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Sanskrit Introductory
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A Practical

Preface
This course of fteen lessons is intended to lift the English-speaking student who knows nothing of Sanskrit, to the level where he can intelligently apply MonierWilliams' dictionary1 and the Dhatu-Patha2 to the study of the scriptures. .

The rst ve lessons cover the pronunciation of the basic Sanskrit alphabet, together with its written form in both Devanagar and transliterated Roman: ash cards are included as an aid. The notes on pronunciation are largely descriptive, based on mouth position and e ort, with similar English (Received Pronunciation) sounds o ered where possible. The next four lessons describe vowel embellishments to the consonants, the principles of conjunct consonants, and additions to and variations in the Devanagar alphabet. Lessons ten and eleven present sandhi in grid form and explain their principles in sound. The next three lessons penetrate Monier-Williams' dictionary through its four levels of alphabetical order, and suggest strategies for nding di cult words. The last lesson shows the extraction of the artha from the Dhatu-Patha, and the . application of this and the dictionary to the study of the scriptures. In addition to the primary course, the rst eleven lessons include a `B' section which introduces the student to the principles of sentence structure in this fully in ected language. Six declension paradigms and class-1 conjugation in the present tense are used with a minimal vocabulary of nineteen words. In the `B' part of lessons ten and eleven the principles of compound words are introduced.

The course aims at a practical understanding of the basic principles, at getting a `feel' for the language, and not a learning of rules by rote. To this end, each lesson concludes with exercises for the student to put that understanding into practice: answers to the exercises are presented in an appendix.
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1 Monier-Williams

Sanskrit-English Dictionary is currently published by both Motilal Banarsidass in India and Oxford University Press in England: although the two are printed from the same plates, the latter is far superior in the quality of printing, paper, and binding| and this is re ected in its much higher price. 2 The edition of the Dhatupatha referred to in these notes is that edited . by J.L.Shastri and published by Motilal Banarsidass: it is a small book and quite inexpensive.

that have been handed down over generations. Consider the English spoken in Britain and America for example: they are certainly di erent. but neither is wrong.za June. an appendix of basic English grammatical terms is included. Where there is a variation in the form of a character (e.nac. these lessons standardize on the form that is most commonly used in currently available printed editions of the Bhagavad G ta and Upanisads.iv A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The pronunciation o ered in these lessons is optimised for the English-speaking student to understand the underlying principles of sandhi (sound changes). 1996. although this may confuse the mind trained to think in terms of opposites. .g.ac. and o er suggestions for its improvement. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: In the English-speaking world there is currently little appreciation of the value of studying formal grammar: as a result it has become unpopular. None of these traditions are wrong. and many schools have ceased to teach it. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Readers are invited to point out errors in the course. of right and wrong. A or A ). wikner@nacdh4. In view of this situation. variations are illustrated in the ninth lesson. The common . Charles Wikner. There are several variations in the pronunciation of some of the Sanskrit sounds.

3.1.2.4.2.5.Contents Preface :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: iii v ix 1 Contents ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Invocation A. A. A.1. A. A. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 1 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowel Measures Sanskrit Pronunciation The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The Other Simple Vowels: r l . Practicing the Alphabet B.3. The Final Consonant: ha B. Summary of Verbs B.. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 31 Lesson 5 A.2. A. Exercises Pronunciation of the Stops Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 13 Lesson 3 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va B.6.4. The Concept of Dhatu Introduction to Verbs Exercises Flash Cards Lesson 2 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: The Five Mouth Positions B. The Compound Vowels: e ai o au Summary of All Vowels The Sixteen Sakti: am ah . Exercises Summary of the Consonants The Alphabetical Order Devanagar Alphabet B. Introduction to nouns . Exercises 21 Lesson 4 A.5. A. A. A. More on Noun Cases B.4.3.2. A.1.1.2. B.3.1. .1. More on Verbs The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma B. A. Devanagar Alphabet ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 37 . B.1.3.7.4.6. A.3. A. B. More on Noun Cases B. A. Exercises B.1.2. A. A. A.1.1. More on Verbs The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa B.2.8. A.2.

1.1. More Noun Declensions Adjectives Adverbs Vocabulary Summary Exercises 63 A.4.3.3. Joining Words in Writing B.4.1. B. A.2. B.2. Nasal Substitution for Anusvara Devanagar Numerals B. Avyay bhava Samasa Bahuvr hi Samasa Exercises 85 .4. Use of iti Variations in Samyoga B.1. A. B. B.1. Verbal Pre xes B.3. A. Pronunciation of j~a n List of Conjunct Consonants Special Symbols Halanta Consonants ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B. B. Lesson 9 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Vowels Accents B.2. Exercises 53 Lesson 8 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Savarna .2.3. B.5. B. A. A. A. A.4.2. Exercises 77 A.5. B.1. Pronunciation of ksa . Introduction to Compound Words B. History of Vowel Embellishment A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 6 B.1.2. A.3.1. A.4.3.2. A. B. Revision :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 71 Lesson 10 Introduction to Sandhi Guna and Vrddhi . Exercises .3. :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: B.vi A. .3.4.6.5.2. A. A. A.2. B. Types of Words Variations in Devanagar Alphabet B.3. B.1. Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit Noun Gender Summary of Case Information Exercises 45 A.2.5.2. Visarga Sandhi A. A.2. Dvandva Samasa Tatpurusa Samasa . A.4.1.1. Lesson 7 Conjunct Consonants Special Conjuncts ksa and j~a n . Consonant Sandhi Grid A. Vowels after Consonants A. A.3. Internal Sandhi Lesson 11 Samprasarana . Vowel Sandhi Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi B. A.1.

8. 4. 4. 5.Contents vii :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: Lesson 12 1. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . 6. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 6. 4. 5. 7. 5. The Contents Page The Text Body The Index Dhatu Spelling Changes Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use . 2. 4. Study of the Scriptures Study Practice ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 109 Appendix 1: Suggestions for Further Study Appendix 2: Answers to Exercises Sanskrit Glossary and Index Appendix 3: English Grammatical Terms ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 121 123 135 141 :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: . ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 103 Lesson 15 1. 5. 2. 8. 6. 97 Lesson 14 1. 7. 3. Monier-Williams Dictionary Alphabet and Transliteration Fundamental Structure Page Heading Words Dictionary Practice Words beginning with SaStructure of Devanagar level Structure within non-Dhatu entries References and Abbreviations Special Symbols Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Supplement to the Dictionary Dictionary Practice Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Dhatu Entry Information Numbered Entries Misleading Words Di cult Words Dictionary Practice :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 91 Lesson 13 1.

viii A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

a.d sea. . | I z A d a. Panini: ba. energetic.] tejas | sharp (edge of a knife) point or top of ame or ray. splendour.1. . :pa. sharpening.i.a. tea. we have: \May the Light Shine upon our Studies.P. `may it be'. re ptij | mw 446a to be or become sharp.N+ :pa= smEa. attained. Comment: Tejas is a name given to the subtle element of re. tejasvin | mw 454c mfn. get about to go to or towards. | a.j+ Bva. studied. (Invocation to Katha UUpanisad . p A:~tu+| rst of as `let it be'.ta. Treating adh tam as a neuter noun and tejasvi its complement.vaDa. .d:ga.d A ana. . adhyayana | mw 22c n. . pas | mwpersontosingular imperativepresent. going.E+| genitive dual of personal pronoun `I'.| A.a. May our study be full of light.pa. spread. :::::::: :: :::::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::: (Invocation to Daksinamurti Upanisad.hu lM C*nd as+{ 5| 2| 122{ In the Veda the a x -vin is variously introduced .N+ A a. perceiving. the act of causing to remember.!a.a. live.a.tmanea. reading. na. besides. come . Let our study be brilliant.N+ :pa= smEa.+| neuter nominative singular of adh tam. A.P. Swam Sarvananda) (Invocation to Taittir ya 2.E+ A. gati | mw 347c f. calling to mind. over and above.Sastry) .P.d A ana. to undertake anything to be employed in. (Invocation to Taittir ya 2. .j!a.pa. (to be).pa. to arrive at. this may be understood as the heat that burns o the dross of ignorance and allows the light of understanding to shine through. i.| sma=*Ne+| . A. learned.a.d:ga.tmanea. (The past passive participle used in the sense of an abstract noun. May our study be vigorous and e ective. whetting observing.N+ :pa= smEa.| ana.d:ga. moving. especially the Veda s. Judith Tyberg) neuter nominative singular of adjective tejasvin. splendid. p adhi. or simply `be!' 117a be. glow.tam.Za. gait. adhi | mw 20b pre x expressing above.) adh ta |mw 22c mfn. Dh. go on with. in the sense of matup (`belonging to this'. reminding. bright. exist. pi | to go. studying.N+ A a. smarana | mw 1272b n.M.pa. continue in any condition or relation .`a. light. giving the meaning `of us both (student and teacher)'. walk to ow to blow to advance. understand. `existing in this').f.pa. having qualities of heat and light. Swam Gambh rananda) (First Lessons in Sanskrit. .d A ana. the act of arising or becoming.a~v+| .d:ga.d:ga.E+| . rather than the literal word-by-word translation. brilliant.tam. observe. Dh. .1.e.v+| bhu | mw 760c f. reach. te!a.ane+| nisana | mw 561a n." y y The light of understanding/knowledge/truth.ja. . obtain . motion in general.Da.ix INVOCATION Translations: E ective may our study prove! May our study be thorough and fruitful. . happen. be take place. | A:s+ A d a. .a~v+ na. to turn the mind towards.ja. | I k A d a.| Bua. | I z A d a. Using poetic licence to convey the sense of the whole. to succeed.d a.ta. Swam Gambh rananda) .a~v+ na. With reference to our study of Sanskrit.+ A:~tu+{ .f. Dh.Dyayane+| .d sea. brilliance.f.a. read well-read.Da.a.f. deportment. Dh.f.P. Dh. or simply `our'.tama~tu+! . Let what we are studying be invigorating.a. this gives a rather plodding translation of `Let our study be bright'. (Invocation to Katha Upanisad .P.| ga. glare. Swam Sarvananda) .an+{ tea.

x A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

each letter represents one.A. There are two fundamental divisions to the alphabet: the vowel (svara) and the consonant (vya~jana). In English. sound. and indeed throughout the systems of thought expressed in Sanskrit. but not so in Sanskrit.) 1. accent and n vya~jana an adornment or decoration (to the sound). the letter `a' for example. two. The short vowels are held for one measure (matra). It is essential to use the correct mouth position and not to merely imitate an approximation of the sound. may indicate many sounds (e. many.Lesson 1. where many means more than two) manifests throughout the grammar. will not be understood. manifesting (as a stop in the n sound). The word devanagar means the `city (nagar ) of immortals (deva)'. for it re ects the natural evolution of creation. far). Without this.A Sanskrit is written in devanagar script. In Sanskrit. and then instead of simply moving the tongue we move the whole jaw | and what a great weight that is to move about. fate. The prolonged measure occurs in Vedic Sanskrit but is rare in Classical Sanskrit the prolonged measure (as a full breath) is useful in practising the vowels. the pronunciation of English requires much e ort.g. (You may also see it as the long vowel followed by 3. 1. and the prolonged for three or more measures. fat. the development of the alphabet and the euphonic combinations that occur in continuous speech.A. The alphabet is systematically arranged according to the structure of the mouth. fare.2 Sanskrit Pronunciation The pronunciation of Sanskrit is very simple: you open the mouth wide and move the tongue and lips as necessary: the tongue and lips are almost pure muscle and have little inertia or resistance to movement. the long vowels for two measures. for we barely open the mouth (which means that all sounds are indistinct or blurred). and only one. Having . The prolonged measure in both transliterated Roman script and devanagar is indicated by the short vowel followed by the numeral 3.1 Vowel Measures Vowels can be short (hrasva) or long (d rgha) or prolonged (pluta). This system of enumeration (one. There are no capital letters. The word svara literally means sound. By contrast. tone.

is to open the mouth! For English. the mouth opens to a mere slit of about 6-mm (a pencil thickness) for Sanskrit this needs to increase fourfold | literally! Try this out for yourself: with the mouth opened to a slit.3 The Three Primary Vowels: a i u The sounding of a3 is simplicity itself: with body and mind relaxed but alert. and the long u like `boot' or `suit'. The short i sounds similar to the vowel in `pink' and not `pin'. the short a sounds similar to the vowel in `but' and de nitely not `bat' likewise the long a is similar to the vowel in `harm' and not `ham'. open the mouth as for a3 and raise the back of the tongue (the tip should be relaxed behind the bottom front teeth). and the long like `peep' or `seat' the short u is similar to the vowel in `put' or `soot'. To sound u3. breathe out and simply desire that the vocal cords vibrate. In producing the short a there is a slight tensioning in the throat that tension should not be there for the long a or the prolonged a3. In spite of this di erence between a and a. 1. The biggest single factor in practising the re ned sounds of Sanskrit. As a very rough guide. they are treated as though the same in the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) of the grammar.A. it does require some attention to break that habit and speak with a moving tongue. In producing this sound it will be noticed that there is a slight constriction or tensioning in the throat as compared with the relaxed throat when sounding a3. lling the opening) there should be no tension in the lips or face muscles.2 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory become well practised in speaking with a moving jaw. and with tongue relaxed. allow the lips to form a small circular opening of the mouth (so that the moistened back of a pencil just slips in and out. like two ngers. open the throat and mouth wide. to the richness and fulness that emerges. so pout rather than purse the lips. There will be a similar tension in the throat as for i3. What could be more natural than that? This sound is central to all the vowel sounds indeed. the whole alphabet is simply an embellishment of this sound. . sound a prolonged a3 and slowly open the mouth wide and listen to the change in the quality. To sound i3. The mouth needs to open a lot more than you think | so don't think! | use a measure.

. . and . then practise directly sounding r3 for a full breath. Let's examine what we have so far. begin by sounding a prolonged i3 and .4 The Other Simple Vowels: r l . and lr . r These vowels appear to have vanished from popular speech.A. i l . .A. surnames like Przybylski it is also present in English in some pronunciations of the word `interesting' as `int r sting' or `intrsting'. Do not try to hold the back of the tongue in the i3 position. ik. In practice. Continue the exercise as for . The pandit of today tends to pronounce r as if it were .r even more improbably as r similarly l and l tend to be pronounced as lri .Lesson 1.5 The Compound Vowels: e ai o au a u r . and l occurs only in one verb (klp. To get to the correct pronunciation of r3. slowly raise the tip of the tongue so that it pointing to the top of the head. . `pretty'. This accounts for the transliteration scheme found in the dictionary.. a vestigial i will emerge due to the bunching of the muscle at the back of the tongue when moving the tip downwards. when either of these vowels is followed by a consonant whose mouth position requires that the tip of the tongue be at a lower position. 1. approaching but not touching the roof of the mouth. . start sounding with a prolonged i3 and slowly raise the tip of . 0 0 The long l is not used in the standard grammar. should produce no i sound at all. Similarly for l3.A 3 1. Repeat the exercise a few times until comfortable with the sound of r3. each having its own unique mouth position. the tongue to behind the upper front teeth without touching them. 3. de ne the ve mouth positions used for the whole alphabet. and then the i gave rise to r and l . or indeed in the American `prdy' for . . to manage. In fact the vocalic r is still present in Eastern European languages and you may come across .. We began with a and from this developed u and i to give the three primary vowels.. ve basic vowels. for example rk tends to produce . ri. . but a word like Krsna r . nor try to move it out of that position: simply have no concern with what is happening at the back of the tongue. These . . . to be well ordered or regulated). just attend to the tip of the tongue and listen. . . and the memory of how to pronounce them has faded. .

so that the position of the lips is roughly half way between that used for u and a. . when a is sounded through the u mouth position. e a i The e sound arises when a is sounded through the i mouth position. The au sounds similar to the vowel in `down' or `hound' but without the glide from a to u. i. so to move from e towards the a sound. The ai sounds similar to the vowel in `aisle' or `pie' there should be no glide or slide in the sound from a to i. au a o And nally.4 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Further vowels are derived by combining the a sound with i and u to form the four compound vowels (sandhyaksara). and the throat is relaxed. The vowel e sounds similar to that in `fair' or `eight'. o a u In a manner similar to the arising of e. we need to drop the back of the tongue to a position half way between that used for i and e and the relaxed position used for a. while i has the back of the tongue raised and the throat tense: so relaxing the throat while retaining the back of the tongue raised will produce e. .e. with the lips in the position for u but the throat relaxed for sounding a. ai a e The ai sound arises when e is further combined with a as it were. the au sound arises when a is combined with o. the sound o naturally arises. Now the only di erence between e and a is the raised back of the tongue. Remember that a has a relaxed throat and tongue. The vowel o should sound between `awe' and `owe' (or between the vowel sounds in `corn' and `cone') the ideal is that point where the sound could be taken as either of the two English sounds.

not ham pink / peep fair or eight aisle or `pie' put / boot between owe awe down or hound (acre) (table) The English approximations are only a very rough guide. Rather follow the instructions given earlier. Note that all these vowel sounds may be sounded continuously for a full breath: there is no glide from one sound to another.6 Summary of All Vowels au o u r . a i l . Approx. or oral guidance given in person.A 5 1. being an addition of two sounds as it were. but have no short measure. tip vertical half-raised back. not bat harm. y but.A. Vowel Throat tense relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense relaxed relaxed tense tense Tongue relaxed relaxed raised back raised back half-raised back relaxed relaxed relaxed half-raised back. Also note that the four sounds e ai o au. y a a i/ e ai u/u o au r . l . especially considering the wide variety of accents around the world. .Lesson 1. ai e Combining the previous ve sketches illustrates the central role played by the a sound. tip upper teeth Lips wide open wide open wide open wide open wide open small circle small circle large circle wide open wide open Eng. are naturally long (d rgha) and may also be prolonged (pluta).

are used because the Sanskrit alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet. To these fourteen vowels are added the anusvara and visarga to form what are called the sixteen matrka or sakti (powers or energies). 1. Another method of practising the alphabet is to use ash cards with the devanagar letter on one side and the transliterated Roman letter on the other (in case you forget you can turn over). When you write the letter. Remember that the exercise is not simply to copy the original form. . The visarga (h). but to associate a sound with a whole form. for example the macron (horizontal bar above the letter) is used to indicate the long (d rgha) version of the vowel. sound it. and is . Strictly speaking. In this exercise it is important to associate the sound with the form. you forget how to continue the letter. or visarjan ya. .7 The Sixteen sakti: am ah .6 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1. The anusvara (m) is . It is sounded through the nose only. so that any one of these associates with the other two. an `after sound'. Since these both arise after a vowel we shall precede them with a when sounding the sixteen sakti. the lines and dots.8 Practising the Alphabet One way of memorizing the script is by writing it: look at the form of the letter.A. These cards can also be used in the other direction: from the transliterated Roman letter. When the shape has become familiar then time can be spent re ning the proportions of the letter.r r l l e ai o au am ah . . a a i u u . there needs to be a three way association. the anusvara and visarga are not part of the alphabet inasmuch as they arise only through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination). Later on we shall consider how it may be substituted by a nasal consonant depending on the following letter. so that ah may be sounded as aha. If. namely between both the written forms and the sound. Diacritics are combined with Roman letters to represent new sounds. Some traditions append an echo of the vowel after the breath. write the whole letter without referring back to the original. half way through. is an unvoiced breath following a vowel. . breathed through the mouth position of that vowel.e. which form the start of the alphabetical order.A. . a nasal sound following a vowel. see if you can visualize the devanagar form. etc. . and then write it. called `diacritical marks'. . then start again: and do not continue with that half-completed letter. In fact. and should be independent of mouth position. .: In the transliteration scheme shown above. i. so do not practise half letters. .

the second i .A 7 The ideal way of becoming familiar with these sounds and letters is to spend 15{20 minutes each day on the written exercise. The transliteration of the rst row is a a. into the paper) and nally remove the sharp edges by `writing' on 1000-grit water paper on a rm at surface. They are the short (hrasva) and long (d rgha) measures of the three primary vowels.5mm) is best for practising the forms of the letters.6mm) for normal writing. A A+ I o IR . 22 2.Lesson 1.) and le the end of the nib to 22 as shown. 6 Here are the rst six devanagar characters to practise. and a much narrower nib ( 0. and one minute at a time 15{20 times throughout the day with the ash cards. You will nd that a broad nib ( 2.5mm Pens with nibs pre-ground to the correct angle are not generally available. File across the nib (in the sketch. and the thickness of the nib about 1 of the width. so start with an inexpensive calligraphy fountain pen (Schae er. and the third u u. As a very rough guide the nib width should be 1 8 of the overall height of the A character. Platignum. etc.

make a practice of. From this pie root sta are derived other simple English verbs. and thus the simple verb derived from the dhatu stha may be translated as `to stand'. stagnant. together with a concise sense of their universal meaning.1 The Concept of Dhatu A dhatu is a rudimentary verbal element from which words are derived: it is the nucleus to which other word fragments are added to form a whole word. etc.B. each of which is an aspect of that common universal idea. estate. for these fundamental roots are included in the language itself. The situation is a lot simpler in Sanskrit. last. stay. it would be necessary to study its etymological derivation from the Latin. which is the sense of the meaning of the dhatu stha given in the Dhatu-Patha (lit. such as stay. To appreciate how `stand' changes to `state' for example. remain. and its grammar fully describes the development of words from the dhatu to its fully in ected form as found in sentences. Pre xes may be added to this to form further verbs. instant. `recitation of roots'). rely on. be left alone. which is . stack. wait. stand fast'. | all these express some sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. such as `standard' indeed. ecstatic. endure. do not attempt to pronounce the Sanskrit words included in the text: this will save the unnecessary labour of unlearning the incorrect pronunciation.Lesson 1. extant. 1. . stay quiet. which has the sense of `cessation or absence of movement'. be intent upon. remain stationary. persevere. etc. such as constant. con de in. meaning `to stand. Consider the English verb `to stand'. halt. The dhatu itself is not found in general speech or writing. which diverges into many speci c meanings. continue. adhere to. stow. and may be likened to the universal idea of a verbal activity. a list of roots (about 2000 of them) giving grammatical information about their in ection. or su xes may be added to form nouns and adjectives. keep on. constitution. stem. stammer.B Note: Until you are familiar with the pronunciation of the consonants (given in the next lesson). stand still. But a dhatu or root is even more fundamental than a verb. tarry. a host of words may be derived from `stand'. such as `misunderstand'. hesitate. desist. The pie root sta is allied to the Sanskrit dhatu stha. stop. linger. Monier-Williams' dictionary gives several dozen English words that may be used in translating the verb: to stand. static. and ultimately from its Proto-IndoEuropean (pie) root sta.

. tisthati vadami ca He stands and I speak. there are three persons (purusa): the rst person (prathama. . tisthati . so that uttama-purusa can also mean Supreme Spirit . simple sentences may be constructed: prathama-purusa . uppermost. the dhatu does not necessarily undergo as great a _ p stha. For example: p dhatu (root) p stha sense of `cessation or absence of movement' anga (stem) tistha to stand _ . and to the stem is added a personal ending (tin-vibhakti) to form a _ _ complete verb (kriya). singular (eka-vacana) forms: Note that the order is the reverse of that used in English.2 Introduction to Verbs A dhatu (indicated with a surd or root symbol ` ' before it) develops to form a stem (anga). to give the . . As in English. With this limited vocabulary. tisthami . it means `last'. Some words. In Sanskrit the personal ending of the verb changes according to purusa. uttama-purusa . or highest. . madhyama-purusa . purusa). last person (uttama-purusa).. do not have endings these are called indeclinables (avyaya). The word uttama derives from ud....(up) and -tama (superlative su x) to mean best. middle person (madhyama-purusa). for example p vad remains clearly recognizable in the form change as with vadati `he/she/it speaks'. kriya (verb) tisthati he/she/it stands . . as we have here.B 9 1. An example of this is ca (`and') which is placed after the last word of the series it links (or after each word in the series). In forming the stem (anga). he/she/it stands you stand I stand vadami I speak or I am speaking. .Lesson 1. .B. in a series of place or time or order.. or You stand and speak. tisthasi vadasi ca You stand and you speak. however.. tisthasi . such as adverbs and conjunctions.

. and lead to understanding. Cut these out and start using them. The practical way to become familiar with the basics of Sanskrit is through practice: all the theory that is provided is simply so that the practice may be intelligent. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. I speak and you stand 5. and a further ten for the numerals. tisthami vadati ca . (a) Practise sounding the sixteen mat.4 Flash Cards The next sheet has the ash cards for the rst six vowels.. (c) Look up the verb `stand' in a good English dictionary and observe its wide range of meanings. at the end of each lesson a few simple exercises are presented. Flash cards for the rest of the alphabet will be provided at appropriate places in the course. 2.B.. .B. . vadasi tisthami ca . tisthami vadami ca . vadami tisthasi ca 6. It would be useful to keep the ash cards in a box (for example a cigarette box): there will be a total of forty-nine cards for the alphabet.. You speak and he stands 2. and writing them r in Roman script. 3. He stands and I speak 4.3 Exercises A wealth of information is presented in these notes. it is preferable not to learn them. (b) Practise writing and recognizing the rst six vowels in devanagar . tisthasi vadami ca 4. . You stand and he speaks 3. 1..10 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 1. but it is not at all necessary to learn all this or the Sanskrit technical terms: indeed. tisthati vadasi ca .. ka in their correct order. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. I stand and he speaks 6. You speak and I stand 5. With this aim in mind.

Lesson 1.B + in case you do not have access to a double-sided printer. making use of the registration marks bottom and top of each page. 11 * A A+ I + IR o . please glue this sheet to the next before cutting.

12 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory u u + i a a .

.. o and au use guttural and labial (kanthosthya). for example the ve in the guttural column (ka-varga) are stops at the back of the mouth.ve consonants are calls stops (sparsa) because the complete contact (sp. The same principle is used in English. . . These are arranged in ve sets (varga) according to mouth position and named after the rst letter in the group. . and thus diacritical marks are used with the Roman consonants to represent further sounds. and the labials (pa-varga) are stops at the lips. the mouth.1 The Five Mouth Positions The ve mouth positions are considered from within the oral cavity itself. for example the consonants `b-c-d' are pronounced `bee-cee-dee'. and nally the two lips (osthya) used by u.r l .A.. there are more consonants in Sanskrit than in English. a vowel) to stop (or start). and . . sta) in the mouth fully stops the breath (and hence the sound) through r.. . Like the vowels. . In fact.. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . guttural palatal cerebral dental labial a i . 2. The compound vowels make use of . is called the guttural position (kanthya): this is associated with the vowel a.2 The Twenty-Five Stops: ka to ma The rst twenty. next is the palatal position (talavya) used by the vowel i this is followed by the cerebral position (murdhanya) used by . .A. two mouth positions: e and ai use both guttural and palatal (kanthatalavya). the word `consonant' itself is derived from the the Latin cum (together with) and sonare (to sound).A The mouth positions (sthana) used by the vowels (svara) are also used by the consonants (vya~jana). mouth. they need a sound (i. Within these ve mouth positions the consonants are n further classi ed according to inner (abhyantara-) and outer (bahya-) methods of articulation or e ort (prayatna).Lesson 2. .. The back of the mouth as it narrows to form the throat. and the teeth (dantya) used by r l. Moving towards the front of the . u 2.e. The a is added for the sake of pronunciation only: being stops.

ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma The rst. dha . The nasal (anunasika) consonants continue to sound through the nose when the breath through the mouth has been stopped by the tongue or lips. . consonant. and pa. whereas the rst two rows are unvoiced (aghosa). The aspiration (prana) gives the native English speaker the most problems. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta . In terms of alphabetical order. these follow after the sixteen matrka in order from . the following notes may assist with rst-time pronunciation. and . for example. . The unvoiced (aghosa) stops have an explosive quality to them. third and fth rows are pronounced with little breath (alpaprana). i. i. . English there is a tendency to pronounce some consonants slightly aspirated before . comprises ka.2) describes the sounds authoritatively. the others not. whereas the voiced . slowly: this can be observed by listening to the di erence between ka and ga when `sounded' without the following a. The consonants in the fth row are nasalized (anunasika).A. ka-varga through pa-varga. ca. .A.: . In . .14 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya . . . 2. The last three rows are voiced (ghosa). . The table is also arranged horizontally by rows: the rst.3 Pronunciation of the Stops While the previous section (2. pa pha ba bha ma . na . the second and fourth rows with much breath (mahaprana). (ghosa) stops have a gentler quality to them as though releasing the stop more . tha . am ah ka kha ga gha na ca cha . . _ .. ta. . .e.e.. the vocal cords vibrate in producing the . ta. da .

however. pinch ~ t/t | tub. tap ph | uphill (`up-phill') b | be. as mentioned earlier. jolly. tongue _ c | cello. n/n | gentle. . i. long. pronounced purely with the lips (osthya). particularly for the ghosa consonants for example. god . dog. hand. English does not distinguish between dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya). church ch | coach-horse (`coa-chhorse') j | just.. There is a tradition that pronounces pha as `fa'. One e ect is that `d' and `t' are pronounced somewhere between the dental (dantya) and cerebral (murdhanya) positions another e ect is that many speakers do not use the palatal (talavya) position for the stops. makes use of both the teeth and lips (dantosthya): the rules of sound and grammar will be easier to understand if . Some English consonants are similar to those in Sanskrit. joy jh | hedgehog (`hej-jhog') n | enjoy. ja a softer ga. bha .A 15 a long vowel. This di erence needs to be greatly increased to distinguish between the alpaprana . vestigial vowel is inserted. and may be used to give a very rough guide to the Sanskrit pronunciation. It may help to consider the palatal stops as a modi cation or softening of the gutturals so that ca is a softer ka. imbibe bh | clubhouse (`club-bhouse') m | amble. aha'. mumble When in doubt. give. p | pick. k | kiss. th/th | anthill (`an-thill') . bug gh | loghouse (`log-ghouse') n | sing. tap. can be incorrectly pronounced as `b Because English pronunciation is acquired by imitating indistinct sounds which are not precisely described. canyon. cab. so that ca is pronounced as `tsha'. and mahaprana consonants. . back kh | bunkhouse (`bung-khouse') g | good. and so on. chair. pat. but the common error is to use so much breath that a . kiln.e. the previous section has the authoritative description. and this may be used to illustrate the di erence between for example.. pa and pha: attend to the `p' breath when pronouncing the two English words `pick' and `peek' | hold the nger tips close to the mouth to feel the di erence. gain . problems occur with the centre three mouth positions. cart . dh/dh | redhead (`red-dhead') . d/d | day.Lesson 2. and ja as `dza'.

a a i u u r r . .l l e ai . . here are all sixteen letters of the matrka to practise. .16 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2.A. A A + I IR o O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH . o au am ah .4 Devanagar Alphabet The previous lesson gave the rst six devanagar characters. The Roman transliteration of the four rows is: .

.B 2. As in English. and plural (bahu-vacana). There are ten tense/mood classi cations in Sanskrit: these are called lakara or l-a xes because their technical names all begin with the letter l. .tisthati .. dual (dvi-vacana). they (two) stand bahu-vacana tisthanti . we (pl. The personal endings are used to indicate both person and number. whereas in Sanskrit these are all included in the form of the verb itself.Lesson 2.): English makes extensive use of auxiliaries (might. .. benedictive. imperative. .) stand Note that when the subject is dual. The conjugations given here are all in the present indicative (simple present tense) called lat. etc.) stand madhyama. . they (pl. dvi-vacana tisthatah . etc. the dual form of the verb must be used. while in Sanskrit there is singular (eka-vacana).) to express these. should..tisthami . ought.1 More on Verbs As well as the division into purusa (person).. purusa you (sing. uttama. tisthavah . purusa he/she/it stands . purusa I stand ..tisthasi tisthathah . a verb may express time (past.) stand you (two) stand . variations in the formation of the stem (anga) from the dhatu. (vacana): in English there is singular and plural. you (pl. we (two) stand tisthatha .) stand tisthamah . A dhatu belongs to one of ten classes (gana) this classi cation is according to . . future tense) and mood (indicative. had.. conditional... present. . .B.. The verbs used to _ form simple sentences in this section are all from the rst class (bhvadi-gana). the verbs are divided into number . for example: eka-vacana prathama.

vadatah tisthamah ca . tisthathah vadavah ca .) stand 6. .) speak 6. 4. They (two) speak and he stands 7.) speak 2. 7. We (two) stand and you (pl.. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1.2 Exercises (b) Practise reading and writing the sixteen mat. tisthanti vadatah ca . 5. 8. You (two) speak and they (pl... . tisthatha vadathah ca . tisthasi vadavah ca .. .B.. They (pl. (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . . vadamah tisthatah ca . We (pl.. (a) Practise sounding the sixteen matrka in their correct order. ka in Roman script and r devanagar . .. You (two) stand and speak 4.) stand 3. .18 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. .. . tisthati vadanti ca . 3. You (pl. 2.) stand and I speak 5.) speak and you (sing. He stands and you (pl. tisthasi vadathah ca . .) stand and you (two) speak 8. . .

B O + + Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH 19 .Lesson 2.

. r .20 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ah am au o ai . + e l . l . . r .

and thus .. which only arise through the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) and are thus not strictly part of the alphabet. i moving to a gives rise to the sound ya. guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial ya ra la va The rst three of these.A The sound or letter ka is called kakara (`ka-action') the sound or letter ga is called gakara. naturally voiced (ghosa). although transliterated as va. : . l to a produces la. r moving to a produces ra.. and `luck'. making use of both teeth and lips is called dantostya. akara). Other traditions pronounce this as the English `va'. This applies to all the sounds/letters. .1 The Four Semi-Vowels: ya ra la va A semivowel (antahstha) arises when one of the basic vowels moves to the a sound: . akin to the English `wa': this latter pronunciation accords with the grammatical tradition and makes the rules of sandhi (euphonic combination) easier to grasp. but not rakara. They are formed by slight contact ( satsp. . are similar to the English sounds in `yum'. .e. n 3.Lesson 3. As a moving to a will not produce . We shall now consider the nal eight consonants (vya~jana). and so are called antahstha (`stand between'). . including the vowels (e. .ve stops. r. there are only four semivowels. produces a sound . In the alphabetical order. The anusvara and visarga (or visarjan ya). but do pay attention to the mouth position. The derivation of the last semivowel (antahstha). `rum'. pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va . are always referred to by their own name and have no -kara name.. allow a restricted ow of air through the mouth. i. and are . and u to a produces va. similarly.. ya ra and la. kanthya talava murdhanya dantya osthya . a new sound. . in which case its mouth position. these follow after the twenty. and so on.g. These are considered to be between vowels and consonants. sta).A.. . except for ra which is traditionally called repha (`snarl' or `burr') or simply ra. .

.A.2 The Three Sibilants: sa sa sa . however.. : . with similar qualities. 3. . . i. . sa The sa sounds like the sibilant in the English words `seek' and `kiss'. and sa like the sibilant in the German `ich'.. which are described as a `half-visarga' before ka/kha and pa/pha respectively. and the mouth position in particular. sa like the . . be sadvivrta (slightly open) or ardhasprsta (half-contact). They are considered to . In the alphabetical order these follow the semivowels. which allows a .22 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. . . In theory.A. kanthya talavya murdhanya dantya osthya .3 The Final Consonant: ha This aspirate (sometimes considered a sibilant) is also called usman (`heated'). . . . ya ra la va sa sa sa . The sibilants are aspirated (mahaprana) and unvoiced (aghosa). . . It is generally pronounced as unvoiced (aghosa). according to the grammatical tradition it is voiced (ghosa). restricted (hissing) ow of breath through the mouth. . guttural | palatal cerebral dental labial | sa sa .. These are so very rare that for all practical purposes they can be ignored. are to be taken as authoritative. there are two more sibilants. . sa sa sa ha. . These sound analogies are given as a very rough guide: the description given above. called the jihvamul ya and upadhman ya. A sibilant (hissing sound) is called usman (`heated').e. . . In the alphabetical order this follows the sibilants and is the last letter of the alphabet: . . `sh' in `ship' or `wish'.

tha . . ha . ra sa ..A 23 3. . . da .Lesson 3. guttural palatal cerebral dental labial Qualities ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa ha ta . dha .5 The Alphabetical Order Having now considered the whole alphabet in sound and Roman transliteration. ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ ta tha da dha na . na .4 Summary of the Consonants The de nitive qualities of the consonants are given in tabular form: kanthyatalavyamurdhanyadantyaosthya . The order is best memorized in groups as shown below: a a i u u r r l l e ai o au am ah . . ta pa unvoicedunaspirated full contact tha pha unvoiced aspirated full contact da ba voiced unaspirated full contact dha bha voiced aspirated full contact na ma voiced unaspirated full contact nasal la va voiced unaspiratedslight contact sa unvoiced aspirated slightly open voiced aspirated slightly open 3. ta tha da dha na pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa . .. .A.A. . . . . it would be useful to start becoming familiar with the alphabetical order.

24 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. h this portion of the symbol is written without lifting the pen! .6 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the rst ten consonants in devanagar script.A. g complete the loop. and for kha. f then change direction to start the loop. continue the stroke. the rst symbol is ka and not just k.G+ z c+ C j+ J V+ The loop on the kha and ga is written as follows: e write the down-stroke with the curl at the end. Each symbol includes the sound a for example. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ka kha ga gha na _ ca cha ja jha na ~ k K+ g+ . Note the similarity between the forms of i and jha.

parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. When verbs are presented for use in the exercises. .1 More on Verbs The personal endings of verbs given thus far are called parasmai-pada (`an expression for another') because the fruit.B 3. Many of the verbs in this course may be conjugated in either pada. Some verbs are conjugated in one pada only. please use the pada given: in the case of dhatu n for example. purusa . or result of the action.B. the sentence \I married her" would be expressed in atmane-pada or parasmai-pada when spoken by the husband or priest respectively. some in both.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . they will be presented in the form: p n nayate he leads.nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . where the dhatu is followed by the eka-vacana prathama-purusa form. . use the atmane-pada endings.dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. The division is not at all de nite. is transmitted to another. madhyama.Lesson 3. These are the normal endings for an active transitive verb. and has come to be a matter of conventional usage nevertheless many verbs do retain the formal distinction between parasmai-pada (active voice) and atmane-pada (middle voice). By way of illustration. but within the limits of the simple sentences in the exercises. and some partly in one and partly in another. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe . and the . The atmanepada (`an expression for oneself') personal endings used in the active form of the verb (called the middle voice) imply an action whose fruit reverts to oneself: this does not mean re exive. purusa . purusa . These are the only two forms of personal endings to verbs that will be used in this course. English translation of that form.

The rst (prathama) of these is the nominative or naming case. and with its sup-vibhakti endings appears as: eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . There are some verbs (such as n ) which have both a direct object and a destination.B. Since the noun endings de ne the relationship to the verb. as in the above example. the verb is found at the end of the sentence. to juggle the word order to t the rules of scansion. and allows the poet for example. the word order is not important (as contrasted with English where it is). Normally however.. The word nara (the pratipadika form. . run). as listed in Monier-Williams' dictionary) means `man'. and usually names the subject of a simple sentence or the agent (initiator or instigator of the action) of the verb the second (dvit ya) case ending generally indicates the immediate destination of the action expressed by the verb.) stand'. . _ . dvit ya naram narau naran Other nouns that take this form of declension are asva `horse'. dual (dvi-vacana). for example `the men (pl.) stand'. . each of these has a singular (eka-vacana). the pronoun `they' is implied . the destination is expressed in dvit ya. like the verb.. and the subject precedes the object and destination. For verbs having a sense of motion (such as go.rksam nayate . Where `tisthanti' is translated as `they (pl. like the verb. When the subject of the sentence is explicitly stated.e.2 Introduction to Nouns A noun. the direct object of the sentence. and neuter (napumsaka_ _ . in the verb and it is not necessary to add an explicit Sanskrit pronoun. in which case both are expressed in dvit ya. . . To the pratipadika form are added case-endings (sup-vibhakti) which _ indicate the relationship of the noun to the verb. then the implied pronoun falls away. linga). and plural (bahu-vacana) form. feminine (str -linga). has its ultimate origin in a dhatu (root) a xes to the dhatu form the noun-stem (pratipadika) which will have a particular grammatical gender (linga): masculine (pum-linga). narah asvam v. and vrksa `tree'. walk. i. There are seven such grammatical relationships and. .26 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 3. the man leads the horse to the tree. and this is translated as `narah tisthanti'. .

narah asvah ca nayete . (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1.B 27 3.).) are speaking and leading.. 2.) lead the horses (pl.5. 3. 3.Lesson 3. narah asvau ca tisthanti . (b) Practise pronouncing the rst ten consonants (vya~jana). 5. . asvau naram vrksan nayete . . . asvah naram nayate . 5. The men (pl..B. asvah tisthati ca narah vadati ca .A. 4. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. The tree and the horse are standing. narau vrksan nayamahe . . The men (pl. . 4. . The horse leads the man to the tree. 2. 6. The man leads the horse. as well as reading n and writing them in Roman script and devanagar .3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. The (two) horses lead the man. . 6.

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Lesson 3.B k K+ g+ .G+ z + + c+ C j+ J V+ 29 .

30 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na jha ja cha ca ~ + na gha ga kha ka _ .

Each symbol includes the sound a for example. .A. the rst symbol is ta and not just t . for example with `P' and `h'. The transliteration of the two rows of devanagar characters is: ta tha da dha na . Note the di erences between da na and i gha and dha and dha and da. There may be 3 a tendency to limit letters such as :N+ and t+ to the halfway point: this is a carry over from the Roman alphabet where it is appropriate. _ .D+ n+ 1 Note the form of the letters in relation to the 3 and 2 ruled lines. .1 Devanagar Alphabet Here are the next ten consonants in devanagar script. . in devanagar the top horizontal bar is extended to join the letters in a word. .Lesson 4.A 4. and this gives a bias of `blackness' at the top of the letters: this is 1 visually compensated for by using the 3 and 2 lines to `open' the form of the letter. . . As we shall see later. . 3 . ta tha da dha na f F q Q :N+ t+ T+ d .

nayati nayatah nayanti nayate nayete nayante . For your convenience a reference sheet with the full conjugation of dhatu n is given below: this also has a list of all the verbs that will be used in the simple sentence exercises.nayasi nayathah nayatha nayase nayethe nayadhve . he takes. . Thus three vibhakti cover one entire pada. uttamanayami nayavah nayamah naye nayavahe nayamahe .1 Summary of Verbs The tin-vibhakti (personal endings of verbs) are grouped into three's. madhyama. than ten times once a day.B.Lesson 4. nayethe-nayadhve (pause) naye-nayavahe-nayamahe. . he carries. purusa . he leads.. it is far more e ective to sound this once. . As with practising the alphabet. ten times a day. purusa . parasmai-pada ekadvivacana vacana bahuvacana atmane-pada eka. nayavah-nayamah (longer pause) nayate-nayete-nayante (pause) nayase. .dvivacana vacana bahuvacana prathama. with a pause between each vibhakti and a longer pause between each pada.B 4. p gam pn p labh p vad p vah p stha gacchati nayate labhate vadati vahati tisthati . he speaks. which means _ that one vibhakti consists of the three vacana forms. It would be useful to practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n . purusa . Thus the pattern is: nayati-nayatah-nayanti (pause) nayasi-nayathah-nayatha (pause) nayami. he stands. he goes.

`he works for money'. . the recipient or bene ciary or purpose of the action.2 More on Nouns Cases The third (trt ya) case ending indicates the `instrument' in relation to the verb: . For example. but for the time being accept that this change occurs after `r' or `s' in the same word. but this changes to -ena due to internal sandhi. r .Lesson 4. but this does not convey the sense of instrumentality. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama narah narau narah . The fourth (caturth ) case ending indicates the indirect object. . For example. n For example. `he cuts the wood with an axe': note that here `with' has the sense of `by means of'. This . It may also express cause or motive: `out of anger he strikes the boy'. . `he gives the food to the dog'. it is that `by means of which' the action is accomplished. will be given more fully in a later lesson (11. The fth (pa~cam ) case ending indicates the place from which the action begins.B. ? the generic ending is -ena.B 33 4. caturth naraya narabhyam narebhyah .A. `he goes home by car'. . `he goes home with an axe'. for example. `he walks from the river'. `he falls from the tree'. ksena. dvit ya naram narau naran trt ya narena? narabhyam naraih . but in English it may also be used in the sense of accompaniment. pa~cam n narat narabhyam narebhyah . .3). . thus asvena but v. `he makes a kennel for the dog'.

asvah vrksam naraya vahati . 3. .). .) carry the man from the trees (pl. We (pl. . . 6.1. 2. He goes by horse. 5.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.) with horses. (c) Practise reading and writing the next ten consonants (vya~jana). 5. narah vrksam asvena gacchati .B. They (pl. 6. narah asvah ca vrksat gacchatah . asvah naram vrksam vahati . .34 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. . asvam vrksat naraya nayate .A. 3. . (b) Practise sounding the full conjugation of dhatu n as given in 4. . (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. The horses (pl. .) carry the trees (pl.B. 4. . We (two) take the tree from the man by horse.) go from the tree to the horses. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. vrksan asvat labhadhve . . 2. . You (two) are leading the horse for the man. .5. 4. in Roman n script and devanagar .

Lesson 4.B f F q Q :N+ + + t+ T+ d .D+ n+ 35 .

. a dha da tha ta .A Practical Sanskrit Introductory n . . . + na dha da tha ta 36 + .

A 5. Note the di erences between ba and va ya and tha pa and sa la and l bha ma .Lesson 5. The transliteration of the three rows of devanagar characters is: pa pha ba bha ma ya ra la va sa sa sa ha .Z+ . and sa and kha with ra and va. :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ y+ = l v+ .S+ s+ . the rst symbol is pa and not just p. Each symbol includes the sound a for example.A.1 Devanagar Alphabet Here is the rest of the alphabet in devanagar script.h . .

saptam nare dvi-vacana narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . . to another noun in the sentence. where are you?'. naranam . . `on'. The seventh (saptam ) case ending indicates the place or time where or when the action takes place. A word with saptam case ending is often the rst in the sentence. This is usually rendered in English by the preposition `of' or with an apostrophe. or to the book that he wrote. i. other than the verb. naresu . This case ending generally indicates a relationship of source or possession. naran naraih . `John's book' may refer to the book that John purchased.B. . narebhyah . for example. for example... `he talks to the son of John'.Lesson 5. and may be rendered in English by the prepositions `in'. etc. caturth naraya pa~cam n narat sasth narasya . sambodhana prathama he nara dvit ya naram trt ya narena .e. `among'. . for example. he narah . `at'. however many publications give an eighth.1 More on Nouns Cases Unlike the other case endings. `Oh Lord. `he drives John's car'.. In fact this is simply a special use of the prathama ( rst) case ending. `it is hot in summer'. . The strictly correct way of tabling the declension of nara is: eka-vacana prathama narah . . Sanskrit has just seven case endings.. setting the scene as it were. bahu-vacana narah . sambodhana. narebhyah . for example. In both these examples John has no relation to the action of the verb: indeed John may be absent. even deceased. the sixth (sasth ) indicates a relationship to a word . Strictly speaking. which is used for addressing or calling. `he stands on the table'.B 5. narayoh . The word in sasth is usually placed immediately before the word to which it is related. hear my prayers'. `John.

8. 4. narah vrksam asvat labhate . 5. i. . .e. .he narah (pause) naram . . . 3. labelling it simply `sambodhana' and omit the vocative particle he.. . naranam asvah tisthanti . place that row at the bottom of the table. v. 6. narau .Lesson 5. In practising sounding the full declension of the noun. . .. . 5. .A..2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. nara asve tisthasi .B. . use the `correct' table given above. 7. The vibhakti of the nouns are.narau . . .1. (d) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. grouped into three's. Publications that list sambodhana as an eighth case ending. The sandhi change of n to n that occurs in eka-vacana trt ya. in n Roman script and devanagar . .5. .B.. asvah naram vrksat gacchati .he narau . . asvau vrksan naraya vahatah . . (c) Practise reading and writing the last thirteen consonants (vya~jana). thus asvanam but vrksanam. ksesu narasya asvah tisthanti r .. (b) Practise sounding the full declension of nara as given in 5. . . like the verbs.: narah .naran (pause) etc. Continued overleaf . bahu-vacana sasth . . . also occurs in .narah (pause) he nara . . naram v. . so that the prathama vibhakti refers to the forms of all three vacana. asve tisthati ca vadati ca . ksat asvaih labhate r .B 39 The vocative particle `he' is traditionally sounded in the paradigm it is optional in a sentence and may be translated as `Oh'. 2.

2. The trees (pl. 6.). He takes the man's horses (pl. The (two) horses carry the man to the tree.) of the (two) men are standing. Oh horse. He is standing on (two) horses. you are carrying the tree for the man.40 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. 8. 5. The man and horse stand among the trees (pl. 4. The man's horse carries the man from the trees(pl.) from the tree. You (two) are carrying the man from the tree to the horse. .). 3. 7.

B :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ + + y+ = l v+ .Z+ 41 .Lesson 5.

42 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ma bha ba pha pa + sa va la ra ya .

Lesson 5.B + 43 + :S+ s+ .h .

+ .44 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory ha sa sa .

.E+ ba b bu br . like the Roman.Lesson 6. and that the horizontal line links the letters together. (The `a-' pre x to a noun usually means negation.) All the vowel forms given earlier. be bo ba. rather like the English `un-'. Thus the word bala (strength) is written ba. Where the vowel following the consonant is other than a.1 Vowels after Consonants The short vowel a ( A ) is never written unless it begins a word for example abala (weakness) is written A ba. The written form thus resembles the oral form.e+ ba bi bu br .l. Note that the characters are written left to right. hr . but note these exceptions: ru ru . 6.A The symbols for the consonants inherently include a following a vowel.+ ba. for example b+ (ba) is the symbol for the the consonant b together with a following short (hrasva) a. bl . The forms indicating the various following vowels are: b+ a. bl .l. maintaining the principle that a consonant can only be sounded together with a vowel. occur only at the beginning of a word.A. this is indicated by an embellishment on the consonant itself.+ bU+ bX+ bW+ bE+ ba. bai bau These vowel signs are used with all consonants (ka through ha).b+ bu+ bx+ bw+ be+ ba.

46

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

Where the embellishment is above the letter itself (with or without the addition of a following vertical bar), namely for i e o ai au, these should link to the character where it joins the top horizontal bar, and where the character meets the bar more than once, to the rightmost junction. For example:
ak

ki

:Ne+

These syllables are connected together to form words: they are literally connected by the horizontal bar. For example:

ne .

devanagar matrka . vadami veda g ta guru

.de vana.aga=*+ ma.a.txak*:+ va.d a.am+ vea.d ga.a.ta.+ gua

6.A.2 History of Vowel Embellishment
It bothers some students that, in a script read from left to right, there should be the seeming anomaly that ki ( ak ) for example, is written back to front as it were, with the i-sign before the consonant. Originally the embellishment for i after a consonant had no down stroke at all, so that ki ke kai were written as:

ki i

ke j

kai k

However, as personality tends to intrude into handwriting, it could prove di cult to distinguish between ki and ke, especially if the ` ag' was written somewhere between the two positions. To solve this problem, the downstroke was added for ki. Whether this is true or not, is debatable, but it does make a nice story !

Lesson 6.B
6.B.1 Sentence Structure: English and Sanskrit
In English speech or writing, the order of words shows their connection or relationship to the whole sentence. For example, in the simple sentence,
desire limits the mind,

the information as to which is the limiter and which the limited, is given by the position of the words in relation to the verb. This is an important point: in a sentence, a word's physical position (in time or space), re ects its subtle position (the relationship or part that it plays). Now, a word may be placed before or after the verb | but these are the only two possibilities, before or after, and thus can indicate only two relationships, namely subject and object. The subject comes before an active verb, and the object after it. (The order is reversed for a passive verb, e.g. the mind is limited by desire.) In order to show the relationship in a more complete sentence, such as,
desire limits the mind by attachment,

we make use of a phrase containing a preposition (in our example `by') to indicate the relationship of the word `attachment' to the activity of limiting. But notice the operation of the preposition | `pre-position' | it is an element which is placed before (`pre-') to give `position' to the word, that is, to indicate its relationship to the activity. Using prepositional phrases we can thus enlarge our sentence, as for example,
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment.

Now we can split up this sentence into its core subject-verb-object, and a number of related phrases:
in the waking state desire limits the mind from the universal to the particular by attachment .

