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prosperity and contrast of communism to American life 1950s were relatively peaceful and very few political battles Eisenhower promoted stability and avoided conflict However, social problems were seen by the few critics of the time Affluence and inequality Minorities were treated unjustly Signs of change Teenagers disillusioned Woman began to work more Supreme court confronted profound injustices The Economic Miracle Sources of Economic Growth GNP grew Postwar economy flourished contradicting expectations Unemployment wasn’t a problem Government Spending Continued to stimulate growth Military spending Late 1950s rate of growth declined in half National birth rate went up, baby boom Increased consumer demand Suburban Growth Promoted cars and construction Individual purchasing power grew from war days The Rise of the Modern West Flourishing of the west Rise of industry Caused by government spending during war Favorable climate 50% growth in Los Angeles The New Economics Postwar economy was a source of national confidence Sources Keynesian Economics – belief that the government could regulate and stabilize the economy without intruding directly into the private sector John Maynard Keynes Paul Samuelson’s Economics People believed recessions would never occur again with these new concepts 1953 economy slackened
1958 manned space program Soviets put a man in space before America .George M. Reserve Board made money available Recovery increased comfort 1957 recession Keynesian wasn’t used not a fast recovery 1964 passage of Keynesian in bill.“postwar Contract” Increased wages but limited labors say in control of the workplace American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations AFL-CIO George Meany Taft-Hartley Act and right-to-work laws limited gains for unorganized workers The Explosion of Science and Technology Medical Breakthroughs Time magazine’s man of the year.American Scientist Antibiotics.infancy morality rate declined and life expectancy expanded Pesticides DDT.Sputnik Americans alarmed launched Explorer 1 in 1958 NASA. Humphrey (sec of Treasury) and Federal. soviets launched satellite.Universal Automatic Computer Predicted results of 1952 election Got publicity IBM becomes leader in computers Bombs Rockets and Missiles 1952.Salk vaccine developed by Albert Sabin Important.Alexander Fleming Virus treatment dint develop as fast until viruses were grown in labs Vaccine for polio.US detonated hydrogen bomb US and soviets start developing unmanned rockets Minuteman missiles made The Space Program 1957. worked Started belief that poverty could be ended through economic growth Capital and Labor Large companies controlled nations economic b/c of Corporate Consolidation Family farms declined and replaced with commercial Companies experiencing booms dint pay attention to labor New relationship with employees.insect killer At first thought that it was harmless to humans but were wrong Postwar Electronic Research 1940s televisions came out Transistor invented and integrated circuit AAR more complicated electronics Postwar Computer Technology Computers start to perform commercial tasks UNIVAC.cure viral bacteria infections Penicillin.
Benjamin Spock.hula hoop. and backgrounds Suburban Family Prevailing gender roles reinforced b/c of isolationism in suburbs Dr. backyards Motels on highways Fast-food Demand for gasoline Air pollution The Suburban Nation Suburbanization resulted from innovations in home-building. walt Disney… The Landscape and the Automobile Automobile sales skyrocket Federal Highway act of 1956 Constructed highways Interstate highways Trains declined Improved economic activity in rural areas “edge cities” More land for people when they moved father from work.America orbited the world with John Glenn Apollo Program Neil Armstrong.development of the Space suttle Hubble Space Telescope. Edwin Aldrin. 1990 People of Plenty Growing middle class.people of plenty Consumer Culture 1950s and 1960s was consumer driven not investment Rise of credit and easy payment methods led to more purchasing Consumer Crazes.Baby and Child Care The mother is subordinate to the need of her children AAR women remained home but women still got jobs Feminism weakened but the increased women in the workforce set the stage for equal treatment by employers movement The Birth of Television Everyone owned a television Advertising in tv Tv news replaced newspapers and radio .The American Political Tradition David potter. “Levittown” Good for newlyweds and support came from the GI bill Suburbs offered larger houses than cities Race. community. more dominant Caused by ppl moving from cities to suburbs Affordable prices “Consensus” value of capitalistic growth Richard Hofstadter. Michael Collins 1969 Efforts to make travel in outer space easier.
