Diffusion of Glucose and Starch Through the Semi-Permeable Membrane of a Dialysis Tube Lab Report

Namarik Al-Enizy IB Biology Year 1 Mrs. Daena Wednesday, November18, 2009

At this point. the dialysis tube should have acted as a selectively permeable membrane and allowed for only the small glucose molecules to diffuse through it. at equilibrium. this was not the case. which indicated a negative test for the presence of sugar. with the rest of the solution transparent throughout. p. 2007. 2002). diffusion is one type of passive transport.33) stated that. moreover. test tube #2 turned yellow only on the surface. 2002). withthe involvement of a membrane. Thus. p. this was a positive test for starch. According to the Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers (2001). In this experiment. the concentration of a given substance is the same on both sides of a membrane.33). the results should have been that glucose would have diffused across the dialysis tube¶s artificial membrane and into the beaker. November18. Just like a real life cell. with starch molecules remaining trapped within the bag itself because of their relatively large size. The results. the test tube was left to sit still for quite a while before being attended to). were as follows: y y y y After adding 10 drops of benedicts solution. Furthermore. Particles of a certain type [in this case. Tosto. which was a positive test for sugar.. the predicted hypothesis was partially rejected. Damon. In some circumstances. with the rest of the solution transparent throughout. test tube #3 transformed into a yellow color. Diffusion was supposed to be demonstrated as the purpose of this experimental procedure. only sugar would have diffused.Conclusion: The size of the pore in the dialysis tubing played a critical role in determining what solutes could pass into or out of the bag. 1998). and demonstrated how membranes can push off certain molecules while allowing others to diffuse through (Jacobs. it is also necessary to state the sole purpose of diffusion in living cells. Unlike the expectation that both glucose and starch molecules would diffuse across the membrane. this indicates a negative test for starch (contrast in color is due to the negligence to stir the solution before testing for results. Thus. After adding 10 drops of benedicts solution. the textbook itself offers a descriptive diagram of the process of diffusion involving a glucose cube which disperses from the higher concentration area to the lower concentration area when placed into a water-filled beaker (Damon et al. and Ward (2007. which were too large to fit through the pores in the dialysis tubing]. however. Daena Wednesday. but only because of the lack of sufficient time provided to complete the procedure. 2009 . However. seeing as it did not comply with a portion of what was supposed to be the actual experimental outcome. McGonegal. test tube #4 turned a dark purple only on the surface. thus proving the predicted hypothesis partially incorrect (Sujeeth. which is to maintain equilibrium. This artificial selectively permeable membrane acted as a model for the selectively permeable membranes used in real life cells. test tube #1 turned a light blue color after heating. After adding 3 drops of iodine solution.´ Namarik Al-Enizy IB Biology Year 1 Mrs. After adding 3 drops of iodine solution. sugar] move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. equilibrium is not achieved because molecules on one side of a membrane become trapped [just as occurred with the starch molecules. the sugar particles would have moved from an area of high solute concentration (which was in the dialysis tube) to an area of relatively no or very low solute concentration (which was the environment in the beaker) in order to achieve equilibrium within their surrounding environment (Sujeeth.

Another possible reason as to why the substances (mainly sugar since it is the substance that should without a doubt have diffused into the beaker due to its small size) were unable to diffuse across the artificial membrane might have been due to the fact that the sugar and starch substances were not fully dissolved into their solutions prior to the conduction of the actual experiment. Random Error: y y Temperature variations of the hot water bath (not kept at a constant temperature. Experimental material was notably variable (for example. However. the dialysis tubing was unable to allow the diffusion of either substance across its artificial membrane. Human Error: y Not properly timing the procedure (the stopwatch wasn t turned on at the precise tie that the dialysis tube was submerged within the beaker. and this may be due to the fact that the required time that the dialysis tube was supposed to stay submerged within the beaker was cut short. Hence. Daena Wednesday. y Accidentally spilling an amount of a certain substance while transporting it from one area to another (the dialysis tube was very flexible. y Not properly dissolving the sugar and starch substances within their own solutions(a spoon was used to break down the molecules). Thus. However. these substances would have diffused from the dialysis t ube and into the beaker. Although flaws and errors are an inevitable part of experimentation that can never be entirely avoided. 2009 . since the solutions were both left to sit unattended for quite a while. Systematic Error: Namarik Al-Enizy IB Biology Year 1 Mrs. they were returned back to their crystallized forms (Sujeeth. This was true because if the dialysis tubing was permeable to sugar and starch. the results should have been for the beaker to test positive for the presence of glucose. In such an experiment. thus causing the solution in the beaker to test positive for both substances (Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers. so it was hard to keep all the water within it as it was being untightened) . 2002). two different pipettes with different scale increments were used to transport the solutions from one area to another).Evaluation of the procedure: The two substances that were being tested for in this experiment were starch and sugar. 2001). 2002). it was decreased to 17 minutes due to time restraint. Unfortunately. is turned off and on). when looking to the proper experimental outcome. it must be noted that only glucose was to diffuse across the tubing due to its relatively small size compared to an average starch molecule (Sujeeth. many of the flaws within this experiment could have been easily corrected. since glucose particles would have easily diffused through the dialysis tube s permeable membrane due to their relatively small size compared to starch molecules. thus the results of the experiment turned out inaccurate due to an increase in error. the sugar and starch substances were not able to diffuse through the tiny pores that made up the membrane of the dialysis tube. November18. With such a restraint in time that was exhibited during the conduction of this experiment. limiting experimental consistency). the dialysis tubing was found to be impermeable to either of these substances. with not enough time. this was not the case at all. Instead of keeping the tube in the beaker for at least 20 minutes.