48

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

We may now shu e these components around in any order and still retain the meaning: in doing so, we may well lose some clarity, or we may even sound poetic, for example: from the universal to the particular desire limits the mind in the waking state by attachment . The problem with these prepositional phrases is that it is not at all clear whether they are related to the the activity of the whole sentence (i.e. to the verb), or are merely qualifying one of the nouns. For example, the intention was to indicate that the mind su ers limitation/restriction/reduction from its natural open state of universality to the con ned state when identi ed with the particular, however, other interpretations are possible: the phrases from the universal to the particular in the rst of the two split up sentences may be construed as qualifying the word `mind' and thus be understood as a range of separate minds `from gods to dogs' in the second of these split up sentences these phrases could be viewed as qualifying the word `desire' and mean a range of desires `from the general to the personal'. The phrases can thus be re-arranged to produce all sorts of misunderstandings, so let us be clear that the intended meaning of the other two phrases is that `attachment' is the instrument/means/method by which the mind is limited, and that the `waking state' is the circumstance where/when the limitation takes place. In an in ected language (one that uses case endings) the relationship to the verb is shown by a su x appended to the word our sentence would thus become something like: waking state IN desire SUBJECT limits VERB mind OBJECT universal FROM particular TO attachment BY . There are two points to note here: rstly, the subject and object also have endings to show their relationship and secondly, the word endings indicate the relationship to the verb by de nition. All the words in the sentence are quite independent of their position (order or arrangement) which is one limitation in a non-in ected language like English but more importantly, the relationship to the verb is precisely de ned, and thus minimizes the possibility of misunderstanding. In Sanskrit there are seven case endings: the sixth indicates a relation to another noun in the sentence, and the other case endings indicate the relationship to the verb.

merely indicate that relationship. of verse.Lesson 6. mood. colon. when a verb changes from active to passive: desire 1 limits ACTIVE mind 2 (desire limits the mind) mind 1 limits PASSIVE desire 3 (the mind is limited by desire). person. whereas . In prose they are used to indicate the end of a sentence and the end of a paragraph respectively. . Using the Sanskrit numerical system. prathama. The basic punctuation marks in English are the comma.B 49 It matters not whether we give these case endings names or numbers. The a x to the verb indicates tense. which indicate pauses of increasing length.r) is expressed in dvit ya and prathama respectively. English is also sensitive to pauses between phrases. and then associates the two according to circumstance for example. but with a passive verb kartr is expressed by trt ya similarly the . as well as voice. but is worn by the actor playing the role of king. semicolon. Like the vibhakti adorning a word. and numbers the actual phonic su x endings (physical). and full stop. says desire. However. and these too can change the relationship and the whole meaning of the sentence. our sentence becomes: waking state 7 desire 1 limits VERB mind 2 universal 5 particular 4 attachment 3 . Scripture. karman (that most directly aimed at by the kart. has no need of these embellishments Sanskrit uses only two punctuation marks. the words marked with `1' in these two sentences are both called the subject of the sentence this accords with the Sanskrit prathama-vibhakti ( rst case ending). ) is the initiator. prathama (and English `subject') etc. limits the mind. having the r power to bring about the action: with an active verb the kartr is expressed in . A fully in ected language like Sanskrit. . In English. For example: Scripture says desire limits the mind. being inherently clearer. the virama ( ) | and purnavirama ( ) to indicate respectively the halfway point and end of a stanza { . Thus kartr and karman name the relationship. so the clothing of a stage actor indicates his role: the crown is not the king. in Sanskrit the agent (kart. and number. provided that the relationship is clearly de ned. In fact Sanskrit uses both names and numbers for these relationships: it names the relationships (subtle) when de ning them.

saptam phalayoh phalesu .B. dvit ya balam bale balah . pa~cam n phalabhyam phalebhyah . .2 Noun Gender The nouns considered thus far are all masculine (pum-linga) the paradigms below . caturth phalabhyam phalebhyah . saptam balayam balayoh balasu . There is another sandhi rule applicable within a word. . linga) noun bala `girl'. _ are for the neuter (napumsaka-linga) noun phala `fruit'. . due to internal sandhi.rt ya balaya balabhyam balabhih . pa~cam n balayah balabhyam balabhyah . eka-vacana phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale .. . . sasth phalayoh phalanam . .A. or a | thus -su is the most common form. but in the declension of bala it remains . . t. and the feminine (str _ .3). (11. that applies here: the saptam bahu-vacana ending -su changes to -su following any vowel except a . Note that. . sambodhana prathama he bale he bale he balah . . _ dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama phale phalani sambodhana prathama he phale he phalani dvit ya phale phalani trt ya phalabhyam phalaih .50 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. sasth balayah balayoh balanam . as -su. caturth balayai balabhyam balabhyah . This sandhi rule will be described more fully in a later lesson.. the napumsaka-linga bahu-vacana forms of _ . . prathama and dvit ya will also change from -ani to -ani if preceded by `r' or `s'. eka-vacana dvi-vacana bahu-vacana prathama bala bale balah .

.Lesson 6. prathama nominative sambodhana vocative 2. direct object By whom/what? Whom? What? indicates immediate destination of action.B.3 Summary of Case Information 5. dvit ya accusative 3. From whom/what? place from which action begins also cause/motive. saptam locative 51 . purpose of action. relation is not to verb. caturth dative indirect object To/for whom/what? recipient. genitive Of whom? Whose? relation of source/possession/etc. trt ya . . instrumental 4. subject Who? What? Latinate name English grammar Answers question 1. sasth . the means by which action accomplished. 6. genitive 7.B Sanskrit case Relation to Verb names the agent/subject of the verb. pa~cam n ablative 6. calling/addressing. bene ciary. When? Where? place/time where/when action takes place.

You (two) lead the horse and I take the fruit. bala narah ca vrksam asvam vahatah . . . 6. 3.52 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. .) by horse for fruit (pl. 3. . balah naran phalani asvena nayante . bala asvam v. The horse carries the fruit (pl. 9. 5. . narau vrksanam phalani asvam labhete . 8.) to the girls for the man. ksat labhete r . The man leads the horse by means of fruit. 4. 10. The horse carries the tree to the girl for the man. . . . . The man goes to the trees (pl. 5. . . 2.) from the tree.4 Exercises (a) Practise reading and writing all the letters of the alphabet. . . bale vrksesu tisthatah vadatah ca .). 7. 2. ksau gacchami ca phalani labhe r .). (c) Translate the following sentences into English: 1. . We (two) take the man and the girl from the tree to the horse.B. narasya asvah phalam balayah labhate .. . (b) Practise sounding the full declension of bala and phala. The girls (two) stand on the horse and take the fruit (s. (d) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit: 1. ksam phalaya nayate r . narah phale vrksat balayai vahati . 6. 8. 4. 10. The girl takes the fruit (two) from the tree for the horses (pl. 7. 9. v. . bale phalani narasya v. The man stands and the girl speaks. The man and the girl go among the trees by horse. asvah naram ca balam ca vrksam vahati .

7. namely p. Simply read through the general principles and use the illustrative examples to understand the principle. halanta ta f .A. or conjunct consonant. now we consider how to write a consonant that is followed by no vowel at all.A. 7.+ + t. and you will nd that.+ halanta ka k . In the devanagar script this is written as a short stroke ( . without its following a sound. For example: halanta pa :p. you can discard the notes. daunting task. for example the s in svara. The symbols may be written continuously in the usual order from left to right with the rightmost vertical stroke dropped from all but the last letter: t. is called `halanta pa'. below and to the right of the consonant. ) called virama (`stop'). it forms a consonant cluster. . Where a word uses a non. it is a lot simpler than it looks. consonants with nothing separating them in particular there is no vowel between them. in practice.+ + m+ :N.+ + y+ tm+ :Ny+ tma nya . however the virama should (ideally) not be used within a word. Thereafter it is just a matter of applying the principles. Thus the letter pa for example.1 Halanta Consonants The adjective halanta is derived from hal (a technical term referring to any consonant). nty+ n.nal halanta letter.Lesson 7. so halanta means `ending in a consonant'.A We have examined how to write a consonant that is followed by any vowel.+ + y+ ntya . familiarity with them may seem like a . but fortunately you don't have to learn them. literally `yoked together') comprises two or more . and anta (`end'). It is the general principles that are important: once you understand the principles. and a di erent method is used. This is the form used when a word ends in a consonant. At a rst glance through these samyoga.2 Conjunct Consonants A conjunct consonant (samyoga.

+ + n. : + mna bva sta .. it is often only in combination with other particular symbols.d + D+ k + m+ . z+k .+ + F + y+ .d + .+ + v+ :S. dga tta .54 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Or they may be written one above the other. + n+ . + m+ + tya .+ + f .h. When symbols are modi ed.+ + t+ ..+ + n+ b. hma . This arrangement can be useful where the rst letter has no vertical stroke on the right: . nka _ + Left to right and vertical arrangements may appear in the same compound: snya sthya . . in which case they are read from top to bottom: m.. .d .d + y+ f + y+ . for example: t. . . nkya _ Most symbols retain their familiar shape in compounds. but some are modi ed: dda ddha kma tta hna dya . : + . . . .h.d + g+ f+f . z + k + y+ .+ + y+ :S. s. .

: + kka kta The symbol .+ + v+ . + :p+ :pR+ rpa Dva. When ra comes at the beginning of a compound it takes the form of a hook above the line (the same as above the d rgha ): it is attached above the rightmost vertical of a compound. and l.R+ i. r .Z+ is often written as B or C in combination.A 55 The symbol k (ka) may be compressed to K .+ + v+ . for example: k+k .+ =. For example: =.Z. + R R =.Z.+ + c+ V.+ + va. rl . or even further to M . there are no obvious absolute rules. =. .e.+ + c+ l+l .Lesson 7.+ + c+ k + t. Ideas that familiar forms are right and others wrong should be avoided: both proportions and angles of the symbols may be varied. + rr .: rdhva This form is also used when ra is the only consonant before the vowels . .+ + l c. :p. The symbol ra changes form in compounds. + D. It always appears in a vertical arrangement and is read in the sequence top to bottom. for example: + or + + S or or T or Zv+ Zc+ sva sca The same group of symbols can be found in di erent forms: or Vc+ nca ~ or #tv+ ktva or pl pla or cc+ cca or l lla While there may be di erent conventions and styles for making compounds. k + t+ .

but it is quite straightforward to pronounce halanta sa .+ + = + y+ gy+ grya m. there are two which are quite di erent from their component parts: ksa . + y+ }y+ mrya 7. position as for the normal pronunciation of ka the di erence for ksa is that the tip . and their construction re ects their pronunciation.+ + = .+ + V+ :]+ j~a n Although these two samyoga may be separated into their component parts when. re ect their sounds which are somewhat di erent from their components.e.A. and are quite obvious to see. 7. Before sounding the halanta ka the breath is fully cut o by the back of the tongue in the kanthya .4 Pronunciation of ksa .d + = f+= .56 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory When ra is nal in a compound. the tip of the tongue is in the murdhanya position throughout. k + :S+ . + Normally the symbols for a samyoga are constructed from their component symbols . t.. the alphabetical order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. sound halanta ka through the sound of halanta sa | . .A. the symbols being so di erent from their components.+ + = + tra (note the truncation of the t+ ) This form is retained when ra appears in the middle of a cluster of consonants: g. A practical method of approaching the pronunciation of these two sounds is o ered next. However. . . :pr+ d f pra dra tra . it is represented by a small diagonal stroke: :p. for example. Now. of the tongue is raised to the murdhanya position before sounding the halanta . the prolonged halanta sa begins with halanta ka the important point is that . i. prolonged: try it.+ + =.3 Special Conjunct Consonants ksa and j~a n .j. The idea may be novel.

Now with the tongue in the talavya position. k + sa ksa). j~ + n + a) the n ~ halanta j~a is a single sound. this is beginning to sound like a prolonged halanta ja. begin by sounding the English `hiss' and holding the sibilant | this sibilant is much like the Sanskrit halanta sa. for example.5 Pronunciation of j~a n The pronunciation of this is similar to the French `J' as in `Jean-Jacques'. practise sounding aj~a. n which should be the same. This means that halanta ksa may by sounded repeatedly without moving the . the alphabetical . As a practical method of approaching this sound. again holding the sibilant: note that the di erence between these sibilants is that the vocal cords vibrate for `his' and not for `hiss'.A.A 57 ka. Now sound the English `his'. and may be thus separated when. sound a prolonged halanta sa.e. j + na j~a). and is strongly nasalized.e. tip of the tongue from the murdhanya position. and may be thus separated when. . the pronunciation. . n There are two common errors in sounding j~a. ~ . This is about as close as one can get to describing the sound of halanta j~a. which is of course.e. or as in the `z' sound in the English words `mirage'. attending to both a sounds. as j re ected in the changed symbol. the nasalization is often carried over into n the vowel: to correct this. Firstly. impossible to sound. Secondly.Lesson 7. Although the j~a is originally formed by halanta ja joining with a following na n ~ (i. (i. `measure'. for example. order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. is in practice ( k ) + s + a. the pronunciation. (This sound is reminiscent of ten-year-olds playing cops and robbers!) Although the ksa is originally formed by halanta ka joining with a following sa . the halanta j~a tends to n n be followed by an additional nasal consonant before the vowel (i. or `vision' but in all cases it is sounded through the talavya mouth position. `rouge'. And then repeat the sound but allowing the vocal cords to vibrate | with some imagination. . s . is in practice ( n ) + a. the alphabetical ~ n order is required in looking up a word in the dictionary. Now repeat this voiced sound allowing it to be strongly nasalized. as re ected in the changed symbol. 7.

. . ktva k kra r r krya m+ ksma y+ ksya . dgha . ddya ddha dbha dbhya dma dva dvya ...58 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. g+ gra gy+ grya . kka ktra kya + ksa .. tt a . . dga . arranged in alphabetical order: simply read through the list and you will nd that most of the symbols are easily recognizable.6 List of Conjunct Consonants The following is a standard list of conjunct consonants. dghra dna dba d dra drya Dm+ dhma Dy+ dhya . . :Nq ndra . dgra ddhya dya + dhnya :N dgya .jJ jjha . dga .$y+ jya VC ncha ~ F thra . :N .. + ktrya kta + ktya kna + knya kma kla kva + kvya v+ ksva Ky+ khya K+ khra . + ghna + ghnya .Gm+ ghma nkta _ nktya _ nkya _ nkhya _ nga _ ngya _ nna __ nna _ nma _ + c~a n . + ttra tpr+ tpra tv+ tva .. :NQ ndha :NN+ nna :Nm+ nma .Gr+ ghra nka _ nksva _ . :Nf nta :NF ntha :Nq nda .. dgha . tk tkra r + tta y+ ttya + tna + tnya tp+ tpa ty+ tya + tra y+ trya t + tsnya Ty+ thya .. dda . Q dhra . . gy+ gya . dghra . :Nv+ nva tk tka . + dhna chya . #K+ kkha #c+ kca #N+ kna . nkha _ nghya _ nghra _ + cca cC ccha C chra .$m+ jma + ncya ~ thya . dhya .A. ddha . .Gy+ ghya nksa _ . ndya .. dya . ndrya .j+ jra + nja ~ dma .. ngha _ nya _ cy+ cya :]y+ j~ya n m+ ncma ~ tya . :Ny+ nya . v+ ttva tT+ ttha tm+ tma t}y+ tmya ts+ tsa t + tsna .$v+ jva + njya ~ cm+ cma :]+ j~a n + nca ~ + jja cC cchra .

hma mla k lka p+ lpa m+ lma h lha + vna v.y+ vya y+ scya + sna .... + pna :pv+ pva bD+ bdha b. . it does contain many that are quite rare and which you may never come across in print. hya hra hla lla vva y+ srya : stya . the greatest number of conjunct consonants in a real word is ve: the usual example quoted for this is k*:a.A Dr+ dhra nd nda npr+ npra : + ptya : pla b. :Spr+ spra :Sm+ sma :Sy+ sya .By+ bbhya Br+ bhra }B+ mbha yy+ yya 59 sla : stra . ..+ bra + mna }y+ mya nD+ ndha ny+ nya :pp+ ppa :ps+ psa . hna .t R+ (kartsnya). :SN+ sna ..y+ bya Bv+ bhva mm+ mma yv+ yva v+ lva + sca Dry+ dhrya Dv+ dhva nd ndra nm+ nma . . ~k ska ~T+ stha s}y+ smya hna hva The table does not cover all possible combinations of consonants.Zy+ sya + sva .Lesson 7. n &+ ntra np+ npa : + pta :pr+ pra bj+ bja b. + bna . but. Just as a matter of interest. So.ZZ+ ssa : . bva }p+ mpa }+ mra nt+ nta nDr+ ndhra n+ nra :pm+ pma :p~v+ psva .B+ bbha By+ bhya }b+ mba }v+ mva y+ lya v.. on the other hand. :SNy+ snya . :Sv+ sva . ~K+ skha + sna ~y+ sya . strya : stva : stha . ~t+ sta ~ty+ stya ~ &+ stra + snya ~p+ spa ~P spha ~ + sra ~v+ sva ss+ ssa . bba + bhna }pr+ mpra nty+ ntya + nna ns+ nsa :py+ pya bG+ bgha b. .d bda b. ~tv+ stva sm+ sma . + svya . having worked through the table. :Sp+ spa . . you may be con dent that you will be able to decipher any samyoga that you may meet..+ vra + sra : sta .. .

B. under) The English verb `to tend' derives from the pie root ten. when appended to a verb. instead of. to.Lesson 7. away) (ex-. from the verb `attend'.B 7. is called an upasarga in Sanskrit grammar. it can be appreciated that that the pre xes are instrumental in modifying the original root to give its particular meaning. For example (with pre x meanings given): p Assuming that the meaning of these verbs is already understood (more or less). Other words may be derived from that pre xed verb. very) (in-. The situation is Sanskrit is similar: the meaning of a pre xed verb (as a compound) needs to be looked up in the dictionary. with. the derivation of attention. The grammarians list just twenty-two of these in alphabetical order they are: .1 Verbal Pre xes attend contend distend extend intend portend pretend subtend (at-. its meaning alters. apart. which may then be separately looked up. attendant. towards. in) (por-. before. to stretch: when a pre x is appended to it. attentive. it may prove di cult to arrive at the meanings of the particular verbs. wholly) (dis-. together. out of. attendance. and they carry the sense of this compound as though it were a separate dhatu this is also the case in English. A pre x. which will also give its component parts of pre x(es) and dhatu. as for example. before) (sub-. instead of) (pre-. at) (con-. then a grasp of their etymological derivation from the root and pre xes should contribute to enlarging that understanding. towards. but the converse is not necessarily so: given the meanings of the root and pre xes only. given the meanings of these verbs. Again.

asunder. onto after. near. return. conjoined with good. o . upon. at. together. for example: dhatu hr to take away . back. to a distance around. away.Lesson 7. opposite down. down. surpassing. a-hr to eat . forth away. close. less. hard bad. into away. (reversing) apart. to. sam-h. fore against. to excess over. well The above list is included here for reference only. away. over. across. from. return. pari-hr to abandon . hard down.r to destroy vi-hr to roam . from towards. back. above towards. under. next to. a familiarity with the Sanskrit forms will be useful. An upasarga may simply emphasize the original sense of the dhatu. excellent. along with. above. pra-hr to hit . and should not be learned however. implying separation or dispersion with. on. (reversing) up. onward. proximate to. upwards. in. out. forward. towards. towards. about before. o . to. past. out. near. like. at near. forth over. on. out. di cult. away. forth back. again.B 61 beyond. to. on. atiadhianuapaapiabhiavaaudupadurdusninirnisparaparipraprativisamsu- . against. into. near. forth. forth. under bad. from. but usually modi es the sense sometimes the changes is so great as to make the sense of the original dhatu quite unrecognizable. towards. di cult. backwards. into. out. following away. along.

a.ayE+ l*Bante+{ ba.+ naya. in a good English dictionary.t.l*.h a.l*.+ vxa a.te+{ (f) Now translate the sentences in (e) into English.a. You (pl.an.l*.a.h a.a. The girl's horses (two) take the fruit (pl.aya.am.). You (two) lead the horse to the fruit (pl. 3. .l*.) carry the trees (pl. (h) Now write your answers to (g) in devanagar .an+ na=*ay+ va.B. to see how their meanings link to the given etymology. (e) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: 1.+ c+ a.a.).+ va.l*.l*.5.aBy+H l*Ba. The man takes the tree from the horse for the girl.62 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 7. The horses (pl.2 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3. (g) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.) for the men (pl. na= ~y+ vxa a~y+ :P*. (b) By now the alphabet should be familiar: practise writing all the characters of the alphabet with particular attention to their proportions (see the note at the end of 4.B. (c) Write out a fair copy of the devanagar sentences given in (e) below.an. t+H va. A: ba. ba.ta.A.l ba.1).d t+H c+{ +H vxa a~y+ :P*.+ ba. 2.+ vxa a.+H 5.te+{ e A: +H :P*. (d) Look up the words `attend' etc.A.v+H{ 2.) for fruit (pl.l*m.t+{ 4. na=H 3. given 7.a.) to the man. na=*+H 6.1.a.+ na= ~y+ A: am.a. ba. 6.+ A: a.) carry the fruit (pl. 4. 5.) from the tree by horse.) of the tree. The girl and the horse go among the trees (pl.l*.

Lesson 8.A
8.A.1 Special Symbols
The following symbols are not strictly part of the alphabet, but constitute special symbols such as punctuation:
| This punctuation mark is used at the end of a half-verse or sentence. { This marks the end of a verse or paragraph. Y The elision of an A at the beginning of a word due to the rules of sandhi, is

<

>

? @ ^

indicated with this symbol called avagraha: it is not sounded. For example, te+Y.a.p+ for te+ A a.p+ is pronounced tea.a.p+ in transliteration it is represented by an apostrophe or prime mark, i.e. te pi. This symbol, called candrabindu (lit. `moon-dot'), placed above a vowel indicates that the vowel itself is nasalized for example, A< is A sounded through both nose and mouth together. Contrast this with AM , where the anusvara, which is just the bindu (`dot') above the vowel, is a nasal sound following after the vowel. The antahstha y l and v may also be nasalized. . This symbol indicates a compulsory anusvara (i.e. before an usman or . repha) in the Vedas, and is traditionally pronounced as a soft gna ( gn+ ). You may also nd it written as g,M+. The mystical symbol Om pronounced A ea3 m,+ and called the pranava sabda. ~ **: . An abbreviation is indicated by this sign, the rest of the word being provided from the context. This symbol is rare it is pronounced like a half visarga, and is called jihvamul ya when before k or kh, and upadhman ya when before p or ph. (See section 3.A.2.)
0

8.A.2 Savarna .

Those sounds which are pronounced in the same mouth position and with the same e ort within the mouth itself (i.e. the measure of contact or openness | see section 3.A.4) are called savarna (`same group'). This means that the ka-varga sounds . (k, kh, g, gh, and n | see section 2.A.2) are savarna, likewise ca-varga through _ . to pa-varga each form a savarna group of ve sounds. . For grammatical purposes, and their mouth positions di er. are also declared to be savarna, even though .

64

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

8.A.3 Nasal Substitution for Anusvara
The anusvara (see section 1.A.7) arises through the rules of sandhi: primarily it is the replacement for a nal m before a consonant. There are two traditions for pronouncing the anusvara: one tradition always pronounces it as an anusvara (a z -like sound in Northern India, and m,+ -like further South) the other tradition , substitutes the nasal that is savarna with the following consonant, i.e. if the . following consonant is a sparsa (one of the twenty- ve from k to m+) then the anusvara is sounded as the nasal of the same mouth position as the following letter | thus sMak*: p+ is pronounced sa *. p+, and sMa:]a.+ as saV]a.+, and so on. The second tradition is much like the pronunciation of `n' in English: sound the words `wink', `winch', and `wind' | prolonging the nasal if necessary | and note that the mouth position is determined by the following letter. Before ya la or va the anusvara may optionally be sounded as a nasalized version of that letter, for example sMaya.eag+ may be pronounced as say< ya.eag+. Monier-Williams, in his dictionary, follows the tradition of substituting the savarna . nasal before a sparsa (the twenty- ve from ka to ma), but not before an antahstha. . It would be useful (for these lessons at least) to practise that method.

8.A.4 Devanagar Numerals
The numbers one to ten respectively are expressed in Sanskrit as eka dva tri catur pa~can sas saptan astan navan dasan. The numeralss use the familiar order of n . . .. signi cance, so that 1234 is written as 1234. Here are the ten numerals in devanagar script, ordered 0 to 9:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Lesson 8.B
8.B.1 More Noun Declensions
The pratipadika form of nouns may end in letters other than those considered thus far: the table on the next page includes the three declension previously covered and adds agni ( re, pum-linga ending in -i), guru (teacher, pum-linga ending in . _ . _ -u), and nad (str -linga ending in - ). These declensions need not be practised, _ but it would be useful to spend some time observing the di erences between the declensions. The sandhi rule changing n to n following r or s follows through all declensions in . . trt ya eka-vacana and sasth bahu-vacana. . . ..

8.B.2 Adjectives
An adjective (visesana) quali es a noun: it is dependent the noun as an attribute. . . This dependence manifests in the grammar, requiring the visesana to agree with . . the noun in gender, case and number. Thus using alpa (small), we could have:

alpah narah alpam naram alpat narat vahanti . . alpa, mf(a)n. small sundara, mf( )n. handsome, beautiful, attractive

The small men (pl.) carry the small man from the small man. In Monier-Williams' dictionary a visesana is listed in the form: . .

where `mfn.' stands form `masculine-feminine-neuter', i.e. it may be declined in all three genders (as required by a visesana), and the `(a)' and `( )' inserted after the . . `f' of `mfn.' indicates the str -linga form in declension thus alpa declines like bala, _ and sundar like nad , in the feminine. For example:

alpa sundar bala tisthati ..

The small beautiful girl stands. As may be seen from the above examples, the visesana precedes the noun which it . . quali es.

gurau guru he guru guru gurubhyam gurubhyam gurubhyam gurvoh . agnibhyah . phalanam phalesu . phalam he phala phalam phalena phalaya phalat phalasya phale phale he phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh . naraya narayat narasya nare narau he narau narau narabhyam narabhyam narabhyam narayoh . agn nam agnisu . agnau agn he agn agn agnibhyam agnibhyam agnibhyam agnyoh . gurunam . he agne agnim agnina agnaye agneh . agnibhyah . narebhyah . nad nam nad su . nadyoh . narah . gurvoh . phalayoh . he balah . he guro gurum guruna . nadyah . he guravah . balayah . balabhih . phalebhyah . guroh . narebhyah . naresu . Feminine in - balah .66 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Declension Paradigms Masculine in -a Neuter in -a narah . balabhyah . balabhyah . he narah . Feminine in -a phalani he phalani phalani phalaih . nad bhyah . he nadyah . phalebhyah . gurubhyah . narayoh . gurubhyah . gurun gurubhih . gurusu . guravah . agnyoh . naranam . . gurave guroh . balayam bale he bale bale balabhyam balabhyam balabhyam balayoh . agnayah . nad h . nadyah . he agnayah . agn n agnibhih . he nara naram narena . balayoh . balah . agneh . Masculine in -i agnih . nad bhih . bala he bale balam balaya balayai balayah . balanam balasu Masculine in -u guruh . nad bhyah . nadyam nadyau he nadyau nadyau nad bhyam nad bhyam nad bhyam nadyoh . nad he nadi nad m nadya nadyai nadyah . naran naraih .

+ f.t+ he speaks p va.+ a. avyaya mf(a)n.t+ he carries . using the adverb s ghram (quickly): narah s ghram gacchati .+ naya. river na= m.B.Lesson 8. fruit ba. beautiful.aGram. . horse gua m.+ ind.3 Adverbs An adverb (kriya-visesana) quali es a verb: it is indeclinable (avyaya). handsome ind. usually found immediately before the verb for example.B 67 8. and .d a.+ l*Ba.t+ he goes p na.B. 8. girl vxa + m. .h va.B.t+ he stands m. small mf( )n.4 Vocabulary Summary The following is a complete list of all the vocabulary used in this course: kriya p gam.2) c+ ind. va.te+ he leads p l*B.d.d + f.ta.// A p+ suand:= naman visesana .Za. quickly I*a. a.te+ he takes p va.h a. re A: + m.l n.+ gacC a.l*.a. teacher na. tree A agn+ .t+ . thus (lesson 9. p ~Ta. It is . the man goes quickly. man :P*.

+ A: am. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: ba.+ l*Ba. The girl carries the small fruit to the man's teacher.+ na. 4.+ gacC a.// agnam. (b) Practise reading and writing the ten numerals in devanagar .+ na E+ nayante+| 5{ A p+H vxa +H suand:=e A:gna. 5.a.a. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1.t+| 1{ na=H A pam.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. The beautiful girl leads the man to the small teacher quickly.+ A .d am.a. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar . The man's teacher goes to the river by horse.A.l*.l*.t.t.+ A: am.ta.+ suand:=*a.te+| 2{ suand:=*+ ba.B. .t.5.+ suand:= m.+ vxa a. The teacher of the girl stands in the small river. The girl of the teacher stands on the handsome horse.+ naya. a.a.te+| 4{ gua=*v+H A pam.+ vxa am.l*.Za.+ A:gnaye+ . 3.l*.te+| 3{ na=*E+ suand:=*a. The teacher stands among the beautiful fruit of the small tree.+ A pam.an+ A pa. 2.E+ a.+ na=*a.68 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 8.+ l*Bea.5 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order as summarized in 3.a. 6.am.N+ :P*.+ ba.t.a.a.aGram.

