in size/weight of the machine. The circuit for the same is in 5(13) For the sake of simplicity and to save paper space, we have shown the circuit starting from P line. This goes thro a pressure reducing valve (PRV), a check valve, a relief valve and then to the input port of the counter balance cylinder. The pressure selection for reducing valve is computed by the weight (of the moving head) divided by counter balance cylinder bore area. The pressure relief valve setting should be above that of pressure reducing valve setting to avoid draining of system oil. The relief valve comes into play only during descent of the moving head. The valve/pump sizing should take care of the rapid ascent of the moving head (and the ram upward movements)
38
MOVING HEAD

FIGURE- 5(14

FIGURE_5(13)

39

The combination of reducing, check and relief valves are available as one valve form reputed hydraulic component manufacturers. (Refer sketch enclosed) Please refer figure 5 (14) When the moving head stroke is less as in the case of slant bed lathe cross slide or the wheel head of a surface grinder, an accumulator in closed loop is used as a counter balancing device. By close loop, here we mean that there is no external supply of oil to the counter balance cylinder. This cylinder is directly connected to an accumulator as shown. The sizing of accumulator and the cylinder are done in such a way, that at the mid point of the stroke, the precharge pressure of the accumulator and the counter balance oil pressure are equal. Indexing Indexing can be linear or rotary. In a linear indexing, there can be two or more defenite positions. The circuit can be as shown below for a two position indexig table.
The two linear positions are at two ends of the ram travel. For machining requirement, the end positions must be rigidly held which is achieved by this circuit - By continuous pressurisation of indexing cylinder (with the aid of two position DC valve).
P

T

FIGURE - 5(15)

Please refer figure 5(15)
This circuit is similar to tank line control of speed discussed earlier.

We can get dual speeds in both directions by allowing the now to the tank to go through the FCV. When fast speed is required DCV2 is also energised.
A two speed control is provided to soften or cushion the end approach. Alternatively a cushioned cylinder can also be used in place of duel speed control. 40

FIGURE 5 (16)

41

V Howeverthe advantage of the secondary speed control is that

we can fix the cushioning as per our requirement, whereas in a cushioned cylinder the cushioning action is obtained only at the ends of stroke. Rotary indexing table in special purpose machines. When machining has to be done in more than 3 or4 locations, a rotary indexing table machanism is used. A plan sketch is shown for understanding. Please refer figure 5(16) The rotary indexing table is shown for eight station I-for loading/unloading 2 to 8 - for various operations such as drilling, tapping, spot facing, milling, reaming etc.,
In principle the rotation is by a hydraulic motor with a pinion and an internal bull gear as shown in the sketch.

Please refer figure 5(17) and fig 5(18)
The precise indexing is achieved by face gear mechanism which also helps in locating and clamping of the rotary table. Initially the whole indexing table is lifted (declamped),

LJ

!1

indexed (rotary movement of hydraulic motor) and lowered (clamped). Once lowered the face gear mechanism assures precise location and clamping. Generally the indexing table rotates little more than the next location (see fig 5 (18) ) repidly and reverses the direction and comes back slowly to the intended state.

FIGURE - 508) 42

This is achieved by ahydraulic circuit as shown in fig 5 (18). A suggested hydraulic circuit combining the table clamp and idexing is illustrated in fig . attached 5 (19)A.
43

MOUNTING HOLES

CLAMPING

Al

B1

PILOT OPTD CHECK VALVE

I oCV
CETOP_ 3 FIGCFE 5(20)

PR GAUGE CON NECrON/

P

T

BASIC BLOCK

CETOP_5 LINE DIAGRAM OF CLAMPING CIRCUIT FIGUFE - 5 (21) FIGURE-5(19) 44 45

Hydraulic circuits - in modular form
CONVENTIONAL LINE MOUNTED VALVE MODULAR STACKABLE VALVE.

We have so far illustrated hydraulic circuits drawn in conventional manner and perhaps also executed the same way. By 'Conventional Manner' we mean the piping between he valves or the manifolds. But with modular, stackable. sandwich type double interface valves, we can reduce the piping or plumbing involved to a great extent. The advantage is that it looks neat and reduces leakage, labour and assembly time. The limitation is that all valves are not available in modular form. The best way to understand the reading of modular hydraulic circuit is to see how we can convert a conventionally drawn circuit to a modular circuit. Please refer figure 5(20) and 5(21). The modular valves, to fecilitate stacking should have two interface surfaces. One with '0' rings and the other to receive '0' rings.

DPOC

DCV

P

BASIC BLOCK

Every modular valve willhave four passages(i.e.)P,T,Aand B.' Normally the top valve in the stack will be a direction control valve otherwise a cross over plate or a blanking plate takes the top position. A typical hydralic circuit is shown using modular way of representation. Please refer figure 5(21A) which is an equivalent modular circuit of 5 (19) - clamping circuit.

