TEST CHAPTER FIVE

1. One common definition of quality is , which focuses on measuring how well the product or service meets targets and tolerances determined by its designers. a) Fitness for use b) Value for price paid c) Technical perception d) Judgmental evaluation e) Conformance to specifications Section Ref: Defining Quality

2. The definition of quality that involves the product functioning as expected without failure is a) Performance b) Conformance c) Reliabili ty d) Standardization e) Endurance Section Ref: Defining Quality

3. Which of the following specifically relates to Service Organization dimensions of quality? a) conformance to specifications b) atmosphere c) durability d) features e) serviceability Section Ref: Defining Quality

4. In six-sigma the level of defects is reduced to approximately a) 0 b) 1.4 parts per million c) 2.4 parts per million d) 3.4 parts per million e) 4.4 parts per million Section Ref: Defining Quality

5. The expected operational life of a product is called its _________________. a) conformance b) reliability c) performance d) durability e) serviceability Section Ref: Defining Quality

6. Quality has gained such prominence because organizations a) are following the latest management fad b) have found a low cost process to keep some employees busy c) have identified an employee perk, membership in quality circles d) understand it is minimal cost and something to do e) have gained an understanding of the high cost of poor quality Section Ref: Cost of Quality

7. During World War II, quality a) Meant inspecting products to ensure that they met specifications b) Encompassed the entire organization c) Was defined as it had been for more than 100 years d) Became customer driven e) Became more statistical in nature Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM)

designed to build quality into the product and process design. 8. TQM is a) Reactive b) Proactive c) Strategic d) Competitive e) Standardized Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM)

9. Not only does TQM encompass the entire organization but it a) stresses quality is supplier driven b) stresses quality is vendor driven c) stresses quality is customer driven d) stresses the need for ISO 9000 compliance e) stressed the need to be µgreen¶ Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM

10. Which of the following is not characteristic of TQM? a) Inspecting products after they have been made b) Identifying and correcting the root causes of quality problems c) Encompasses the entire organization d) Attempts to embed quality in every aspect of the organization e) Concerned with technical aspects of quality Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM

11. The Japanese term for continuous improvement is a) Poka-yoke b) Kaizen c) Kanban d) Muda e) Automation Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM

12. Giving workers responsibility for seeking out quality problems and correcting them is a) Continuous improvement b) Passing the buck c) Brainstorming d) Employee empowerment e) Employee involvement Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM

Employees of the organization who receive goods or services from others in the company are a) Internal customers b) Ultimate customers c) Downstream customers d) Operators e) External customers Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 14.13. Proper training of employees in the understanding of quality tools includes all of the following except a) How to correct problems b) How to assess quality c) How to develop new quality tools d) How to use quality control tools e) How to interpret findings Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 15. When using SPC if you plot the variable of interest against a timeline you are using a) scatter diagrams b) control charts c) fishbone diagrams . A quality circle is a) An approach for the use of control charts b) An award for quality improvements c) An inspection stamp found on meat d) A team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors who meet regularly to solve quality problems e) A symbol used on flow charts Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 17. TQM team meetings take place a) After work b) During lunch breaks c) When the boss calls them d) When all the other work is finished e) During time in the workday set aside for them Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 16. Studying business practices of companies considered ³best in class´ is called a) Pairwise comparison b) Benchmarking c) Competition d) Dreamscaping e) Discouraging Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 18.

d) pareto charts e) flow charts Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 19. . External failure costs include a) Scrap b) Litigation costs resulting from product liability issues c) Rework d) Quality inspections e) Employee training Section Ref: Cost of Quality 24 . Costs of quality inspections. scrap. customer complaints. Warranty claims. and labs are examples of a) Internal failure b) External failure c) Appraisal d) Prevention e) Replacement Section Ref: Cost of Quality costs. employee training in quality measurement. and rework are examples costs. 22. and costs of litigation are examples of a) Internal failure costs. testing. Which of the following is not an important cost of poor quality? a) Product recalls b) Litigation resulting from product liability issues c) Loss of business d) Overhead e) Dissatisfied customers Section Ref: Cost of Quality 20. of a) Internal failure b) External failure c) Appraisal d) Prevention e) Replacement Section Ref: Cost of Quality 23. Quality planning. test equipment. Machine downtime due to failures in the process. a) Internal failure b) External failure c) Appraisal d) Prevention e) Replacement Section Ref: Cost of Quality 21. and cost of maintaining records of information and data related to quality are costs.