Lesson 8.B 0 1 2 3 4 + + 5 6 7 8 9 69 .

70 + A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9 8 7 6 5 + 4 3 2 1 0 .

9. so there are variations in devanagar : some of the less obvious ones are illustrated below: A E H This is an alternate form of A. a neutral accentless tone. and a combination of the two or moving tone (svarita). for example: s!a. 9.!anam`anantM+ b.A. so one has A + A e+ A E+. There are three tones: raised (udatta). In classical Sanskrit texts. for example n'+ ). while udatta is unmarked. or in ekasruti. This is another form of . but there is no stress system in Sanskrit (indeed there should be no stress at all in the study of Sanskrit!) Sanskrit is either sounded with the pitch accent described above.2 Variations in Devanagar Alphabet Just as there are variations in the Roman alphabet (e. and svarita by the vertical bar above the vowel. .1 Vowels Accents Accent is the sounding of a vowel at a higher or lower pitch or tone (svara). the accent is not marked. English has a stress accent system (e.Lesson 9.g.g. ` The anudatta is indicated by a horizontal bar under the vowel. Thus the above example in transliteration would be: satyam j~anamanantam brahma .tyM+ :]a. the udatta and svarita will be indicated by the acute and grave accent marks respectively.a.A The next three sections may be considered as informational only they are provided for completeness.A. Where these are marked in the dictionary in Roman transliteration. similarly I for . and just as one has derivatives of the familiar form as A + A e+ A E+. not raised (anudatta). This is a variation of the form O . n . a and a). listen to the `to' syllable in `photograph' and `photographer'). These are only marked in the Veda. (Although in grammatical treatises it may be indicated as a small u above the vowel. An alternative form of J.

Vedic form of Q.+ L \h The following are variations in the numerals: 1 =1=1 6 =6=6 4 =4=4 8 =8=8 5 =2 =5=5 9 =0 =9=9 9. An alternative of (hla). you may nd that much of the information now is clearer. n This is a variation of the form for + (ksa). Another form of (hva). D O P Q x This is a quite common form of .A. there are a few that are sometimes not obvious: . . J L N G F gM. Vedic form of q.A. 9. A variation of (hna). there are no hard and fast rules governing the formation of a samyoga however.3 Variations in Samyoga .d (dr). Another form of the Vedic anusvara > (see 8. This would be a good time to lightly revise all the notes about the alphabet. and the following page is a reference sheet of the character shapes of the alphabet. As was mentioned in Lesson 7.72 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Another variant of J.1). but far less common. A radically di erent form of :N+. An alternative form of :]+ (j~a). starting from Lesson 1: now that you are more familiar with the alphabet.A. .4 Revision The next page has a summary of the information about the alphabet. . Obviously the same as l.

a.v. + .A 73 .Za. tW+ R e ai te+ tE+ o ta.y+ mUaDRany+ .+ i a.N+ > > > < > > > > : ma.ta.a.G+ z c+ C .r tX+ R l .l*.h 9 > = > *:Sman.v.l*. .y+ z k*:NF*.ea.Z+ .+ u u tu+ tU+ . + ba.a.j+ J V+ y+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ .d:nty+ k*:NF*.S+ :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ 9 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > = > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > ~pa.a. + mUaDRany+ .a.ya an+ k*:N ta.t~pxa.E+ tM+ t+H exceptions: Alphabetical Order v.Lesson 9.v.y+ A ea.t+ . A:nt+H:~T+ 8 > < IR *Sa.N+ .:praya. - . z k*:N }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { z }| { ta.h a. ta.l*.r tx+ R a ta. + A:nua~va.t+ ta.d D+ n+ l s+ 8 > A pa.Ga.a.d:nty+ A ea.ZR+ > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > : A:nuana.vasagR+ A A + I IR o a t+ O Oe A e+ A E+ AM AH .a.a.pra.ea.a= }| { a.e+ au am ah .S+ A.pra.asak IR *Sa. tw+ R l . k K+ g+ .Ga.+ > : } | {z A aByanta= :praya. + 8 > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > < ~pxa.ea.a *vxa.

h .G+ z I c+ C j+ .D+ n+ l s+ o :p+ :P b+ B+ m+ v+ .J V+ y+ .Z+ f F q Q :N+ = :S+ t+ T+ d .74 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory A k K+ g+ .

The naman type includes the basic naman (common noun etymologically derived from a dhatu). There is no system of indirect or reported speech in Sanskrit. so the above may equally be translated as: He says that he is going by horse. and so on. the samj~a (proper noun.B. _ . and the nipata (particle) is a catch-all for the remaining types of word. 9.B. upasarga (verbal pre x).1. n meaning cannot be etymologically determined). vacana and vibhakti. Note that iti grammatically isolates the phrase or sentence before it. even if the word `gacchami' were omitted. or a grammatical rule from an example of its application. which conjugate according purusa .2 Use of iti The nipata iti means `thus': it lays stress on what precedes it. vacana and lakara. The naman and kriya have the fundamental notions of `being' and `becoming' respectively. The nipata are avyaya (indeclinable).B. For example: asvena gacchami iti vadati \I am going by horse. and nipata (particle). personal name or technical term whose . as well as the verbal quali er (kriya-visesana) which is . .A 75 9. . indeclinable (avyaya). The upasarga (verbal pre x) has been discussed in 7. naman (noun). .Lesson 9. This isolating function of iti may also be used to separate a de nition from the word being de ned. and the nominal quali er or adjective (visesana): all these decline according to linga. the sarva-naman (pronoun)." he says. and although they are separate words they are not used by themselves: words of this class are ca (and) and he (vocative particle).1 Types of Words Sanskrit grammarians traditionally describe four types of words: kriya (verb). kriya vadati. The kriya type includes the basic kriya (verbs derived from a dhatu) and the nama-dhatu (verbs derived from nouns). the trt ya vibhakti of asvena is not related to the . typically referring to something that has been said it is the Sanskrit equivalent of inverted commas. from what follows: in the above example.

d a.l*m.a.) to the horse.l*. .) for fruit (pl. 4. The beautiful girl leads the horse to the small trees (pl. 2. We (two) take the fruit (pl.+ A pa.d + A pam. (c) Write the following sentences in Roman transliteration: na=H :P*.t+| 3{ :P*.l va.+ A: ean+ na=*ay+ va.t+ A p+H na=H va.+ vxa a.a.B.an+ ba.aGram.t+ ba.h a.he gua=*e+ ba.h a.E+ A:gna. \I am taking the fruit (pl.h t+H| 4{ vxa am.h should be on a line by itself). 3.).+ vxa am.h a.a. 6.ayE+ va.a.a.an+ l*Ba.l*.d t+H| 1{ e .Za.+ suand:=*am.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order (which should be familiar by now) following it through the diagram on page 73 once familiar with the relationship of the alphabetical order to the diagram. (f) Now write your answers to (e) in devanagar .+ va.am. You (pl. in the form given in the chart on page 74 (ideally . The man and girl go to the handsome teacher by river." the girl says to the teacher.+ A: E+H .t+| 2{ e A: +H vxa a~y+ :P*.t. (e) Translate the following sentences into Sanskrit using Roman transliteration: 1. The man says to the girl that he is carrying the tree to the river.l*.+ va.a. (b) Write out the alphabet once per day.aya.l nayase+ I*a.am+| 5{ na.te+ I*a.) are quickly taking the girl's fruit (two) to the man.76 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 9.+ ba.l*.) from the girl's tree.a. thereafter practice sounding the order while following the alphabet chart on page 74.t+| 6{ (d) Now translate the sentences in (c) into English. 5. Associating the sound/letter with its position on the chart provides a visual `short-cut' to where a sound/letter is in relation to the alphabetical order as a whole: this will prove to be a very useful trick when using the dictionary.

they are both replaced by a long IR . The rules of sandhi apply within a word as it is being developed from its elemental components to its fully in ected form: this is called internal sandhi. and the other a long measure.A 10. natural. to sound it aloud (or in the mind at least).3). internal to an individual word. Why should that be? Looking at it doesn't help you need to sound it. and for the ease of pronunciation. consider the English phrase `cats and dogs'. Have you heard why it is so? Well. but the sound is the same. The rules also apply between words as they come together to form a sentence: this is called external sandhi. (The apostrophe functions somewhat like the avagraha (Y). We shall examine external sandhi broadly and Sandhi applies whenever two sounds come together | and this is the point: it is . and this is one of the reasons that foreigners mutter darkly about English spelling! The rules of sandhi only make sense in sound and not in writing: thus it is important.A. which is pronounced as `cats and dogz'. and for the various pronunciations of the English letter `n' mentioned in that section (8. the letters are symbols representing the sounds: in Sanskrit the notation changes when the sound changes. inasmuch as it is not sounded. external to the individual words. and to hear that sound. The rules of internal and external sandhi are largely the same. It is quite . This is the principle behind the nasal substitution for the anusvara that was considered earlier. In the written form. Di cult. when reading the written word. isn't it? So there is an English sandhi rule that a sibilant preceded by an unvoiced consonant is unvoiced. When sounded | and that's the key | you will hear that both vowels have the same sound: certainly one has a short measure.A.Lesson 10. try swapping the sibilants around: `catz and dogs'. Sandhi applies to vowels too: consider how \he is" becomes \he's". which is to say without awkwardness or tongue-twisting.1 Introduction to Sandhi Sandhi (`placing together') is the principle of sounds coming together naturally and harmoniously. and preceded by a voiced consonant it is voiced (ghosa). when a long IR meets a short I. and thus it has an inherently phonetic script the English script does not do this. So.) sounds coming together. Sandhi applies to other consonants besides nasals: for example. but each has its own eld of special cases and exceptions.

used together ( ) indicate a long or short measure of the vowel. The grammatical terms guna (`secondary form') and vrddhi (`increase') can be . This process has been described in Section 1. 10. 3 The vrddhi form of . guna as the three vowels A O and A e+.l. the means for deriving the strengthened forms of the other two simple vowels and . considered as degrees of strengthening of the three primary vowels. vrddhi form . The breve ( ) and macron ( ) diacritical marks. the d rgha measure does not occur. Also V stands for any vowel.A. and vrddhi as A + Oe and A E+.r ar ar l2 . and v.rddhi as the strengthening of the guna by the addition of a further measure of . namely A a. A. Panini de nes . at the end of a sentence. and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel. in the same sentence or line of poetry: a vowel nal is not changed before a consonant or in pausa.78 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory only lightly touch on internal sandhi as it a ects the declension of formed words. as you would expect. 2 In the grammatical formation of words. simple vowel guna form . but what is important is to understand them.5. .A. and also gives . al al 3 A useful way of considering guna. is the strengthening of the ve simple vowels .A. arises when a word ending in a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel. In these notes. . by the addition of a single measure of A (so as to leave A itself unchanged). and that means to work through each principle | in sound | and understand that they are simply statements of the obvious. . . for example.2 Guna and Vrddhi .3 Vowel Sandhi Vowel sandhi. There are only six principles that cover all cases: it is not necessary to learn these. 10. . . unless explicitly restricted. does not arise in the grammar. 1 a a a a a a 1 e ai u o au . the breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only.

It was mentioned earlier that the d rgha measure of is not used in the grammar (Section 1. . + l ) al .A 79 1.A. + a a a a .2).Lesson 10. Note that is not shown here. so that when meets or . a + e ) ai a + o ) au a + ai ) ai a + au ) au 4. short or d rgha.A. long) meet a vowel of the same kind (hrasva or d rgha). the rst vowel is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position: . vrddhi sound replaces both. . When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by one of the ve simple vowels other than A (hrasva or d rgha). . + V ) yV u + V ) vV r + V ) rV . guna replaces both. When A (hrasva or d rgha) is followed by a guna or vrddhi sound. When one of the ve simple vowels (hrasva. . 2. a+a)a + ) u+u)u r+r)r . )e +u)o + r ) ar . the .l + V ) lV where V stands for any di erent vowel. When a simple vowel (hrasva or d rgha) other than a is followed by a di erent vowel. . they are both replaced by the d rgha measure of that vowel. . .4) and that and are savarna (Section 8. 3. the result is .

r. the A is elided and replaced by an avagraha. -r. -yr. and overriding it. when O or A e+ are followed by hrasva A. -vl.-ye-yai-yo-yau- -u -va-va-vi-v -u-u-vr-2 . e+a)e o+a)o 0 0 -a1 -a-a-e-e-o-o-ar-2 -ar-al-ai-ai-au-au- -ya-ya---yu-yu-yr-2 . -ra-ra-ri-r -ru-ru-r. The antahstha . -avr. -le-lai-lo-lau- -e -e -a a-a i-a -a u-a u-a r. When a compound vowel (e ai o au) is followed by another vowel. -ave-avai-avo-avau- Following Vowel aaiuur. is no substitute for understanding the principles in sound. -r.-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -au -ava-ava-avi-av -avu-avu-avr. -a l. -la-la-li-l -lu-lu-r. -a l.eaioau- . l. All the information on vowel sandhi may be conveniently displayed in tabular form | called a sandhi grid | which. -avr.80 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 5.-a e-a ai-a o-a au- -o -o -a a-a -a -a u-a u-a r. -r.-a e-a ai-a o-a au0 -ai -a a-a a-a i-a -a i-a u-a r. -a l. e + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V ai + V ) a + i + V ) ayV ) a V o + V ) a + u + V ) avV ) a V au + V ) a + u + V ) avV where V stands for any vowel. -a r. may then optionally be elided: generally it is only retained when the preceding vowel was au.-ve-vai-vo-vau- -r . -vr. -yl. -a r. . and i or u) and the second of those parts is replaced by the antahstha of the same mouth position. -r. -re-rai-ro-rau- Final Vowel -l. though useful in its own way. it splits into its component parts (a or a. -a r. As a quite non-obvious exception to the above rule. 6.

and the macron ( ) long measure only combined ( ) they indicate a long or short vowel. The terminations of duals (whether nouns. and neither r nor l as a word initial. A similar process occurs in English when a nal `y' is replaced by `i' before adding another su x. the grid cannot determine from -a. 10. or O . Samprasarana is the process whereby an antahsthah is replaced by the simple . This is the complement to rule 4 in 10.Lesson 10.4 Exceptions to Vowel Sandhi There are some exceptions. and the r .. b. c.. 10. where . sandhi rules do not operate. for example: maha + rsi ) maharsi or maharsi. Examples of this are ij-ya derived from dhatu yaj. . or ending in A e+: these are usually interjections or exclamations. or verbs) ending in d rgha IR . is that resolving a given sandhi into its components is not at all straightforward: for example. One thing that the table does illustrate.5 Samprasarana . but they . sup-ta from dhatu svap. The breve ( ) above the vowel indicates a short measure only. .A 1 81 Note: l does not occur as a word nal.rcch-ati from dhatu prach. beauty and beautiful. the basic vowel may be replaced by its hrasva equivalent. and p. For external sandhi these are: a. . . as for example. uc-atha from dhatu vac.A. easy and easily. . 2 Optionally.A. called pragrhya (`to be taken separately'). retained. . pronouns. vowel of the same mouth position (and the following vowel is elided).A. holy and holiness.3. . . while it is clear that -a + aproduces -a-. rather like the English `Ah' and `Oh'.whether either (or both) of the original a's were long or not. are included in the table for completeness. Prolonged (pluta) vowels. Particles consisting of a single vowel.

to make it into an object that is manifest and knowable. reman). or express a speci c idea related to its parts (e. from the verb `attend' given in 8. it is hyphenated. .g. as: bread-winner full-grown light-weight roof-garden break-down ginger-beer old-fashioned single-minded double-decker heart-shaped pony-tail store-room far-fetched hot-house red-hot whole-hearted re.B 10.Lesson 10. as in the following English examples: bedroom reside headache screwdriver blackbird gingerbread housekeeping sightseeing breakfast greenback newspaper songwriter daydream haircut paperback sunrise dressmaker handwriting rattlesnake wheelbarrow The compound word may simply be a conveniently brief way of expressing a longer phrase (e.1 Introduction to Compound Words The dhatu (root) is the basic form of a word denoting verbal activity: in order to form a noun (naman) or adjective (visesana) etc. Words thus ` xed' by a su x (pratyaya) may be joined together to form a compound word.B.. When a compound is not yet fully accepted in English writing (e. these su xes may be concatenated and further pre xes may be added. this activity needs to `freeze'.B. . pigtail : a plait of hair hanging down from the back of the head from its resemblance to the tail of a pig]). attentive having the quality of attending. attention the quality of attending. as it were.g. attendance the action of attending.g. or may have a meaning quite di erent from its parts (e. This ` xing' of the meaning is accomplished by the addition of a su x (pratyaya) the process in English is similar for example.g. where it may cause one to stumble when reading it). are derived: attendant one who attends. `inattentiveness'.y lamp-post right-handed world-wide . As shown by the last word in this list. gravestone : stone marking a grave). as for example. attentiveness the state of having the quality of attending.1.

B. the vibhakti ending is added to the end of the :pra. very extensive use indeed so much so. For example: na=*an.Tam+ :pua *:S+ - compound as a whole.2 Joining Words in Writing Sanskrit is spoken without any break between words. the virama ( . for example: prathama. peana.+ A pean+ A: ean+ gacC a. and the written form re ects this: after the operation of sandhi. i.am+ Ideally. Although a samasa may comprise many words. self-knowledge. are called a-luk samasa. only the last member appears to decline.e. If the principal (more important) word of the compound is underlined. but in transliteration these are often shown hyphenated. One exception to this should be noted: if the pratipadika ends in -an. ) may only be used at the end of a sentence. There are few exceptions to the above: words such as atmane-pada and parasmaipada where the case-a x of the rst word is not dropped.( rst) purusa person = rst person.Lesson 10.am+ ) na=*ana. a compound word (samasa) is always written without a break. This makes expressions in Sanskrit at once concise and precise.B 83 In devanagar . n n In declining the compound word. then the four classes of samasa may be indicated as: AB dvandva (meaning `A and B') AB tatpurusa (A is in some case relationship to B) . or special cases. all the principles are covered in considering the joining of just two words (call them `A' and `B') a more complex samasa is simply a case where A and/or B is itself a samasa. A samasa is formed by simply placing the pratipadika (stem) forms together and applying the sandhi rules at the junction. for example: atman (self) + j~ana (knowledge) ) atmaj~ana.a ean+ gacC a. Sanskrit makes extensive use of the samasa. anusvara or visarga. of these four main classes. words are joined together in writing except after words ending in a vowel. while earlier members retain their pratipadika form. AB avyay bhava (forms indeclinable (avyaya) functioning as an adverb) AB bahuvr hi (serves as an adjective qualifying an external principal) Other types of samasa are subdivisions. . that it is unusual to nd a sentence without a samasa. then the n is dropped. . 10.

+ + IR *Z+ + IR + O *v+ a.tam.t+ + A:kH + O *v+ .e.E+ + A a.aDu+ k*:tRx+ A: + BU+ + A anand + IR *Z+ *k*:a= a.Za.d:nam.B. 2.ayR+ + I nd + A anand sa. 19.m.h:=e maDu+ ma. and then writing down what is heard: the results may afterwards be checked against the rules or the sandhi grid.de va. 23. i.a.+ + A ea. + O *ta.ty+ sa. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory.pa.va.3 Exercises (a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. 18.+ + IR a= . a.a.d a. 29. 26..v+ + A: an+ 16. 24.a. . 7.v+ gua ma.aya.+ + A anand + A a~y+ + A a.t+ + A .h + k*:tRx+ k*:+ n+ + A T+ + A:mxa. 14.+ a= + I yam.h + . 6./ a~t+ . 3.d + ma.SNa.h:~te+ :pa= m+ :pra.S+ A anand k*:a. Do remember that the purpose of the exercises is a practical understanding: one learns from mistakes.Za. 8.e+ :pa= m+ n+ + + I*a.tman. (c) Join the following word pairs using vowel sandhi: this exercise is most usefully done in sound alone.h + + O *v+ + O k*:tvam. 25. 27. 22.d + I nd + *. 10. by repeatedly pronouncing the word pairs aloud very swiftly.84 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 10.+ .+ + O k*. ant+ na. not from right answers! 1. 4. 15.p+ ma. 28.+ + A anand + A aca. 5. 13. 20. 9. 17. 11. 21.a. 12.tx+ :pa. 30.

-ah . the rst r is dropped. A =.. -Vs -Vh . 0 -a -a -a -a -as -as . Basically a nal s or r becomes r before a voiced (ghosa) sound (which includes the vowels. avasana (e.e+Y or O *Sa. t/th. 3 any other ghosa vya~jana n .A. Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . c/cht/th.e+Y before any other letter the visarga is dropped. any vowel other than a a- r- . Vr -Vr -V3 -Vr -Vs -Vs . and a preceding A I or o lengthened. is elided. And the nal s or r becomes a visarga before an unvoiced (aghosa) sound (whether .. -as -ah .1 Visarga Sandhi This is most conveniently presented directly in tabular form: Final Vowel -as -as Vs1 Vr2 Next Initial Sound The table is simple enough. followed by another =. it is replaced with a sibilant (s s or s) of the same mouth position as that of .A 11. -o -a -o -o -as -as . is the last row: an avasana is a pause or stop in speech. if a i or u.{ ) 1 -Vs = any vowel except a or a before the nal s. -Vh . is lengthened. 2 -Vr = any vowel before the nal r. 1. a consonant or a pause in sound) the exception to this.++A@ becomes @A e+Y@. of course) the exceptions to this are: .(a disallowed combination). -Vh . -ah .Lesson 11. where the nal is -r and the following word begins with r. unless that vowel is hrasva A in which case @A:s. and the preceding vowel. One very important point to note about this table. -as -ah . -as before a ghosa consonant becomes -o the -s is dropped before . the following consonant. as for example at the end of a sentence or line of poetry. t/thany other aghosa vya~jana n . is that before c/ch t/th or . Note: The words s+H or O *S+H followed by hrasva A becomes sa. -Vs -Vh .g. 2. a vowel.

A. and observe its special changes before l.3 for pronunciation of the anusvara).86 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory This also applies when a sentence is split up into its independent words (padani) by removing the external sandhi. .. a process called sandhi vigraha.A.(in the last . A . 11. this should be replaces with an s. this sandhi must be removed: where the word is given in the tables with a nal visarga. i. consonant of the same mouth position when the following sound is ghosa.g. nal -m changes to anusvara before any consonant (see 8. changes to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya sound (both ghosa and aghosa).) -VnnVn __ -Vn V. and may end (before an avasana or pause) one of eight consonants k t t p n n m _ . .. then the nasal is doubled.(which is ghosa) . . @k . when the word is used in a sentence.A. this table is split according to the following sound being ghosa or aghosa.) -Vcch- -V_ V. (h) were discussed in 11. . while the dantya nasal (like the -t) changes . then a c is inserted secondly. The nal aghosa (k t t and p) are basically replaced with the ghosa alpaprana . which means that sandhi rules applicable to a following avasana have already been applied. . and . There are no sandhi changes when a vowel meets a consonant. The kanthya nasal remains unchanged. remain unchanged when followed by an aghosa sound but note that a nal -t . As with the visarga sandhi. with two exceptions: when a word ends in a short vowel and the following word begins with ch-. . and the remaining three are nasals.and s. an anusvara and sibilant of the following mouth position of a following talavya. .. murdhanya or dantya aghosa also note the special changes before l. Before an h.e. . The immediate relevance is that the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs is given in the form of independent words. . to the mouth position of a following talavya or murdhanya ghosa sound. or h. when a word ends in -n or -n preceded by a short vowel. a word may begin with any vowel or consonant except h m n n n r l . these four are replaced by their ghosa equivalents. case the substitute replaces the following s. . .and s-.) -VnnV- .h. or with any vowel except r and l. The sandhi of words ending with a visarga . and to . . . mahaprana equivalent of that ghosa substitute (e.1 this table covers the remaining consonants.2 Consonant Sandhi As a rule. and _ the following word begins with a vowel.h@ ) @gG+@). .as well). and the h. .: -V ch. So. The rst four of the nal consonants are the alpaprana aghosa sparsa (except c) . _~.is replaced by the .

. . @n. . -g -d -l -b -n -l< 2 -m _ . .Lesson 11. is replaced by even if k kh g gh n. -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . 3 -~ s. -g -d -j -b -n -~ -m _ n . are: s following k r i u u . n when followed by a vowel.3 Internal Sandhi The two most common rules of internal sandhi. -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ .. d/dhb/bhn/my/r/v- lhk/khc/cht/th. . n_ This is a nasalized l. . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . . . -n _ -n -n -m -n -n -m _ . i. t/thp/phss/s. is replaced by even if there is an intervening m or h . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . p ph b bh m. 3 -k -t -cch-p -n -~ -m _ n .-bbh.A Final Consonant (before avasana) 87 -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ .may also become -~ ch-. -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . . The nasal doubles to -_ n or -nn if the preceding vowel is short.-ddh. y v h or m intervene _ . -k -t -c -p -n -ms -m _ . . . s unless it is the nal letter or followed by r.A. . < l@. n . -ggh. 11. . m v y or n (which last becomes n). .-n -n -m _ . and which a ect the spelling of vibhakti endings in particular. n n 1 2 Next Sound any vowel g/ghj/jhd/dh. . . .. -g -d -d -b -n1 -n1 -m _ . . . -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ . -k -t -t -p -n -ms -m _ . . .-ddh. following s r r or r . -k -t -t -p -n -n -m _ . . r e ai o or au r. . . . .+ l@ becomes @..e. -g -d -d -b -n -n -m _ .

B. the second. . . the members refer to the same object for example: denoting direction or a numeral as its rst member for example: purnacandrah ( purnah (full) candrah (moon) = full-moon.. . . . .. There are two types of dvandva: the gender of the last member the number is the sum of the members. For example: Itaretara | the members are considered separately the gender of the compound is singular. if the compound is dissolved.e. `his man') samasa is a determinative compound in which the . . . for example: = pleasure and pain.. . . i.. . For example: Tatpurusa | also called vyadhikarana-tatpurusa. Samahara | the members are taken collectively as a unit it is always neuter sukham ca duhkham ca ) sukhaduhkham (note the singular) . has a case relationship to). = root of a tree. and is characterised as having the same case ending . 11. `couple') samasa is a copulative compound in which the members. Dvigu | this samasa has the same sense as the karmadharaya. ..B The following detailed notes may be used for reference: they need not be studied.B. if not compounded. .. but has a word .e.Lesson 11.e. ramah ca krsnah ca ) ramakrsnau (note the dual) = Rama and Krsna. or modi es. rst member depends on (i. the members are di erent objects. is characterised as having .2 Tatpurusa Samasa . . would be in the same case (vibhakti) and connected by the conjunction c+ (and). . . . The compound may be further classi ed according to the case relationship (dvit ya through saptam ) of the rst member to the second. also called samanadhikarana-tatpurusa.. Karmadharaya | this is a descriptive determinative compound. . . . 11. tree-root.1 Dvandva Samasa The dvandva (lit. The tat-purusa (lit. Pairs of opposites are often put in this form. There are several types: di erent case endings if the compound is dissolved. vrksamulam ( vrksasya mulam (sasthi-tatpurusa) . i.