CLAMPING CIRCUIT IN MODULAR

CONVENTIONAL FORM

FIGURE _ 5(21) A

46

47

CHAPTER 6
CLAMPING INJECTION

HYDRAULICS IN SIMPLE PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING MACHINES
The subject of hydraulics in plastic machine application is a vast one and perhaps a separate book can be written for that pu rpose. The idea here is to introduce the subject and cover the basic machines with conventional valves. Further the emphasis will be on hydraulic circuits and not on the machines. We shall see simple plastic injection moulding circuits. The function of hydraulics in these machines are (1) injection (2) clamping. Please refercircuit 6(1). We have two cylinders one each for clamping and for injection. These are operated manually and one after another. Hence the connection shown is in tandem. (i.e.) Tank line of one DC valves connected to the pressure line of the second DC valve. The DC valves used are tandem valves (i.e.) P&T are connected in neutral position. The pilot operated check valve (POC) takes care of retaining clamping pressure while the valve is in neutral position. Since both DCV's are connected in tandem, in neutral position of both DCV's the pump output is freely vented to tank. The circuit has an additional relief valve on the A line of injection cylinder. This helps to set the injection pressure of injection cylinder. While this circuit is a basic one, further sophistication can be added by having solenoid operated DC valves and a hydraulic motor drive for injection screw drive etc. 48
FIGURE -6(1)

49

' For illustration phase see circuit fig 6(2). The features of the Circuit are : 1. Safety provision for clamping cylinder - unless knob A of the DC Valve is pushed by a sliding door that will close the machine, oil, cannot flow thro' this DC valve to the clamping cylinder. This is for the safety of the operators. 2. Independent pump lines foreach DCVS to injection cylinder, clamp cylinder and screw drive motor. 3. To reduce heating, an unloding relief valve is provided. This will help the pump to unload during starting, curing etc.,

CLAMPING INJECTION

SCREW DRIVE
w

POC WOR CLOSED.

FOI

CLOSING WILL PRESS VALVE TO THLS PC6ITION M

I L

P

U
PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING M/C.

FIGURE - 6( 2)

50

51

CHAPTER 7

A SIMPLE PRESS CIRCUIT APPLICATION OF DOUBLE PUMPS
We are considering here a hydraulic press. The applications of hydraulic press can be many - like deep drawing, forming, shearing, bending, notching, baling, rubber curing etc., For the sake of simplicity let us take an example of a curing press having a. Single cylinder application - single acting - upstroking (i.e.) gravity return b. For curing application (i.e) pressure holding for a particular duration of time. 1. Tonnage or force : 100 tons 2. Day light : 1 meter (The height available between moving and fixed plates (i.e.) at the fully retracted position of the cylinder. 3. Speeds : Rapid appraoch and return 2 meters/mt. Pressing is 0.2 meters/minute 4. Curing time : 20 minutes (Steam curing) 5. Operation : Manual
FIGURE_7(1)

POC

--LINE OF PILO'. CEC'!R VALVE

M

Q

Generally above specifications are sufficient to work out the hydraulic circuit and select the components/elements of the circuit. Perhaps the designer on his own can take more interest to know the other details of the press such as the platen weight (for gravity return), duty cycle etc.,
52

53

The steps involved: 1. Find out the working pressure: At present many of the valves are limited to a working pressure of 250 bar. Hence we can keep the max working pressure to 210 bar. (3000psi) and select other parameters.
HP INDICATED BY THE

2. Work out the area of the cylinder: Generally the press manufacturer will give this information. However the method of working is to be understood. Working pressure 210 kg/cm2 = Load Full bore area of Hydraulic cylinder 100T Full bore area of hyd. cylinder

AREA

HATCHED

P

ztoKI/cm

FIGURE _ 7 (2)

Area = 476 cm2 This is the full bore area of a cylinder that we can choose. The cylinder manufacturers follow ISO standards in respect of bore sizes of hydraulic cylinders (e.g.). The preferred bore size can be 40,50,63,100,125, 150, 160, 200, 250 and 300 mm.
a

POWER REQLU ED WH'LE RAPIDLY MOVING THE PLq'EN AT 10 KG'Cm

BUT USING FULL VOLO'-'E

The full bore area closest to our requirement of 476 cm2 is by using 250 mm bore dia cylinder whose full bore area works out to 490 Sq.cm. So we choose 250 mm bore dia cylinder. The rod size can be left to the choice of the manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders. 3. Work back actual working pressure. Working pressure Load area
FIGURE _7(3)

