RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning In ASSET
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
Document History Version 1.0 Date 06/01 Author(s) HansHubert Röhrig Change Description First draft.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
CONTENTS
1 2 3 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 WHY TUNING A PROPAGATION MODEL? ................................ ................................ ................... 5 IN COMMON USE PROPAGATION MODELS ................................ ................................ ................ 6 3.1 OKUMURAHATAMODEL................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 6 3.2 COST231HATA MODEL ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 7 3.3 RACE1043 CLUTTER MODEL ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 8 3.4 EXTRA DETERMINISTIC METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ . 9 3.4.1 Common in use Knifeedge Diffraction Methods ................................ ................................ . 9 3.4.2 Effective Antenna Height Calculation................................ ................................ ................ 11 4 INDICATORS OF PREDICTION M ODEL PERFORMANCE ................................ .......................... 12 4.1 BASIC STATISTICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 12 4.2 PREDICTION ERROR STATISTICS OF AIRCOM INTERNATIONAL ASSET ................................ .............. 13 4.2.1 Displaying Prediction Error in the 2DView ................................ ................................ ...... 13 4.2.2 Displaying Received Level/Prediction Error vs. Log(d)................................ ...................... 14 4.2.3 Asset Analyse Text File ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 15 4.3 PREDICTION ERROR STATISTICS OF MEAANALYSE................................ ................................ ........ 16 4.3.1 MeaAnalyse output file <*>_Summary.txt ................................ ................................ ......... 16 4.3.2 MeaAnalyse feature StandardDeviationVsMeanError ................................ ....................... 18 4.3.3 MeaAnalyse feature(s) ...versus Distance ................................ ................................ ........ 19 5 INPUT DATA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ . 20 5.1 MAP DATA................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 20 5.1.1 Paper Maps ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 20 5.1.2 Topographical Database ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 21 5.2 CW SURVEY DATA ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 22 5.3 START PARAMETER VALUES OF PROPAGATION MODEL ................................ ................................ . 23 5.3.1 Aircom ASSET Standard Macrocell Model ................................ ................................ ....... 23 5.3.2 Classification of Hata Adjustment Coefficients to ASSET kparameter.............................. 24 5.3.3 Enhancement of the ASSET ³Standard Macrocell Model´................................ ................. 25 Clutter Category................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 6 WHICH COEFFICIENTS ARE TUNABLE? ................................ ................................ ................... 28 6.1 ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS OF HATAMODELS ................................ ................................ ............ 28 6.1.1 Intercept C1 and Frequency Coefficient C2 ................................ ................................ ....... 29 6.1.2 Base Station Heights Adjustment Coefficients C3 ................................ ............................. 30 6.1.3 Path Loss Slope................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 31 6.1.4 Mobile Antenna Height Correction ................................ ................................ .................... 36 6.1.5 Clutter Adjustment L C ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 37 6.1.6 Diffraction Loss LD and Adjustment Coefficient C6 ................................ ............................ 38 7 THE CALIBRATION PROCESS ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 39 7.1 SORT CW MEASUREMENT DATA ................................ ................................ ................................ 40 7.2 F IRST CW MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ .......................... 40 7.3 F IND BEST SUITED EFFECTIVE ANTENNA HEIGHT CALCULATION METHOD ................................ ........ 40 7.4 T UNE BASE STATION HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS ................................ .............................. 41 7.4.1 Tune base station height adjustment coefficient k5 ................................ ........................... 41 7.4.2 Tune base station height with distance adjustment coefficient k6 ................................ ...... 42 7.5 T UNE INTERCEPT AND SLOPE COEFFICIENT ................................ ................................ .................. 42 7.5.1 Intercept ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 43 7.5.2 Slope ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 44 7.5.3 Near/Far Intercept and Slope Coefficients ................................ ................................ ........ 44
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8
T UNE CLUTTER OFFSETS................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 45 F IND BEST SUITED KNIFEEDGE DIFFRACTION METHOD ................................ ................................ ... 46 T UNE THE DIFFRACTION ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENT................................ ................................ ....... 46 REANALYZE, F INE TUNING ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 47
HOW TO USE MEAANALYSE ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 47 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 GET THE BIN INFORMATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 47 GET SPREAD SHEETS WITH MEAANALYSE ................................ ................................ ................... 50 CREATE CHARTS BY EXCEL ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 50 CREATE CHART STANDARD DEVIATION VS. MEAN ERROR IN EXCEL ................................ ................ 52
9
MATH BASICS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 55 9.1 9.2 STATISTIC BASICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 55 LOGARITHMIC BASICS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 56
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
1
Introduction
To implement a mobile radio system, wave propagation models are necessary to determine propagation characteristics for any arbitrary installation. Predictions are required for a proper coverage planning, for interference analysis as well as for cell calculations, which are the basis for the RF network design and optimization purposes. However, the radio propagation channel is a very critical component for mobile radio communications systems. The field strength level, at a given point, not only depends on its distance from the transmitter, the frequency of transmission and the antenna heights but also on the longterm and shortterm interference¶s caused by reflections of the natural environment (terrain configuration, vegetation) and the manmade environment. This influences the wave propagation in different ways. Wellknown empirical path loss prediction models like the model of Okumura Hata or the COST231Hata model estimates the median signal strength in a small area and do not consider the path specific propagation effects by detailed analytical expressions. The Hata models (or other empirical methods) only use simple empirical expressions extracted from curves get from the analysis of measurement data. This has the advantage of implicitly taking all path specific propagation effects of the environment (known or unknown) into account mentioned above. However, each region or country and in the end each city has the own specific character of topography, vegetation and manmade structure have an effect on the wave propagation. Therefore, empirical models must always be subjected to stringent validation by testing it on measurement data sets collected at locations and conditions (as well as at transmission frequencies) which are in many cases other than used to produce the model in the first place. The overall objective of the tuning process is to adapt the propagation model to the local environments characterized by CW measurement data, in conjunction with the specific classification of the actual terrain database. But a tuned propagation model is only good as the input data used to calibrate it. Consequently, the results of the tuning process depends on quality and quantity of the CW measurements, on the quality of used terrain database as well as on the ability of the RF Planning tool to support the user with suitable applications to the CW measurement analysis process. Furthermore, the person who will carry out the tuning process should have knowledge about the basic mathematics and the basic wave propagation mechanism in different mediums as well as knows the common in use propagation models, effective antenna height calculation as well as knifeedge diffraction methods. The purpose of this paper is not to describe the perfect way of tuning empirical propagation models, because there is no single correct way or ideal method. This paper tries to give recommendations and methods useful for the tuning process with help of the Aircom Asset CW Measurement Analyse Tool.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
2
Why tuning a propagation model?
The overall object of tuning a propagation model is to adapt the path loss prediction model to the local environments and the specific classification of the actual terrain database to improve the coverage estimation (path loss prediction). Because: y Each region or country has the own specific character of vegetation and man made structure that influence the wave propagation on different ways. The Hata models based on the Okumura technique adopts curves for urban areas based on the type and density of buildings in Tokyo and it may not be transferable to cities in Europe or North America. Indeed, experience with CW measurements in the USA (e.g. South Carolina, Indianapolis and Boston) have shown that the typical US urban environment lies is similar to Okumura¶s definition of suburban. Empirical path loss prediction models like the COST231Hata model (see next chapter) are restricted to flat terrain. In case of wavy (hilly) terrain or topographical obstacles like mountains (obstruct the line of sight between BS and MS) the Hata model has to combine by extra deterministic methods have to use like knifeedge and/or effective antenna height calculation to consider the influence of topography. Usually empirical models are restricted to ranges of frequencies, antenna heights and distances. If the parameter of the planned base stations are outside these limitations, then the empirical model have to extent by analyzing CW measurements. Highresolution terrain databases (e.g. pixel size is from 20 meter up to 30 meter) are created by satellite images (typical 10 meter resolution). However, the clutter database is the result of a person, who interprets groups or cluster of graypattern in the image and assign the marked area to the most likely suitable clutter category. Furthermore, a satellite image provides geo information about the local density and extent of buildings, but it cannot give information about the local building heights that also impact on wave propagation. Consequently, the path loss prediction has to adapt to the topographical database by the help of CW measurements. Some RF planning tools support extra clutter attributes like clutter heights and separation. Using these features can improve the accuracy of the coverage prediction. It is recommended to validate the specified clutter information by CW measurements.
y
y
y
y
Note:
Keep in mind, that the fitted propagation model is only applicable to the local terrain database that was used for the model tuning.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
3
In Common use Propagation Models
This chapter describes wellknown propagation models used for the coverage analysis in Macrocell environments like the model of OkumuraHata, the COST231Hata model and the RACE model. The propagation models mentioned below estimate the path loss by empirical information. The empirical information based on the analysis of RF propagation measurements. Empirical models calculate the median signal for each pixel and cannot determine the local mean signal that result from local effects of various multipath phenomena. The local mean signal levels have to distribute around the pixel median with a log normal probability distribution.
3.1
OkumuraHataModel
The OkumuraHata prediction model is based on empirical information obtained from measurements in Japan (Okumura 1965). From the results of these measurements propagation curves in the frequency ranges from 200 [MHz] up to 2[GHz] depending from the distance (1 100 [km]) to the transmitter have been extracted. Curves are given for effective base station antenna heights in the range 30 [m] ± 1000 [m] and for a mobile station antenna height of 1.5 [m]. The Hata formula (1980) is a mathematical fit for the Okumura graphical measurement results. Four parameters are used for estimation of the propagation loss by Hata's well known model: frequency f, distance d, base station antenna height hBS and the height of the mobile antenna hMS. In Hata´s model, which is based on Okamura¶s various correction functions the basic transmission loss, Lb, in urban areas is: ¨ h BS « f » ! 69.55 26.16 lg ¬ ¼ 13.82 lg © © [m] [MHz] ½ [dB ] ª Lb Where: f hBS hMS d a(hMS) The model is restricted to: Frequency f : Base station antenna height hBS: Receiver antenna height hMS: Distance d from the site : 150  1500 [MHz] 30  200 [m] 1  10 [m] 1  20 [km] frequency in [MHz] base station antenna height in [m] mobile antenna height in [m] distance between base station and mobile station in [km] mobile antenna height correction in [dB] ¸ « ¨h ¹ ¬44.9 6.55 lg © BS © [m] ¹ ¬ ª º ¸» ¹¼ lg ¨ d ¸ a h ¹ © © [km] ¹ MS ¹ º ª º¼ ½
(3.1.1)
The model of OkumuraHata is restricted to quasismooth terrain where the average height of terrain does not change more than 20 [m] and the actual elevations of the path profile undulate in a range of no more than 10 m due to the average height. Furthermore, the model of OkumuraHata is limited to large and small macrocells, i. e. base station antenna heights above rooftop levels adjacent to the base station.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
The OkumuraHata formula is quite good in urban and suburban areas. However, in rural areas over irregular terrain there is a tendency to be too optimistic.