Na~-tatpurusa | a compound with a negative particle (na-. giving a negative or privative sense for example: a-j~anam ( a. lotus-eyed. = whose eyes are (like) lotuses. (similarly a-kara etc. .(the sense is proportion) + sraddha (faith) = according to (one's) faith. . or a-) as its n . padmaksa ( padma (lotus) + aksa (eye) .(negation or absence) + j~anam (knowledge) = ignorance. remains a noun. `an unchanging nature') samasa is indeclinable (avyaya) and functions as an adverb.+ (king) + putra (son) raja-putra = whose son is a king (bahuvr hi) . bahu. singular (lit.). n n 11.A.B O k*:vacan+ 89 eka-vacana. while the latter becomes an adjective. .3 Avyay bhava Samasa The avyay bhava (lit. = with anger. one .(many).1): raja-putra ( =*a. an-. `much rice') samasa is a descriptive compound forming an adjective (visesana) agreeing with a noun (expressed or understood) for example: . = the son of the king. .B. the king's son (tatpurusa). from p vac. angrily. 11. In the Vedic Sanskrit the determinative and descriptive compounds were distinguished by accents (see 9. giving `dual' and `plural'] Upapada | this compound has a dhatu derivative as its second member for example: kumbha-kara ( kumbham (pot) + p kr (to do. The di erence between the tatpurusa and the bahuvr hi is that the former .B. and the whole takes the form of the neuter singular for example: sakrodham ( sa.(the sense is accompaniment) + krodha (anger) yathasraddham ( yatha. and the last a noun (naman).4 Bahuvr hi Samasa The bahuvr hi (lit.(two). The rst member is an indeclinable (preposition or adverbial pre x).Lesson 11. act. make) = potter .speaking. rst member. to speak) also dvi.jan.

90

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

11.B.5 Exercises
(a) Practise sounding the alphabetical order while following the consonants on the alphabet chart on page 74. (b) Write out the alphabet chart on page 74 once per day from memory. (c) Write the following sentences in devanagar , applying sandhi rules as necessary | and it will be necessary quite often! | and then translate them into English. For example:

narah asvah ca alpan vrksan labhete . . . .
na=*e+Y a a.a. pa.anvxa a.a. < l*Bea.te+

1. narau alpam vrksam agnim asvat vahatah . . . 2. bala asvam naram ca vrksat labhate . . 3. phalani asvam vahati iti guruh balah vadati . . 5. narah vrksam agnim balayai asvena vahati . . . 6. bala asvam alpam nad m vrksat nayate . . 7. narah vrksan phalebhyah asvena gacchati . . . .

The man and horse take the small trees.

4. guru alpam naram vrksayat s ghram gacchatah . . .

8. guruh agnim narat gacchati iti alpa bala vadati . 10. alpebhyah phalebhyah sundaresu vrksesu gacchavah . . . . . . . 9. bala alpah asvah ca agnim narat gacchatah . . .

Lesson 12
12.1

From here forward the lessons will no longer be divided into parts `A' and `B', there will, however, be exercises related to the dictionary or Dhatu-Patha at the end of . each lesson.

Monier-Williams Dictionary

In the dictionary, words are listed in their pratipadika (stem) form, i.e. without the vibhakti endings that they gather in actual use therefore in seeking the meaning of words found in Sanskrit writings, the rst part of the word will be found in the dictionary, and the last syllable or two forming the vibhakti ending needs to be omitted. There will be an element of guesswork in this because only the six most common noun declensions have been given: forty declensions are necessary to cover all possibilities, and as many again for exceptions. The dictionary often marks the accents of vowels in transliteration: the udatta is marked with the acute accent ( ) and the svarita with the grave accent ( ) | this is illustrated in section 9.A.1. There is an interesting section on the subject of accents on page of the dictionary introduction, beginning with the fourth paragraph \Then a third improvement . . . ". The rest of the lengthy Preface and Introduction need not be read however, do note that the dictionary was completed at the end of the Nineteenth Century, and thus there is some Victorian coyness in translating sexual terms, which are sometimes given in Latin rather than English.
xviii

This dictionary is either very simple to use, or very di cult: the di erence lies in understanding the founding principles of the dictionary, and appreciating the devices that Monier-Williams has employed in order to make it simple to use. In this lesson the broad structure of the dictionary is explained, and subsequent lessons will cover the details.

12.2

Alphabet and Transliteration

Some of the devanagar characters used in the dictionary di er from the standard followed in these lessons, and some transliterations di er from the generally accepted standard. The alphabet used in the dictionary, in both devanagar and transliterated Roman characters, is presented below in the standard format, from which one may deduce the standard alphabetical order (which of course, the dictionary does use).

92

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory

A A+

I IR

o

H I

O

Oe

A ea. A Ea.

AM

AH

a a i
k K+ g+ .G+ z

u u ri r lri lr e o ai au am/an ah . . . . . . ka kha ga gha na _
c+ C .j+

V+ y+ .Z+

ca cha ja jha na ~ ya sa _

ta . F tha . q da . Q dha . N na . = ra :S+ sha
f

t+ T+ .d D+ n+ l s+

ta tha da dha na la sa

pa :P pha b+ ba B+ bha m+ ma v+ va
:p+

.h

ha

Observe the devanagar characters used for A and its derivatives in the sixteen sakti, and the consonants J and :N+ observe also the transliteration for .r r l l, . .. the anusvara, s and s. These are also shown on page (facing page 1) of the . dictionary.
xxxvi

Monier-Williams distinguishes between a `true' anusvara (n) which is inherent in the word from its dhatu and is found in such words as AM :s+ (ansa) and a.hM:s+ (hinsa), and the `substitute' anusvara (m) which arises through the operation of the rules . of grammar, as for example sam,+ + sa.a= ) sMasa.a= (samsara). This distinction is . peculiar to Monier-Williams (the standard is to use m throughout), and may be . ignored: simply treat m and n as synonymous with the anusvara. .

12.3

Fundamental Structure

The dictionary is arranged on etymological principles, and it is this that makes it such a powerful tool. The two main advantages of this arrangement are, rstly, that cognate words derived from the same dhatu are gathered together, and this facilitates a broad understanding of the word, together with its applications and uses secondly, it becomes a trivial matter to trace the word back to its dhatu, thus allowing a penetrating insight into the very essence of the word. This combination, giving both breadth and depth to the understanding of a word, is immensely valuable in the penetrating study of the scriptures.

Now look at the next page: at the bottom of the rst column is the entry buaD. Similarly. The seeming con ict between these two is resolved quite simply: the main etymological structure is ordered alphabetically in devanagar script.l a. h N+ order and ignore any intervening words in transliterated Roman script. and that each entry comprises just one paragraph. and Buddhaka and Buddhi (middle of third column).a.ba=*a. as one would expect of a dictionary.ba. Such an entry indicates a major dhatu.l a.ba. and are all derived from the previous word in devanagar script ( a. At this stage the purpose is not to nd word meanings.ba.Z+ in devanagar script should be between Bilasa and Bilma.a.Z+ a.l. and the sub-structure of derived words is listed under the devanagar entry in transliterated Roman script the derived words are themselves listed alphabetically.l*nT+ a. The list also demonstrates the two levels of alphabetical order: without these levels. Comments on the list: The entries in devanagar script are listed in alphabetical Do not proceed any further with this lesson until this principle of the independence of the two levels of alphabetical order is clear.a. A word of caution: the dictionary contains a wealth of information | do be alert to attention being captured by some interesting item.ba.ba. but to understand how to use this tool called a dictionary.l*.l*. but their order is independent of the outer structure using devanagar script. the words a. the words in Roman script are themselves listed alphabetically. The reason for this instruction is that the dictionary uses four levels of alphabetical order.+ in large devanagar type.ba.l*. Bila Bilasa Bilma Bilmin Billa Bilva Bilvaka Bilvak ya Bilvala a. the entries could be listed as follows: a.a.a.ba.l . The entries in this column should be the same as the list given above: con rm this. For example. Look down the rst column. Now open your dictionary at page 732.ba. the dictionary is also ordered alphabetically.ba.l a.l*nT+ a.Lesson 12 93 Besides the etymological arrangement. The words derived from this dhatu include Buddha (middle of second column). and not just two. in this case). and observe that each entry begins with an indented word in devanagar or bold Roman script.l*.a. Continuing through these .

This is the third level of alphabetical order: samasa beginning with the entry word (which may be in Roman type or devanagar ) are listed within the body of the paragraph for that entry in alphabetical order. which returns to the second level of alphabetical order: the point to note here. is that a samasa like Buddhagama is before it. and nd the fourth samasa entry -kshetra (about 1 2 2 inches (60 mm) from the bottom). The next line contains the word (in feint italic type) -pari_ odhaka . the nal a of buddha is changed: thus. i. The next entry word is Buddhaka. Bodha). remembering the two levels of alphabetical order. note that in the third column (about three inches (80 mm) down) is Buddhagama: the caret c ( c ) above the vowel indicates that it is long (d rgha) | it conveys more information in fact. note the strengthening of the dhatu vowel of the entry words from Bu.(e. This means that -kapalin is appended to the entry word Buddha so as to form the samasa Buddhakapalin . is -vara-locana . where the leading hyphen is mentally replaced by the entry word. the next word in bold type is -kalpa. +).through Bo. Three inches (75 mm) below this is -kapalin in bold type: nd this. in strict alphabetical order. before the next word in devanagar script (bua.| at this stage just note that they are the guna and vrddhi forms | the . but more of that later): observe that these words or listed in alphabetical order. following -kapalin .g. note that there can be several pages between devanagar entry words and secondly. due to the rules of vowel sandhi.e. Now return to page 733. Work through these samasa until satis ed that they are in fact in alphabetical order. . Bauddha). forming the samasa Buddhakalpa.to Bau. Buddhagama and subsequent samasa are spelled out in full because.(e. and thus out of sequence as far as the second level in concerned. observe the change of the rst vowel from Buto Bo. This third level may be viewed as an extension of the second level. Buddhasena (with hrasva a). These form s . Continuing at this level. There are two points to appreciate here: rstly. Similarly. Thus these samasa sub-entries are truly a third level of alphabetical order. to the entry Buddha in the middle of column two.94 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory derived words on the next page. and similarly in the line below that. signi cance of this will be explained later. The rest of the column has several more such words in bold type and each beginning with a hyphen (and the hyphen is not irrelevant. Return to the second column. Buddhagama (with d rgha a) follows after the previous samasa -sena. and on the following page to Bau. as will be explained later.g.

i. Examine the words at the top of page 732 for example.4 Page Heading Words The words in the top margin of each page. Note that these two sub-sub-entries listed under the . Buddhiksetrapari_ odhaka and s . . Buddhiksetravaralocana. the words at the top of page 735 are both at the second level but are in reverse alphabetical order. being derive from di erent words in the devanagar script: had one been looking for bua}Ba. on the next page the heading words are at the second and third levels and turning over the page. and the last (b jin) is in transliterated Roman: these words are at di erent levels in the hierarchy of alphabetical orders. 12. but for the moment leave aside words beginning with s+ (sa). and note that the rst (birala) is in devanagar script in the text. At this stage you could start to make use of the dictionary if there are words that you particularly want to look up. turn a few pages backwards (towards A) and follow the devanagar entries in the body of the dictionary.e. but be aware that it can happen. indicate respectively the rst and last entry words to be found on that page. are also in alphabetical order: this is the fourth (and last!) level . given in both devanagar and Roman transliterated forms.Lesson 12 95 further samasa when appended to -ksetra. Again. sub-entry -ksetra. . This situation does not happen often and so one forgets about it. the heading words would have been quite misleading. When you suspect that you have been misled by the page heading words.+ (the rst entry in the second column). of alphabetical ordering. Do make use of these rather than the body of the text as you scan through the pages looking up a word: but don't rely on them totally. for they can sometimes be misleading in that they do not indicate at which of the four levels of alphabetical order they occur.

ananta 20. krsna . 15. The words in the list will all be found at the start of an entry (like buddhi) and not buried in the text the words may be in devanagar or transliterated in the dictionary. 14. You have been warned: but go ahead and fall at on your face anyway! But then do observe what tripped you up. second (=b) column). hrdaya . rsi . purusa . 8. Common errors of rst-time users are: (1) Confusing the English and Sanskrit alphabetical orders. bhakti 19. (6) Wasting time by reading interesting but irrelevant entries. 1. 5. (3) Not seeing what is actually there. it should take no longer to nd a word in the Sanskrit dictionary than it does in the English dictionary. j~ana n 6. yoga 4. hetu 3. .96 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 12.. visnu . so simply nd the word and note the page and column in the form: buddhi 733b (i.. are two separate letters. (2) Forgetting that `a' and `a' for example. When you are more familiar with the dictionary. vyakarana . both in the list of words and in the dictionary: watch those diacritics! (4) Failing to use the page heading words. citta 12.. guru 10.5 Dictionary Practice Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary. sar ra 18. 13. The exercise is to nd the word in the dictionary and not to examine the meaning of the word.. brahman 9.e. atman 2. 16. say fteen seconds. page 733. rajas 11. manas 17. ananda 7. (5) Misunderstanding the structure of the devanagar and transliterated entries. prakrti .

of course.va.1 Words Beginning with Sa- The pre x sam. union.) are listed in alphabetical order | but note that the sparsa (-karana. one needs to make the same nasal substitution for the anusvara for the words in the dictionary.+. in the word sMa. z .l .c. -kartavya.(`altogether'. In looking up words containing the anusvara it is essential to sound the word. in the dictionary order where the anusvara appears before the consonants. the last being in the dictionary order of sa *.ve from ka to ma) and secondly. etc.D+. follows the anusvara in the alphabetical order).+ | and that is the alphabetical order in sound! u This principle applies wherever the anusvara occurs. di culties may arise if the rules for pronouncing the anusvara are not thoroughly practised.+ and is . is sounded with its replacement savarna nasal to give A h: *=*N+ (and.+ and for sMa.va.a= is not substituted and therefore. -yu.. i. and not only to words beginning with sam-. the anusvara in sMa. in column two of page 124 is the entry A h:m.e. . the anusvara . . sMa. sa. examine the third column of page 1125 of the dictionary: the last three words given in devanagar script are sMak*:a. . completeness) is very common.d an+ the anusvara is sounded as the savarna m. and derived from it (and hence transliterated) is the next entry word aham (note the anusvara): the samasa formed with aham | (-yati. p+ for sMa:]a. saV]a. anD+ etc. . For example. replacing the anusvara with its savarna nasal where applicable.+ in devanagar .) are listed after the antahstha and usman. . sound them! Do remember that in the dictionary the anusvara before an antahstha is not .Lesson 13 13. Again.+. sa u . p+. and thus there are many words beginning with it since the nal -m is often replaced with the anusvara. up the word in the standard alphabetical order with that substituted nasal. and then look . substituted with a nasal: for example. expressing conjunction.d an+ similarly for sMak*: p+. -vadin etc. and sMak*. As an illustration of the importance of sounding the words. then found in the dictionary where one would expect to nd sa}pra. look up sa *. There are two points to bear in mind here: rstly.a= will be before saga= which in turn will be before sMak*: p+.pra. the tradition followed by MonierWilliams makes this nasal substitution only before a sparsa (the twenty. For example.

it sounds . .a. by samprasarana). should ideally only contain dhatu.s+ whose root is not known.suc the next entry :pra. and half-way down the column is :pra.tasama. indicating a major dhatu: the entry for this word begins with its transliterated form.d l. and is followed by ba. The next word.+ p having three pre xes prati-sam-a. ten ways of conjugating verbs). These are followed by the onomatopoeic . This . The transliteration shows the etymology of the word. . together with the other information given in the dhatu entry. but the entry shows that it is derived from the dhatu badh.car. Turn to page 733 of the dictionary and examine the devanagar entries in the rst column. The word buak is onomatopoeic (i. Page 672 of the dictionary is representative of this type of entry: the second column begins with :pra. For the next three words.+.d Z.d. p has two pre xes prati-sam. The next two entries are dhatu note that bua. buaq*.g.tasuac. followed by \ cl. and bua. The next dhatu bua .a. and buaq.e. will be explained in the next lesson. is a dhatu. followed by its transliterated form and a class number. There are ten classes of dhatu (i. whose dhatu is not known.aBa. That was a pretty mixed bag of words. but this.e.ts+ which is not a dhatu. namely the entries in devanagar script.+. gives references to columns two and three: common words like this are often listed in the devanagar with a cross-reference given to their etymological entry position.a.dis. or .a. *. or have a pre x added.+ and in transliteration is p conveniently split into the pre x and dhatu as prati. the rst entry is ba.a. At this stage. The last word in this column is in large devanagar type.buaq.a. and the dhatu bua. except for those beginning with a pre x which form the bulk of the words listed in devanagar . Returning to the top of the rst column. is also given the alternative reading vung the similarity in both sound and form of b+ and _ v+ allows this to happen. the dhatu bua. but in practice it includes those words whose form has changed radically (e. and allows each element to be separately examined in the dictionary. the personal name bua. but does illustrate the many types of entries listed in devanagar .tasMaca=.aB. which is a dhatu.98 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. no etymology is given. simply be aware that a devanagar entry. like the thing signi ed). . is followed by the onomatopoeic bua u *d and nally the dhatu buaD.2 Structure of Devanagar Level The outermost layer of the dictionary. both class-1 and -10. which means that the dhatu is not known (to Monier-Williams anyway) and may be foreign words absorbed into Sanskrit.f is given as . bua . is class-6. i " which stands for `class-1'. This is followed by buak whose etymology is not known.

The visesana. str -linga naman _ 14th line: n. . . . a long vowel . . there will be no `mfn. tall . as a bonus. so Buddha can also be a masculine naman and further down (just before the bold type -kapalin ) is `n. . This is the general order followed in the dictionary within the text for an entry word. . Here. 5th line: (am ) ind. and avyaya (indeclinables. guided by Dharma (Law). . . . to a naman. lofty. . pum-linga naman . for a long time .'. Return to page 733. long. avyaya form 7th line: m.' or `n.Lesson 13 99 13. thus the word Buddha can also be a neuter noun. . and lightly read through the text for the word Buddha: the information provided about Gautama Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) is typical of the encyclop dic scope of the dictionary. and are thus indicated in the dictionary as _ `mfn. Thus the same pratipadika form may be a visesana or a naman. typically kriya-visesana adverbs). a wise or learned man'. The rst division of naman is into linga (gender). and this is shown in the dictionary _ by `m. .'.d aGR+ near the bottom of the third column of page 481: 1st line: mf(a)n. knowledge'. . you are given an insight into the mythology of India. visesana form . and must therefore be able _ to take any form of the three linga. visesana (adjectives). buried in the text for that word. in bringing a quality . . which. must have the same linga as that naman. a wise man'. m. are listed in their pratipadika form. so if the heading . feminine. by a description indicating their meaning. Now lightly read through the text for the word Buddhi in the third column. a species of grass . _ 12th line: (a ) f. indicating a visesana however. . . neuter). . produces Bodha (Knowledge).' Examine the entry for Buddha in the second column of page 733: it begins with `mfn. word indicates `mfn.' (masculine. followed . .3 Structure within non-Dhatu Entries The entries for naman (nouns). `f. The converse does not apply: had the entry been `Buddha. _ . where the gods and their consorts are the personi cation of universal forces: from Daksa (the Creative . napumsaka-linga naman.' buried in the text | this re ects the overall structure of the dictionary in tapering down from the general to the particular. . six lines down is `m.' etc. an oblong tank . from a quality (visesana) to . A fuller illustration of this principle is shown under the entry . the speci c (naman). long. . Force) arises Buddhi (Intelligence).' one may yet nd `m.

a + u ) o etc. but will be elucidated in the next section.g. c denotes the joining of a short with a long vowel. as a + a ) a. and very helpfully indicate the length of the nal and initial vowels at the point of union. c b denotes the joining of a long with a short vowel. if the word `conscious' is under discussion. the abbreviation con or even c may be used similarly ly would mean consciously. Bhag. consciousness. d These are also used when the rules of sandhi change the vowel sound. as a + a ) a. The last four symbols are not very clear. Make it a discipline to look up the references (when appropriate) and abbreviations (always) when you are not sure what it stands for | this way you will very soon become familiar with them. nd the samasa listed under Buddha beginning with -kapalin and -kalpa: the hyphen not only indicates that the word . As an illustration of its use. for MahaBharata. The next page of the dictionary has a list of symbols that are used: read through and understand these. for example. e. Monier-Williams also uses this symbol to abbreviate English words in order to save space. rather than repeat the word in full.6 Signi cance of Hyphen and Caret Symbols Turning again to page 733 column two. a c 13. short or long.4 References and Abbreviations xxxiii On page of the Introduction is the List of Works and Authors that MonierWilliams has consulted in compiling the dictionary: look for a few works that you know to see how it is abbreviated in the body of the dictionary. b d denotes the joining of two long vowels. as a + a ) a. These are used in the transliterated script for samasa (compound words). as a + a ) a.5 Special Symbols @ and a b c d The little circle (@) is a standard abbreviation symbol in the devanagar script to denote either the rst or last part of a word that has to be supplied from the context. for Bhagavad-g ta and MBh. The following page of the dictionary lists the abbreviations that are used.100 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 13. and ness. The caret symbols a b c d denote a joining of vowels. a + i ) e. so that the words may readily be looked up separately: a denotes the joining of two short vowels. 13.

. and varna for example. 15. 19. which stands for c Buddha-agama. and this is why the next samasa. 14.eaBa.tx+ a. the `weaker' of the two vowels in terms of guna and vrddhi (see .A.veak sMaya. . 16. 3.a ayaDamR+ ba.7 13.eag+ Dya.a.h:k*:a.Za. although O and Oe are both long vowels.3).+ a. 7.a. 6. . Baga. *. 10. the vowel sandhi grid of 10.va.ta=e k l Guasa va.v.a.l sMa~k*:t+ x k*:a. and hyphenated appropriately. 20.va.a. 5. kaya .asan+ a. 8. 2. -kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara is itself hyphenated (each element. as in Buddhagama. If a word is not found in the main dictionary.ta.pa.d e *cC ja.a. 13. this use of the caret symbol allows the second word of the samasa to be correctly determined as beginning with a d rgha a.a.ta.a=*ea.Q sMagamama.va.3): the reasoning here is that. . Buddha-eduka and not Buddha-aiduka (which are the two possibilities listed in . section 10.Dya. Similarly.a. 12.l* *.pa a. A:nvaya. 4. look for it in the supplement of Additions and Corrections beginning on page 1308.2). 18. so that agama can be separately looked up.paDxak . is given the thin stroke in the caret symbol. 13.Lesson 13 101 is appended to Buddha (see section 12.8 Supplement to Dictionary Dictionary Practice 1.+ mana. 9.N+ a.va. may usually be separately found in the dictionary).t+ A:gxa. Where the samasa is printed in full.A.h a.a.h:=*NyagaBR+ :pUa.l*yuag+ mUa. 11.va.p+ a *a.vRa.eag+ A.t+ .anaya. the samasa printed as Buddha duka stands for a. Look up the words in the following list in the dictionary: the words may be at any of the four levels of alphabetical order. 17. but that kapalin and kalpa are words that may be separately looked up in the dictionary. and they may be printed in devanagar or transliterated Roman or both.ya.

102 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

. . . `distinction'. The next step in n analysing this word is to look up the two component parts of this verb. follow the entry words backwards (towards A ) until an entry given in devanagar (the outermost level of alphabetical order). to express `division'. . . a consonant. mfn. `distribution'. token . indication .1. . display v. ornament manifestation.ya . In the third column of page 949 is the entry: 3. . . indicating .Lesson 14 14. . badge. . manifesting. . manifest. `arrangement' . namely vyand dhatu a~j. decoration. ind. m. The dhatu of vya~jana is given in the rst column of page 11: n A: . adorn. before vowels for 3. Since this entry is not in devanagar . n Vy-a~jana. . . In the middle of the second column is: vy. sign.B. to anoint thoroughly to decorate.given in 7. .vi Here is an example of vowel sandhi used in forming a word. . In the second column of page 1028 is found: n v.+ vy. a consonant . Compare all this information with the description of vya~jana given at the start n of the rst lesson. a. to cause to appear. . .1 Tracing a Word to its Dhatu Since the dictionary is essentially etymologically arranged. . in comp. to decorate . . make n clear . . . .a~j . . it is quite straightforward to trace a word to its dhatu.+ a~j. . This is best illustrated by example: nd the word Vy-a~jana in the third column of page 1029. beautify to n cause to appear.vi.y. . to celebrate . n n. speci cation a mark. used as a pre x to verbs and nouns .+ p This is the kriya from which the naman vya~jana derives.v+ Compare this with the sense of the upasarga vi. Now that may appear to be a very owery description of what . .

P. which are printed in feint italic. simply note that some of the forms have the rst syllable `re-duplicated' (e.) Within the English translation section.' which means that it may also be found as a class 4 atmanepada verb `( . but can it embellish that to say `Who could fool you?'. That the dhatu is printed in large devanagar means that it is a major dhatu this is followed by the numeral `1'. bubodha) or pre xed with `a' (e. . where the form will be buddhyati.e. . that the dhatu vowel remains unchanged when conjugated as a class-4 verb. also P. The `ep. Indeed.63)' is a Dhatu-Patha reference next `budhyate ' shows the lat . A. but in this complicated hi-tech age the profundity of simple things is often overlooked: the ability to form a range of consonants is what separates man from animal. Next. show the lat (present .g. two words. indicative) prathama purusa eka-vacana forms. but in the class-1 conjugation the vowel has the guna form some other classes use the vrddhi form. no culture or civilisation | all this rich diversity is founded on the simplicity of vowels and consonants. xxi Next there is `cl. which may or may not be another dhatu (in fact it is a visesana listed . just as a matter of interest. abudhram). no history or philosophy.. before starting the English translations `to wake' etc. `cl. many scriptures speak of the creative power of speech. (Observe. `bodhati. .' indicates that the dhatu conjugates according to class-1 rules in both parasmai-pada and atmane-pada this is followed by the Dhatu-Patha reference `(Dhatup.) . passive forms of the verb are given. in the rst column on the next page). xxvi The next eight lines show conjugations of this dhatu for other lakara (tenses and moods) etc.2 Dhatu Entry Information Turn again to the dhatu budh at the bottom of the rst column of page 733. The last four lines show associated verbs in several other Indo-European languages. A dog may be able to howl a perfect prolonged u3 . bodhati and bodhate for .11)'. te '. .A. (Again. Without adorning the vowel sounds with consonants there would be no language: without language there would be no mathematics or science. The following .i.4. . and that creation itself is spoken into existence. ti ' means that in the epics it may also be found conjugated in (class-4) parasmai-pada. 14.g. which indicates that there is another entry budh. i.104 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory is simply a consonant. conjugation as a class-4 verb. as also derivative verb forms. parasmai-pada and atmane-pada respectively.