OF 110 LPM_--POWER REQUIRE WILE PRESSING AT 210BAR BUT USING ONLY LPM

l00T x 1000 kgs 490 cm 2 = 204 Kg/cm2 54
55

4. Calculate the flow of the pump required: Q Flow rate =cylinder bore area x velocity 490 cm 2 x 200 ems/m 1000 = 981pm The pump which can deliver 100 1pm will be the most appropriate. (at 1440rpm & on no load). However it is better to consult the hydraulic product catalogue of standard manufacturer and choose a pump that meets this requirement. We have not considered the pressing speed 0.2 meters/min in the above calculation, as such as calculation would result in a lower pump capacity and in turn speed. 5. Calculating the electric horse power required: Standard Industrial drive speed 1440 rpm is assumed here. The actual horse power required to drive a pump delivering 100 lpm at 1440 and at 210 bar can be obtained from the performance curve of any hydraulic pump manufacutures catalogue. However for theoretical purpose , the thumb rule calculation is:
PQ _ 210 k?/cm 2 x 100 lpm H.P. = 600 600
cE-cN-ARV RELEF TO PEG PC'NER CONSUMPTIGN

100.T UPSTROKING CURING PRESS

SINGLE ACTIN(-, CV-NDER 25O

PR CON?RCL MODU-E 11G0AR 10 BAR

35 KW = 50 H.P. say (Nearer) 6. Now on to the Circuit, The circuit is simple and can be understood by the reader. But the importance is the selection of the pump capacity/motor HP/Flow and pressure capacity of elements. Please refer figure 7(1) 56
FIGURE - 7 (4)

57

The DC valve chosen is three position spring centre with all ports connected in neutral position. By this we can start the electric motor on no load and also the POC can normally be connected only with such DC valves. these DCV configuration helps the pilot line of POC to drain in neutral position. As covered earlier the POC valve hermetically seals so that the pressure is held throughout the curing process. In this case the motor HP theoretically works out to about 50HP. This is nothing but the power absorbed and can be illustrated in the PQ diagram as follows. Please refer figure 7(2) This can be interpreted that throughout the cycle or the operation we are considering the full pressure and the full volume. The question is, whether this is required? In case we consider an option where the platon is moved rapidly using higher volume of oil but at low pressure and once the pressing commences, use a higher pressure but with lesser volume of oil. This is possible with a hi-low circuit using a double pump. Accordingly the PQ diagram changes as in figure 7(3). When we consider, a double pump, with high volume and low pressure for faster approach and for pressing, the claculation is as follows : Assume the weight of platon and ram as 2 T The pressure required for lifting = Load Area 2T x 1000 kg 490 cm 2 (Bore Area of Cylinder) = 4.08 Kg/cm2 (shown as 10 Kg/cm2 in figure 7 (3) 58 1

The theoritical HP rapid closing =
l0KK/cm2 X

1001pm

600 1.6 KW 3 HP

PQ 600

For pressing, volume of oil required at 0.2 m/mt Q = AxV

= Area of Cylinder x Velocity 490 cm2 x 20 cms/mt
10 1pm (say) The HP requi red for pressing and locking will be ; P here 600

will be 210 Kg/cm2 and Q will be 10 lpm.
(i.e.) 600 = 3.5 KW = 5 HP (say)

210x10

So if we choose a motor of 5 HP, we can run the system and achieve what we require but of course we would require double pump. This double pump should be in a position to deliver 1001pm at 10 kg/cm2 while lifting and start giving 101pm at 210 kg/cm2. A double pump circuit is shown in figure 7(4). To fecilitate our requirement of 1001pm at 10 kg/cm2 and later on 101pm at 210 kg/cm2 we must have two relief valves set at two pressure ratings as above. A standard pressure control module (PCM) is available, wherein we get initially 100 lpm at 10 kg/cm2. Once pressing commences, the relief valve on the large volume pumps starts unloading and the high pressure low volume pumps starts delivering at a pressure of 210 kg/cm2. So the nett effect is the reduction in HP from 50 to 5 using a double pump. 59

Chapter 8

FEW MORE APPLICATIONS
In this chapter we shall look at more applications - such as table feed drilling, press brake, rubber moulding, thread rolling and stacker hydraulic circuits. The idea behind choosing the varied applications is that the reader understands the circuits, and gives him a feeling that any other circuit similar is easy to understand and to appreciate. The reader should bear in mind that the more circuits he learns, and puts to use, it becomes easier for him to think of an application and try his hand in designing the circuit. Let us now look at the first application. Please refer fig (8.1) This is for table feed drilling machine. Table feed drilling machine application : Here the table with the component is lifted up rapidly. After this rapid lift, the feed for drilling, milling etc., takes place. Once the operation is over, the table comes down rapidly. You look at fig 8(1), you will observe that all ingredients of a basic block and similarity with fig 5(6) feed / speed control are there. However, physically, the machine tool manufacturers opt for a free standing pumping set and all control values suitably manifolded to be mounted on the column of the drilling machine. The features here are, (1) The main DCV has a tandem open centre configuration whereby pump unloading is achieved. (ie.) the motor stants on no load when DCV is in neutral position. (2) Two speeds (rapid and feed) are possible in upward direction and rapid descent in opposite direction are possible. 60

Xi;°CJ

-- - --- -

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT FOR TABLE FEED DRILLING M/C FIG. P-1

61

Press brake application
Press brake are used for sheet metal working like bending, notching, punching etc.,

Please refer figure 8(2)
The customer for this press brake requires a rapid downward approach, and full tonnage for doing the work and thereafter a rapid return.