Additional the model of OkumuraHata considers the effects due to land usage in the vicinity of the MS by empirical corrections (recommended by ETSI). The clutter correction for suburban area is defined by: L Suburban [dB ] © d
! Lb 2 ¬lg ¨ © « ¸» f ¹¼ 28[MHz] ¹½ º ª 2 5.4 (3.1.2)
The clutter correction for rural (quasiopen) area is defined by:
[dB]
b
The clutter correction for rural (open) area is defined by:
[d ]
As L0 in equation (3.1.1) only applicable for a mobile antenna height hMS=1.5 [m]. For other values of hMS the term a(hMS) is a correction of the path loss L0. The corrections to the mobile antenna height correction depends on the frequency range and the land usage in the vicinity of the mobile station. If the mobile station be in urban environment the adjustment to the mobile antenna height is defined by:
In su ur an or rural environment the loss correction to the mobile antenna height is defined by: ah MS
Suburban ,Rural [dB ]
3.2
COST231Hata Model
The COST231 group has extended Hata´s model to the frequency band from 1500 [MHz] up to 2000 [MHz] by analyzing Okumura´s propagation curves in the upper frequency band. The repeated analysis of the measured propagation curves of Okumura within this fr quency range e resulted in a change of the term, which depends on the frequency. Additionally a new correction factor was introduced that increases the propagation path loss for metropolitan centers. This combination is called "COST231HataModel". The basic path loss (Lb) in urban areas is:
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©
a hMS
Ur an [dB ]
« 3.2 ¬l
h ¨ ¸» ©11.75 MS ¹ ¼ 4.97 © [m] ¹ ½ ª º
« ¬1.1 l
» hMS ¨ f ¸ © ¹ © [MHz] ¹ 0.7 ¼ [m ] 1.56 l º ª ½
§
¨
¦
L
ural(open )
¨ f ¸ ¸» d
! Lb 4.78 «lg¨ ¬ © MHz ¹¼ 18.33 lg © MHz ¹ 40.94 º½ º ª ª
2
2
¨ f ¸ © ¹ © [MHz] ¹ 0.8 º ª
£ ¡
¤
£ ¢¥
¢
Rural(quasi  open)
d
« ¨ f ¸» 4.78 ¬ lg© ¹ ½ ª MHz º¼
2
18.33 lg ©
¨ f ¸ 35.94 ¹ zº ª
(3.1.3)
(3.1.4)
(3.1.5)
(3.1.6)
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
Lb ¨ h BS « f » ! 46.30 33.90 lg ¬ ¼ 13.82 lg © © [m] [dB ] [MHz] ½ ª
¸ « ¨h ¹ ¬44.9 6.55 lg © BS © [m] ¹ ¬ ª º
¸» ¹¼ lg ¨ d ¸ a h © ¹ © [km] ¹ MS Cm ¹ º ª º¼ ½
(3.2.1)
Where: f hBS hMS d Cm frequency in [MHz] base station antenna height in [m] mobile antenna height in [m] distance between base station and mobile station in [km] 0 [dB] for medium sized city and suburban centers with medium tree density or 3 [dB] for metropolitan centers
The mobile antenna height correction a(hMS) is defined by: » hMS a hMS
« ¨ f ¸ ¨ f ¸ ! ¬1.1 lg© ¹ ¹ © [MHz] ¹ 0.7 ¼ [m] 1.56 lg© [MHz] ¹ 0.8 © [dB ] º º ª ª ½ The COST231HataModel is restricted to the following range of parameters: Frequency f : Base station antenna height hBS: Receiver antenna height hMS: Distance d from the site : 1500  2000 [MHz] 30  200 [m] 1  10 [m] 1  20 [km] (3.2.2)
The application of the COST231HataModel is restricted to large and small macrocells, i. e. base station antenna heights above rooftop levels adjacent to the base station. The clutter corrections (equations 3.1.2, 3.1.3 and 3.1.4) mentioned in the chapter before applicable to the COST231Hata model as well.
3.3
RACE1043 Clutter Model
The characterization (in view of different densities and/or heights of buildings and vegetation) of the environment (clutter category) in the vicinity of the mobile station is very important for the path loss estimation. Because, the median signal and the local mean signal distribution, at a given point, depends on the land usage like vegetation and/or manmade structure (buildings). The OkumuraHata and COST231Hata formulas treat only three different types of land usage (urban, suburban and rural). However, three land usage categories are not sufficient to characterize the effects due to land usage in the vicinity of the MS. Within the scope of the RACE1043 working group, the three main clutter classes (urban, suburban and open field) have been subdivided into several clutter categories to distinguish between different densities and heights of vegetation¶s and buildings. Table 1 shows the different clutter categories and the loss correction recommended by RACE1043.
Clutter type W O1 O2 F1 F2
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Description Water Open field, no obstructions Open field, few obstructions Forest, low density with small trees or bushes Forest, mostly higher and more densely packed trees
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Cm [dB] 29 24 19 19 9
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
S1 S2 S3 U1 U2
Suburban, low density Suburban, leafy buildings Suburban, density buildings Urban, low density, 2  5 floors Urban, high density, more than 5 floors
11 8 5 3 0
Table 1: Clutter correction factors recommended by RACE1043
3.4
Extra Deterministic Methods
The model of OkumuraHata and the COST231Hata model restricted to flat terrain. Consequently, in case of wavy (hilly) terrain or topographical obstacles like mountains (obstruct the line of sight between BS and MS) the accuracy is generally decreased. Incorporating terrain information can make a substantial difference to the prediction. Therefore, extra deterministic methods have to use like knifeedge and/or effective antenna height calculation to consider the influence of topography. Empirical models combined with deterministic methods are semiempirical propagation models. 3.4.1 Common in use Knife edge Diffraction Methods
When topographical obstacles (hills, mountains) obstruct the line of sight between the base station antenna and mobile station additional diffraction losses occurs which depend on the height and the location of obstacles (see Figure 1).
Figure 1: None line of sight (NLOS) condition
3.4.1.1
Bullington Method
The Bullington method calculates the diffraction loss over multiple obstructions by considering a single equivalent knifeedge positioned at the point of intersection of the transmitter and receiver horizon paths. The total diffraction loss is taken as that over the equivalent knifeedge obstruction. This method has the advantage of being simple, but often significant obstacles can be ignored leading to an optimistic estimate of field strength. However, this knifeedge diffraction method achieve the lowest standard deviation in many cases. 3.4.1.2 EpsteinPeterson Method
The EpsteinPeterson technique is based on the assumption that the total loss can be evaluated as the sum of attenuation due to each respective significant obstruction.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
The diffraction loss from the obstacle is calculated by assuming that the receiver is at the second obstruction. The loss from the second obstacle is then calculated assuming the transmitter is at the first obstruction and the receiver at the third. Furthermore, the loss from a transmitter at the next obstacle to the receiver is calculated. The total EpsteinPeterson diffraction loss is given by the sum of all the losses calculated.
The EpsteinPeterson technique overcomes one of the problems of the Bullington metho namely that d, important obstacles can be ignored. However, it has been demonstrated that this method has limitations when the obstructions are closely spaced.
3.4.1.3
Japanese Atlas Method
The Japanese Atlas technique is similar to the EpsteinPeterson method and was proposed by the Japanese postal service. Again it is based on the assumption that the total loss can be evaluated as the sum of attenuation due to each obstruction. However, in contrast to the EpsteinPeterson method the effective source is not the top of the preceding obstruction but the projection of the horizon ray for the obstruction to a point on the vertical plane through one of the terminals. This method gives improved results when the obstructions are closely spaced. 3.4.1.4 Deygout Method
The Deygout technique calculates a µvparameter¶ for each edge, the one with the largest is termed the ³main edge´ and its loss calculated in the standard way. Additional losses for other obstructions are calculated between the main edge and the obstructed terminal. The total Deygout loss is given by the sum of all losses calculated. In order to extend the technique to many obstructions it is necessary to employ ³submain edges´. These are the next most significant edge(s) at either side of the main edge. The loss form the submainedge is calculated assuming a hypothetical terminal located at the main edge (ignoring any less significant edges). This method provides accurate results where there are two obstructions, with one being clearly dominant. However, it tends to overestimate losses where there is no dominant obstruction. For 3 or 4 obstructions the Deygout method gives the best results of any of the approximate methods. However, for 4 or more obstructions Deygout will tend to overestimate the loss.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
3.4.2
Effective Antenna Height Calculation
An important parameter with respect to the topography is the determination of the effective antenna height. As the mobile station moves, the effective base station antenna height changes. Figure 2 illustrates some of the possibilities as well as the different methods to determine the effective antenna height.
Figure 2: Possibilities to determine the effective antenna height 3.4.2.1 Absolute Method
The absolute method uses the height of the base station antenna above ground as the effective antenna height. The absolute method is suitable in flat terrain. 3.4.2.2 Average Method
The average method is calculated as the base station antenna height above the average terrain height across the area of the prediction. The average method is suitable in flat or gently rolling terrain. 3.4.2.3 Relative Method
The effective antenna height is determined as the relative height of the base station antenna to the mobile station, if the height above sealevel of the mobile station is lower than the height above sealevel of the base station antenna. In the reverse case, the height of the base station antenna above ground is the effective antenna height. Otherwise this definition leads to negative antenna heights. The relative method is reliable in rolling hilly terrain where the mobile station is mainly below the base station antenna.