-pana m.aca. Here Monier-Williams gives a clear reference to where we have just come from: where the numbered entries are widely spaced ( ve pages in this case). there are ve entries for cit on pages 394{5.Lesson 14 105 Some dhatu entries give much less information.3 Numbered Entries Words having the same spelling may have quite di erent etymologies having di erent derivations. Also note that these words do not have consecutive entries: indeed they may be separated by several pages. . nd the entry for pratipana in the middle of the second . wrong.+ near the top of the px rst column.v. but the rst is a verb and the second a noun. which in turn indicates that there is more than one dhatu ci (in fact there are three) the second is derived from p uc. xxxv Be aware that the numbered entries inform you that there are at least two entries with the same spelling: for example. but not always. . where entries have the same spelling.aca. ( 1. both here and in A:nua. set or placed along or . nd the two consecutive entries for A:nua. turning to the second column on page 32. see s. he usually. their meanings will be quite di erent: in such cases. mfn.t+ | A:nua.t+ above.' in the list of abbreviations on page (two pages before page 1). mfn. 14. kr at the end of .2. ci ). gives pointers to where the other entry may be found. ci. anu-cita. . p The rst is derived from 1. . The entry for pratipana that we are now examining is at the third level of alphabetical order.+. as we shall see shortly.aca.t+ 2. such as ba. In the next column. and we now need to nd it at the outermost (devanagar ) alphabetical order: this is at the bottom of the second column on page 667. where it is given as {1. but the overall format is similar. such as k 1. which both have the same etymological derivation.3. whilst others give more information.t+ 1. `s. Note that the numerals appear before the transliterated form. and so on.v. column. which is found by looking up ucita on page 172c. (for 2. unusual strange . improper.) |now nd the meaning of .aB.aca. Further down the column are two entries for anucchindat which have di erent derivations from the same dhatu. an-ucita. . page 300. Turning to page 662. . p Note the numerals and the di erent derivations indicated in the transliterated forms. observe that there are two entries for A:nua:]a. Monier-Williams numbers these 1. A:nua. For example.

but neither of refer to cet in 397c.vak*:l : continue forward at the devanagar level.106 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory and a sixth on page 398. Although there are these inconsistencies. These examples illustrate that the page heading words are a useful guide to get within ten pages or so of the target word.. we come to a. which in turn does not refer to the other two. not even at the third level _ .Z+ on 953b.+ . This will p be found near the bottom of 958c where it simply refers to vi. . but that they can also mislead. Again. and the page ends with a. If we look down the second column there are three entries for asta. some words may not be straightforward to nd. _ Vicara | Turn to page 950: again. looking for a. Sattva | This will be found listed as sa v+ in 1138b. according to the heading words we should nd vicara in the middle of the second column. All the samasa listed on this page are derived from a.. However.. This .vaca. :pra:]a.a= . of samasa. It is in fact listed at the third level in 1134c where it simply gives `see below' | this means scan forward over entry words (at level-1 or -2) for the entry.+ is indicated as a verb in the rst column of page 659.. . you would not have found it on this page. if the word had not been found on page 1138. It would be a useful exercise to nd them.v+ on the previous page. The next devanagar entry is a.vMa. Astanga | Turn to page 116: according to the heading words we should nd . but there is no astanga. for reasons best known to himself. there are fortunately very few of them. and in the next column asta... but these are not numbered. . This is the outermost (devanagar ) level | now remain at that level and search for vicara. _ . The trick here is to escape out of the current level of alphabetical order to the next higher level: searching backward for the entry word under which these samasa are listed. Monier-Williams has here decided to have a separate entry word for samasa where the adjoining word starts with `a': astanga is on the third line of the rst column of page 117. However. and thus the entry word is found near the bottom of 958b. _ astanga here. and as a noun in the second column. not according to the heading words which indicate that it is on the previous page. in the third column of page 401 are two entries for cea. We shall examine three such words here. Be warned that this numbering system is not perfect: for example. where it gives a cross-reference to page 1135 column 2: and indeed there it is listed as Sat-tva.v+ on the previous page.4 Misleading Words Because of the etymological foundation of the dictionary and its four levels of alphabetical order.t. 14.car.

to produce su-adhyaya. but it does get there if the word is listed in the dictionary.7. or sva-adhyaya. However. sva-adhyaya. sva-adhyaya.aDa.t. yata-atman. following this clue to page 845 we nd Yatatman in the third column | who would have c guessed that it came from dhatu yam? Svadhyaya | Having worked our way to the devanagar level of alphabetical order. working from the left again. su-adhyaya.' And indeed there we nd two entries: the rst a as a noun and the second as a verb. Nevertheless. and there is no entry word Yata. 14.an+. until nally at the outermost devanagar level. svaadhyaya. Don't get excited: it is a guess and could be wrong. then examine entries at the next level of alphabetical order. we nd the closest entry is ~va. 13. is irregular and the only recourse is to lists of paradigms. or yata-atman. Having found nothing useful under su+ ( ve entries) or sU+ (four entries) or ~va. The rst two don't help because we have already found that there is no entry word Yata | but there is an entry word ya. When you have exhausted all the tricks that you know with the dictionary (see sections 12. So let's split the word at a: we could have yata-atman.5. then consider the following: (a) If it is a short word (one or two syllables) then it may not be listed in the dictionary at all: the declension of pronouns. but reading the text for that entry we nd `svadhyaya. we would have arrived at ~v+ and thus nd the entries in 1277b.+. see p 1277. treat it as a samasa and use the sandhi rules to split it into parts at every syllable | this process may seem rather laborious. This detective work is illustrated with two words: Yatatman | The word is not found as a samasa under y+ or ya. are just plain di cult to nd. for example. this is not the end of the story: we want to nd the dhatu from which . and 14. yata-atman. then examine the heading words a few pages before and after.5 Di cult Words Some words. (b) If it has three or more syllables. because of their etymological development.+ .2.4).Lesson 14 107 confusion arises because the page heading words may refer to any of the rst three levels of alphabetical order: if the word sought is not quickly found on the expected page. Alternatively we could have tried splitting the word ourselves.t+ . sva-dhyaya. col. If the word is still not found.

adh -aya. the English equivalent is also given): . adhyaaya. but cannot nd adhyaya on page 23 where we would expect it.a. giving a-dhyaya: but nothing suitable is found under A (six entries). and adhya-aya.a. 14. 6.tya. 3.a.+ ). starting from the left. adhya-aya. 5.Da.+ we nd the entry word Adhy-aya! Having found the word. and there the dhatu is given as . but under A.ana.pa.h a= (withdrawal) A:ca.ta.+ (not too much pride) A:Bay+ Look up the following words in the dictionary and trace their etymology as shown in 14. we return p to the devanagar level (A.d (skilled in painting) na. So we do the same trick again.mRa.D+ (two entries).1 (as an aid.a.108 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory this word derives. 2.NR+ (abundance) :pra. So we proceed to the next syllable: adhi-aya.va.a. nor is the entry word dhyaya found.6 Dictionary Practice 1.a. (fearlessness) :pUa. Again we nd nothing helpful under A +. 4. aca ak*. adhya-aya.Da.tama. y+ (steadiness) .

a. This lesson is concerned with extracting the artha. and its meaning is restricted according to the context. and here means `derived from a noun'. Each gana is named . A word is thus given many meanings in the dictionary: the particular meaning is selected according to the context in which it is used. the class beginning with bhu.2 The Contents Page This lists the ten gana.Lesson 15 15. the rst is Bva. which express the activity of a sentence. of each dhatu from the Dhatu-Patha. is a dhatu dictionary.e. The eleventh class.' is the abbreviation for `Nominal Verb'.a. Payasya in 586a.) The immediate utility of this page is that it connects the dictionary classi cation.1 A word standing alone expresses a universal: in a sentence it refers to a particular.a. see 2. is a class of dhatu derived from nouns. cl. where adi means . names that have come to be used as verbs. i. note the numeral forms used (especially for 8 and 9). `beginning with'. .d:ga.+@. derive directly from the dhatu. (Note: `Nominal' is the adjectival form of `noun'. As an example of this class in the dictionary.1. Note that this publication makes use of alternate character forms to those we have been using in this course (see section 9. which word p is formed from bhu-adi-gana. 15. after the rst dhatu in its section: for example. which name things. and its application in the study of the scriptures. `Recitation of Roots') also encodes a wealth of grammatical .N+ . or classes of dhatu conjugation. e. with that used in the Index. as it were: it provides a sense of the underlying meaning of the dhatu | usually in just one word! The Dhatu-Patha (lit. information about the conjugation of verbs and the formation of nouns derived from each dhatu: much of this information will not be used at this stage of the study. .a. k*:Nq*. or `meaning'.d:ga. Bva. i. Introduction to Dhatu-Patha . Nouns.g.A. where `Nom.N+ .2) and since the page numbers are also in devanagar .e. A dhatu is therefore the most universal element of all words and the Dhatu-Patha . `freeze' an aspect of the activity of a dhatu whereas verbs. .

+H Su+| giving both dhatu the same artha. the eka-vacana form is used when two words (formed into a samasa).a a. Following this are a few lines of technical information which may be ignored. would be expressed in the same vibhakti and be joined together with c+ (and).+ na.ea. In the Dhatu-Patha each dhatu usually has an extra syllable appended to the end . For example. or `meaning'. become happy grow strong { mw231c) is used `in the sense of v.R+ YY. na. of it. which may be translated as `in the sense of'. `bound along with'). . the dvi-vacana form and when three or more words.1).110 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15. the bahu-vacana form. increase.pEa aya.pa. success. The artha is generally expressed in saptam vibhakti.B. (sattayam).a. and the next entry is: O :D+ vxa *E+| and so on. forming a simple list of words which. and the artha may spread over more than one line.+| Turn to the rst page of the body of the Dhatu-Patha: after the heading the rest .+ . Note the layout which gives the dhatu and artha in two columns: there may be more than one dhatu in the rst column. These extra syllables are called anubandha (lit. and encode further grammatical information which is not now required: our interest at this stage is in the basic dhatu and its artha. the compound formed is an itaretara dvandva samasa (see 11.am.+ and na. Thus all words derived from this dhatu have this sense of expansive good fortune | a sense that may be overlooked in some of the English words o ered in translation. In this type of samasa only the last word of the compound takes a vibhakti ending the others remain in their pratipadika form. and sometimes one appended before it: for example. the above four appear in the dictionary as BU+ O :D. For example. ddhi (growth.a. not compounded.aya.ta.Za. etc. In the lefthand column the rst entry is: This is the rst dhatu (bhu) together with its artha. are divided into two columns. When the artha has two or more words.aDx+ ya.aD. a little lower down is the entry: na. r fortune. the dhatu edh (to prosper. | mw1011a)'. Where the artha is a single word. and subsequent pages. of the page.a.Tx+ .T.3 The Text Body BU+ sa a.

The quality of happiness and refreshment referred to. read -a. is thus that which comes from within. ends in halanta vya~jana). . both in saptam vibhakti. and not that happiness and refreshment that comes from without.e. for an ending in -au. . read -i. . (c) bahu-vacana samasa end in su. and then repeat the process with the following syllables | but do remember that sandhi rules apply at the junction of words. . The last . for an ending in -i.e. then the rst of the pair is a visesana. entry on the rst page is of this type: a. read -a.d A v. in other cases simply remove the -su. (b) dvi-vacana samasa end in -yoh. artha illustrated above. . instead the words will need to be looked up separately. which is removed. read -a. . for an ending in -ayam. remove -i (i. e . For example. Some entries in the Dhatu-Patha di er from the common format of dhatu and .b. n for an ending in -uvi. for those ending in -esu.de| Here the dhatu hrad (to delight or refresh { mw1307c) is used `in the sense of unmanifest (avyakta { mw111b) sound (sabda { mw1052b)'. use the following: (a) eka-vacana endings have six forms: for an ending in -e. through the senses | here we have a subtlety of meaning that is not at all obvious from the English translation. read -u. read -i.Za. when the artha is given as two separate words.Lesson 15 111 To get back to the pratipadika form as listed in the dictionary. for an ending in -yam.ya. from the stillness of unmanifest sound. The itaretara dvandva samasa will generally not be found in the dictionary as one would expect to nd a samasa listed. This is straightforward enough: simply start at the left and nd the word in the dictionary that uses most syllables assume that is the rst word. i.

i. (b) When the artha is given as a word followed by c+ .112 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory The interpretation of other variations in the format is described: (a) When the dhatu is followed by c+ ( = and.e. then the artha for that dhatu is that word together with the artha of the previous dhatu. also).O k = thus in one) e e or I*tyanye+ (= I*a. 15. includes an index listing the dhatu in alphabetical order and indicating where each dhatu is listed in the body.t.Ta. .+ m. . not mentioned elsewhere.t+ . expressing motive. r harm { mw1297c).+ has the artha a.R+H (prathama bahu-vacana of A TR+ bahu-vacana because the artha applies to several dhatu).4 The Index In the body of the Dhatu-Patha the dhatu are grouped together according to .te+ = n+ .+ = injury.a.hM:sa. (f) Some entries have an unusual format. common grammatical features of their development into words. this refers to artha given in di erent versions of the Dhatu-Patha as handed down.eacya.eacya.+ which prevents the normal lengthening of A in the causative). This ordering is not at all helpful in seeking the entry for the dhatu. then this has the same artha as the previous dhatu.R+H ( a.e.te+ .+ causatives (treated as having an I*t. and may be construed as `for the sake of (causing) injury'.A:nye+ = thus in another). The index also provides more grammatical information. or `with the aim of harming'.R+H ' may be translated as `for the purpose of'. Fortunately the Dhatu-Patha . then ` A Ta. (c) When the artha is followed by na.o*cya.hM:sa. (e) Where the artha is given as a samasa ending in A Ta. (na.) (d) When the artha is followed I*tyeak (= I*a. i. dhatu k*:T. ( ) and may have the order of dhatu and artha reversed: these { dhatu have a special meaning when they are ama. and are comments by the compiler of this edition. it means that this artha is not given elsewhere in the Dhatu-Patha. enclosed by purnavirama . . some of which is helpful in nding the correct dhatu.t+ .te+ = not spoken. For example.

and may be found on page 17 column 1.f l*. . vowels (i. atmane and parasmai ). ignored at this stage. parasmai-bhasa. is :pa= smE+ . . this is the equivalent of ubhayato-bhasa in the Dhatu-Patha. A:g+ k*:a. .a. which may be atmane-bhasa. rst syllable of the gana. bhasa `cl. .Ba.e.N+ . .' means class 1 (bhvadi-gana) and atmane.E+| u Note that the index has two entries for dhatu A:k with di erent anubandha . on page 99. in the Dhatu-Patha gives the order of the gana). is an Addendum listing entries that had been omitted from the main index. A. from left to right. or .+. Where the dictionary gives both . (d) Whether the dhatu is sea. `cl. six columns wide. .e. .+ . ubhayato-bhasa (= both.ta. . Where the dhatu has more than one entry in the index. as: A:k . (f) The column on that page where it may be found. At the end of the index. The rst entry of the index shows that the dhatu A:k (with its anubandha) belongs to Bva.I*f. 4 P.Lesson 15 113 The index starts on page 53: each page is divided into two columns.'.a. .aya. which is shown in full on the contents . . . . whereas the dictionary lists only one dhatu A:k. .M+ ga.d:ga. in fact. bhasa.' means divadi-gana parasmai-bhasa.Sa. one row of tabulated data. (c) The bhasa (= speech synonymous with pada used in this . (e) The page number on which the dhatu together with its artha may be found. course). 1 A. These columns.f (= s+ . accepts augment I in its . page.I*f. or A ana. does not do so): this may be . (the table of contents . do make use of the information given in the dictionary immediately after the dhatu heading word: this information gives the class (gana) and bhasa of the dhatu (see (b) and . i. (b) The gana to which the dhatu belongs: this column has just the . etc. expansion). provide the following information: (a) The dhatu together with its anubandha: the index is ordered alphabetically according to this column.f (= A:n. as `P.a. (c) above) for example. A:k and A ak ). so that a dhatu together with its grammatical information is listed on one line.

+.+ listed as a.1.a.d . na. .P. A anand nand listed as qu ] na.a.6) will be used as a practical demonstration in the use of the Dhatu-Patha: the . ( bh ) fear.g.P. alarm. w E. Notes: This dhatu has its anubandha syllable placed in front of it: in the index this is enclosed in square brackets so that the dhatu Ba. . (c) When the dhatu has a nal I as an anubandha.) .+ 1. Index: aV+ ] Ba.+ may be found in alphabetical order.1. .d listed as :Na.l. sUa + asa.aq .Sa.d sa.v.5 The spelling of the dhatu may di er from that given in the dictionary: (a) An initial s. (b) An initial n. p E. it may require the insertion of a nasal after the vowel of the dhatu.Na. . information provided in the dictionary. .d.pa.bh .64.a. as in the Dhatu-Patha as a. and nally the artha is examined in the dictionary.+ may be spelt here with an initial :N.Nq. and the remaining word in its pratipadika form is looked up in the dictionary. cl. which is listed in (Those seeking the technical reasons behind these changes should consult the commentaries to Panini 6.a.Sa. anand + Dhatu Spelling Changes p anand. .+ may be spelt here with an initial :S.3 may be used to `remove' the vibhakti from the artha (although this declension should be familiar).+ . then its artha found in the body. as mua. as :Na.l. so the dhatu entry aVaBa. . Body: aVaBa. be afraid of mw758a Dh. P.d na.d as :Sa. to fear. In this case the given artha is itself derived from the dhatu being examined. 15.+. p Ba. p p .+ is sought in the Dhatu-Patha body in the rst column of page 26: it is the second entry. .a.58 respectively. p .+ Baye+| p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n. dread .65. These spelling changes may also be combined.d na.ana. The notes in section 15.3.ju+@ :p+@ A@ 26 1 Dh.g. The class (juhotyadi-gana) and bhasa agree with the . . p E. p . and thus provides no further insight into the sense of the dhatu than that provided by the dictionary entry. dhatu is located in the index.g. and 7. . (1) Illustrations of Dhatu-Patha Use .114 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15.Nq*k mua.d mua. 6.vu+ o*.l na.a.1.6 The dhatu for each word of the previous exercise of Dictionary Practice (section 14.

Lesson 15
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115

mw648a

Dh.P. Index: :pX+ r *:+@ :p+@ se+@ 39 1 Dh.P. Body: :pX+ :pa.a.l*na.pUa=*Naya.e+H | mw623a Palana mf( )n. guarding, nourishing . . . n. the act of guarding, protecting, nourishing, defending . . . mw642a Purana mf( )n. lling, completing, satisfying . . . m. `completer' . . . . n. the act of lling or lling up. Notes: The index has three entries for dhatu :pX+ , so the class (kryadi-gana) . and bhasa information from the dictionary is used to select the correct one. . The dhatu with its artha are in fact at the top of the second column of page 39: there are a number of such errors, so beware! The vibhakti ending of the artha is the dvi-vacana form (see section 15.3), so we can expect to look up two words in the dictionary. As nouns (which is the sense here), both words end in `-na' (with or without sandhi changes) | this is a common neuter su x usually meaning `the act of . . . ', and is given as such in the dictionary translation. The artha palana adds the sense of `nourishing' to the ` lling up' of purana . (which itself derives from the dhatu pr). This gives a bene cial aspect to the . dhatu: it is not to ll to the point of bloatedness, nor is it to ll with rubbish, but the sense is of generous abundance.
mw1302a

p :pX+ pr , cl.9 P. . . . to ll . . . to sate, cherish, nourish .

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Dh.P. Index: . V,+ Bva.+@ o@ A@ 20 1 Dh.P. Body: . V,+ .h:=*Ne+| mw1289a Harana mf(a or )n. carrying, holding, containing . . . n. the act of . carrying or bringing or fetching. Notes: The gana and bhasa are used to select the dhatu entry. . . Dh.P. Index: k*:a.p+ Bva.+@ A +@ se+@ 8 2 Dh.P. Body: k*:a.p+ ca.l*ne+| mw391b Calana, mf(a)n. moving, movable, tremulous . . . n. shaking motion, shaking, trembling. Notes: If the dhatu is not found at its expected place in the alphabetical order in the index, nor in the Addendum, then check for applicable dhatu spelling changes (see section 15.5): the third rule applies here. Dh.P. Index:
mw252b

p . 1.hri, cl.1. P.A. . . . to take, bear, carry .

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p k*.}p,+ kamp, cl.1.A. . . . to tremble, shake.

(5a) mw395b

p aca.t,+ 4.cit, cl.1 . . . to perceive, x the mid upon, attend to . . .
aca.ta.+ Bva.+@ :p+@ se+@ 2 1

116

A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Dh.P. Body: aca.ta.+ saV]a.ane+| mw1133c Sam-j~ana mf( )n. producing harmony . . . n. unanimity, harmony . n with . . . consciousness . . . right perception Notes: Again, the gana is used to select the entry in the index. . Observe the aspect of harmony and unity provided by the artha: there is no passion or ulterior motive in the perception or attention of the dhatu cit.

(5b) mw300c

Dh.P Index: qu ] k*.V,+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2 x Dh.P. Body: qu*k*.V,+ k*.=*Ne+| x mw254a Karana mf(a)n. doing, making, e ecting, causing . . . m. a helper, . companion . . . n. the act of making, doing, producing, e ecting, . . . Notes: The dictionary entry for this dhatu is quite lengthy: reading through the rst column of page 301, it also gives `cl.1. P.' and `cl.5. P.' as well as `cl.8 (this is the usual formation in the Brahmanas, Sutras, and in classical Sanskrit)'. . The Dhatu-Patha does not list a class 2 dhatu k , hence the return to x . the dictionary for more information. In practice the cl.5 dhatu should also be examined, but its artha a.hM:sa.aya.am,+ , meaning `in the sense of injury' is inappropriate to the original word that led us to the dhatu in the rst place.
mw963b

p k 1.kri . . . cl.2. P. . . . to do, make, perform, accomplish. x .

(5c)

Dh.P. Index: a.va.d A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1 Dh.P. Body: a.va.d :]a.ane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n Notes: The gana and bhasa given in the dictionary are used to choose among . . , the ve entries in the index for dhatu a.va.d . Dh.P. Index: man+ a.d@ A +@ A@ 29 2 and manu+ t+@ A +@ se+@ 38 2 Dh.P. Body: man+ :]a.ane+| and manu+ A va.ba.eaDane+| mw426a J~ana n. knowing, becoming acquainted with, knowledge . . . n mw101b Ava-bodhana, n. informing, teaching, instruction. Notes: Since the dictionary gives two classes for this dhatu and both are listed in the index, the artha for both need to be examined. In fact, given the original word that led to the dhatu, and which was to do with pride, both artha seem applicable: one to the opinion held in the mind, and the other to the expression of that opinion in word or deed (thus informing others).
mw783a

p a.va.d, 1.vid, cl.2. P. . . . to know, understand, perceive, learn . . .

(6)

p man,+ man, cl.8.4. A. . . . to think, believe, imagine.

Lesson 15

117

15.7

Study of the Scriptures

Since most scriptures are available in translation, it would be a pointless exercise to apply the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to merely con rm the translation in fact, . all translations are signi cantly awed by two factors: the rst is the translator's level of understanding of the subject (in respect of the scriptures that means spiritual understanding) and his ability to express that understanding in another language secondly, the student (the reader of the translation) has his own limited associations with the words in his native tongue. These sources of error and misunderstanding are minimized by studying the scriptures in the original language, and, through tracing the etymology of each word to its nest, most universal source, thereby overcoming the limitations that the individual has with particular words and ideas. The translations are helpful in selecting a passage for study, and to con rm that the correct word is being traced through the dictionary. After this preparatory work with the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha, the passage is considered in relation to the . section of scripture in which it occurs, in relation to the scripture as a whole, in relation to the entire Veda: the mind is thus turned towards the spiritual world, and slowly trained to view all of life in terms of that spiritual world. It does take practice before realising that the scriptural texts can only be understood through contemplation and meditation. As an illustration of this method of study, let us examine a verse from the Bhagavad G ta: Chapter 10 Verse 33 is selected simply because it has some words and concepts introduced in this course. It is an extract from Sr Krsna's response to Arjuna's ... asking for details of His Glory and powers the rst line of the verse is:
A: a=*a.Na.amak*:a=*e+Y.;/ / / asm+

Of letters I am the letter A I am the copulative of compound words. At rst glance, this statement does not appear to be at all profound or have any spiritual associations whatsoever, but nonetheless we pursue it through the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha to see what may be discovered. . Removing the sandhi from this line, we have:
A: a=*a.Na.am,+ A:k*:a=H A ;// / asm+ A: a=*a.Na.am,+ n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

n H sa.ama.a.asak*.~y+ c+|

| sasth bahu-vacana of A: a= . . .. mw3b A: a= a-kshara mfn. imperishable . . . n. a syllable, letter, vowel, sound, word. mw1a A 3.a a pre x having a negative or privative or contrary sense.

being. . (from sam-asa ). water the body. trembling. the act of making.+ 1.P. . space. glide to melt away. mw1152a sam. to ow. a compound word. . equivalent. . stream. . (ifc. moving about. melting away. abide. .as cl.pa. com. p A:s. . panion . | prathama eka-vacana of n . .a. . mw327a a=. . same. e ecting. . mw503b M n. with. accomplish . . e ecting . A as+ A@ A +@ se+@ 23 1| A as+ o*. n. be present. A asm+ .Asa m. make. male and female . mw117a Dh. . . .ama. . becoming. action the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable word .l*ne+| mw1132a Sam-calana n. . to be. existing .+ 2. making. doing. even. perishable m. shaking. doing.2. A:s+ A@ :p+@ se+@ 25 1| A:s+ Bua. or n.Bhu mfn. perform. `similarity'. . making. (see beginning of Lesson 3. a= Bva. f.118 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw327a Ksara mfn.sa and 2. concise. p mw159c A as. expressing `junction'.+ t+@ o@ A@ 38 2| qu*k*. altogether.2. remain. . m. Dh.V. world or universe. `having the same'. seat.V.v+| mw760c 2. succinct.) an act.P. .P. live.sam ind. . working . . p mw274b k*:a= 1.+ k*. mw504c a two. smooth . brief relating to or belonging to a compound word m. . (connected with 7. .P.a. p x mw300c k 1. cl. . 1. like to or identical or homogeneous with .as to sit quietly.Zane+| sa. the act of becoming or arising the place of being.=*Ne+| x x mw254a Karana mf( )n.sa ind.+@ :p+@ se+@ 18 2| a= sa a.sama mf(a)n. P.ama. agitation. . . along with.asak mf( )n.// / | eka-vacana uttama-purusa lat (present indicative) of as = `I am'.asak . n H p | sasth eka-vacana of sa. . a copulative compound (or any compound in which the members if uncompounded would be in the same case and connected by the conjunction `and'). cl.a. . . m. P. Dh. similar like. . . . P. mw1152a sam+ 2. qu ] k*. doing...A). equal. mw1206b sa. mw1a A -kara m. causing .asak*. `equality' .sama ). mw503b original stem of dvi. `conjunction' . Bhag. m. a cloud n. mw159c 1.kara mf( )n. the letter or sound a.vea.~y+ . A:k*:a=H | prathama eka-vacana of A:k*:a= . a couple. a helper. together with. perish .a.+ 2. . . . Dh. producing. wane. exist. .kri .kri . p. .ama. . mw1111b s+ 7. to do. ksar. comprehensive.1.

as well as . K. which is their source and support. are like creation. a seat the being devoted to or 2. In all languages the rst letter of the alphabet is A. . may change. . In responding to Arjuna's question. By analogy it is Consciousness that underlies the ever-changing variety of creation. neither good nor bad they are simply what were presented to the mind in considering the passage. Giving this as the foremost of the samasa | where there is no di erence in importance between the elements | places the emphasis on that which links them together. also. The mark of the dvandva samasa is that there is an equality between the joined elements. on their signi cance and meaning. they may be unmanifest. But what of the letters which form the words? Or the ink that forms the letters? And what about the paper that holds the ink in place? The plain white paper.Lesson 15 mw207a 119 engaged in. and each retain its individuality (see 11. how then does one describe their source and support. the act of sitting down. All words are formed from sound. they . By way of illustration. The primacy of its position at the head of the alphabet re ects its role as the source of the whole alphabet. and all sounds are derived from A they are all but a modi ed form of that A . but are not subject to absolute destruction. Here the allusion is also to Consciousness as being the underlying Source and Support of p the manifest creation ( asa bhuvi. sna gives many examples of being the r. and.B. If the sounds of the alphabet are imperishable. `in this world'). Re ections: The following personal re ections are o ered as illustrative of this process of study: they are neither right nor wrong. holding it all together as one. which are deemed important and interesting. and here the illustration is being the A of letters. both. mw380a c+ Upa-vesana n. the ever-present A ? This may be understood as referring to the immutable Consciousness underlying the whole creation. which is taken for granted. . moreover. yet allowing the elements to retain their individuality. c+ | avyaya c+ . . is like Consciousness and all the words. In Sanskrit this is easy to demonstrate: the gure given in 1.A.1). the attention at the moment is on the words on this page.6 summarizes the core role of A in forming all the vowels and from the ve mouth positions of these vowels. are derived all the consonants. The sounds of the alphabet are imperishable (aksara): they may be manifest. ca ind. foremost of several classes.