Now look at the two cylinders doing the work. Here hydraulically, synchronising the movements of both cylinder rams are not considered. This is achieved by mechanical means. The features of this circuit are I. High low double pumping system to minimise input power (please refer chapter 7)
2. The main DCV is pilot operated (for handling larger flow) with tandem open centre configuration (i.e) P&T connected in neutral position for no load start.

M

3. Counter balance value (CBV) set for a value just to balance the. weight. This is to avoid run away load tendencies.
4. A secondary relief value (no 19) limits the maximum lifting tonnage to the desired value. What happens if this valve is not provided? If the valve is not provided their the press works at the full set pressure of the main high pressure relief valve (i.e) at the end of the lift stroke.

This also helps in not loading the structure of the machine to max value at the upward end of the stroke. Thread rolling application Please refer figure 8.3 Threading on metals can be done in many ways like thread turning, chasing and thread forming. For mass production normally thread forming is preferred using thread rolling machine.
62
I

HV RAU_IC CIRCUIT FOR PRESS BRAKE FIG.. 9.2

63

The principle of the thread rolling is that [tic job is kept between two rotating full profile thread rolls. These !hread rolls are driven with electric motors. However, hydraulics is used to form the thread on the job by plunging in the rolls at low feed rate. These rolls then return at rapid speed. The features are

1. The pump starts at a low pressure (of about 10kgicm2) keeping the rolls away from each other. 2. The rolls move together synchronised mechanically (not by hydraulics in this circuit) 3. When the DCV is energised the rolls come towards each other and towards the job at slow speed (and at higher pressure meter in circuit) 4. Generally the thread rolling machine the tonnage can be high compared to the HP. employed. For instance with a 2 HP motor and with very slow feed corresponding to 40 bar and with 300 mm bore cylinder we can get the desired high tonnage. Rubber moulding and curing application This hydraulic circuit is employed in a multiple platten, stream curing up stroking press. Please refer fig 8(4) In this press upstroking is done by large ram type single acting cylinder. Lowering of the ram is by gravity.
SCR T ^.cA R^__iNT,

The features are 1. A double pump with hi -low circuit , we have seen earlier is employed. 2. A special DC value manually operated with decompression feature is used. 3. The DC value itself is a load holding zero leak value . 4. With 18 inch ram diameter we are able to get load of 350 tons at 220 Bar.
64

F:G -83-

65

a

5. The steam curing takes place in pressed (ie) load holding condition say for above 20 to 30 minutes This is called as vulcanising . The DCV can hold the pressure and the pump is usually stopped to save power. 6. Ram type single acting cylinder is used as we do not require any power for lowering the plattem . This is achieved by gravity. Stacker application Please refer figure 8.5 This looks more complicated. But once the circuit is understood, the simplicity of the logic can be appreciated. In any large processing plant such as for example cement plant, paper bags are used for packing the cement.
For easy transportation, these cement bags have to be stacked in an appropriate manner. This is called Pellatisation. This hydraulic circuit as in figure (8-5) helps us to achieve this objective.

The features are 1. We have two cylinder one for stacking and other for destacking 2. Here a double purp is employed (ie) two pumps are driven by a single motor but two different outputs are taken for independent operation. Cylinder 1 is for unloading pallet trays to the cruveyor. It is an independent operation. So an independent pump is used, Cylinder 2 is for stacker application, where as the load (cement bags) increases the stacker arm is brought down, step by step. After the job is done, the empty stacker arm is to be lifted up rapidly. To achieve this rapid speed, without load, a regenerative circuit is employed. 66

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT FOR RUBBER FIG.: 6- 4

CURING M/C

67

I

0

ackEC
_Y LIP.,F?2_L

For positioning the stacker arm at mid intervals , a POC valve is used. A counter balance valve preset for maximum load pressure assures smooth lowering . The proportional valve is programmed for acceleration and deceleration v ith varying load conditions. 3. We come across a new feature -- a preportional pressure an(' flow control valve combination is used as a load sensing system. ( 9) for smooth acceleration and declaration with varying load conditions. In addition to proportional control. PLCs ( Program able logic controls) are used for different programming for different sizes of cement bags . (loads) With PLC and proportional controls, smooth movement is taken care of. The number of hydraulic circuits can be limited only by imagination acid by actual requirements. There can he many solutions to one reuuirements and t`ae near optimum circuit designing Lames b years of oxposure .nd experience

`1YOPAULIC C'RCUIT FOP ST.;CKER 'IG: 6-5 -

08

b:?