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3.4.2.4
Slope Method
The effective antenna height is defined as the line from the base station antenna to the fictitious elongation of the mean terrain in front of the mobile station towards to the base station. The definition have to restrict by a limitation of the result effective antenna height. Otherwise the slope method can lead to negative antenna height or lead to very height antenna heights (>200m). In conjunction with the Hatamodels, the slope method should be restricted to a minimum effective antenna height of 30[m] and a maximum effective antenna height of 200[m]. The slope method is suitable in very wavy areas where the terrain increases or slope very strong in s front of the mobile station.
4
4.1
Indicators of Prediction Model Performance
Basic Statistics
The statistics enable the user to assess the accuracy and reliability of the specified propagation prediction model. The in common use statistics are: y y y Mean error Root mean square (RMS) error Standard deviation
The prediction error at a given point i is the result of the measured signal subtracted by the predicted signal level:
?dBm A
The mean (median) prediction error is the sum of the prediction error over all n points: Q 1 ! ?dB A n
§
i !1
n
Qerr r i
?dB A
The mean prediction error shows the tendency of the specified propagation model. A positive mean prediction error signifies that the prediction model is too pessimistic. Accordingly, a negative value signifies that the prediction model is too optimistic. The root mean square error (RMS) is defined by:
i !1
The RMS declares the overall variation range (mean prediction error and standard deviation) of possible prediction error. Consequently, the RMS error is greater than the standard deviation, if the mean prediction error is unequal 0 [dB]. The RMS error is equal the standard deviation, if the mean prediction is equal 0 [dB]. The standard deviation is a suitable indicator to assess the accuracy of the prediction model and is defined by:
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!
Q RMS ! ?dB A
1 n
§
n
Q err r i
2 ?dB A
Si nal _ measured
Si nal _ r dict d
?dBm A
Q err r i
! ?dB A
i
i
(4.1.1)
(4.1.2)
(4.1.3)
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
W ! ?dB A
1 n 1
§
Q ¸ ¨ Q err r i
© © ? A ? A¹ dB dB ¹ º i !1 ª
A low standard deviation in conjunction with a low RMS error indicates a welltuned prediction model.
A typical statistical result by a welltuned propagation prediction model is a mean error of r3 [dB] and a standard deviation of 89 [dB].
4.2
Prediction Error Statistics of Aircom International Asset
Aircom International Asset provides several features supports the model calibration process. However, not all features suitable for the model calibration. For additional guidance for using the features of the Aircom Asset CW Measurement Analysis tool, please have a look into the application note ASSET Standard Macrocell Model Calibration provided by Aircom International. 4.2.1 Displaying Prediction Error in the 2D View
Following items can be displayed on the Aircom Asset 2DView: y y y y Measurement Route Carrier Wave Route tags Carrie Wave Signal Carrier Wave Signal Error
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"
n
2
(4.1.4)
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
Figure 3: 2DView displaying Carrier Wave Signal Error
Especially for areas with wavy (hilly) terrain, displaying the ³Carrier Wave Signal Error´ together with the ³Terrain Height´ can point out graphical the coherence between prediction error and influences of actual terrain along the direct propagation prediction path or terrain features at the location of the MS. This feature is useful to find a suitable ³effective antenna height´ calculation method and/or ³knifeedge´ diffraction method.
4.2.2
Displaying Received Level/Prediction Error vs. Log(d)
Figure 4 shows the graph Received level vs. Log(d) (similar to Prediction Error vs. Log(d)) produced by Asset. The different colored data points represents different clutter types.
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
Figure 4: Asset Graph of Received Level vs. Log(d) By this feature it is impossible to find out specific adjustment coefficients from a extend cloud of points. Furthermore, it is difficult to find out tendencies. 4.2.3 Asset Analyse Text File
Aircom Asset will produce a text file similar to the shown in Figure 5.
File Summary
Overall Summary
Clutter Summary
Figure 5: Asset Analyse Text File
The following table shows options available in the Asset Analyse text file. Options File Summary
Author: DocID: Date:
1
#
in Information
Suitable to... point out failed measurements of one test site
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2 3 4
Overall Summary Clutter Summary Bin Information
calibrate the intercept calibrate the clutter adjustment import into a spreadsheet application, from where it is possible to produce charts and graphs
Option 1±3 provide more detailed (numerical) information as against the graph Received Level/Prediction Error vs. Log(d). However, the option give only overall (summary) results and provides no information about the progress of the prediction error and the standard deviation with distance. The analysis of the prediction error with distance is needed to calibrate the slope adjustment coefficients or to determine near and far adjustment coefficients. Option 4 provides the possibility to import the results into a spreadsheet application like Excel. Unfortunately, Excel can only process 32000 lines (equivalent to 32000 bins). In many cases, the number of bins available for analysis will be more than 32000.
4.3
Prediction Error Statistics of MeaAnalyse
The application MeaAnalyse creates several numerical statistics in tabs separated ASCII text file for the import into Excel, from where it is possible to produce charts and graphs. The purpose of MeaAnalyse is to provide statistical outputs allow an easier and faster analysis of the survey data (calibration of the propagation model), for user not involved in the model calibration as well. MeaAnalyse subdivides the survey data included for the CW measurement analysis to the categories LOS&NLOS, LOS and NLOS as well as to the used clutter. Furthermore, MeaAnalyse determine not only the overall mean prediction error, RMS error and standard deviation, but also for user defined segments (e.g. determine the mean error, RMS error and standard deviation in segments of 500m) of distances from the test site(s). MeaAnalyse processes the Aircom Asset Analyse text file contains the bin information (option 4). A guidance how to use MeaAnalyse together with Aircom Asset attached in the Annex. MeaAnalyse creates 6 output ASCII text files: <*>_DistributedBins.txt <*>_DistributedMeanError.txt <*>_DistributedRMSError.txt <*>_DistributedStandardDeviation.txt <*>_DistributedStandardDeviationVsMeanError.txt <*>_Summary.txt The first 5 outputs are spread sheets to import into Excel. The file <*>_Summary.txt can be displayed in a ASCII text editor. For the model calibration process the files <*>_DistributedStandardDeviationVsMeanError.txt and <*>_Summary.txt very useful. For the graphical presentation of the propagation model performance (e.g. mean error with distance) the first 4 outputs very useful.
4.3.1
MeaAnalyse output file <*>_Summary.txt
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The MeaAnalyse output file <*>_Summary.txt provides numerical the prediction error statistics like mean error (MeanErr), RMS error (RMSErr) and the standard deviation (StdDev) as well as the number of bins (Bins) considered for the CW measurement analysis. Figure 6 shows in detail the content of the MeaAnalyse output file <*>_Summary.txt.
Figure 6: MeaAnalyse output file <*>_Summary.txt The survey data (prediction error statistics) subdivided by Clutter Type (e.g. Clutter Type : light_density_residential) included for the CW measurement analysis in Aircom Asset. Each found clutter category subdivided into LOS (receiver (pixel) has line of sight to base station), NLOS (receiver (pixel) has none line of sight to base station) and Total (summary of LOS and NLOS). Furthermore, the prediction error statistics subdivided into distance Intervals (user defined segments). In the example shown in Figure 6 the user defined interval is 250m. In Aircom Asset the CW measurement analysis performed for a radius of 5km. Consequently, the survey data (prediction error statistics) subdivided in 20 segments. Below the intervals, the line starting with Total shows the summary of all bins assigned to this clutter category. At the end of ASCII text file the table below the line Clutter Type : Total shows is the overall statistics.
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4.3.2
MeaAnalyse feature StandardDeviationVsMeanError
The purpose of the MeaAnalyse feature StandardDeviationVsMeanError (graph created by Excel) is to provide a simple proceed to rate the propagation model performance after altering adjustment coefficients or to compare the improvement by using different knifeedge or effective antenna height calculation methods. Figure 7 shows the typical graphical output created by Excel. The chart shows the standard deviation (yaxis) versus the mean prediction error (xaxis). Each ³ball´ represents one segment (interval of distance from the test site(s), e.g. 250m). The size of the ³balls´ shows graphical the number of the bins assigned to the distance interval. The ³ball´ has the size 100% stands for the interval contains (covered by the) highest number of bins.
Figure 7: MeaAnalyse feature StandardDeviationVsMeanError
The closer the ³balls´ together and the closer all ³balls´ to the origin the more fitted the propagation model to the measurements. The example shown in Figure 7 the effective antenna height calculation method ³Slope´ (second chart) gives a better fit to the measurement as against the ³Absolute´ method (first chart). Because, in the second chart the ³balls´ closer together.
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4.3.3
MeaAnalyse feature(s) ...versus Distance
The overall mean prediction error and the overall standard deviation (in the end two values only) no suitable indicators to judge the quality/reliability of the calibrated path loss prediction model. A mean prediction error of 0 [dB] expresses nothing on that the calibrated prediction model is faultless within the radius of 3km from the test site or that the prediction error is 0 [dB] at distances greater than 10km . For the RF planning (design) process it is important to know the expected mean prediction error and standard deviation (apropos ³Fade Margin´) within the (designed) cell radius. Furthermore, it is important to know the mean prediction error on far distances impacts on the size of the service area and the results of the interference analysis. The Aircom Asset CW Measurement Analysis tool supports no suitable features provide that. Only the ³Bin information´ processed in Excel (or other spread sheet applications) allows the user to obtain the information. Unfortunately, Excel can process only 32000 lines correspond to 32000 bins (measured points). In may cases more than 32000 bins available for (included in) the CW measurement analysis. Therefore, MeaAnalyse creates several spread sheets for further easy and uncomplicated process in Excel. The Figures 8 show charts display the number of bins, the mean error, the RMS error as well as the standard deviation versus the distance created from the output MeaAnalyse ASCII text files <*>_DistributedBins.txt, <*>_DistributedMeanError.txt, <*>_DistributedRMSError.txt and <*>_DistributedStandardDeviation.txt. For the examples below the curves show the summary of the clutter types included in the CW measurement analysis. But it is possible to created the charts (statistics) for a single clutter category (e.g. urban) as well.