gender roles Excluded others Travel. Hispanics. native Americans.Nations most important vehicle of information College sports Entertainment Televisions homogenizing message White.elderly. from a dam Sierra Club reformed Organized Society and Its Detractors White-collar workers outnumbered blue People specialize in a specific task for a corporation AAR schools change curriculum Growth of specialized and multiversity education in college Whyte-the organization man Riesman. same Coal economy declined Inner Cities . writers. and artists Critiqued America Juvenile delinquency increased Fast cars. Africans Rural Poverty Decline of Agricultural prices Black tent farmers were replaced by machines and synthetics became popular Migrant farmers. and Environmentalism Middle-class people began to take vacations National parks got them away from stresses at work Battle to preserve echo park DeVoto saves the park with his writing.the catcher in the rye The Beats and the Restless Culture of Youth Beats-young poets. Outdoor Recreation. and sex Blackboard Jungle Rock ‘n’ Role Elvis Presley Rock ‘n’ roll had black roots Rise of rack was helped by the radio and tv “dick jockeys” Records & jukeboxes “payola” scandals The Other America On the Margins of the Affluent Society The other America-Harrington described the continuing existence of poverty 1/5 ppl lived below poverty line Unemployment unstable Persistent poverty.The lonely Crowd Bellow Salinger. middle-class. girls.
principle policy response to the poverty in inner cities Effort to tear down buildings in the poorest sections Most of the time replaced with middle-class housing Rise of the Civil Rights movement The Brown Decision and “Massive Resistance” Brown v. Board of education Topeka Made segregation illegal Justice Earl Warren “Massive Resistance” was the south’s local opposition “manifesto” signed by southern members of congress denouncing the brown decision All-white “segregated academies” Eisenhower wanted to stay clear of issue but had to deal with Little Rock Sent troops to rid school of blockade from black students The Expanding Movement Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat AAR arrested and Montgomery Bus Boycott Segregation of federal transport declared illegal Led to Martin Luther King Jr.blacks served Growing Black middle class Urbanization (consolidation) of blacks Tv raised consciousness of racism among blacks Black labor unions Eisenhower Republicanism “what was good for … General Motors” Rep administration staffed with the business community New outlooks Considered themselves to at least the broad outlines of the Keynesian welfare Eisenhower’s consistent inclination was to limit federal activities and encourage private enterprise Supported private over public development of national resources The survival of the Welfare state . King’s approach was nonviolence Courts are pressured from blacks and whites Jackie Robinson Eisenhower restricted segregation in army Work force & civil rights act “Second reconstruction” Causes of the Civil Rights Movement Legacy of WWII.Inner city neighborhoods=ghettos Blacks move into cities Black Urban Migration Migrations from New Mexico and Porto Rico expanded American cities Immigrants were victims but also made their own “culture of poverty” “urban renewal”.
respond to communist threats to its allies not by using conventional forces in local conflicts but by relying on “the deterrent of massive retaliatory power” Force behind this is economics France. Dulles. Hungarian revolution of 1956 The U-2 Crises Spyplane shot down Eisenhower’s restraint . and Vietnam Geneva conference France tries to take back Vietnam but apposed by Ho Chi Minh French surrounded at Dien Bien Phu Cold War crises Recognizing Israel Arab-Israeli wars American concerns about oil Send CIA in Dulles withdrew American offers to assist building a dam on the nile Israelis attacked Egypt Fidel Castro-alliance with soviets Europe and the S.Federal Highway Act of 1956 Eisenhower beat Stevenson on the election of 56’ Decline of McCarthyism Anticommunist start to calm down Army-McCarthy hearings Eisenhower. and the cold war Dulles and “massive Retaliation” Dulles’ secretary of state. America.U. aristocratic corporate lawyer with stern moral revulsion to communism “massive retaliation”.
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