.K+H{ A h:m.ta.ta. is implied here. As with all exercise.a.120 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 15. so do not look for clever results: the exercise is one of stretching the mind to larger issues than those that daily life normally o ers.a.K+H{ I am verily Time inexhaustible I am the Dispenser facing everywhere.+ a. Note: the verb A asm+ used in the rst line of this verse.e+ Da. avyaya = verily. Having done this mechanical work. we have: A h:m.va a. prathama eka-vacana of k*:a. . and write down what is presented to the mind.+ | prathama eka-vacana of dhatr = dispenser.+ | O *v+ | A: ay+H | k*:a. a. tracing it to its dhatu where possible.lH Da. A h:mea.a. .ta. a little performed regularly has the greatest bene t in the long term.l = time.lH | Note: from the information given in the dictionary. the artha for the three possibilities and compare that with the meaning given in the dictionary. There are no right or wrong answers here.8 Study Practice As a practice in using the dictionary and Dhatu-Patha in studying the scriptures.va a.va. .eamua.ta.va a.hM a. Removing the sandhi from this line.+ O *v+ A: ay+H k*:a.K+H | prathama eka-vacana of visvatomukha = facing everywhere.eamua. together with its grammatical division down to the pratipadika level. There is no rush with this part of the exercise: let the scripture come to mind over a period of a week or so.a. and examine those words in the dictionary. Examine each word in the dictionary.l*.eamua. indeed. the other half of this verse from the Bhagavad G ta is o ered. . (The last entry is the most appropriate. it is not possible to select which of the entries in the Dhatu-Patha index is the correct one: one needs to examine .) Da.ta.a ay+H k*:a. and then write down your understanding in clear readable English. .// / prathama eka-vacana of personal pronoun `I'.ta. consider the passage in a universal or spiritual sense. then nd the artha in the Dhatu-Patha. prathama eka-vacana of aksaya = inexhaustible.+ A h:m.

translated by Winthrop Sargeant. from poetry to philosophy. therefore translating from English into Sanskrit is irrelevant. Furthermore. The Gospel of the Lord Shri Krishna. In clear easy-to-read language. from comparative linguistics to liberation. and is also useful in selecting a verse of interest to study. rather than a literal translation: a delightful book. A personal bias needs to be declared here: my interest in Sanskrit lies in studying the scriptures. There are a wide range of books on Sanskrit grammar available. from simple chanting to mythology. the range of grammar needs to be very wide: from the full etymology of each word (including the signi cance of each a x) to the gurative use in the most sublime writings. ranging from the introductory level to academic tomes: the majority of these approach the subject as they would any other foreign language. Despite the above quali cations. (b) The Bhagavad-Gita. which. as it expresses the grammar of the text as well as giving a word-by-word translation. This translation provides a simple way of getting the context of a verse being studied. Faber and Faber: 80 pages. . SUNY: 739 pages. Whatever the reason. together with its magni cent philosophy and wealth of practical advice. This translation is especially suited to the Sanskrit student.Suggestions for Further Study There are many reasons for studying Sanskrit. The verses are not numbered: it is worth the e ort to work through the book numbering the verses in pencil. as well as putting the Chapter number in the top outer margin of each page.e. i. though expensive for its size. the general reader will nd the rst ve books in the list useful to further study of the grammar: (a) The Geeta. paperback. rather than treating the study as a means to penetrate writings which express ideas and concepts foreign to the Western mind-set. the next obvious step is further study of the grammar. with a view to translation. translated by Shri Purohit Swami. and the building of a vocabulary detracts from the penetration of the scriptures (because of the limited worldly associations with familiar words). paperback. The G ta is written with simple and straightforward grammar. makes it an ideal work with which to begin.

Hart. It is useful as a semi-reference book when examining a particular concept in depth: the next book is a lot easier for general study. Motilal Banarsidass: 254 pages.tadhyay s . with indices linking noun. paperback. . each introducing one or two topics. by Sri Ramakrishna Math or with Samkara's commentary by Advaita Ashrama (Eight . this book gives a broad understanding of the language without getting bogged down in details and exceptions. are published with word-by-word translations of Swam Sarvananda etc. . depth. . of verbs. but is essential study to penetrate to the full spiritual signi cance of words. Motilal Banarsidass: 451 pages. Hodder and Stoughton: 493 pages. George L. with answers given at the back of the book. gathered together thematically to exhaustively explain word formations in Classical Sanskrit the text and commentary are in devanagar with English translation. the Bhagavad G ta with Samkara's commentary in . (e) A Rapid Sanskrit Method. This covers the grammar of Classical Sanskrit in some detail. . but answers are not provided. This is an exacting work and not to be tackled lightly.. (f) Laghukaumud of Varadaraja. and large vocabulary. and Chhandogya. George S. by Swam Madhavananda). tense etc. (d) Teach Yourself Sanskrit. A Quick-reference Guide to the Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit. hardcover or paperback. in both directions.122 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory (c) Sanskrit Manual. translated by James R. Motilal Banarsidass: 208 pages. translation by A. This contains approximately one third of the sutra s of Panini 's A.and verb-endings and verb stems to the paradigm tables. As a `part-time' student studying alone. Each lesson has translation exercises. As the title implies.Sastry is published by Samata Books the major Upanisads . from in ected words. Bucknell. Michael Coulson. Divided into thirty lessons. by Swam Gambh rananda Brhadaranyaka . Principal Upanisads.M. paperback. For further scriptural study. it is a reference work containing many tables of noun declension and verb conjugation. hardcover. A useful tool to determine the pratipadika forms of nouns. this is a `hard' book because of its style. Ballantyne. Each chapter has translation exercises into and out of Sanskrit.

7.. tisthathah vadathah ca . .. I stand and he speaks. 2. 4.Answers to Exercises Answers: Lesson 1 1.2. You (s. You (two) stand and we (two) speak. tisthasi vadati ca . .. 6. . tisthati vadami ca . 4. We (pl.1. 2. 8. tisthanti vadami ca . 7. 3. 3.) stand and you (two) speak. .. . They (pl.3. vadatah tisthati ca .) stand and you (two) speak. 2. 4.. Answers: Lesson 2 2. 2.. tisthami vadati ca . You stand and I speak. tisthati vadatha ca .2.e.. You speak and I stand.. .) speak and they (two) stand. 6. 6.) stand and we (two) speak. tisthamah vadathah ca .. vadami tisthasi ca ..) speak. They (two) speak and we (pl.1. 3.B.c. 5. . 5.d.B. He stands and you speak. You (pl.1. 3. tisthavah vadatha ca . 5.d..) stand. 5. 8. He stands and they (pl.. vadathah tisthanti ca .) stand and they (two) speak. I speak and you stand. vadatha tisthasi ca . . You (s.. I stand and speak. 6. vadasi tisthami ca .B.3. 4. 1. 2. vadasi tisthati ca .1.B..

ksam narat asvena labhavahe r . . 4.) take the trees (pl. 4. You (pl. The horse carries the tree for the man. 2.1. . . The horse leads the man.) lead the men (two) to the trees (pl. . The man and horses (two) are standing.3. 4.1. 2.). 3. .d.e. 5. The man and the horse go from the tree. Answers: Lesson 4 4.d. 6. .3. ksam nayate r . He leads the horse from the tree for the man.B. 5. . asvena gacchati 2. asvau naram nayete 3. narah vadanti nayante ca . 3.B. 5. 2. 5. The horse carries the man to the tree.) from the horse.1. 4. vrksah asvah ca tisthatah . . The man and the horse are leading. . 6. We (pl. asvam naraya nayethe 3. v.c. . narah asvam nayate . asvah naram v.). asvan vrksat gacchamah . vrksan asvaih vahanti . The horse stands and the man speaks. The horses (two) lead the man to the trees (pl.1. The man goes to the tree by horse. 3. 6. asvah naram vrksebhyah vahanti .B. .B. .124 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 3 3.. 4.3.3. narah asvan nayante . 6.

.) from the man's tree. 7. . The horses (pl. The horse carries the man and the girl to the tree.c. asvayoh tisthati . The man takes the tree from the horse. 3. 4. . 8. 9.) by horse. 3. . 5. . . . He takes the man from the tree by horse.) are standing. (he) asva v. 4.1.) for the man. 5. ksat vahathah r . 6. The girl leads the horse to the tree for fruit.2.B.2.) lead the men (pl. narayoh vrksah tisthanti . The man carries the fruit (two) from the tree for the girl.). The man's horse takes the fruit from the girl. 3.) to the fruit (pl. The girl and the man carry the tree to the horse.e. vrksesu narah asvah ca tisthatah . . 7. . . 5. 10..). 6. . O man. ..) are standing among the trees (pl. .1. 7.) of the men (pl. 5. I go to the trees (two) and take the fruit (pl. . The man's horses (pl. The men (two) take the fruit (pl. you are standing on the horse. The girls (two) stand among the trees and speak. 8.3. 4.) of the trees (pl. 2. ksam naraya vahasi r .Answers to Exercises 125 Answers: Lesson 5 5. The girls (pl. narasya asvah naram vrksebhyah vahati . 2. 8. The horse goes to the man from the tree. The girls (two) take the fruit (pl. . The horses (two) carry the trees (pl.1. asvau naram vrksam vahatah . He stands on the horse and speaks. naram asvam v.B. ..B. narasya asvan vrksat labhate . .) to the horse. Answers: Lesson 6 6. . . 6. 2.d.

asvah vrksan narebhyah vahanti . . 6. 2. 5. 4. 2. 10.2. The man and the girl stand and talk.2.1. balayah asvau phalani naram labhete . . 7. . .. narah asvam phalena nayate . 6.). asvah vrksam balam naraya vahati . 6. 3. narah vrksam asvat balayai labhate . 4. bala asvah ca vrksesu phalebhyah gacchatah .) for the man. 5.. .3. .). . ksesu asvabhyam gacchatah (assume two horses). . . 4. 9. 7. . 4.1. . ksasya phalam balayai labhante . The girl's horse carries the fruit (pl. .B. narah tisthati ca bala vadati .) to the trees (pl.g. 3. bala phale vrksat asvebhyah labhate . . ksasya phalani nayethe r . We (two) carry the girl from the tree to the man's horse. ksat labhete r . phalani vrksat asvena vahatha . r .1.f.e. The man's girl leads the horses (pl. . balayah asvah phalani naraya vahati . . . narah bala ca v. naram balam ca asvam vrksat labhavahe . r .B.126 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 6. 2. . 3. asvam v. 5. . 8. . .1.) of the tree for the girl. 7. . narah bala ca tisthatah vadatah ca . narah v. . Answers: Lesson 7 7. . . The man takes the fruit (s. . . 6. . . bale asve tisthatah ca phalam v.B. narah vrksan asvena phalebhyah gacchati . . . .B.. balam vrksat narasya asvam vahavah . asvah vrksasya phale balabhyah labhate . asvah phalani balah naraya vahati . . . . 5.d. The horse takes the tree's fruit (two) from/for the girls (pl.2. narasya bala asvan vrksan nayate . . 2. . asvam nayethe ca phalam labhe 3. .

6.a.+ A: ean+ va.l*.e.E+ :P*.Te+| 3{ na=H vxa am.h .ayE+ l*Ba.5.te+| 2{ A: am. .l*.) lead the small beautiful horse to the rivers (two).a. 4.h T+| 1{ ba.+ A: +H c+ vxa ea.h. ... .B. The beautiful girl leads the small horse to the river.t. narasya guruh nad m asvena gacchati . guruh alpasya vrksasya sundaresu phalesu tisthati . sundar bala alpam asvam nad m nayate 4.+ ba. 4.l*.nt+| 6{ a 127 Answers: Lesson 8 8. .+H A: a.2. . The girl goes to the re from the handsome man. .a.+ na=e By+H va. ksam balam agnaye s ghram labhate r . bala agnim sundarat narat gacchati 2. guravah alpam sundaram asvam nadyau nayante . 5. alpah vrksah sundare agnau tisthati . 8. 5.1. The teachers (pl.c. balayah guruh alpayam nadyam tisthati .an. 8. .+ l*Bea.aya.an+ na= m.1. 3. . .1. The men (two) take the beautiful fruit from the small tree.a.an+ nayea. 6.5. 2..a.a. .l*. The small tree stands in the beautiful re.a.l*By+H gacC t+H| 5{ e A: +H vxa a.5. sundar bala naram alpam gurum s ghram nayate 6. .B.Su+ :P*. guroh bala sundare asve tisthati .l*. narau sundarani phalani alpat vrksat labhete .+ A: a.te+| 4{ ba. 3. . 2.a. . . :P*.Answers to Exercises 7. The man quickly takes the small tree to the girl for re.l*. .B.+ vxa a~y+ :P*. narah alpam v..d. 5. bala alpam phalam narasya gurum vahati 3.an+ vxa a.t.B. .

1.+ na= m.aya.+ :P*.+ .l*. .B.f.l*.ta.+ A: ean+ gacC a. .l*m. 2.). sundar bala asvam alpan vrksan phalebhyah nayate ." the small man says.a. . \The man is taking the fruit (pl. narah bala ca sundaram gurum nadya gacchatah .B.a. r . ksat labhavahe .+ naya.m. 4. 3.d am.1.m.5.t+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 9 9.+ na am.ta.l*. 2. 4. .c.+H gua H A pa.l*.Za." the girls (two) say.Su+ a. .B.t+| 3{ gua=*e+H ba. a.B. 3.am. .aya. 9.5. . A Practical Sanskrit Introductory na= ~y+ gua H na. phalam vrksayat asvena naraya vahatah . I quickly carry the tree to the small res (two) by horse (pl.).d.5.+ suand:=e A: e+ a. asvah vrksasya phalani balayai vahati .te+| 5{ gua H A pa~y+ vxa a~y+ suand:=e *Su+ :P*. nad alpam vrksam sundar m balam vahati . 6.a. 4.t+| 4{ suand:=*+ ba. .+ A pam.aGram. They (two) carry the fruit (s.e.128 8. . .1.a. . 3.) from the tree by horse for the man. . 5.ta.t+| 1{ ba. a. The horse carries the fruit (pl. The river carries the small tree to the beautiful girl. .+ va. vrksam nad m vahami iti narah balam vadati .+ gua *. 5. \O teacher. narah phalani labhate iti bale vadatah .5. 6.) of the tree for the girl. 6. phalani asvam labhe iti bala gurum vadati 2. .+ A pam. balayah phale naram s ghram labhadhve . you are leading the (two) girls. vrksam alpau agn asvaih s ghram vahami . . phalani balayah v.l*. he guro bale nayase iti alpah narah vadati .+ a. a. 9.t+| 2{ ba. 5.+ na= ~y+ gua *.h a.

tam.d a. k*:tRXak*:a= 5.+ vxa a.an. k*.Za.Ranand 25.a.an+ ba. ma.a.+ l*BaDve+| 3{ e :P*. v.yam.l*.+ l*Ba. :pa. :pa= ma.va. . :pa= mea a= 14. nea.m.antyamxa.5.l na= m.he: a= 24.tyeak*. nEa.va.d 18..l*.Answers to Exercises 9. .t+| 1{ vxa am. gua.v+ 27.Za. maDva.+H vxa a.t+ na=H ba.v+ 15.t. a.a. ma.anand 17.+H :P*.a.Ea.vakH 22. .aya.and 9. na.ayEa.Z+ 13.anand 3.+ va. .+ :P*.he| 4{ na=H ba. a.+ 29.a.tman.+ na + gacC t+H| 5{ 129 suand:=*+ ba.anand 21.f.a.a. :P*. ma.+ 28.l*.ya an+ 16.va.h a.t+ 20.ayR+ 23.+ va.an+ A: am.+ .+ gua *.a.+ va.aca. a. A: Ea.t+| 2{ ba.a.pa a.t+ ba.aya. :pra.Z+ 4.+ 12.de v.a. a.l*By+H naya.l*.l*.a. Bva.+ . sa.m.ya.+ na.d:nam.d .a./ a~t+ 30.+ gua *.am.m.te+| 6{ e Answers: Lesson 10 1.aGram.SN+ A a~y+ 2.a.d a.a. ma. k*.+ c+ suand:= m.he:nd a.h:~te+Y.l*.+ A pa.T+ 11.d a.l*.Za.a.veRak*:tvam.d am.h:=e Y.SR+ or ma. sa.tya.l*.B.+ e 26.+ 19.h 10.+ l*Be+ I*a.am+ I*a.an. k*:pa.+ A: am. A anandE ta.v+ 6.S+ 8.aDva.h a. 7.a.

A:nant+ 25a 20.e+Y ean+ gacC a.a.b) The teachers (two) go quickly to the small man from the tree. Citta 395c 12. :P*. 10.a. 2. pa.t+ agnM \The teacher is going to the re from the man.a. 8.) to the horse. Answers: Lesson 12 1. Rajas 863b 11.t+ gua *:ba.te+ The girl leads the horse to the small river from the tree.) by horse. ba.aya. *Ba.anya M+ va. gua *. gua A pM+ na=M vxa a." the small girl says. pa.+ va..d M+ vxa a.t+ agnM The man carries the tree to the re for the girl by horse.d a.t+ \I carry the fruit (pl.agnM+ na=*a. 5. A peaBy+H :P*. 7. 2. b.anP*.tya.a aya.).e+Y a a.a.S+ 226c 13.l*. *cC ta. ba.va.agnama a.+ The words are given in the form found in the dictionary: 8.eag+ 856b Pra-k.h ta. 6.A./ The girl and the small horse go to the re from the man.).+ va. k*:SN+ 306b x or Krishna 308a .l*.130 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Answers: Lesson 11 1.te+ The girl takes the horse and the man from the tree.4./ + ba.l*.Su+ gacC a. :n.+ ba. 15. :pua *:S+ 637a 16.h a. *.a.le*Bya.d a.a ama.M+ na. gua 359b 10. pM+ vxa ama.a. na=*e+ vxa a.a.a M+ na=M c+ vxa a. 7.a.Ra.+ A: ean+ va. Manas 783c 17. hridaya 1302c .=*. a. 3.a.// + na=*a. 6. 4. 9.a.a.va. ba. *cC t+H .a.Za=*a= 1057c 18.t+ The man goes to the trees (pl.l*. . 135a Hetu 1303c ya. Bhakti 743a 19. 4.tman. pa.le*By+H suand:=e *Su+ vxa ea.SNu+ 999a 14." the teacher says to the girls (pl. .l*./ The men (two) carry the small tree to the re from the horse. .v+H (no sandhi) We (two) are going among the beautiful trees for small fruit (pl. A a. 5.) for fruit (pl.riti 654a J~ana 426a n A-nanda 139c Vy-akarana 1035c .aya.acC aGrM+ gacC t+H (see 10. 3.a *h t+H .+ 737c 9. na=*e+ vxa ama.l*.a.l*. na=*a.

P. 3. Adhy-aropa 23b 17.9. near. . plenty. Note: It is not the second dhatu . Answers: Lesson 14 1. A-grih ta 1309a . 1. . mw1a A 3. ba.a. mw60c A:Bay+ a-bhaya. . . . . nourish . to ll . having a negative or privative or contrary sense p mw747a Bay+ bhaya n. 2. 18. 8. . near to. Hiranya -garbha 1299c .) . .bh . in comp. . . cherish. . mfn. mf(a)n. dread . Caus. . back . . Vi-veka 987c 14. 10. . mw1302a . mw758a Ba. mw648a :pX+ pr . :pUa. . Mudha 825b . . absence or removal of fear. . n. cl. drawing back .prati. .a (as a pre x . Dhyana -yoga 521a 13. Sraddhatri 1095c . towards .( bh ) fear. mw663c Praty. because of its meaning in translation this is con rmed by the conjugational form harati given at 677b. praty-a.+ 1. .hri. . 5. 7. . alarm. (as a pre x . . l Gu+ -sattva -ta 894b 3. . . -paksha -pada 643c 19. bear. -harati to withdraw . cl. .a.A. . Sam-gama -mani 1128c . P. to take. to sate. . . Mano -bhava -_ asana 785b s 12. P. fulness.3. before vowels for prati above mw661b :pra.hri P. ind. .l -yuga 262a 6. be afraid of . Bhagavad -g ta 744a 1.a. . . k*:a. . . A:nvay+ 11. . .a . . cl. . harati . mw642a Purna.1.t+ 1. carry. p mw641a :pUa= pura. Vi-vaha -kala 987b 4. towards.l -rupa -dhrik 729b . . . .vR+ 15. . . ( pr . Kshatriya -dharma 325b 9. mw126a A + 4. _ 16. . . abundance . Sam-skrita 1120c . Sam-yoga 1112b . mw677b Praty-ahara m. n. Mleccha -jati 837c 20. abstraction p mw677b :praya. to fear. .Answers to Exercises 131 Answers: Lesson 13 -vyatireka 46b 2.

any extraordinary act . . P. .vid. .132 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. . m. . . . a mw523a n+ 2. p mw809a ma. ) shaking. trembling mw252b k*. learn . . .2. . to tremble. Note: See 10. understanding. not too.pa. painting . . a. . . if the pratipadika ends in -an. x the mind upon. neither . mw1a A 3. . x .t.Manin mfn (fr.a.B. a Nati (for na + ati . . Note: This has a more appropriate meaning than 4. -manin.1. A. . knowing. cl.+ 4. accomplish . mw809b Mani -ta f. .va. . extraordinary. . . . performance . -manin . . .Vid on page 965a. . . .2. .P. . .l capala. .a . a knower . . distinguished . Mani.va.8. . mw810b ma. in comp. . cl. pride . excellent. n. . . .) a Nati . kri . . . See p 809. believe. . to do. excessive. mw963b a. mw523b Nati . proud . cl. cols.1 on page 83: . Note: It is not the second dhatu k on 304a because its meaning given x in translation is not appropriate to that given for karman. . intense. p mw258b k*. ( kamp . then the n is dropped . . . perceive. not too proud or arrogant. act. perform. . mw396b Citra-karman n.4. mw396b Citra-karman . cl. n. too .d 1.1. freedom from unsteadiness. mw300c k 1. .anak manika.. .cit. mw963c 2. . . . for 1. .+ kamp. . to perceive.kri .) fancying that one possesses.mana.an+ 1. . . . . ckleness mw393a ca. cl. . mf(a)n. attend to . imaginary . . not very much.mana ) . p mw388b ca. n. . . mfn. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. mw393a Capalya. understand. imagine. . 2 and 3.manin. . ). skilled in the art of painting . . Bhag.2. unsteadiness. ( man ) opinion . n. nor. . . . f. . unsteadiness. shake 5. self-conceit. pre x . . mf(a)n.l capala. . 1. mfn. make. A.pa. mw783a man. mfn. mw396a Citra.+ man.vid on 964c. . (o ni-ta. .+ karman.mRan.a. p mw809c 1. man or fr. am. . . . (from capo ) mobility . . .}p. to think. manita. agitation. . mw12b Ati . action.Vid. no. 6. haughty. (ifc. not.na ind. . .manin.d 3. . mw8c A-capalya. . . to know. or its dhatu a. . 1. . o rma-vid. mw395b aca. conspicuous.

E+ sa ane+ c+| mw329a Kshepe m.Z+ :pra. . gait .3. k*:l cu+@ :p+@ se+@ 42 2| k*:l ea. decay.va. nourishing n. really. the rst may be eliminated because it is p aye+| atmane-pada. .P. going. . . reckoning. from or on all sides. Dh. P. supporting. cast . moving.vi_ to pervade) all. time (in general). destruction. bearing . . . dismissing . a + Bva. mw514a Dhatri m. all round. P.aV.+ Da. . wane. p mw989a a.a=*Na.va. Dh. k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 45 1| k*:l A a~va. corrupt.A. . direct or x the mind or attention mw513b upon .Sa. all-pervading.kal . s Dh. invective.Naya.Answers to Exercises 133 Answers: Lesson 15 mw124b A h:m. bearing. having a negative or privative or contrary sense. holding. to be absorbed in . . insult.6. .a.P. sending.Zane+| .Z. the act of eating.kshi cl. create.pa. establish. constitute to make. one whose s s face is turned everywhere. mw328a 3.a . for vi_ va-tas. to put. . becoming seen.kal to calculate or enumerate) . and for the others the artha must be examined. p Da. waste.+ 1. a.+ O *v+ nom. s p s mw992b a. . abuse. mw650b :pa.d:ne+| Dh.1. keeping. (probably from 1. . to enter. mw232b ind.P. . immovable concentration of the mind upon. loss. preserving. . k*:l cu+@ o@ se+@ 48 1| k*:l ga. `I'. . . n. enumeration.+@ :p+@ A@ 5 2| a + mw278a k*:a. . kill. mw162a A-svadana n. mw994c Vi_ va-tas ind. . the act of nourishing. keeping. enjoying.ta. . exempt from decay. (rarely A) . indeed. creator. mw347a Gati f.P. . urge on . .ea.dha cl. just so. p mw260a k*:l. everyone whole. generate. pervade. calculation . to impel. Dh.P.vea. . mfn.Z+ tu+@ :p+@ A@ 36 1| a.P.e+H| mw515a Dharana mf( )n. mw1128b Sam-khyana n. set . . supporter.S+ -na mfn. undecaying. p mw328a a + 4. . establisher. mw994c Vi_ va-to-mukha in comp. entire.+ 1. mw1a A 3. place. injure. bearer. .pe+| Dh. truly. ( 3. The last is selected as being most suited to the dhatu meaning given in the original word k*:a. a throw. the act of holding.aV.l 2. mw3b A: ay+ a-kshaya mf(a)n.va + mf(a)n. all-containing. appoint. incite.l . . . movement in general. P. kshaya m.+ . universal. founder. to destroy.ju+@ o@ A@ 26 2| qu Da. produce. . P. qu ] Da. . . procrastination . maintaining . .vi_ cl. everywhere. Note: Of the four entries for k*:l . moving to and fro. delay. universally . cause. facing all sides. every. dimunition. ruin. . . sg. arranger. appearance.va. tasting. . . 3.ea. measurement. omni-present.kala m.