Figure 8: MeaAnalyse features after imported/processed in Excel
It is recommended to include such charts into the model tuning report. Because, it also provides information about tuned model to people were not involved in the model calibration process.
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5
5.1
Input Data
Map Data
5.1.1 Paper Maps Paper maps (with scales from 1:10.000 to 1:250.000) provide extra geoinformation (e.g. distribution and density of the morphology) of the area surrounding the test site and mobile station. Approximate all RF planning supports the import of scanned maps. For many regions or countries, scanned paper maps are available in the World Wide Web. Figure 9 shows the detail a 1:25.000 paper map (source jpeg format) of the area around Entroncamento (Portugal). Figure 10 shows the detail of a 1:50.000 paper map (source jpeg format) of the city Columbia in the USA.
Figure 9: Scanned paper map (scale 1:25.000) of Entroncamento (Portugal)
Figure 10: Scanned paper map (scale 1:50.000) of Columbia City (USA)
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5.1.2
Topographical Database
The topographical database is the integral component in the coverage analysis. The DTM (digital terrain model) data base provides topographic concerning location and shape of obstacle information (terrain features like hills, mountains or valleys) impacts on wave propagation. The clutter database revealing geographic distribution of natural (e.g. open, water forest) and builtup features (man made like urban, suburban, village) impact on wave propagation. Typical DTM and the land usage information (clutter) are structured by raster data. A raster element (pixel) represents the average terrain height above sea level or a clutter code for a square area of, for example, 100m x 100m. Terrain databases are created from topographical paper maps and/or from satellite images and are available in different types of resolution and number of clutter categories. The typical used terrain databases are: y Countrywide data sets are recommended for Macrocell coverage analysis in rural and semi rural environments. The database almost created from 1:100.000 to 250.000 topogra phical paper maps, depending on country. Typical is a 5class land usage map. The typical resolution is from 50mx50m up to 100mx100m. The planimetric accuracy is (x,y)=100m by 1:200.000 (50m by 1:100.000). The altimetric accuracy (z) is from 20m up to 40m by 1:200.000 (10 to 20m by 1:100.000), depending on the relief. City packages or urban data sets should be used for the coverage analysis in towns and cities. The typical resolution is 20mx20m. The DTM created by digitization of 1:50.000 scale topographic al maps. The clutter information based on 10m resolution Spot satellite imagery. Typical is a 15class land usage map. The planimetric accuracy is (x,y): 20m. The altimetric accuracy (z) is from 7m up to 12m.
y
Keep in mind, that: y y y y y 100meter clutter databases are created from topographical paper maps that are older than 3 years (depending on the country) usually. Thus, the land usage information is not uptodate. Satellite images guarantee uptodate land usage information. Clutter databases created by a satellite image do not guarantee reliable clutter information. The clutter database is the interpretation of a person, who analyzes groups or cluster of gray pattern in the image and try to assign to this group the most likely suitable clutter category. The resolution of the terrain database is not a guarantee for the quality of the database Terrain databases with more than 20 clutter classes (recommended are 15 clutter classes) can provide extra geo information for the RF planer (e.g. traffic distribution) and perhaps improve the coverage analysis. However, it requires more survey data (see RFGuidelineCWMeasurements.doc) and complicates the model tuning process. In city packages, the data supplier offers extra clutter categories like ³MainRoads´ or ³OpenInUrban´. These classes are created by line data information. All pixels are covered by the line data represents ³Roads´ or ³Streets´ will be assigned to the clutter category OpenInUrban. In case of tuning empirical models like COST231Hata, do not insist on this extra geo information, if possible. Experience has shown that it complicates the tuning process and it didn¶t improve noticeable the coverage analysis. Furthermore, clutter categories like urban or suburban already characterize the local probability of building density and roads in a certain area.
y
To avoid problems performing the model tuning process: y Check the real planimetric accuracy by paper maps or by the survey routes. If the shift is greater than the declared planimetric accuracy, then in worst case the survey routes cover the wrong clutter areas.
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y
Check the clutter assignment by highresolution paper maps or by the local knowledge of the country project teams.
5.2
CW Survey Data
CW field strength measurements are necessary in order to tune an empirical propagation model. Increasing the number of survey data improves the reliability of the tuned propagation model. However, a tuned propagation model is only good as the quality of the input CW survey data used to calibrate it. To collect a statistically significant amount of accurate survey data take into account the subjects as follows: y y GPS, DGPS or any other kind of positioning system should geographically reference the data points along the survey route. To fulfil the sampling theorem with respect to the Doppler shift (i.e. record at least two impulse responses per wavelength), the field strength should be measured every half wavelength ( /2) by triggering by the survey vehicle (e.g. wheel triggering). To get of the long term fading, fast fluctuations have to be filtered out. This is done by averaging the survey data over a gliding window with a minimum length of 40 (Leecriteria). The maximum length is 200 . To achieve a representative set of data collection the number of test site locations should be at least of 10. The test sites locations should be representative of the sites in the planned or running mobile network (antenna heights and environment surrounding the test site). The test site antenna height depends on the average operating antenna heights of the RF network in the future. For Microcells (or UMTS), the test site antenna height should be 12,5m and 25m. For Macrocells the test site antenna height should be 25m and 40m. For the different test site antenna heights, the same measurement routes have to be driven. For measurements within Macrocells the minimum length for one survey route should be between 200 km and 300 km. For CW measurements within Microcells the minimum length for one survey route should be 100km The survey data should be evenly distributed with respect to distance from the test site and distributed with respect to the clutter categories that are used in the topographical database. After averaging the survey data a minimum of 300 data points per 1000mdistance interval and per clutter category is recommended. Example: For the calibration of a prediction model for suburban application and a planned prediction radius of 10km, the minimum number of overall measured (and averaged points) for the clutter category suburban should be 300 *(10000/1000) = 3000 points. Therefore, it is important to plan the survey routes with help of digitized terrain database, especially the land usage database. The survey routes should be zigzag or stair routes to avoid street direction propagation relative to the test site especially for urban (build up) environments and dense vegetation areas. Indeed, guiding effects in dense urban street canyons with LOS may lead to path loss values which are up to 4 dB lower than under normal innercity propagation conditions. Avoid surveys on shortterm conditions that could impact on wave propagation like peak ours or the weather (thunderstorm or snow fall) and the wetness of surroundings after rainfall. Furthermore, keep in mind the impact on wave propagation on the seasons (deciduous forest in winter).
y
y
y
y
y
y
y
A further guidance is given in the word document RFGuidelineCWMeasurements.doc.
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5.3
5.3.1
Start Parameter Values of Propagation Model
Aircom ASSET Standard Macrocell Model
Aircom International ASSET supports a ³Standard Macrocell´ model based on the OkumuraHata and/or the COST231Hata model. These classical fieldstrength prediction models were developed for large radio cells, i.e. radio paths larger than 1km. Furthermore, the models applied to large base station antenna heights, i.e. the base antenna is installed considerable over the rooftops of the surrounding buildings. The Aircom ASSET ³Standard Macrocell Model´ is defined as follows: L(d) = k 1 + k 2lg(d) + k 3(Hms) + k 4lg(Hms) + k 5lg(Heff) + k 6lg(Heff)lg(d) + k 7Ldiffn + C_Loss (5.3.1)
Where: d Hms Heff Ldiffn k1 k2 k3 , k 4 k5 k6 k7 C_Loss distance from the base station to the mobile station [km] height of the mobile station above ground [m]. effective base station antenna height [m] diffraction loss calculated using either Epstein Peterson or Deygout intercept, corresponds to a constant offset slope adjustment coefficient correction factor used to take into account the effective mobile antenna height Effective antenna height gain. This is the multiplying factor for the log of the effective antenna height LOG10(Heff) is the multiplying factor for LOG 10(Heff)log(d) multiplying factor for the determined diffraction loss clutter adjustment coefficient
Aircom Asset supports the knifeedge diffraction methods y y y y EpsteinPeterson Bullington Deygout JapaneseAtlas
Aircom Asset supports the effective antenna height calculation methods y y y y Absolute Average Relative Slope
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5.3.2
Classification of Hata Adjustment Coefficients to ASSET k parameter
Table 2 shows the classification of the OkumuraHata/COST231Hata adjustment coefficients to the kparameters of the Aircom ASSET ÄStandard Macrocell Model³. The OkumuraHata and COST231Hata adjustment coefficients obtained from the equations (3.1.1) and (3.2.1).