CHAPTER 9

THIS WAY TO HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS
'C00 KG yy_ SDP PCPT

This book is meant to give basic knowledge on designing a hydraulic circuit. But a hydraulic circuit designer should have solid information base about the hydraulic elements, their symbols, functions and certain fundamentals. The reason that this chapter comes almost at the end of the book is that we have assumed the readers have a working knowledge of hydraulics principles, theories and the functional aspects of hydraulic elements. However our thinking is also to show the way to the building of hydraulic circuits.

A .CAD OF 1OCKG ON1CS0 CM PISTON

7!a .ISTCN

10SO CM

i
- CONS NEJ

L--- DD7E'_CPES

PRES-:PE

FIG_ 9.1

It is possible to write a separate book on the principles, constructions, functions of oil hydraulics and the elements used. But we are going to make an attempt to give a concise account of these fewer aspects. 9.1 The symbols :
The Hydraulic circuit designer should be thorough with the symbols and we have reproduced these symbols in the annexure.

Qt I
LONG PIPE LINE

9.2 Pascals Law This is a simple law and means this : Pressure applied on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions and acts with equal force on equal areas and at right angles to them. How is this applicable to everyday usage of hydraulics`! If we apply a small force on a small area we can get it transmitted to larger area and you will get higher force available to 70
71

FIG- 9 2

work foryou (of course it should be a force on confined fluid) please refer figure 9.1 9.3 Positive displacement pumps We have come across, in cur daily living domestic pump sets - which are centrifugal pumps. How are the pumps used in hydraulic power units different from this centrifugal pumps. The differences are, 1. Most pumps used in hydraulic systems are positive displacement pumps 2. The pump output is normally constant irrespective of the pressure. 3. The outlet is positively sealed from the inlet, so that whatever gets into the pump is forced out through the outlet port. Th,.re is a misconception or shall we say a wrong expression gzrerally voiced by many users of oil hydraulic systems. They come with a complaint, at times, that the pump does not develop pressure. We must understand very clearly that the pumps here, create only flow; and not pressure. The pressure in the system is due to the resistance to the flow. The resistance or the pressure is created when the hydraulic oil has to flow thro' pipes (pipe friction), thro' bends and joints and thro' orifices of the valves; and from the load of an actuator. You will come across pump specification of manufactures that the max. pressure of the pump is say 160 bar. This only means that the pump can withstand a pressure of 160 bar and not that it creates a pressure of 160 bar. If this complaint is that the pump is net developing pressure, then the user is trying to tell us that with his system. he is net able to get the work done. If the problem is with the pumps internals, it can be because the pump is womout and the sealing between suction and delivery is no forger effective. But the problem can be anywhere along the lire from suction strainer to the cylinder. We shall discuss this subject separately. 72

-=---1 L-_ 1-- - --^
-_-- __ PRESSURE HERE THE PRESSURE HERE - --- - _ - `--- -- - THEN NO FLOW

FIGURE-9 3 (1 )

AN WCREASE _ - . -- - 'IE OIL TO F^_OW -- - TO THIS PLACE PRESSURE HERE CASES TORO THE ORIFICE

e

'HE PRESSURE DROP_-_ 7

FIGURE-9 3 (2)

A_TND R ARE EGUAL SIZE CYL'.NDERS ' LOA[_CS A_IS_ IOC.-?,___ SAD _N EST TAKE 57C D[I L THE PATH OP LEAST RESISTANT E(,e ) CIL WILL ALOW TO_A __F_RST. UFT LIFT ^ IULLY AND THEN WILL FLOW T0 B PUMP

FIGURE_9-4

73

N

9.4 Pressure drops and orifices : Any Hydraulic power unit has flow of oil thro' Orifices (Any valve has an orifice and the more the valves are in a power unit, the greater is the emphasis on pressure drops. Even on a normal flow of fluid through a long pipe line, there will be a pressure drop. Refer figure 9.2. The pressure drop is because of the friction of the pipe. As the oil, flows thro' the pipe, fittings, manifolds and valves, there is a reduction in the final pressure available to the actuator. It is not possible to avoid the pressure drop. However by proper sizing of the pipe and the valves it is possible to reduce this pressure drop. Energy lost due to pressure drop is converted to heat. To reduce this pressure drop, proper selection of valve and piping are important.
A'.,GE aRESSURE LARGE? PIPE REDUCES VELOOCT-- -, THE P'.-0 " AND PRESSURE INCREASE

FRICTION REDJCES THE HEAD AT SUCCEEDING POINTS EXCEPT WHERE

FIGURE-9 5

The heat produced due to energy lost results in viscosity reduction of oil. This reduction of viscosity results in leakages, loss in lubricity and cause wear and tear and inefficiency. Then, can we use the orifices to adjust speed? Yes. This is the right question. To tune the system for speeds, we can open and close the restrictions. 9.5 Path of Least Resistance Fluid flows through the path of least resistance when there is more than one possible flow path in the system. please refer figure 9.4 A and B are equal size cylinders load on A 100 Kg. Load on B is 500 Kg. Oil will first take the path of least resistance (ie) oil will flow to A first lift it fully, and then will flow to B. 74