Quality function deployment begins by a) Translating scores into specific product characteristics b) Evaluating how the product compares with its major competitors c) Setting specific goals to address the specified problems d) Identifying important customer requirements e) Numerically scoring customer requirements based on their importance Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 29. what features customers want in the product. In using quality function deployment. The plan-do-check-act cycle is often called the a) TQM activity approach b) Deming wheel c) Continuous improvement cycle d) Quality circle e) Action wheel Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 26. what is studied? a) The plans made in the plan step b) The previous action plan c) The data collected in the do step d) The evaluation of the current process e) Procedure documentation Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 27. a) Interviewing the company sales force b) Analyzing the changes in features historically c) Asking top management d) Talking to process engineers e) Conducting focus groups Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM is one way to find out precisely . In the plan-do-study-act cycle.b) External failure c) Appraisal d) Prevention e) Replacement Section Ref: Cost of Quality 25. A useful tool for translating customers¶ everyday language into specific technical requirements is a) Quality function deployment b) Quality circles c) Quality of design d) Scatter diagrams e) Cause-and-effect diagrams Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 28.

and-effect diagrams e) Flowcharts Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 35.30. characteristics is shown in the a) Trade-off b) Product c) Relationship d) Strength e) Inverse Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 32. Cause-and-effect diagrams are often called a) Checklists b) Scatter diagrams c) Pareto analysis d) Fi shbone diagrams e) Histograms Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM . The strength of the relationship between customer requirements and product matrix. The last step in constructing the house of quality includes a) Determining how to advertise b) Setting targets for our own product c) Determining how to attack our competitors¶ products d) Designing the product e) Comparing results with past sales Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 33. One common name for TQM based team work is: a) quality department b) quality support group c) quality circle d) quality team e) team one Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 34. The important thing in quality function deployment competitive evaluation is a) To evaluate the financial strength of competitors b) To identify customer requirements that should be pursued and how we fare relative to our competitors c) Speed of introduction d) The number of competitors e) Knowing our product well Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 31. What quality control tool resembles a "fishbone?" a) Checklists b) Scatter diagrams c) Pareto analysis d) Cause.

For control charts. A checklist is a list of common defects and a) Number of occurrences b) Relative importance c) Attributes d) Costs e) Visibility Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM of these defects. What tool is useful in helping everyone develop a clear picture of how an operation or process works? a) Control chart b) Pareto analysis c) Checklist d) Flowchart e) Scatter diagram Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 39. For a cause-and-effect diagram. What is a schematic diagram of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process? a) Checklist b) Control chart c) Scatter diagram d) Flow chart e) Process chart Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 38. causes could be related to all of the following except a) Analysis b) Materials c) Measurements d) Machines e) Workers Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 37. which of the following situations means that the process is not in control? a) A measured observation is above the LCL b) A measured observation is below the UCL c) A measured observation is above the center line d) A measured observation is below the center line .36. 40 Checklists can also be used to focus on? a) replacement costs b) design documentation c) time dimension d) upper control limits e) histogram Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 41.

a) Correlation b) Heteroscedasticity c) Agreement d) Disagreement e) Causality Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM . analysis is a technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance.e) A measured observation is above the UCL Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 42. Scatter diagrams are particularly useful in detecting the amount of the degree of linear relationship. between two variables. A chart showing the number of defects that result from different causes would be used in: a) Pareto analysis b) Flowcharts c) Cause-and-effect diagrams d) Benchmarking e) Control charts Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable. Quality at the source is the belief that it is far better to _______ quality problems and _____ them than to discard defective items after production. . or 43. b) the two variables¶ data was gathered at different times c) a third variable needs to be added to the evaluation d) there is no direct correlation between the two variables e) you are using the wrong SPC chart Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 47. a) Deming b) Pareto c) Davis d) Crosby e) Juran Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 44. If the derived scatter diagram shows a non-linear but scattered relationship it indicates that a) there is a direct correlation between the two variables. 45. A a) Scatter diagram b) Control chart c) Histogram d) Flow chart e) Process chart Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 46.