Aircom ASSET kparameter OkumuraHata Model
150 MHz < f <= 1500 MHz
COST231Hata Model
1500 MHz < f <= 2000 MHz
Adjust
k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 k7 C_Loss
69.55 + 26.16lg(f) 44.9
46.3 + 33.9lg(f) 44.9
a(hms,f) 13.82 6.55 LClutter 13.82 6.55
lg(d) Hms lg(Hms) lg(Heff) Lg(Heff)lg(d) Ldiffn 
Table 2: Classification of Hata adjustment coefficients to Aircom ASSET kparameter The term a(hMS) is an adjustment of the path loss for other mobile antenna heights as hMS =1.5 [m]. The mobile antenna height gain depends on the frequency range an the land usage (clutter category) in the d vicinity of the mobile station. The mobile antenna height adjustment (equation (3.1.5) and (3.1.6)) for the OkumuraHata model can be mapped to the k factors of Aircom ASSET as follows:
OkumuraHata (f=850 MHz)
a(hMS,f) a(hMS=1.5,f=850)
Coverage area mainly urban 3.2 [lg(11.75hMS)]2 4.97)
}  (0.28hMS+8.0lg(hMS)2.0) Mapped to Aircom ASSET k parameter k1 69.55 + 26.16lg(f) + 2.0 k3 0.28 k4 8.0
Coverage area mainly Suburban or rural [1.1lg(f)  0.7]hMS 1.56lg(f) + 0.8 }  (2.55 hMS  3.8)
69.55 + 26.16lg(f) + 3.8 2.55 0.0
Table 3: Classification mobile antenna height adjustment to kparameter of Aircom ASSET
The mobile antenna height adjustment (equation (8)) for the COST231Hata model can be mapped to the k factors of Aircom ASSET as follows: COST231Hata (f=1900 MHz) a(hMS,f) [1.1lg(f)0.7] hMS 1.56lg(f) + 0.8 a(hMS=1.5,f=1900) }  (2.9 hMS  4.3) Mapped to Aircom ASSET k parameter k1 46.3 + 33.9lg(f) + 4.3 k3 2.9
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k4
0.0
Table 4: Classification mobile antenna height adjustment to kparameter of Aircom ASSET
For frequencies at 850 MHz and 1900 MHz the start k parameter of Aircom ASSET will have the following values: OkumuraHata Aircom ASSET kparameter
Coverage area mainly
COST231Hata 1900
urban 850
suburban, rural
f [MHz]
Mobile RX Height [m] Eff. Earth Radius [m]
k1(near) k2(near)
use near values d <
k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 k7 Diffraction Eff. Ant. Height
1.5 8491.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 148.2 150.0 161.75 44.9 44.9 44.9 0.28 2.55 2.9 8.0 0.0 0.0 13.82 13.82 13.82 6.55 6.55 6.55 0.6 0.6 0.6 Bullington (Merge knifeedges closer than 0.0 [m]) Relative
Table 5: Default Aircom ASSET ÄStandard Macrocell Model³
5.3.3
Enhancement of the ASSET ³Standard Macrocell Model´
Aircom ASSET provides the possibility to enhance the ASSET ³Standard Macrocell Model´ by using more detailed morphological data in form of clutter height (possibility to consider average building heights) and clutter separation (possibility to consider the building density). The clutter separation (in meter) defines the horizontal distance between the mobile and the diffracting knife edge (building) in front of the mobile. This feature enables the user to specify for each clutter type an extra clutter (building) height and clutter separation, i.e. it allows the user a better characterization of different environments and in the end an enhanced adaptation of the prediction model to the specific propagation conditions.
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Figure 11: Definition of clutter height and separation
The advantage of this feature is that the enhanced model not only considers the clutter in the vicinity of the mobile (illustrated in Figure 11, case 1), but also considers the morphological structure within the path which illustrates case 2 in Figure 11. Consequently, in case of an accurate topographical database (in which the clutter database apply to the reality) this feature can improve the coverage estimation.
As described in Chapter 3, the Hata models calculate the basic attenuation for flat and urban environments, i.e. the basic attenuation contains already empirical the attenuation caused by shadowing/diffraction of buildings within the urban area. But in case of using clutter heights and separation this attenuation will extra determine by deterministic (knifeedge diffraction) methods. Consequently, this diffraction/shadowing loss considered by an empirical value have to subtract from the basic attenuation (path loss). To do this, the intercept of the Hata models (equivalent to the kparameter k1 in the Asset ³Standard Macrocell Model´) have to change from the basic path loss relates to ³urban´ to the basic attenuation relates to ³open´ area. Equation (3.1.4) defines the clutter correction coefficient of Okumura have to subtract from the basic path loss, if the mobile located in rural (open) area. Consequently, the new intercept k1¶ is defined by: 2
« ¨ f ¸» ¨ f ¸ 40.94 k d! k 4.78 ¬ lg© ¹ ¹¼ 18.33 lg © 1 1 ª MHz º ª MHz º½
Consequently, the kparameter of the ³Enhanced Asset Standard Macrocell Model´ are: Enhanced OkumuraHata Aircom ASSET kparameter
Coverage area mainly
(5.3.3)
Enhanced COST231Hata 1900
Urban 850
suburban, rural
f [MHz]
Mobile RX Height [m] Eff. Earth Radius [m]
k1(near) k2(near)
use near values d <
k 1¶ k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 k7 Diffraction Eff. Ant. Heig ht
1.5 8491.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 119.9 121.7 129.5 44.9 44.9 44.9 0.28 2.55 2.9 8.0 0.0 0.0 13.82 13.82 13.82 6.55 6.55 6.55 0.6 0.6 0.6 Bullington (Merge knifeedges closer than 0.0 [m]) Relative
Table 6: kparameter to the ³Enhanced ASSET Standard Macrocell Model³
The clutter height of the different clutter types have to set to the mean (average) building height of the environment. The clutter separation describes the building density (or the street width). Specify clutter heights and separation to urban, suburban and forest (dense vegetation) classes. For open classes clutter heights and separation should be set to 0 [m].
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For urban, suburban and forest classes the clutter offset should set to 0 [dB]. However, the clutter offset enables the user to consider extra condition within the built up areas influences on the wave propagation like the attenuation by vegetation (e.g. suburban/residential area interspersed with dense trees or waveguiding within homogeneous dense urban areas). For open classes the clutter offset defines the correction factor for the different morphologies of open none built up areas. However, now the clutter correction factors do not relate to urban, but to open.
There exist no standard default values for clutter height and separation, because both parameter depend on the environment and clutter classification (available clutter categories) of the actual clutter database. The table below shows the definition of clutter height, separation and clutter offsets (after tuned the propagation model) used to the Nuremberg project. However, the clutter heights and separation are not tuned. Clutter Category Water Open Forest Park/recreational land Villages Industrial Suburban/residential Mean urban Dense urban Dense block buildings Building blocks Mixed suburban Open in urban Offset [dB] 0.0 0.0 5.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 0.5 2.0 0.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 Height [m] 0 0 10 0 10 15 12 17 20 20 15 12 0 Separation [m] 0 0 15 0 25 15 15 8 6 6 30 50 0
Table 7: Clutter heights and separation defined for Nuremberg (Germany)
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6
6.1
Which Coefficients are tunable?
Adjustment Coefficients of Hata models
This chapter describes the adjustment coefficients of the Hatamodels (OkumuraHata or COST231Hata). For further descriptions the general formula is used as follows:
b ! C C lg ¨ f ¸ C lg ¨ hBS © © ¹ © ? z A¹ 2 1 3 © [m] [dB ] º ª ª ¸ ¹ ¹ º « ¨h ¬C C lg © BS 4 5 © [m] ¬ ª ¸» ¹¼ lg ¨ d © © [k ¹¼ ª º ½ L L ¸ a hMS ¹ C C6 D ¹ ?dB A ?dB A ?dB A º
Only four input parameters are necessary to calculate the propagation loss by the Hatamodels: y y y y Frequency, f Distance, d Base station antenna height, hBS Mobile station antenna height, hMS
Five adjustment coefficients adjust the calculation of the path loss: y y y y y Intercept coefficient, C1 Frequency adjustment coefficient, C2 Base station height adjustment coefficient, C3 Slope coefficient, C4 Base station height with distance adjustment coefficient, C5
Furthermore, extra adjustment terms are: y y y y Mobile antenna height adjustment, a(hMS) Clutter adjustment, LC Diffraction loss adjustment coefficient, C6 Diffraction loss, L D
On the next pages each adjustment coefficient is detailed described. The charts and curves following on the next pages shows the user how the change of an adjustment coefficient has an effect on the overall path loss.
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%$
'&
(
(6.1.1)
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6.1.1
Intercept C1 and Frequency Coefficient C 2
The intercept stands for the basic path loss at 1 [km]. In the Okumura and the COST231Hata model the intercept represents a basic median attenuation which applies to quasismooth terrain in buildup (urban) area and determined by the intercept coefficient and the frequency adjustment coefficient. The intercept is defined by:
Figure 12 shows the curve of the intercept results from equation (6.1.1.1). The intercept depends on the frequency.
Figure 12: Path loss at 1[km] (intercept) as function of the frequency
The intercept defines the basic path loss. Adjusting the intercept can reduce the mean prediction error, however it can not improve the standard deviation.
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)
1 L [ km ]
!C 1 [dB]
2
lg ©
¨ f ¸ ¹ ª ?MHz Aº
(6.1.1.1)
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
Furthermore, the intercept interacts with the clutter adjustment, i.e. if changing the intercept will cause an new clutter offset. Therefore, tune first the intercept before adapt the clutter adjustment.
6.1.2
Base Station Heights Adju stment Coefficients C3
In conjunction with the logarithm of the (effective) base station antenna height, the coefficient C3 adjust the correction of the path loss due to the base station antenna height. Figure 13 shows the correction of the basic path loss due to the base station antenna height. The different curves illustrate correction due to the base station antenna height increases/decreases with increasing/decreasing base station heights adjustment coefficient C3 . The curves calculated by:
h HeightGain ! C log( BS ) 3 [ m] [dB]
(6.1.2)
Figure 13: Base antenna height gain (adjusted by C3) In the model of OkumuraHata, doubling the base antenna height (e.g. hBS = 60m up to hBS = 120m, by C3 = 13.82) comes to an antenna height gain of approximately 4.5 [dB]. Incorporating terrain information in the form of the effective antenna height (in case of using the effective antenna height calculation methods Relative, Average or Slope) can make a substantial difference to the prediction as Figure 13 shows. A base station antenna height of hBS = 30m results in an correction of 20 [dB] by C3 = 13.82. In contrast to an effective antenna height is h = 90m the eff correction of the path loss comes to 29 [dB].