" EKG CIO ;.UGE PRESSURE

GAUGE PRESSURE G:^1 CRFS A?41 PP

A`vr'SL I, rt

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE 760r 10M!s '1 27MIs IN HG VACUMN SCALE. WATERCCWMN 0IL COLUMN BAROMETER SCALE VACUMN CAI;GES VACUMN I^N7-'S RANGE

FIGURE 9 6

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 1.03 AC;CM BAR

76CmmCF HG
'-0 "E'ERS GF WATER COLUMN 1127 METERS CF OIL COLUMN GAUGE PRESSURE IN BG/CM2+1.03 NO'CM ABSOUJTE PRESSURE IN NGrrCM

75

9.b Bernoulli's Principle of oil flow' Understanding Bernoulli's principle is an important factor in the design of hydraulic valves. In such valves the oil path sizes change and Bernoulli's principle tells us, what happens if there is an increase or decrease in the size cf the oil path. We have earlier in the chapter seen the changes in pressure drops across orifices. Here we shall discuss the path ways. We must first understand that the fluid in a working system contains energy (ie;i Kinetic energy by virtue of velocity and its weight and potential energy in the form of pressure. Bern-)ulli's principle states that if the flow rate is constant, the sums of the kinetic energy and the pressure energy at various points in a system must be constant. Therefore, if the kinetic energy decreases, it results in an increase in the pressure energy. Please refer figure 9.5
ST_MO_SP_HERIC PRESSURE

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PUSHES MERCURY IN TO THE TUOE_ MERCURY RISES BY 760 mm

FfGURE.97( Ii

A

As in figure 9.5, when the Cross Sectional area of a flow path increases, the decrease in Kinetic energy (velocity) iesuits in coirespond-iig increase of pressure energy as shower by a higher heat; 4.7 The effects of pressure In a hydraulic power unit, pressure is generated by resistance to the flow of oil and mainly by the load. In other words pressure is proportional to the work load, and a pressure guage reading indicates generally the work load. In many places, the user of a hydraulic power unlit ignores tLe importance of apressure guage and normally the pressure guage cf a system does not work. Only when there is a problem in the power unit, the importance of the pressure guage will be realised. The pressure guage normally ignores atmospheric pressure. (ie) The standard guage points to zero at atmospheric pressure.
76
GU^F.9 ! 2)

PUSHES_ODU iN TO THE PJMP Li IE

TI

9.7.1 Atmospheric pressure : It is the weight of air, atmosphere outside, that exists. We are used to it, so we do not feel it. This is actually the weight of air in the atmosphere that acts on every square centimeter. In terms of value, this atmospheric pressure works out to 1.03 Kg/cm2. Please refer figure 9.6 * One atmospheric Pressure = 1.03 kg/cm2 1. BAR 760 mm of Hg 10 meter of water column 11.27 meter of oil column * Guage pressure in Kg/cm2 + 1.03 Kg/cm2 = Absolute pressure in kg/cm2

For information the suction pipes are selected for a maximum oil velocity of 1 meter per second. Cavitation and aeration in a pump A pump with adequate suction characteristics (ability to increase partial vacumn to the extent of one fifth in vacumn scale (ie) six inches of Hg or 150 mm of Hg)-can be installed in within one meter height of oil level. If the pump does not have such characteristics, the pumps can be mounted below the oil level. We must remember here that for every foot of oil, oil creates a static head pressure of 0.4 psi. As we try to locate the pumps below the oil level, for each foot, we add a positive pressure of 0.4 psi available to the inlet of the pump. Under these conditions the pressure losses due to strainer, suction line and fittings still to be substracted from the total pressure available at the inlet conditions. In a partial Vacumn Condition, when the pump is located above the oil level, then this less than atmospheric pressure acts on the oil. The mineral based hydraulic oil, which we use, contain about 8 to 9% of dissolved air. Now, when the `less than atmospheric pressure' acts on the oil, the air in the oil expands and becomes a higher percentage of volume. This means, more air in oil gets into the pump chamber. At the outlet of the pump is the system pressure which is considerably more. The air bubbles in the oil will now collapse at considerable pressure in the pumping chamber. This rapid collapsing of air bubbles results in rapid energy losses in the form of heat and noise. This heat can result in combustion of oil leading to carbonisation. When the pressure gets low on the suction side, it can also result in vaporisation of oil, the combined effect of all this is know as cavitation effects.
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Most of the hydraulic oil pumps used are capable of creating only a partial vacuum. Air pressure on the oil in the reservoir pushes oil up the suction line. As the pump cannot suck the oil all the way through, the height of pump installation above oil level is a matter of concern.