a) uncover the person generating. implement e) allow returns of. companies must a) Be nominated by their senator b) Submit a lengthy application c) Use e-mail regularly d) Use statistical process control e) Be a Fortune-500 company Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 50. To compete for the Baldrige Award. implement d) discover new processes of. fix Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 48. The Baldrige Award is intended to a) Demonstrate that American companies are better than their foreign competitors b) Certify suppliers c) Reward and stimulate quality initiatives d) Focus national attention on manufacturing e) Add structure to TQM Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 49. Which of the Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria is allocated the most points? a) leadership b) information and analysis c) human resource focus d) process management e) business results Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards . The Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria category that includes commitment by top management is a) Leadership b) Strategic planning c) Process management d) Business results e) Information and analysis Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 52. correct c) discover new methods of . The Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria include categories for all of the following except a) Leadership b) Process management c) Product design d) Customer and market focus e) Business results Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 51. fire b) uncover the source of.

The Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria category that includes continuous improvement programs. What was the first US company to receive the Deming Prize? a) IBM b) Microsoft c) Wal-Mart d) AT&T e) Florida Power & Light Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 56. Edwards Deming Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 55. and functioning of teams is a) Leadership b) Strategic planning c) Information and analysis d) Human resource development and management e) Business results Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 58.53. The Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria category that includes the use of tools such as market surveys and focus groups is a) Leadership b) Strategic planning c) Customer and market focus d) Business results e) Information and analysis Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 57.S. employee training. The Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria category of business results does not include a) Percentage of defective items b) Progressive improvement over time c) Financial measures d) Marketing measures e) One-time only improvements . Where is the Deming prize awarded? a) U. The Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers named its quality award after: a) Genichi Taguchi b) Kaoru Ishikawa c) Joe Juran d) Phillip Crosby e) W. b) Japa n c) England d) Germany e) Canada Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 54.

Government b) An approach to quality management that was developed in Japan by Deming c) A set of international quality standards and a certification process for companies d) An approach for managing self-directed teams e) An approach for product design Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 62. materials a) will need minimal arrival inspections b) will still require full arrival inspections c) will be package in special approved containers d) do not have to be inspection upon arrival e) will be paid for at a premium cost Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 60. What are the most widely used ISO standards? a) ISO 9000. Increases in international trade during the 1980s created a need for the development of ____________ standards of quality. Which of the following is not necessary for receiving ISO 9000 certification? a) Products meet customer requirements b) Documentation of methods used to monitor quality c) Documentation of methods and frequency of worker training d) Documentation of statistical process control tools used e) An audit by an ISO 9000 examiner Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 63.Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 59. The purpose of the International Organization for Standardization is to a) Certify all suppliers worldwide b) Establish international quality standards c) Spread European standards worldwide d) Certify products e) Streamline documentation Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 61. ISO 9001.S. and ISO 9100 d) ISO 9001. and ISO 9003 . and ISO 9004 b) ISO 9000. ISO 9010. ISO 9002. ISO 9000 is a) An award for quality given annually by the U. and ISO 9002 c) ISO 9000. ISO 90 01. a) universal b) country-specific c) lower d) metric e) bilingual Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 64. If suppliers meet preset quality standards.

Edwards Deming c) Joseph Juran d) Phillip Crosby e) Genichi Taguchi Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) 66. ISO 14000 is for evaluating a) Automotive suppliers b) Minority suppliers c) Raw materials d) A company¶s environmental responsibility e) Service suppliers Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards is often referred to as the father of quality control. Deming believed th at a) Employee training b) Process design c) Properly functioning equipment d) Having good suppliers is the key to improving quality. Deming pointed out that 85% of quality problems are caused by a) Worker error b) Numerical quotas c) Processes and systems d) Carelessness e) Suppliers Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 70. Who developed quality control charts? a) Walter Shewhart b) W.e) ISO 9000. Edwards Deming c) Joseph Juran d) Phillip Crosby e) Genichi Taguchi Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) 67. a) W. and ISO 9004 Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards 65. . 68. Edwards Deming b) Joseph Juran c) Philip Crosby d) Martin Marietta e) Count Pareto Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 69. Who is the ³grandfather of quality control?´ a) Walter Shewhart b) W. ISO 9002.