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The base station heights adjustment coefficient C3 = 13.82 determined from the measured curves of Okumura and prove to be reliable value of each distance between 1 [km] and 20 [km] and for (effective) base station antenna heights in the range from 30 [m] up to 200 [m]. Tune the base station heights adjustment coefficient C3, if: y y significant amount of LOS survey data available measurements for different test site antenna heights available
It is recommended to tune the base station heights adjustment coefficient C3 , if y y y the base antenna height outside the restriction 30m hBS 220m use the effective antenna height calculation method Relative, Average or Slope the change of other adjustment coefficients does not improve the prediction error statistic
6.1.3
Path Loss Slope
The path loss slope represent a linear attenuation coefficient defined by the slope adjustment coefficient C4 and the base station antenna height with distance adjustment C5. The slope defines the distance attenuation and adjusts the intercept (path loss at 1 [km]). In the field the path loss slope depends on the base station antenna height, the mobile antenna height, the topography and the land usage. The slope can vary between 20 [dB/decade] (free space attenuation) and 50 [dB/decade] (in highrise urban areas). Freespace attenuation only exists close to the base station. When the first Fresnel zone starts to become blocked (hills, buildings, or vegetation) or the first Fresnel touches the ground, attenuation in addition to the free space wave front spreading results from the first from the obstructing of the first Fresnel zone, where the most of the signal energy is concentrated. Consequently, a steeper path loss slope is found. Figure 14 illustrates the slope coefficient as a function of the (effective) base station antenna height. The slope decreases with increasing base station antenna height. The curve is defined by:
¨h ¸ lope ! 44.9 6.55 log© B ¹ © [m ] ¹ [dB / decade] ª
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0
0
(6.1.3)
º
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Figure 14: Slope coefficient versus the (effective) base antenna height
Incorporating terrain information in the form of the effective antenna height (in case of using the effective antenna height calculation methods Relative, Average or Slope) can make a difference to the prediction as Figure 14 shows. A base station antenna height of hBS = 30m results in a slope of 35.2 [dB/decade]. In case of an effective antenna height heff = 200m the slope comes to 29.8 [dB/decade]. Consequently, at 10 [km] it reduces the total path loss by 5 [dB]. Figure 15 shows curves standardized to hBS = 30m describes the change of the distance att nuation e (relative slope attenuation) in the course of the distance result from different base station antenna heights. The relative slope attenuation is calculated by:
( « »¸ h d Slope ¨ ! © 44.9 6.55 ¬ log( BS ) log(30) ¼ ¹ log( ) © [m ] [ km ] [dB] ¬ ¼¹ ½º ª
(6.1.3)
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Figure 15: Relative slope attenuation versus the distance at different base antenna heights
Figure 15 illustrates incorporation terrain information in form of the effective antenna height can make differences to the prediction. The overall path loss decrease by 3 [dB] at 10[km] with increasing (effective) base station antenna height from heff = 30m up to heff =90m. I.e., if the base station antenna height is 30m and after choosing the Relative (effective antenna height) method instead of the Absolute method, the overall path loss can (!) decrease by 3 [dB] (at 10[km]).
6.1.3.1
Slope Coefficient C4
The standard slope coefficient is 44.9 [dB/decade] determined from the measured curves of Okumura. Figure 16 shows the curves of the relative slope attenuation versus the distance result from different slope coefficients and standardized to the slope coefficient C4 = 44.9 [dB/decade]. The curves determined by the equation:
( d ! 44.9 C log( ) 4 [dB] [km ]
?
A
(6.1.3.1)
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Figure 16: Relative slope attenuation adjusted by C4 Figure 16 illustrates how the slope coefficient C4 influences on (adjusts) the intercept and in the end influences on the overall path loss. Changing the slope coefficient from 44.9 [dB/decade] to 42.0 [dB/decade] reduces the slope attenuation (and in the end the path loss) by 2 [dB] in 5 km distance and by 4 [dB] in 20 km distance. Furthermore, Figure 16 shows for distances less than 1 [km] that the corrections to the intercept turns (the other way round), because the logarithm of values (distances) less than 1 (km) is negative. For this reason the model of OkumuraHata (or other logdistances path loss models) is restricted to distances greater than 1[km]. Consequently, be carefully by the calibration of the slope coefficient. Calibrating the path loss slope by measurements closer than 1 km to the site can lead to deviations (errors) of the model to measurements far from the site. A dual slope model (near and far slope) can avoid this defect. Adjust the slope coefficient C4, if a significant amount of LOS survey data available evenly distributed within the distance range from 1[km] up to 20[km]. Ensure that the overall slope CSlope does not fall short of 20 [dB/decade] (freespace attenuation).
6.1.3.2
Base station height with distance adjustment coefficient, C5
In conjunction with the logarithm of the (effective) base station antenna height, the adjustment coefficient C5 has an influence on the overall slope coefficient CSlope. The standard base station height with distance adjustment coefficients C5 =  6.55 determined from the measured curves of Okumura. Figure 17 shows the slope attenuation results from various base station height with distance adjustment coefficients, standardized to the slope attenuation results from C4 = 44.9, C5 =  6.55 and hBS = 30m. The curves determined by:
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(
¨ h ! 30 m ¸ ¸ Slope ¨ ¹ ¹ log( d ) ! © 44.9 (C 6.55) log© BS © ¹¹ 5 © [m] [km ] [dB] ª ª ºº
(6.1.3.2.1)
Figure 17: Relative slope attenuation versus the distance, adjusted by C5 Reducing C5 from 6.55 to 5.0 increase the slope attenuation (and in the end the total path loss) by 1.6 [dB] at 5 km and by 3 [dB] at 20 km. Figure 18 shows the relative slope attenuation at 10 [km] results from various base station heights, standardized to the slope attenuation results from C4 = 44.9, C5 =  6.55. The curves determined by:
ª
ª
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1
(
¨ h ¸¸ d ! 10[ km ] Slope ¨ ! © 44.9 (C 6.55) log© B ¹ ¹ log( ) © [m ] ¹ ¹ 5 © [dB] [ km ] ºº
(6.1.3.2.2)
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Figure 18: Relative slope attenuation at d=10[km] versus the base antenna height, adjusted by C5 Figure 18 illustrates changing the base station height adjustment with distance coefficient C5 from ±6.55 to ±5.5 increase the path loss by 2 [dB] for an antenna height of hBS = 80 [m]. Figure 18 shows the change of the base station height adjustment with distance coefficient C by +/ 1 5 has not a significant influence on the overall path loss. Furthermore, Figure 18 demonstrates (in refer to C5 ) the base station antenna height has not a significant influence of the relative slope attenuation. I.e., if the coefficient C5 only calibrated with measurements relate to one antenna height, the maximum deviation does not exceed +/ 2.5 [dB] (at 10[km]), in case of apply this model for other base antenna heights or in case of use effective antenna height calculation methods like Relative, Average or Slope. The standard value of 6.55 prove to be reliable value of each distance between 1 [km] and 20 [km] and for effective base station antenna heights in the range from 30 [m] up to 200 [m]. Consequently, tune the coefficient C5, if a significant amount of LOS survey data available evenly distributed within the distance range from 1[km] up to 20[km] were measured at different te site st antenna heights as well. Furthermore, tune the base station height with distance adjustment coefficient C5 , if y y y the distance and/or the base antenna height outside the restrictions by effective antenna height calculation methods like Relative, Average or Slope other adjustment coefficients does not improve the mean prediction error/standard deviation
Ensure that the overall slope CSlope does not fall short of 20 [dB/decade] (freespace attenuation).
6.1.4
Mobile Antenna Height Correction
The Hatamodels are fitted to mobile antenna heights of 1.5[m]. The mobile antenna height adjustment coefficient is a correction of the path loss for other mobile antenna heights as 1.5[m]. Assuming that for mobile RF networks the receiver always at 1.5 [m] the mob antenna height ile adjustments coefficients need not calibrated.
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6.1.5
Clutter Adjustment L C
Object of the clutter adjustment is to fit the Okumura/COST231Hata model consider only 3 clutter classes to the land usage categories of the actual land usage database. The clutter adjustment (offset) represents by an empirical value the influence on the wave propagation in view of different densities of manmade buildings and vegetation in the vicinity of the mobile station. Figure 19 illustrates the wave propagation in different types of land usage. Assuming that the base antenna significant above the rooftop levels of adjacent building and the clutter offset exclusive depends on the type of land usage in the vicinity of the mobile station. The clutter adjustment represents the loss/gain due to the signal passing over the clutter at grazing incidence or scattering and in built up area extra the diffraction loss from the rooftop to the street. Furthermore, it is to assume that the clutter adjustment value not depends on the height of the base station antenna or on the distance to the base station.
Figure 19: Wave propagation in different types of land usage
For the clutter offset calibration recommended: y y y exclusive survey data observe the restriction of the Hatamodels like distance greater than [1km] and base station antenna heights greater than 30 [m]. exclusive LOS survey data should be analyzed to exclude the prediction error occurs by the knifeedge diffraction calculation start the clutter offset calibration after found out the best effective antenna height calculation method, tuned the base antenna height adjustment coefficients, the intercept and the slope to exclude the influence of the environment surround the site and within the path as well as the influence of topography (terrain features) at the site and the mobile, because only the influence of the morphological structure
Changing the clutter offset has no effect on the standard deviation of each clutter type, it only has an influence on the mean prediction error of each clutter type. However, calibrating the clutter offset has an effect on the overall standard deviation. If the clutter adjustment do not produce sufficiently accurate prediction results, then the user have to tune other adjustment coefficients or to choice another antenna height calculation algorithm.
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6.1.6
Diffraction Loss L D and Adjustment Coefficient C 6
When topographical obstacles (hills, mountains) obstruct the line of sight between the base station antenna and mobile station additional diffraction loss occurs which depends on the height and the location of obstacles as Figure 20 shows.
Figure 20: None line of sight condition
Assuming that in open flat terrain the average standard deviation ( standard deviation within irregular/builtup environment ( urban =79 dB).
open
=45 dB) is lower than the
NLOS survey data measured within open flat terrain (in the vicinity of the mobile station) and in various distances behind/from the diffracting knifeedge (obstacle) recommended to find out best knife edge diffraction method and to calibrate the diffraction adjustment coefficient. The total average standard deviation of the NLOS survey data NLOS results from the square root of the average standard deviation of the diffracted signal diffraction and the average standard deviation in urban (or irregular) environment urban in the vicinity of the receiver. Thus:
2 2 W NLOS open
! W diffractio n W open 2 2 W NLOS urban
! W diffractio n W urban
in open flat terrain
in irregular terrain
It follows that: W NLOS open
W NLOS urban
Minimize the prediction error by an iterative process of incremental changes of the diffraction adjustment coefficient. Furthermore, the choice of another knifeedge diffraction method can minimize the mean prediction error as well as the standard deviation (e.g. Bullington method). If it is possible to specify a distance under which knifeedges are merged into a single one, then distances of approximate four times of the resolution of the actual terrain database are recommended (e.g. if resolution = 25 [m], then a distance of 100 should be entered). This increases the speed of calculation and can improve mean prediction error and standard deviation a bit.