Pumps available today can normally create a partial vacumn• equivalent to about 150 mm of mercury which is one fifth on the vacumn scale. In terms of oil height one fifth of the oil height works out to about 2.25 metres. This is in ideal conditions. But when we talk of practicalities, considering the suction pipe and fitting losses, when suction strainer is also in use, we can consider only about one metre or there about. Therefore a hydraulic pump with adequately sized inlet pipe and suction strainer should never be mounted higher than one meter above the oil level.
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Chapter 10

TROUBLE SHOOTING

It is only appropriate that a person who designs the circuits, knows what can go wrong with the power units. In the pages to follow we are giving charts descrih,ng common problems and remedies that can solve these problems. These charts also will be very useful for maintanance engineers using hydraulic power units in their shops. Most of the problems in hydraulic machinary are relates; to oil contamination. The suction strainer can clog du,; to contamination. This can result in cavitation of pump. Contamination can also make th,, valve sticky. The DC valve 'oils can bum due to sticky valves. Anotherpoint is that we should ensure oil and airdo not mix. They are not made for each other. A loose suction joint can allow system toaerate causing severe pump noise and jerky movement of actuator. A word of Caution
We have come across problems that are not associated with power units but are machine problems or relating to electrical circuits. Therefore it is essential that before trouble shooting, the problem is identified to be relating the hydraulics side of he machine.
REMEDY : d

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CHART I - REMEDIES a. Any or all of the following : Replace dirtyfilters - Wash strainers in solvent compatible with system fluid - Clean clogged inlet line - Clean reservoir breather vent - Change system fluid - Change to proper pump drive motor speed Overhaul or replace superchange pump - Fluid may be too cold b. Any or all of the following: Tighten leaky inlet connections - Fill reservoir to proper level (with rare exception all return lines should be below fluid level in reservoir) - Bleed air from system - Replace pump shaft seal (and shalft if worn at seal journal) c. Align unit and check condition of seals, bearings and coupling d. Install pressure guage and adjust to correct pressure
N

2

0
0

a

I0
W 3 W

0
0 O W W

0

Z

w

a.

a
O

0
n

0 Z

z o 0
U

Z
U

LU W

0
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e. Overhaul or replace CHART II - REMEDIES a. Any or all of the following : Replace dirty filters - Clean clogged inlet line - Clean reservoir breather vent - Change system fluid - Change to proper pump drive motor speed Overhaul or replace supercharge pump b. Any or all of the following: Tighten leaky inlet connections - Fill reservoir to proper level (with rare exception all return lines should be below fluid level in reservoir) - Bleed air from system - Replace pump shaft seal (and shaft if worn at seal journal) c. Align unit and check condition of seals and bearings Locate and correct mechanical binding - Check for work load in excess of circuit design.
82
I

0 0
0 W W

UI
U

2 W

W 3

UI

O U W C!

0 U-

H o I
W

W 3 w

0 W

0 0

M

a

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Z

83

d. Install pressure guage and adjust io correct pressure (Keep atleast 125 PSI difference between valve settings) e. Overhaul replace f. Change filters and also system fluid if of improper viscosityFill reservoir to proper level g. Clean cooler and/or cooler strainer - Replace cooler control valve - Repair or replace cooler.
CHART - III
HNCORF,ECT FLOW A
ENO FLOW

S LOW FLOW

C
L EXCESSIVE FLOW I

PUMP NOT RECEIVING

FLUID REMEDY a

I

P

FLCV CONTROL SET

TOO LOW
REMEDY d_

FLOW CONTROL SET TO HIGH

REM E!'Y d

CHART III - REMEDIES

PJHP CRIVE MOTOR NOT CPERATIN G

RELIEF OR UNLOAD:NG V V SET TOO LOW

I YOKE ACTUATING DEVICE INOPERATIVE (VARWBLF ISPLAC MEN''

PUMPS)

a. Any or all of the following : Replace dirty filters - Clean clogged inlet line - Clean reservoir breather vent - Fill reservoir - proper level - Overhaul or replace supercharge pump b. Tighten leaky connections - Bleed air from system c. Check for damaged pump or pump drive - replace and align coupling d. Check for damaged pump or pump drive - replace and align coupling d. Adjust e. Overhaul or replace f. Check position of manually operated controls - check electrical circuit on solenoid operated controls - Repair or replace pilot pressure pump g. Reverse rotation h. Replace with correct unit
84