For Juran¶s quality trilogy. Who is famous for his ³14 Points?´ a) Walter Shewhart b) W. Who developed a formula for determining the cost of poor quality? a) Walter Shewhart b) W. Edwards Deming c) Joseph Juran d) Armand Feigenbaum e) Genichi Taguchi Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 72. Which of the following is not attributed to Philip Crosby? a) The concept of the quality trilogy b) The phrase ³Do it right the first time. which part stresses that processes should be set up to ensure that the quality standards can be met? a) Quality planning b) Quality control c) Quality improvement d) Quality certification e) Quality awards Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 73.´ Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 75.´ c) Stressed the idea of prevention of defects d) The notion of zero defects e) The phrase ³Quality is free. Edwards Deming c) Joseph Juran d) Kaoru Ishikawa e) Genichi Taguchi Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 76. Edwards Deming c) Joseph Juran .e) Improving the system Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 71. Who is best known for the development of cause-and-effect diagrams? a) Walter Shewhart b) W. Juran stressed that quality improvement should be continuous as well as a) Unique b) Novel c) Retroactive d) Breakthrough e) Ongoing Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 74.

Suppose that you have a system with one component and two backups. The most important factor in the success or failure of TQM efforts is a) Getting started quickly b) The use of statistical process control c) The genuineness of the organization¶s commitment d) The use of cause-and-effect diagrams e) Employee training Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 78. Section Ref: Why TQM Efforts Fail 81. SPC is a) a direct substitute for continuous improvement b) a replacement of the teamwork concept c) a substitute for middle management d) a fully subjective process e) is not a substitute for continuous improvement Section Ref: Why TQM Efforts Fail . One TQM mistake companies make is believing that the responsibility for quality and elimination of waste lies a) with the supplier b) with the return and repair shop c) with the supply chain d) with all employees but top management e) with top management alone. Which of the following is a valid formula to compute the reliability of two components in parallel? st nd st a) (Reliability of 1 component) ± (Reliability of 2 Component)(1 ± Reliability of 1 Component) st nd b) 1 ± (1 ± Reliability of 1 Component)(1 ± Reliability of 2 Component) st nd c) (1 ± Reliability of 1 Component)(1 ± Reliability of 2 Component) d) (Reliability of 1 st component) + (Reliability of 1st Component)(1 ± Reliability of 2 nd Component) e) (Reliability of 1 st component)(Reliability of 2nd Component) + (Reliability of 1st Component)(1 ±Reliability of 1 st Component) Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 79. What is the formula for the reliability of the system? a) P(1 st works) + [P(1st fails)][P(2 nd works)] + [P(1st fails)][P(3 rd works)] b) [P(1 st works)][P(2nd works)][P(3rd works)] c) [P(1 st works)] + [P(2nd works)] + [P(3rd works)] d) P(1 st works) + [1 ± P(1st fails)][P(2 nd works)] + [1 ± P(1st fails)][P(3 rd works)] st nd rd e) 1 ± [P(1 fails)][P(2 fails)][P(3 fails)] Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM 80.d) Kaoru Ishikawa e) Genichi Taguchi Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management 77.

Ans: True Section Ref: Defining Quality Level: moderate 2. . TQM affects which of the following a) marketing b) finance c) accounting d) engineering e) all of the above Section Ref: Total Quality Management (TQM) Across the Organization True/False 1. Ans: True Section Ref: Cost of Quality Level: moderate 4.82. Ans: False Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: moderate 5. Quality at the source involves inspecting goods after they are produced. designed to build quality into the product and process design. The expected operational life of a product is called its reliability. The decision to implement TQM will impact all of the following EXCEPT a) product design b) processes c) job design d) supply chain management e) company product Section Ref: Total Quality Management (TQM) Within OM: how it all fits together 83. One common definition of quality is conformance to specifications. Ans: False Section Ref: Defining Quality Level: moderate 3. TQM is reactive. External failure costs tend to be particularly high for service organizations. which focuses on measuring how well the product or service meets targets and tolerances determined by its designers.

