Fuel Cell and Hybrid Transit Buses

Marshall Miller Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis

University of California. gasoline hybrid look promising but not yet demonstrated ± Diesel not allowed in South Coast region ‡ Transit technology of future ± Zero emissions (boarding hydrogen) ± Domestic fuel production ± Potentially lower greenhouse gas emissions Marshall Miller. recharging problems) ± Hydrogen enriched natural gas. Davis 2 .Fuel Cell Buses ‡ Only practical technology to achieve CARB 2007 transit bus emissions guidelines ± Battery electric buses (range.

) ‡ Fuel cell manufacturers / Bus integrators must have steady funding for commercialization ± Should continue over several phases ± Potential problems with ³large´ early programs ‡ European CUTE program ± 33 buses. losing money ± Other manufacturers? ‡ Ballard.Fuel Cell Buses (cont. Davis 3 . University of California. difficult to maintain. UTC Marshall Miller.

Davis 4 .Fuel Cell Bus Concerns Cost (> $3 million/bus.5 million) Availability ‡ Transit agencies with money can¶t easily procure fuel cell buses ± CUTE delays. hydrogen infrastructure) Warranties (fuel cell lifetimes) ‡ Typically two years ‡ UTC offering additional two years ($0. AC Transit and UNDP difficulties Marshall Miller. University of California.

University of California.Hybrid Buses ‡ ISE gasoline hybrid program ± ± ± ± Two buses in service (San Bernadino) 27 buses on order for delivery late 2004 (Long Beach) Additional buses expected in South Coast region Close to CARB 2007 emissions guidelines ‡ CNG hybrid ± No programs demonstrated Marshall Miller. Davis 5 .

energy storage ‡ Hybrid Driveline design and integration ± Complex systems ‡ Cost reductions Marshall Miller.Hybrid Buses: Benefits for fuel cell buses ‡ Fuel cell buses use electric drivelines and many will be hybrids (overlap with hybrid technology) ‡ Component development ± Motors. Davis 6 . University of California. power electronics.

Davis 7 . University of California.Hydrogen ICE Hybrids (Transition to fuel cells) ‡ Potential transition technology to fuel cells ‡ Low emissions ± NOX requires after treatment ‡ Modest additional bus cost ‡ Hydrogen infrastructure paves way for fuel cells when technology is affordable and available Marshall Miller.

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