through this. Also in the near future. adhering to a specific instrument during the procedure is vital to the precision of the experimental results.) In accordance with the calculated experimental results and the actual results that should have been obtained. rather than having more than one task at once which drives him/her to neglect the task of time-keeping. if water is placed in a test tube and it begins to leak. Moreover. it is vital to underscore the significance of the errors and weaknesses that occurred during the procedure. By achieving these factors in the near future. Furthermore. it would have been much better if a specific student was assigned to monitor the water bath and keep it at a stable temperature (not too high so the water doesn t boil. to avoid spilling any water when untightening a dialysis bag. while another person removes the clipping. due to the variations in the temperature of the hot water bath at specific times. rather than using varied instruments to fulfill the same task. so as not to have to waste part of the class period organizing equipment. Namarik Al-Enizy IB Biology Year 1 Mrs.y Badly made instruments (the pipettes used to transport the solution required an extensive amount of time to simply suck in the proper amount of each substance. results were not consistent. seeing as that student will have to focus on being efficient with time. it would be best to have one person hold the tube itself. Also. all equipment must be checked for defects in performance (for example. Another possible alternative to such an experimental error is possibly preparing all equipment beforehand to avoid taking up much time on equipment preparation in class. it must be concluded that these weaknesses were extremely significant. To fulfill this requirement. Also. November18. rather than cramping it all up into one. For example. Daena Wednesday. so another test tube must replace it). 2009 . Seeing as these errors completely altered the expected course of the results. Improving the Investigation: For future improvements. measurements and observations can be properly relied upon to provide accurate results. the lab should be organized so that it can be finished within two class periods (or even after school for two hours). time management would have been attainable. and not too low so the water is not hot enough). assigning only one person the task of ti ming would be extremely helpful to the experiment. when using a certain pipette to suck out water from a beaker. it is extremely crucial to adhere to the same kind of pipette that sucks up the same amount of water. equipment should also be tested prior to the experiment so as not to have to use poor instruments during the procedure. Thus. consistency is achieved. then the test tube is most likely broken. Another modification to be considered is to prepare the experimental equipment beforehand. experiments should never be rushed in the near future in order to ensure that the outcome turns out as expected. rather than having one person do both these jobs at once. it would be necessary to consider alternatives such as dissolving a liquid glucose rather than having to dissolve actual sugar particles in distilled water.

(2007). from http://thecavern.htm. Arvind (2002). fromwww. Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers (2001). Tosto.W. Sujeeth.html. Daena Wednesday. Retrieved December 2.Retrieved December 2.net/Biology/jacobs/bio131/diffusion/Diff&Os.hfcc.. Starch. New Jersey: Pearson Education. and IKI Through Dialysis Tubing .bio. 2009 .. C. A.References: Damon. McGonegal. Higher Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma.edu/lab/dl/DABM. R.netfirm. 2009. Diffusion Across Biological Membranes: A Simulation. Diffusion and Osmosis. Jacobs. Namarik Al-Enizy IB Biology Year 1 Mrs. P. 2009. & Ward. The Diffusion of Glucose.. Retrieved November 29.cibt. (1998). 2009. W. from http://sciweb. November18.cornell.com/essay/diffusion.

November18. Daena Wednesday. 2009 .Namarik Al-Enizy IB Biology Year 1 Mrs.

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