scrap. A quality circle is a team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors who meet regularly to solve quality problems. Ans: False Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 7. Ans: False Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: easy 11. Quality planning. the less costly they are to correct. Ans: False Section Ref: Cost of Quality Level: moderate 9. and cost of maintaining records of information and data related to quality. employee training in quality measurement. conducting focus groups is one way to find out precisely what features customers want in the product. The later that defects are found. Ans: True Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: easy 8. and rework are examples of internal failure costs. Ans: True Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 12. It is not possible to develop a U shaped scatter diagram relationship. In using quality function deployment. . Ans: True Section Ref: Cost of Quality Level: moderate 10.Ans: False Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 6. Machine downtime due to failures in the process. are appraisal costs. A useful tool for translating customers¶ everyday language into specific technical requirements is quality function deployment.

Ans: False Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: hard 17. Pareto analysis is a technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance. A checklist is a list of common defects and the relative importance of these defects. The Deming Prize is an American award given to companies to recognize their efforts in quality improvement. Ans: False Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 14. In TQM the role of the employee is very similar to earlier requirements. Ans: False Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 15.Ans: True Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 13. Ans: True Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 18. Ans: True Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 16. A control chart is a schematic diagram of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process. Ans: False Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards Level: moderate . Cause-and-effect diagrams are problem solving tools commonly used by quality control teams.

Ans: False: Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: moderate 24. A cause-and-effect diagram is also referred to as a Taguchi diagram. ISO certification has become a requirement for conducting business in many industries.19. Ans: False Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: moderate 23. The most important factor in the success or failure of TQM efforts is the genuineness of the organization¶s commitment. Ans: True Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: easy 22. Ans: True Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: moderate Essay . The concept of the quality trilogy is attributed to Philip Crosby. ISO 9001 is the standard used for the certification of a firm¶s quality management system. Ans: True Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: hard 25. Edwards Deming is often referred to as the father of quality control. W. Ans: True Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards Level: moderate 21. Genichi Taguchi estimates that as much as 80 percent of all defective items are caused by poor product design. Ans: True Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards Level: hard 20.

features.1. Pareto analysis. and prevention costs Section Ref: Cost of Quality Level: moderate 5. Ans: conformance. appraisal costs. and histograms Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: easy 7. Name six common definitions of quality in manufacturing. consistency. performance. Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: hard 6. What are the seven TQM tools for solving quality problems? Ans: cause-and-effect diagrams. responsiveness to customer needs. What are four dimensions of manufacturing quality? Ans: Conformance to specifications. checklists. flowcharts. What are four dimensions of service quality? Ans: Intangible factors. based on their importance. external failure costs. features. reliability. What are the steps involved in quality function deployment? Ans: 1) identify important customer requirements. courtesy/friendliness. atmosphere Section Ref: Defining Quality Level: hard 4. timeliness/promptness. control charts. and serviceability Section Ref: Defining Quality Level: moderate 2. What are the four types of quality costs? Ans: internal failure costs. 2) the requirements are numerically scored. 4) evaluations are made of how the product compares with its main competitors relative to the identified characteristics. . durability. Explain why external failure costs tend to be very expensive for service organizations. scatter diagrams. durability and serviceability Section Ref: Defining Quality Level: hard 3. reliability. 3) the scores are translated into specific product characteristics. and 5) specific goals are set to address the identified problems. performance.