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7
The Calibration Process
In the runup of the model calibration process it is important to know the general setup of the later RF network design process. that means: y the type of coverage area (e.g. urban, suburban and rural) on which the propagation model will apply later. If the sites and the coverage area mainly suburban area, exclusive CW measurement data measured in suburban environment should use for the model calibration process the planned/operating base station antenna heights. If the propagation model will appl only for y site antenna heights within the range from 30m up to 60m, exclusive CW measurement data measured for these antenna heights should used the field strength prediction radius will specified at the later coverage prediction/analysis. If the prediction radius will be 10 km, then it is recommended to tune only the propagation model to this radius, i.e. analyze only CW measurement data within the radius of 10 km.
y
y
The model calibration process can separated into steps as follows: Process 1 Sort/Filter the CW measurement data Object to categories such as urban, suburban and rural, if it is planned to create/tune several models for application in different environments. get information like amount/distribution of CW measurement data to determine the maximum radius and to exclude clutter categories have not sufficient amount of bins. adapts the prediction model to the terrain features at the location of base station and mobile station adapts the prediction model to the topography at the location of base station and mobile station. Not in all cases necessary/possible !! adapts the prediction model to the environment (e.g. urban) within the prediction path and surrounding the site. adapts the prediction model to the environment in the vicinity of the mobile station adapts the prediction model to the topography within the prediction path Recommended Survey data 
2
First CW Measurement Analysis

3
4
5
Find best suited effective antenna height calculation method Tune base station height adjustment coefficient and base station height with distance adjustment coefficient Tune Intercept and Slope coefficient Tune clutter offset
LOS, > [1km]
LOS, > [1km]
LOS
6
LOS, > [1km], flat terrain NLOS, > [1km],
7
8
Find best suited knifeedge diffraction method and tune the diffraction adjustment coefficient Fine tuning
Especially Intercept, Slope coefficient and clutter offset
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7.1
Sort CW Measurement Data
Sort CW measurement data (files) to categories such as urban, suburban and rural. Criterion o the f classification are: y y site location (e.g. classify the site location to urban, if the site surrounded by urban area) environment covered most of the time by the CW measurement data (survey routes)
Use the Aircom Asset 2D view to show clutter in background and the survey routes in the foreground.
7.2
First CW Measurement Analysis
Start the first Analysis to get a general idea about the quantity/quality of the CW measurement data such as the amount of bins for each clutter category as well as the distribution of the bins with distance (a minimum of 300 bins per clutter category and distance interval of 1000m (for LOS and once more for NLOS) is recommended !). Exclude clutter categories from the analysis do not have an significant amount of bins. Further ore, m exclude clutter categories from the CW measurement analysis are not relevant to the model calibration (e.g. to tune a prediction model for urban application the clutter category rural should excluded). Determine the maximum radius used for the further CW measurement analysis¶s (e.g. if there is a significant amount of survey data (minimum 300 bins per 1000m interval) only between 0 and 9 [km], then exclude survey data outside this range.
7.3
Find best suited Effective Antenna Height Calculation Method
The effective antenna height calculation method adapts the prediction model to the topography at the location of the mobile and the base station. Incorporation terrain information in the form of the effective antenna height can make a substantial difference to the predictions, i.e. the accuracy can generally increased (in the most cases). Therefore, it is important to find the effective antenna height calculation best suited to the terrain. Exclusive LOS survey data should used to find out the right effective antenna height calculation method. Perform the CW measurement analysis for each effective antenna height calculation method. For the ÄSlope³ method perform several analysis for different distances (recommended is d=500m, d=1000m, d=1500m and d=2000m). Furthermore, set Heffmin = 20m and Heffmax = 220m. Export the CW Measurement Analyze text file contains the Äbin information³ to an ASCII text file (e.g. Relative.txt, Absolute.txt and so on). After performed the CW measurement analysis for each effective antenna height calculation method. Start the MeaAnalyse application and generate the output files *_StandardDeviationVsMeanError.txt and *_Summary.txt.
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Find the best suited effective antenna height calculation method applies to criterion such as y the mean prediction error should not alternate very strong within the distance. To check this have a look on the clutter category Total (especially LOS) in the file <*>_Summary.txt or create the chart MeanErrorVs.Dsitance by the Total(LOS) statistics.
y
have a look at the feature <*>_StandardDeviationVsMeanError. An example shows Figure 7, the closer the ³balls´ together and the closer all ³balls´ to the origin the more adapted the prediction model to the topography. Not in all cases the overall prediction error and the overall standard deviation are the right tool to find the best suited antenna height calculation method. The standard deviation and mean prediction error with distance provides more and reliable information.
Note:
7.4
Tune base station height adjustment coefficients
Incorporation terrain information in the form of the effective antenna height can make a substantial difference to the predictions. The base station height adjustment coefficient k and the base station 5 height adjustment with distance coefficient k6 relate to the results (effective antenna height) come from the terrain analysis. Consequently, they are very important parameter. Note: 7.4.1 Exclusive LOS data should used to tune the base station height adjustment coefficients. Tune base station height adjustment coefficient k 5
Only tune the base station height adjustment coefficient to improve the standard deviation or to smooth an alternating mean prediction error (see Figure 21, the red/solid curve), but not to reduce a constant mean prediction error (see Figure 21, the blue/dotted curve). The constant mean error should reduced by kparameter k1 (intercept). In that case, do not tune the base station height adjustment coefficient.
Figure 21 : Constant mean error and alternate mean error versus distance
Find the best suited base station height adjustment coefficient by an iterative process on incremental changes (in steps by +/ 0.5) and reanalysis until the mean error curve is smoothed within the range of +/ 3 [dB] (Note: it is not necessary to lower the mean error to 0[dB]) . In the same the standard deviation of the mean error is minimized. Confirm the tuned coefficient for different base station antenna heights. Recommended is to analyze survey data from 2 test sites. One has the lowest and one test site the highest base antenna height.
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Note:
Not in all cases it is possible to smooth the alternate mean error. Because it is very difficult to calibrate this coefficient by a wide variety of (effective) base antenna heights.
7.4.2
Tune base station height with distance adjustment coefficient k 6
Only tune the base station height adjustment with distance coefficient to smooth an alternating and simultaneously sloping/increasing mean prediction error (see Figure 22). The base station height adjustment with distance coefficient k6 adjusts the overall slope (see equation 6.1.3).
Figure 22 : Alternating and simultaneously sloping/increasing mean error with distance
Find the best suited base station height adjustment coefficient by an iterative process on incremental changes (in steps by +/ 0.5) and reanalysis until the mean error curve is smoothed within the range of +/ 3 [dB]. In the same the standard deviation of the mean error is minimized.
Note:
It is not necessary to lower the slope until it is parallel to the xaxis. An sloping/increasing (smoothed) mean error can compensate by kparameter k2 (slope). Not in all cases it is possible to smooth the alternate mean error. Because it is very difficult to calibrate this coefficient by a wide variety of (effective) base antenna heights.
Note:
7.5
Tune Intercept and Slope coefficient
The intercept and the slope adapts the prediction model to the environment (e.g. urban) within the prediction path (not the topography) and surrounding the site. Exclusive LOS data should used to tune the intercept and the slope. It is recommended to tune the intercept together with the slope and in inverse order.
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7.5.1
Intercept
Objective of tuning the intercept coefficient k1 is to lower the mean error (Total(LOS)) with distance (see Figure 21, blue/dotted line). In case of the bins evenly distributed with distance (for all intervals the same amount of bins) (shows Figure 23, the red/solid curve), the intercept needs to be adjusted by the same (the opposite of mean error) value to lower the mean error close to 0 [dB].
Figure 23: Number of bins/mean error with distance
If however the number of points not evenly distributed with the distance (e.g. between 0 and 4 [km], 3000 bins to each 1000m distance interval and then 500 bins to each distance interval), illustrates Figure 23, the blue/dotted line, then the overall mean error should not used to fit the intercept. Because the overall mean error is weighed by the amount of bins. Note that the statistics of the CW measurement analysis relate to the survey data (point related and weighed). However, the output prediction model will apply for the coverage analysis (surface related) in Asset. In Figure 23 the red/solid curve illustrates the mean error with distance. Within the range (04 [km] where a significant amount of bins be found, the overall mean error is e.g. 5 [dB]. Then within the range where not many bins be found (in relation to the first part) the overall mean error is close to 0 [dB]. If now the intercept fitted to the overall mean error the result is an unbalanced prediction model illustrated by the blue/dotted curve shown in Figure 23. I.e. the coverage prediction will be too optimistic after 4 [km]. To avoid this defect it is better to make a compromise illustrates the black/dasheddotted curve. I.e. the overall mean error is not minimized to 0 [dB], but the mean error with distance is evenly distributed within the range of +/ 2.5 [dB]. Sometimes the overall (Total(LOS)) mean error is very high (e.g. +/ 8 [dB]) due to a high mean error of one clutter category contains a high amount of bins (equivalent to high weigh).
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Example:
The standard default value for the clutter category open is ±24 [dB]. However, the open terrain relates more to rural has an default offset by ±15.
Then it is recommended to compensate this defect by changing the clutter offset. After fitted the intercept reanalysis the slope.