REMEDY c

REMEDY

e ar f

REMEDY

P PDRIVE MOTOR P RNING IN WRONG DIRECTION REMEDY g

EXTERNAL LEAX IN SYSTEM REMEDY

IMPROPER SIZE PUMP USED 'OR REPLACEMENT
REMEDY 'I

i

DIRECTION CONTROL SET IN WRONG POSITION

YOKE ACTUATING DEVICE INOPERATIVE

RPM OF PUMP DRIVE MOTOR INCORRECT REMEDY h

(VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS) REMEDY

REMEDY :f

ENTIRE FLOW PASSING OVER RELIEF VALVE REMEDY d

RPM OF PUMP DRIVE MOTOR INCORRECT REMEDY h

DAMAGED PUMP

WORN. PUMP V V, MOTOR, CYLINDER OR OTHER COMPONENT REMEDY : e

REMEDY c

IMPROPERLY ASSEMBLED PUMF

REMEDY e

CHART - V
FAULTY OPERATION A
in NO MOVEMENT SLOW MOVEMENT

c
ERRATIC MOVEMENT

D
EXCESSIVE SPEED OR MOVEMENT EXCESSIVE FLOW
REMEDY : SEE CHART III COL C

NO FOLW OR PRESSURE REMEDY : SEE CHART III COL A

LOW FLOW REMEDY : SEE CHART Ill COL 8

ERRATIC PRESSURE
REMEDY : SEE CHART IV COL C

w U ^ z Q u

LIMIT OR SEQUENCE DEVICE

FLUID VISCOSITY TOO HIGH

AIR IN FLUID

u
U

0 o z <

r o

nr o O J

z 5 W
3

(MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL OR HYDRAULIC) INOPERATIVE OR MISADJUSTED REMEDY e

REMEDY : a

REMEDY : SEE CHART 1

FEED BACK TRANSDUCER MALFUNCTIONING REMEDY e

cr fe
O U U O

MECHANICAL BIND REMEDY b
K

INSUFFICIENT CONTROL PRESSURE FOR VV REMEDY : SEE
CHART IV

^ JUSTED I NO LUBRICATION MISAD OF M/C WAYS OR MALFUNCTIONING(

OR LINKAGE I SERVO AMPLIFIER REMEDY : g REMEDY : ..
I

U,

Vf

0 NO COMMAND SIGNAL TO SERVO AMPLIFIER NO LUBRICATION OF MACHINE WAYS OR LINKAGE REMEDY ERRATIC COMMAND SIGNAL OVER-RIDING WORK LOAD

REMEDY f

g

REMEDY f MISADJUSTED OR MALFUNCTIONING SERVO AMPLIFIER REMEDY c

REMEDY h

INOPERATIVE OR MISADJUSTED

SERVO AMPLIFIER REMEDY c
INOPERATIVE SERVO V V

MISADJUSTED OR MALFUNCTIONING SERVO AMPLIFIER

REMEDY : c
STICKING SERVO VALVE

a I- HG' °

3 w J O ..O

I MALFUNCTIONING (FEEDBACK TRANSDUCER

Z u Of
O W

=

REMEDY c WORN OR DAMAGED CYLINDER OR MOTOR REMEDY e

REMEDY : d WORN OR DAMAGED CYLINDER OR MOTOR REMEDY : e

REMEDY

I

U

STICKING SERVO VALVE

REMEDY d WORK OR DAMAGED CYLINDER OR MOTOR

86 87

REMEDY : e

CHART IV - REMEDIES
STANDARD GRAPHICAL S''MBOLS

a. Replace dirty filters and system fluid b. Tighten leaky connections (fill reservoir to proper love; and bleed air from system) c. Check gas valve for leakage Charge to correct pressure Overhaul if defective d. Adjust
C. Overhaul or replacc CHART V - REMEDIES

a. fluid may be too cold or sl.ou:d be changed to clean fluid of ';orrcct viscosity b. Locate hind and repair c. Adjust, repair, or replace d. Clean and adjustor replace - Check condition of system fluid and filters e. Overhaul or replace f. Repair command console or interconnecting wires g. Lubricate h. Adjust, repair, or replace counterbalance valve.

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MULTIPLE FLOW PATHS RESERVOIR VENTED l-----] (ARROW SHOWS FLOW DIRECTION) FTFMlEllTURE AND PR COMPENSATED FLOW CONTROL WITH INTEGRAL CHECK PRESSUR GAUGE 0 UNLOADING VALVE, INTERNAL DRAIN, REMOTELY OPERATED I DIRECTIONAL VALVE . TWO POSITION, THREE CONNECTION
4

SOLENOID

f1

I

SOLENOID CONTROLLED PILOT PRESSURE OPERATED

ACCUMULATOR GAS CHARGED DECELERATION VALVE, NORMALLY OPEN

DIRECTIONAL VALVE, THREE POSITION,FOUR CONNECTION SPRING

FALTER OR STRAINER SEQUENCE VALVE DIRECTLY OPERATED EXTERNAL DRAIN PRESSURE SWITCH

VALVE, INFINITE POSITIONING (INDICATED BY HORIZANTAL BARS) PROPORTIONAL CONTROL

PRESSURE COMPENSATOR,

CHECK VALVE

PR. REDUCING VALVE

DETENT MANUAL SHUT OFF VALVE COUNTER BALANCE VALVE WITH INTEGRAL VALVE , MAXIMUM PRESSURE (RELIEF) CHECK i LEVER
--

90

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