and have an audit by an ISO 9000 examiner Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards Level: hard 11. measurements. What must a company do to become ISO 9000 certified? Ans: document methods used to monitor quality. suppliers. customer and market focus. workers. What are the common causes of TQM failure? Ans: lack of a genuine quality culture.´ Ans: Upper management must develop a commitment to quality. document inspection programs. and there are fewer opportunities to correct defects than there are in manufacturing. Kaoru Ishikawa. and materials Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: hard 9. Who are the seven primary quality gurus? Ans: Walter Shewhart. Joseph Juran. and provide a system to support this commitment. information and analysis. Phillip Crosby. document statistical process control tools used. Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: hard 13. over-and under-reliance on statistical process control (SPC) methods Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: moderate . Armand Feigenbaum. and business results Section Ref: Quality Awards and Standards Level: hard 10. What are the seven categories for Malcolm Baldrige Award criteria? Ans: leadership. human resource focus. Deming stressed that quality improvements cannot happen without organizational change that comes from upper management. Describe the foundation of Deming¶s ³14 Points. W. Edwards Deming. document methods and frequency of worker training.Ans: With a service the customer spends much time in the service delivery system. provide job descriptions. Section Ref: Cost of Quality Level: hard 8. what are the primary possible causes of quality problems? Ans: machines. process management. strategic planning. and Genichi Taguchi Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Level: hard 12. In using a cause-and-effect diagram. lack of top management support and commitment.

95%/99.9% = 99.99% = 99. As a design engineer you need to obtain 99. Suppose that a product has three parts.9% = 99. .99%*x. The design engineer in question #3 needs to improve the overall system reliability by adding another part in parallel to the unit calculated in question #3.933.96 R P =1 ± [P(1st fails)][P(2 nd fails)] 99. the second part comes with a backup that is 50% reliable.5) = . The objective is to achieve an overall system reliability of 99.91 & R S = R1* R2* R 3*«« 3. What level of reliability does the series part require to achieve 99. x = 99. both of which must be working in order for the product to function. each of which must work in order for the product to function.99%.85 * .5% (RS = R 1* R 2* R 3*«« R n ) 99. The reliability of the first part is . respectively.946 = .933 * .99%*x. and the reliability of the second part is .Problems 1.91% (RS = R 1* R 2* R 3*«« R n ) 99.91 = .7735 or 77.35% (R P =1 ± [P(1 fails)][P(2 R n = . Section Ref: Why TQM Efforts Fail Difficulty: easy .18*(.82..96 = 1 -[.70259) Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: easy 2.85. What reliability must the parallel part have to meet this objective? Ans:44.95%.898 * .898.99. x = 99. In addition.0009 = 44.5% Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate Short Answer 1.9%/99.9% reliability. and . What is the overall reliability of the product? Ans: 77. The reliabilities of the parts are .91% Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate 4. TQM requires that external and internal customers receive ________________________ Ans: the same quality products. P(2nd fails)=(1-.9% overall reliability? Ans: 99. Suppose that a product has two parts.0009*x].3% (R S = R1* R 2* R 3*«« R n = .35%) Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Level: moderate st nd fails)] = 1.99% = 99.96)/. The first part has a reliability factor of 99. What is the reliability of the product? Ans: 79.946.

etc. Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: moderate 4. Redundant components are often used when product failure ________________________ Ans: may have severe (catastrophic. Products have little value if they do not ________________________ Ans: satisfy customers. disastrous. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) begins by ________________________ Ans: identifying important customer requirements. Ans: statistical Section Ref: Why TQM Efforts Fail Difficulty: moderate 3.2. extreme. Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: easy . Ans: frequency distribution Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: easy 6. Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: moderate 5. TQM stresses the balanced use of non-quantitative (qualitative) and ________________________ tools in quality improvement. Checklists are used to make sure all steps in a process are carried out and to ________________________ Ans: record how often common defects occur. Quality circles are a common application of the ________________________ Ans: team approach Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: easy 8. Histograms report the ________________________ of a variable's observed valu es.) effect. Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: moderate 7.

Ans. The old concept of quality involved ________________________ Ans: inspecting for quality after production Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Difficulty: moderate 12.9. The most important factor in the success or failure of TQM efforts is the _____ of the organization¶s _____. Reliability is described as a _____. ______. commitment Section Ref: Why TQM Efforts Fail Difficulty: moderate . likelihood. chance Section Ref: The Philosophy of TQM Difficulty: moderate 10. Philip Crosby believed that ________________________ because the cost of doing it right the first time is less than the cost of correcting mistakes later Ans: quality is free Section Ref: The Evolution of Total Quality Management (TQM) Difficulty: easy 11. genuineness. or a _____ Ans: probability.

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