The all-pervading Consciousness thus provides the space. the latter view would be more appropriate: thus here Krsna . Or again. In the light of the Vedic teaching.g. sarvatomukha could refer to Consciousness as the Witness. in visvatomukha. and so on up to cycles lasting billions of years. represents the Absolute Unmoving Consciousness within which all movement takes place.g.134 mw819c A Practical Sanskrit Introductory mw692c Pra-ve_ a-na n. That Time is indestructible is simply an acknowledgement of the fact that these cycles keep on tirelessly repeating. and more appropriate to the universal aspect implicit . through which all creation is nourished and through which Consciousness Itself is nourished. it may be interpreted as symbolizing all senses. This is more in keeping with the artha of the dhatu as `nourishing. Taking mukha in the sense of `mouth'. . for time is a measure of the change of position or state relative to some more durable `constant'. countenance . rather than the active role of `creator. seeking a result). the phases of the moon. entering. mua. as the underlying constant. In daily life. time of day). Time is inextricably linked with movement: if there was no movement there would be no time.K+ Re ections: In the West. Thus sarvatomukha could be viewed as the sum total of all senses. intelligence. both active and receptive. In one sense time can be viewed as an e ect of movement. relative to which movement takes place. even their very existence. time is viewed cyclically: the cycle of day and night. aperture. entrance or penetration into . whilst the former is more an impersonal principle. .. . however. the mouth. or as a multiple of cycles (e. to the manifest appearance of that Consciousness. and speech exits taking it in the sense of `face'. and dhatr . as beginning in some remote past and continuing to some unimaginable future in the East.. time is viewed linearly. face. time is viewed as a subdivision of some convenient cycle (e. the cycle of birth and death. and food for all beings: indeed It provides for their total sustenance and nourishment. `Providence' may be a better word to use than `Dispenser': the latter has a sense of purposive action (i. supporting'. the rotation of the seasons.e. . s mukha n. arranger' given for dhatr. entrance into or egress out of. . opening. as a measure of the movement in another sense time can be viewed as the cause of movement. years): this is the measurement or reckoning aspect. it represents a two-way opening through which food enters. In the second half of the line.

The judge (S) set (V) the prisoner (Od ) free (Co ). and Finite Verb Forms | and then followed by an alphabetical list of other common terms that do not t under these headings. (c) Object: There are two types: (i) Direct Object: (Od ) expresses that which is directly acted upon by the verb (ii) Indirect Object: (Oi ) is the recipient or bene ciary of the activity. 1. Unlike the other elements. which may be used to demonstrate similar or contrasting concepts in Sanskrit grammar. . Again (A) it (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). They (S) elected (V) him (Od ) chairman (Co ). (b) Verb: (V) this expresses the activity of the sentence it agrees with the subject in person and number. It is the most essential word.) related to the activity of the sentence as a whole. as in the command `Run!'. For example: The children (S) are playing (V). Parts of Speech. He (S) became (V) a doctor (Cs ).English Grammatical Terms On the assumption that the reader can speak correct English but is unfamiliar with formal grammar. there may be several of these in one simple sentence. The purpose of these notes is to brie y illustrate the technical terms and concepts of English grammar. place. the technical terms will not be strictly de ned but brie y described and followed by illustrative examples where appropriate. NB: These notes are about English Grammar: the grammar of Sanskrit is rather di erent | do not confuse the two. expressing an attribute of the subject (ii) Object Complement: (Co ) used with transitive verbs in the active voice and expressing an attribute of the direct object of the sentence. etc. each of which may comprise one or more words: (a) Subject: (S) in English grammar this is considered the main element or focus of the sentence. manner. and the rest of the sentence (the predicate) is considered to be a statement about the subject. She (S) gave (V) the food (Od ) to the dog (Oi ). There are two types: (i) Subject Complement: (Cs ) used with intransitive verbs. and every grammatically complete sentence must have one explicitly stated: even the subject may be implied. It expresses the agent of an active verb. These terms are gathered together thematically under three headings | Sentence Elements. He (S) built (V) the dog (Oi ) a kennel (Od ). (d) Complement: This completes the sense expressed by the verb. or transitive verbs in the passive voice. (e) Adverbial: (A) these express a wide range of meaning (time. For example: Jack and Jill (S) went up the hill (predicate). Sentence Elements A sentence comprises one or more of ve elements. Love (S) is (V) blind (Cs ).

(a) A verb taking an object is called transitive (the `energy' of the activity is transferred to the object. (g) Interjection: an exclamation expressing emotion: Alas ! Oh ! Ah ! Ahoy ! (h) Adverb: quali es a verb or adjective or another adverb: The very tall man spoke quite softly. but may often be used either way: He beat the drum. the girl stepped from the house into the garden. (d) Article: a name for the three adjectives `a'. and are usually written with an initial capital letter: John and Mary went to London on Tuesday. The children are playing a game]. with another: Jack and Jill wanted to go. Parts of Speech There are nine types of word called Parts of Speech. and auxiliary. gender and case. Note: nouns and pronouns are categorized according to number. (c) Adjective: quali es a noun or pronoun: The happy dog wagged its long tail at the familiar gure.. 3. They dig a hole. and one that doesn't is called intransitive. She was here. I will sleep. (b) Pronoun: used instead of a noun to designate a person or thing without naming it: He kissed her when they met she enjoyed it. These are: (a) Noun: used to name a person or thing.136 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 2. animating the relatively static nouns etc. As such it is the most exible of the parts and appears in a wide variety of forms to express its manifold potential. (f) Conjunction: connects one word or phrase or sentence. expressing its relation to another noun or pronoun or to the verb: As the sun rose in the East. place. There are two types: (i) Proper nouns name a person. There are three types: transitive. `the': A boy gave an apple to the teacher. Among these are: . (e) Preposition: `governs' a following noun or pronoun. but were detained. (b) The main verb may be accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs used to express tense or mood: I had slept. both concrete and abstract: The love of money is the root of all evil. intransitive. (ii) Common nouns name general things. Finite Verb Forms The activity of the sentence is expressed by the verb. (c) The verb is the dynamic part of the sentence. I live. (i) Verb: expresses the activity of the sentence: He built a house. Verbs are typically one or the other. etc. as it were). I must have been sleeping. `an'.

present. plural) of the subject of the sentence: He stands here. advice. desire. He was standing. in the past. (b) Passive: e. (b) Continuous: the action is not yet complete but still continuing. . He opened the door. (iv) Aspect: the verb form expressing the activity as: (a) Inde nite: the degree of completeness of the action is not speci ed. Help me! (c) Subjunctive: expresses an action. (ii) Number: the verb form indicating the grammatical number (singular. or entreaty: Go ! Follow the instruction of your teacher. He will have been standing. (c) Perfect: the action is in a completed or perfect state. May you live long. If he stands . He is standing. He had been standing. and future respectively: He stood. . He will be standing. The door was opened by him. not as a fact. He will stand. He will have stood. . future) at which the action is perceived as taking place: He stood. Note: the verb agrees with the grammatical subject in person and number. He stands. but as a condition. . He has stood. or purpose: Were he here . He will stand. present. (v) Mood: the verb form indicating an (emotional) quality or manner of the activity. (iii) Tense: the verb form indicating various times (past. You are there. He stands.g. He is everywhere. (d) Perfect Continuous: combining the force of the previous two. Did he stand ? (b) Imperative: expresses a command. There are three basic moods: (a) Indicative: asserts a statement as a fact it may also express a condition or question: He stands. third) of the subject of the sentence: I am here. He has been standing. He eats that he may live.English Grammatical Terms 137 (i) Person: the verb form indicating the grammatical person ( rst. He had stood. (vi) Voice: the verb form indicating the relation of the subject to the activity as: (a) Active: e. Continued overleaf . second. These four are shown in order. They stand there.g.

the book of the having more than one clause which are coordinate. and Gender { in English. 3. they/them. itself. number. gender. un happy.g.138 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory 4. expressing its relation to another clause(s) which form sentence element(s) of word as source. It usually ends in `-ing'. .nite verb form that linked together with conjunction(s) to form functions as a noun.e. the book's author. 1. E..c. Complex Sentence { a construction doctor. E. Compare with Complex Sentence. i.g. either or both. mood. we/us. she/her. E.i.g.g]. nouns and pronouns express natural (as opposed to grammatical) who/whom. Concord { the agreement between words Agent { one who instigates or causes or in case. of the semantic subject of the sentence. 3] split into subjective and objective: I/me.: Show (S) me (Oi ) usually manifests with an `apostrophe-s'. See Case. John. I opened the door. It may generally be rephrased with the e. two or more simple sentences Gerund { a non. and common denotes See also Compound and Complex Sentence. For Finite Verb { expresses the activity of a just six pronouns the common case is clause or sentence.g. the masculine gender denotes Clause { a combination of words having a a male. formation and derivation of words the Case { one of the forms of a noun or expounding of the elements of a word with pronoun. some other word. English uses two cases: the unmarked common case. what (Od ) you (S) did (V)](Od ). committee. with Compound Sentence. one larger complex sentence. he/him.: grammatical relations. having more than one clause. feminine denotes a female. denotes neither sex. which expresses its relation to their modi cations of form and sense.g. etc.ii] Agreement { see Concord Conjugation { the change of form of verbs Apposition { a noun or pronoun is in to express tense.g.: Writing a textbook is more di cult John rang the bell. The form the main clause. than teaching orally. and (loosely) the relation Exclamation { See Interjection 2.: The window is open. to form a new word. for example: heroine.g. neuter subject (stated or implied) and a predicate. I Etymology { the facts relating to the spoke to my neighbour. my neighbour. author of the book. Su x.e. i. More Grammatical Terms A x { a verbal element joined to a word I opened the door when John rang the bell. called to see me. Compare e.: E. 2. gender. the Compound Sentence { a construction preposition `of'. the author's book. Examples of this last are: I. and the genitive case. 3] apposition with another when it refers to the same person or thing and is Declension { the change of form of mentioned immediately after it (often o set nouns and pronouns to express di erent by commas) to identify or describe it. etc. possessor. and person. John. author. See Pre x. and in performs the activity of the verb the role particular between the grammatical subject and the verb. E. The windows are open. one being the Genitive { a grammatical form of a noun or main clause and the other(s) subordinate pronoun.b.

See also Complex Sentence. in connected speech or writing. Grammar { the rules describing the best Phrase { a group of words which operate Pre x { a verbal element joined to the beginning of a word to qualify its meaning. It participates in the nature of a verb expressing aspect and voice. English makes little use of this to express grammatical meaning. He saw himself in the mirror. where the subject and direct object refer to the same thing or person also pronouns so used (usually ending in `-self'). In nitive. and the comparison of adjectives and adverbs. e. `because of' (prepositional phrase). the grammatical subject expresses the semantic object.: he likes to read. with a passive verb. Person { The three classes of pronouns and corresponding verb forms denoting the person speaking ( rst person).: Having heard this he went away. 139 together as an element of a sentence. E. For example. primarily a xes and in ection. In ection { the change of word form to express di erent grammatical relations. `turning left' (participial phrase). attribute.English Grammatical Terms use of language. Participle. and the rest of the world (third person). The two primary areas of study are morphology and syntax. faultless. meaning as such. 3.g. Number { the property in words of expressing that one (singular). e. Morphology { the study of word structure. E.nite verb form that functions as an adjective.nite Verb { A verb which has been turned into another Part of Speech it may express aspect and voice. including the declension of nouns and pronouns. It is meaningful by itself. It is usually preceded by `to'. Re exive { describes transitive verbs Semantic { relating to signi cance or meaning. hyper sensitive. Syntax { the study of sentence structure. Su x { a verbal element joined to the end of a word to form a new word.g. anti septic. He considered the matter to have been settled. Participle { a non. You need not read this. E. 2. and may take take an object.g. primarily the conventions of arrangement by which the connection and relationship of words are shown. etc. the conjugation of verbs. forming the grammatically complete expression of a single thought. shortly. `on a hill' (adverbial phrase). careful.nite Verb.i] Phonetics { the science of vocal sounds (especially of a particular language) that deals with their production and representation. Non. and in the nature of an adjective in qualifying a noun. In nitive { A non. See also Complex Sentence.b. or more than one (plural) person or thing is spoken of. By itself it expresses a universal concept in a sentence it denotes a speci c thing.g. friendship. Sentence { a combination of words forming Simple Sentence { a series of words at least one clause.c.nite verb form that functions as a noun or adjective or adverb it names the activity in the most general sense. Verb { See Finite Verb and Non. the audience addressed (second person).g. Word { a minimal element of speech having . See Gerund.g. im possible. E. relation. A combination of words forming only one clause.

140 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory .

73] Itaretara Dvandva Samasa: the basic copulative compound whose number is the sum of its members. 9] An-udatta.rta. `after sound': (1) a nasal sound following a svara. verbal voice. 113] Abhyantara-prayatna. and page reference(s) to where the word may be more fully described or applied. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . gure eight. 21. the rst word of which is the more important. 64. 22. nasal: characteristic of those sounds uttered through both nose and mouth. at the end of a line of verse. 73] Anubandha. 75] Isat-sprsta. `stand between': general name . 113] Atmane-bhasa. 110] Anusvara. `half-contact': the `inner . 109{112] Ardha-sprsta. 73] . sa sa sa and ha. 25.. unvoiced: characteristic of those Avyaya. `little breath': characteristic . 88] Iti. 21. of those consonants uttered with minimal breath. synonymous with atmanepada. e. e ort' applicable to the semi-vowels ya ra la and va. or separating a word from its de nition. 91] Upadhman ya. indeclinable: that class of words . `expression for oneself': verbal voice. 6] (2) sandhi substitute for an m before a consonant. 79] Artha. 71] Anunasika. 14{15. 14. of a dhatu. `inner e ort': the method (within the mouth) of articulating sounds. `slight contact': the `inner . 73] Avagraha. A-ghosa.Sanskrit Glossary and Index consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords not vibrating. 22] s A-luk Samasa: a samasa wherein the rst word does not lose its vibhakti. 14. Uttama-Purusa. 9] Udatta. 86] Antahstha. 9. 89] Astan. for the semi-vowels ya ra la va. 63. sa . `raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system in Vedic Sanskrit. `last person': grammat. 22. ^: the rare half visarga before pa or pha. 13. 73] Isad-viv. distinction in verb endings denoting the agent of the verb ( = English rst person). 104. 75] Avyay bhava Samasa: an adverbial compound. stem: that part of an in ected word _ that remains unchanged (except for sandhi ) in the process of in ection. `not raised': one of the three pitches or tones (svara ) of the vowel accent system of Vedic Sanskrit. `slightly open': the `inner . 64] Atmane-pada. 87] Each entry word is given a simple translation (in single quotes where it is literal) followed by a brief description. 83. eight: the cardinal number the . `thus': used as inverted commas. `expression for oneself': . 80] Avasana: cessation of sound. . ical person. . `bound along with': a letter or syllable attached to a dhatu and marking some peculiarity in its in ection. 83] Alpa-prana. that do not have vibhakti endings.. `meaning': the word(s) provided in the Dhatu-Patha as the sense of the meaning . 71. 85.g. e ort' applicable to the usman consonants . . 63] . 73] Anga.. a sa and ha. Y : symbol for the elision of A at the beginning of a word due to sandhi.

terminative compound which. 60] beginning with ka. 13.e.. associated with the pronunciation of a. 13. i. Talavya.rt ya with Tatpurusa Samasa. 13. (1) fully form Usman. 56] . . ca cha ja jha na. 73] Caturth Vibhakti. verb: (2) one of in ected types of . with the pronunciation of u. 113] that one person or thing is referred to. 17. `expression for both': -kara. the four of group of four consonants sa. guttural and palatal: a x of nouns and adjectives. if dissolved.r: the agent of the verb. expressed in dvit ya with an active verb. 73] Vedic Sanskrit. ka-group: the group of stops verbs to qualify or change its meaning. 23. guttural and labial: the indicate that the sound is nasalized. 64] va. 63] ~ Kanthya.75] one.second. 51] . 23. 88] .Ca-varga. voiced: a characteristic of those . 75] x appended to a Ubhayato-bhasa. 67. or t. determinative com. 83. 63] .Karman: the immediate object of the . e. . with the tonal accent (svara ) system of consonants that are uttered with the vocal cords vibrating. ka. expressed in J~a: pronunciation of. 21] bhasa or atmane-bhasa. 73] Kriya-visesana. and au. 13.Jihvamul ya. cavarga. `one-speaking': grammatical Gana.e. < `moon-dot': the symbol pronunciation of e. verbal pre x: (1) a pre x to Ka-varga. adverb: an indeclinable . 89] Upasarga. palatal: the mouth position the members would have the same case associated with the pronunciation of i. `action': su to name it. 49] as its nal member. 49] pound: in which the rst word quali es the Karmadharaya Tatpurusa Samasa: de. 109. 64] Ksa: pronunciation of. a passive verb. 73] ending. Sanskrit letter/sound verbal voice.g. labial: the mouth position used Catur. 17.. ^: a rare half-visarga before ka or kha. dhatu conjugation in parasmaikara. ka kha ga gha na. `quality': the secondary form of . pa-varga. 13. 73] placed above a vowel or ya la or va to Kanthosthya. 113] . as contrasted Ghosa. 75] ha. bahu-vacana. 9] s word. 63] _ (2) one of the four types of words. Eka. mouth position associated with the pronun. 23. four: the cardinal number the . sa and the verb. the mouth position associated with the Candrabindu. verb. 71] Osthya. 73] beginning with ca.142 A Practical Sanskrit Introductory Upapada Tatpurusa Samasa: determi. `class': there are ten classes of . 63] varga and ha.. one: the cardinal number the gure that quali es a. 13. . a. i. vowels. Eka-vacana. 26] Guna. singular number the word su x denoting dhatu. native compound having a dhatu derivative agent. and gure four. See also dvi-. . 22. ca-group: the group of stops ciation of o. ka. 33. 88] . 14. 6. `heated': general name for the Kriya. 78] Eka-sruti. and ai. 57] prathama with an active verb. ya and sa. 73] n Kart. 13. guttural: the mouth position . fourth case: dative Kanthatalavya. or prathama with a passive verb. 22. `single hearing': the neutral sound of Classical Sanskrit..

i. 26. three: the cardinal number the gure three. ve: the cardinal number the n gure ve. nine: the cardinal number the gure nine. `city of immortals': (1) the name of the Sanskrit script. end of a verse or end of a paragraph. 21] Dantya. 23. 33. 50. cana. person speaking (uttama-purusa ). 1. 92.bahu-vacana. 33. .. synonymous with parasmaipada. 104. pa-group: the group of stops beginning with pa. fth case: ablative n su x to nouns and adjectives. 86] (3) verbal voice. la and sa. 75] (2) general name for a fully in ected word. 26. 75] Naman. ten: the cardinal number the gure ten. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of (prathama-purus a ).Sanskrit Glossary and Index of the kriya indicating purusa and va. 15. 13. tive compound having a numeral or word denoting direction as its rst member. 73] Dasan.51] Pada. dental and labial: the mouth . No other language. particle: one of the four types of word in Sanskrit.tadhyay .l. word: (1) traditionally divided into four types. 64] Nama-dhatu. 25. second case: accusative a x to nouns and adjectives. 113] Pa-varga. neuter: one of the _ . 75] Nipata. 103. . 89] 143 three grammatical genders. dental: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 1] (2) variations in symbols. 104. expression for another: . 83. 32] Trt ya Vibhakti. `name': a noun. 17.e. 114] Pum-linga. 63] _ Tin-Vibhakti. tavarga. 64] Dvandva Samasa. position associated with the pronunciation of the English `f' and `v'. su x to nouns and adjectives. grammar of Sanskrit in minute detail. 13. 25. 5] Devanagar . and the . Purna-virama. 109. two: the cardinal number the gure two. 88] Dvigu Tatpurusa Samasa: a determina. one of the four types of word in Sanskrit. 64] Pa~cam Vibhakti. see atmane-pada and parasmaipada. spoken to (madhyama-purus a ). 9] . copulative compound: a type of compound in which the words are of equal importance. root: rudimentary meaningful verbal element from which words are derived. 113] Parasmai-bhasa. 78. 51] Tri. 26. to this day. 9. third case: instrumental . 113] Parasmai-pada. or vowels having this measure. 64] D rgha. compound with a negative particle as its rst member. 50] Navan. `long': the long measure. fully describes the . 63] Panini: a grammarian (circa 350 bc) whose . 71] (3) used in dictionary. 92] Dva. . ( ) full stop: indicates the { . pa pha ba bha ma. the As. `two-speaking': grammatical dual number the word su x denoting that two persons or things are referred to. nominal verb: a verb derived from a noun. 75] Pa~can. 8. 104. verbal voice. 65] Purusa. expression for another: verbal voice. masculine: one of the three . `person': grammatical person. 26] Dhatu. See also eka. verbal su x: the su x Napumsaka-linga. _ grammatical genders. has been so perfectly described. work. 64] Dantosthya. 88] Dvit ya Vibhakti. 51] Dvi-vacana. 113] Na~-Tatpurusa Samasa: determinative n .

`emitted': unvoiced breath after a vowel synonymous with visarga. pum. 83. 73] . . `many-speaking': the grammatical plural number the word su x indicating that many (more than two) persons or things are referred to. Vacana. indicative (simple present tense) one of the la-kara. 22. e. 21] La-kara. . 63] Pranava Sabda: a name applied to the Mat. 26] Bahuvr hi Samasa. and gender as the noun that it quali es. unlike other sounds. 63] Visesana. 26. 89] Bahya-prayatna. 6. 14. kavarga. 63] Pratyaya. `middle person': the . a descriptive compound: a compound forming an adjective qualifying an external noun. Madhyama-Purusa. 51] (2) and vocative. . as found in the dictionary. 1. 13. 82] Prathama-Purusa. `prolonged': the prolonged measure. prana. 91] Pluta. pa-varga.e. ` rst person': gram. . two. second grammatical person distinction in verbal su x denoting the person spoken to ( = English second person).bahu-vacana.g. ) stop: indicates a consonant without a following vowel.str .r. or vowels having this measure. . 17] Lat: a technical term for the present . 14] Vibhakti: common term for the case endings used for nouns and adjectives (supvibhakti ). See also eka. 13. i. Pratipadika. 9] Maha-prana. number. see atmane-. 73] Bhasa. parasmai-.and bahya-prayatna. `emission': unvoiced breath after a vowel. speech: verbal voice. ra and sa. ( . su x: general name for any type of su x. 13. `breath': see alpa-prana and maha. 53] Virama. 73] Visarjan ya. 13] Prana. outer e ort: the method (external to the mouth. ( ) stop: indicates the end of a | half-verse or end of a sentence. rst case: (1) nominative su x of nouns and adjectives. 17. 17. e ort: the method of articulating sounds: divided into abhyantara. 5] Bahu-vacana. matical person. the throat) of articulating sounds. 73] A Practical Sanskrit Introductory sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. istic of those consonants uttered with extra breath. 75] Visarga. ubhayato-bhasa. grammatical gender: there are three _ genders. as well as the personal endings for verbs (ti_ -vibhakti ). l-a xes: a common term for the ten primary tenses and moods of Sanskrit verbs. without any case ending) of a noun or adjective. 6] Matra. does not use the -kara su x. Repha: traditional name for ra which. See ekadvi. cerebral: the mouth position associated with the pronunciation of . 113] . 14] .napumsaka-li_ ga.e. 38] Prayatna. 65. 6. distinction in verbal su x denoting the person or thing spoken of ( = English third person). group: grouping of consonants according to some common quality. 9] Prathama Vibhakti. `measure': the length or duration for which a vowel is sounded these may be hrasva d rgha or pluta. 26] Varga. . `great breath': a character. 23. 2] Murdhanya. . 26] n . or more persons or things are referred to. 32] n Virama. 26. adjective: it has the same case. 1. word stem: the stem form (i. 'speaking': grammatical number the word su x that one.tavarga.144 mystical symbol ?.dvi-vacana. 17] Linga.rka: name applied to the rst sixteen .

103] compound whose members are taken collecVyadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: de. `separation of sandhi': removal of the sandhi between words Sprsta. 71] Saptan. compound vowel: general for the vowels. 73] Sandhi Vigraha. calling. `bound together': a conjunct e ort'. 88] antahstha is replaced by a simple vowel.. 1] (2) a term for the tonal . 38. 50. seven: the cardinal number the Svarita. 86] Svara. `contact': the `inner e ort' for the . . consonant consonants not having a sepa. terminative compound which. addressing: case sounds of the Sanskrit alphabetical order. 4] Sanskrit. 1] endings. six. 6] ending of nouns and adjectives. . 53] a . `position': the various mouth . sixth case: genitive a x Savarna. . 65] uttered in proximity it is the tendency to Sparsa. 26. . endings. technical terms whose meanings positions used in uttering vowels and cannot be etymologically derived. 83] vowels.nal': ending in Samanadhikarana Tatpurusa Samasa: consonant without a following vowel. 51] having the same mouth position and `inner Samyoga. . 13. 26] Samj~a. proper noun: personal or place Sthana. 75] Sasth Vibhakti. six: the cardinal number the gure prathama-vibhakti. 64] or tones (svara ) of the vowel Saptam Vibhakti. . if dissolved. 51] Halanta. n name. 13. 51] . 81] . `contact': the general name for the ease of pronunciation. `placed together': a compound . 73] separately. or vowels having this measure. 63] . `embellishment': general name Samahara Dvandva Samasa: copulative n for any consonant. a neuter singular noun.Sanskrit Glossary and Index 145 word. seventh case: locative pitches of Vedic Sanskrit. 85{87] group of 25 stops ka through ma. 64] Sarva-naman.tively as a unit the compound is treated as . `sound' or `tone': (1) a general term Sandhyaksara. 88] Vrddhi. mixed tone: one of the three gure seven. 53] and adjectives. 13] Sandhi. . `name of all': pronoun. 38. `consonant. `placed together': the system of Str -linga. `increase': strengthened form of Samasa. if dissolved. 75] consonants. in a sentence so that the words stand 25 sparsa ka through ma. 1. 71. 38. to nouns and adjectives. 91] accent system su x to nouns and adjectives. homophonic: categories of sounds . Sakti: name applied to the rst sixteen Sambodhana. the members would have di erent case Hrasva. determinative compound which. feminine: one of the three _ euphonic changes that arise when sounds are grammatical genders.Sup-vibhakti: case endings used for nouns rating vowel or pause. 78] Vya~jana. 77{81. accents (udatta an-udatta svarita ) of Vedic name for e ai o au. `short': the short measure.. variation of Sas. 88] the members would have di erent case Samprasarana: the process whereby an .

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