7.5.2
Slope
Objective of tuning the slope coefficient k2 is to parallel the sloping/increasing mean error (Total(LOS)) with distance to the xaxis, as shown in Figure 24. In the same the standard deviation of the mean error is minimized
Figure 24 : Sloping/increasing mean error with distance Find the best fit of slope coefficient by an iterative process on incremental changes (in steps by +/ 0.5) and reanalysis until the mean error with distance is paralleled to the xaxis. In the same the standard deviation of the mean error is minimized Note: The slope coefficient] has an opposite effect on the overall path loss to distances less than 1[km, as shown in Figure 16. Do not only tune the slope coefficient with the object to minimize the mean error and standard deviation for distances less than 1 [km]. In the most cases this will have significant (negative) effects on the results on the statistics for distances greater than 1 [km] and makes it more difficult to tune the model for far distances.
After fitted the slope coefficient reanalysis the intercept coefficient.
7.5.3
Near/Far Intercept and Slope Coefficients
A prediction model uses near and far values to the intercept and slope can better adapt to the conditions of the environment. If the overall (Total(LOS)) mean error with distance indicates a pronounced discontinuity with distance (see the example in Figure 25), then use the near and far intercept/slope. Find the best fit of near/far slope coefficient and near/far intercept by an iterative process on incremental changes and reanalysis until the standard deviation of the mean error and the mean error are minimized.
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Note that the statistics of the CW measurement analysis relate to the survey data (point related). However, the results (tuned model) will apply for the coverage analysis (surface related) in Asset. Avoid that the difference, calculated by equation (7.5.3.1), between the near intercept/slope and far intercept/slope does not exceed 3 [dB].
)) )) ( k far k far log(d 3[dB] e ( k near k near log(d breakpo int 2 breakpo int 1 2 1
(7.5.3.1)
Otherwise, it could happen that a circle to be seen in the coverage plot a the radius which the near and far value defines.
Figure 24: Discontinuity of mean error with distance
7.6
Tune Clutter Offsets
Object of the clutter adjustment is to adapt the prediction model to the environment in the vicinity of the mobile station. Calibrating the clutter offset minimizes the clutter related mean error (clutter summary) and in the end minimizes the overall mean error. The calibration of the clutter adjustment has no effect on the standard deviation of each clutter type, but it will minimize the overall standard deviation. In case of the bins evenly distributed with distance (for all intervals the same amount of bins) (shows Figure 23, the red/solid curve), the clutter offset needs to be adjusted by the same (the opposite of mean error) value to lower the clutter mean error close to 0 [dB]. Otherwise, it is recommended to perform the same process as described in chapter 7.5.1.
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7.7
Find best suited knifeedge diffraction method
The apply of a knifeedge diffraction method adapts the prediction model to the topography within the prediction path. Diffraction effects occur only where there is no line of sight (NLOS) from the site to the mobile station. Consequently, exclusive NLOS data needed to tune the base station height adjustment coefficients. Perform the CW measurement analysis for each knifeedge diffraction method. Export the CW Measurement Analyze text file(s) contains the Äbin information³ to an ASCII text file (e.g. Bullington.txt or Deygout.txt and so on). After performed the CW measurement analysis for each knifeedge diffraction method. Start the MeaAnalyse application and generate the output files *_StandardDeviationVsMeanError.txt and *_Summary.txt. Find the best suited knifeedge diffraction method applies to criterion such as y the mean prediction error should not alternate very strong within the distance. To check this have a look on the clutter category Total (NLOS) in the file <*>_Summary.txt or create the chart MeanErrorVs.Dsitance by the Total(NLOS) statistics. have a look at the feature <*>_StandardDeviationVsMeanError. The closer the ³balls´ together and the closer all ³balls´ to the origin the more adapted the prediction model to the topography.
y
Note:
In many cases the mean error/standard deviation is very poor at distances less than 1[km] and will not improve by choosing another knifeedge diffraction method or changing the diffraction adjustment coefficient. Therefore, it is better to exclude this range from the CW measurement analysis.
7.8
Tune the diffraction adjustment coefficient
The diffraction adjustment coefficient k7 adjusts the diffraction loss determined by the knifeedge diffraction method. Find the best fit of diffraction adjustment coefficient by an iterative process on incremental changes (in steps by +/ 0.05) and reanalysis until the overall mean error is minimized. In the same the standard deviation of the mean error is minimized
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Note:
Changing the diffraction adjustment coefficient have no significant effect on the results within the range of 0...4 [km], but it can have a significant effect on the mean error and the standard deviation for distances greater than 6 [km].
7.9
Reanalyze, Fine Tuning
Reanalyze the calibrated coefficients (especially, k1,k 2 and the clutter offset, but not the knifeedge diffraction or effective antenna height calculation method) by an iterative process on incremental changes until the overall standard deviation is minimized.
8
How to use MeaAnalyse
The application MeaAnalyse creates several numerical statistics in tabs separated ASCII text file for the import into Excel, from where it is possible to produce charts and graphs. The purpose of MeaAnalyse is to provide statistical outputs allow an easier and faster analysis of the survey data (calibration of the propagation model), for user not involved in the model calibration as well. MeaAnalyse processes the Aircom Asset Analyse text file contains the bin information. MeaAnalyse subdivides the bin information to the categories LOS&NLOS, LOS and NLOS as well as to the used clutter. Furthermore, MeaAnalyse determine not only the overall mean prediction error, RMS error and standard deviation, but also for user defined segments (e.g. determine the mean error, RMS error and standard deviation in segments of 500m) of distances from the test site(s). 8.1
Get the Bin Information
1. Start Aircom Asset 2. Start the CW Measurement Analysis Tool and load the survey data
3. Click on Options, in the CW Measurement Analysis window 4. Select the Prediction Model to Analyse
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5. Specify the Filter. Exclude clutter categories have no sufficient amount of bins as well as not suitable to tune the prediction model for special conditions (e.g. tuning a model for urban application does not require survey data within rural area). Specify the Min/Max Radius [m] of interest. Specify the Min/Max Signal [dBm]. Click on Visibility LOS and click on Visibility NLOS.
6. Click on Bin Information
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7. Clicking on the Analyse button in the CW Measurement Analysis window will start the CW measurement analysis. 8. When the CW measurement analysis has been finished the CW Measurement Analysis Tool produces the Analyse text file contains the bin information shown below
9. Save this file (e.g. AssetAnalyse.txt) . Note: The file extension must be .txt
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8.2
Get Spread Sheets with MeaAnalyse
1. Copy the executable MeaAnalyse.exe to the directory where the Asset Analyse text file (contains the bin information) is stored. 2. In the WindowsExplorer, double clicking on MeaAnalyse.exe starts the application
3. Enter the full file specification of the Asset Analyse text file and press Return. 4. Enter the interval width (e.g. 250m) and press Return. If the MaxRadius (specified in the Aircom Asset CW Measurement Analysis Tool) is 5000m, then you will get 20 intervals. For each interval MeaAnalyse calculates the mean prediction error, the standard deviation and the RMS error as well as the number of bins.
5. When the analysis has been finished MeaAnalyse creates 6 ASCII text files <*>_DistributedBins.txt <*>_DistributedMeanError.txt <*>_DistributedRMSError.txt <*>_DistributedStandardDeviation.txt <*>_DistributedStandardDeviationVsMeanError.txt <*>_Summary.txt The first 5 ASCII text files are spread sheets (Tab separated) to import into the Excel application. The File <*>_Summary.txt can displayed in an ASCII text editor like NotePad.
8.3
With:
Create Charts by Excel
<*>_DistributedBins.txt <*>_DistributedMeanError.txt <*>_DistributedRMSError.txt <*>_DistributedStandardDeviation.txt
1. Start Excel and open one of the MeaAnalyse statistic files (e.g. <*>_DistributedMeanError.txt). 2. Import the data (start the import from the second line) and click twice on Next and then on Finish.
Author: DocID: Date: H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions Revision: Page: 1.1 50 of 53
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
3. Select the clutter type of interest (e.g. open, open(LOS) and open(NLOS)). Column A contains the radius subdivided by the user defined interval. The column open represents the summary for LOS and NLOS (in this example the mean error), the column open(LOS) represents statistics only to LOS bins and the column open(NLOS) represents statistics only to NLOS bins. In case of interested in the clutter category light_density_residential, the columns (B,C,D) have to skip (fade out). The last three columns called Total, Total(LOS) and Total(NLOS) represent the overall statistics (clutter summary).
Author: DocID: Date:
H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions
Revision: Page:
1.1 51 of 53
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
4. Start the DiagramAssistant, as shown below select the settings and click on Next.
5. Then you will see for the clutter type open the mean prediction error versus the distance.
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With:
Create Chart Standard Deviati n v .
Author: DocID: Date:
H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions
Revision: Page:
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RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
2. Import the data (start the import from the second line) and click twice on Next and then on Finish.
3. Select the clutter type have an interest in (e.g. open(LOS)). In this example you have to select the columns D,E,F. Do not select the first line, but only select the line contain numerical values. For each clutter category considered in the analysis you will find 9 columns. The column <cluttertype>x represents the mean error (summary of LOS and NLOS), the columns <cluttertype>y represents the standard deviation and the column <cluttertype>size represents the number of bins (e.g. openx, openy and opensize).
Columns marked with <cluttertype>x, <cluttertype>y, <cluttertype>size represents the summary of LOS and NLOS bins. Columns marked with <cluttertype>x(LOS), <cluttertype>y(LOS), <cluttertype>size(LOS) only represents LOS bins. Columns marked with <cluttertype>x(NLOS), <cluttertype>y(NLOS), <cluttertype>size(NLOS) only represents NLOS bins.
Author: DocID: Date:
H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions
Revision: Page:
1.1 53 of 53
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning
4. Start the DiagramAssistant, as shown below select the settings and click on Next.
5. Then you will see the standard deviation vs. Mean prediction error for the clutter type open(LOS). Each ball represents by the location the standard deviation and the mean error for a distance interval. The size of the balls represents qualitative the amount of bins considered for each distance interval.
Author: DocID: Date: H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions Revision: Page: 1.1 54 of 53
RF Guideline Propagation Model Tuning




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H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions Revision: Page: 1.1 55 of 53
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Author: DocID: Date:
H.H. Röhrig Lucent Technologies Proprietary RFETQAREP00010V01.00 12 September 00 Use Pursuant to Company Instructions
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