This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

A. SARATH BABU

1

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

2

CSTR Contd. . .

3

CSTR Animation

4

operates under steady state conditions Reactants are continuously introduced and products are continuously withdrawn Perfect mixing ² contents have uniform properties ² No spatial variations Conditions at the exit are same as inside the reactor Used for homogenous liquid phase reactions where constant agitation is required Eg. Also called as Mixed. synthetic rubber etc. Backmix. 5 . explosives. Polymerization. . Ideal stirred tank reactor Open system. plastics. CSTR Contd. . Sulfonation.

.Advantages: Cheap to construct Good temperature control Reactor has large heat capacity Easy access to interiors Disadvantages: Conversion per unit volume of the reactor is smallest compared to other flow reactors CSTR Contd. . 6 .

Fractional Conversion (xA): FA0 FA xA ! FA0 C A0 C A (for constant density) xA ! C A0 Space time (X): Space time is the time required to process one reactor volume of inlet material (feed) measured at inlet conditions. 7 . X is the time required for a volume of feed equal to the volume of the vessel (V) to flow through the vessel. : Volume of vessel here means volume of Reaction Mixture. X = V/v0 = sec N.B.

The distribution of residence times ² RTD The average length of time that molecules spend in the reactor ² mean residence time (tm) tm = V/vE 8 . All molecules that enter may not spend the same time in the reactor. the number of reactor volumes of feed. measured at inlet conditions. processed per unit time.Space Velocity (S): Space velocity (S) is the reciprocal of space time. Mean Residence time tm: The residence time is the length of time species spend in the reactor.

A ! A0 (1 x A ) lit mol mol ! z sec sec lit v0 ! FA0 / C A0 For constant density: FA FA0 (1 x A ) CA ! ! ! C A0 (1 x A ) v v0 For variable density: (1 x A ) FA FA0 (1 x A ) CA ! ! C A0 ! (1 I A x A ) v v0 (1 I A x A ) 9 .

Stoichiometric Table ² Flow Systems aA + bB p rR + sS Species Initial Change -FA0xA -(b/a)FA0xA +(r/a)FA0xA +(s/a)FA0xA 0 Final moles FA= FA0(1-xA) FB= FA0(MB-(b/a)xA) FR= FA0(MR+(r/a)xA) FS= FA0(MS+(s/a)xA) FI = FI0 A B R S I FA0 FB0 FR0 FS0 FI0 Total FT0 FT = FT0 + NA0 xA Where: MI = FI0/FA0 = (r/a + s/a ² b/a ² 1) For Constant density: CA = CA0(1-xA) 10 .

11 .

FA = (-rA) V FA0 xA = (-rA) V V / FAo = xA / -rA 12 FA0 CA0 v0 FA CA V xA .Design Equation General Mass Balance Equation: Rate of Input = rate of output + accumulation + rate of disappearance FA0 = FA + 0 + (-rA) V FA0 .

for a CSTR: V / FAo = xA / -rA V / (v0 CA0) = xA / -rA X / CA0 = xA / -rA Design eqn.General Design eqn. 13 . for a CSTR under constant density: X = (CA0 ² CA) / -rA tm = V/vE Note that the space time and the mean residence time are equal only in the case of constant density.

DA =kCA0n-1 X Comparison of Different order Reactions in a CSTR 14 .

Plug Flow Reactor 15 .

The necessary and sufficient condition for plug flow is the residence time in the reactor to be the same for all elements of the fluid. PFR Animation 16 .

pumping cost and heat transfer needs Wide variety of applications in gas/liquid phase Eg. synthesis of ammonia.: Production of gasoline. PFR is also called as tubular reactor Residence time is same for all fluid elements Operated under steady state conditions Reactants are consumed as they flow down along the length of the reactor Axial concentration gradients exist One long tube or a number of short tubes (see fig. cracking. SO2 oxidation 17 .) Choice of diameter depends on fabrication cost.

18 .

not exchanging material with the portion ahead of it or behind it.(1) The flow in the vessel is Plug flow.e..e. 19 .. (3)There is complete radial mixing of fluid inside the vessel (i. in the plane perpendicular to the direction of flow). (4)Properties may change continuously in the direction of flow (5)In the axial direction. each portion of fluid. in the direction of flow). acts as a closed system in motion. (2)There is no axial mixing of fluid inside the vessel (i.

. 20 .Advantages: Easily maintained as there are no moving parts High conversion per unit volume Unvarying product quality Good for studying rapid reactions Disadvantages: Poor temperature control Hot spots may occur when used for exothermic reactions PFR Contd. .

21 .

22 .

23 .

Design Equation General Mass Balance Equation: Rate of Input = rate of output + accumulation + rate of disappearance FA = FA + dFA + 0 + (-rA) dV -dFA = (-rA) dV FA0 dxA = (-rA) dV 24 .

25 .

26 . for a PFR (under constant density): X ! ´ dCA / rA 0 tm ! ´ dV / v 0 Note that the space time and the mean residence time are equal only in the case of constant density. for a PFR: xA xA V / FA0 ! ´ dxA / rA 0 xA X / CA0 ! ´ dxA / rA 0 V Design eqn.General Design eqn.

CA/CA0 DA = kCA0n-1 X Comparison of Different order Reactions in a PFR 27 .

Item XA CA -rA t BR (NA0-NA)/NA0 NA/V (NA0/V)dxA/dt NA0´dxA/V(-rA) CSTR PFR (FA0-FA)/FA0 FA/v FA0xA/V FA0dxA/dV X = V/v0 Constant density XA -rA t (CA0-CA)/CA0 -dCA/dt ´-dCA/(-rA) (CA0-CA)/CA0 (CA0 -CA)/X X = V/v0 28 -dCA/dX .

Algorithm for Isothermal Reactor Design 29 .

30 .

CSTR X / CA0 = xA / -rA X / CA0 PFR x A X / CA0 ! ´ dxA / rA 0 X / CA0 1 /-rA xA 31 .

CSTR V / FA0 = xA / -rA PFR x A V / FA0 ! ´ dxA / rA 0 32 .

CSTR X = (CA0 ± CA) / -rA xA PFR X ! ´ dCA / rA 0 X X 1 /-rA 1 /-rA CA CA0 CA CA0 (Constant Density) 33 .

CSTR (Constant Density) PFR X 1 /-rA X 1 /-rA CA CA0 CVBR CA CA0 1 /-rA t 34 CA CA0 .

CSTR 1 /-rA PFR X / CA0 X / CA0 xA 1 /-rA VVBR 1 rA(1IAxA) xA 35 t / CA0 xA .

CSTR (Constant Density) CA PFR X = (CA0 ± CA) / -rA X ! ´ dCA / rA CA0 CA Zero Order X = (CA0 ± CA) / k kX = CA0 ± CA kX = CA0 xA X ! ´ dCA / k CA0 kX = CA0 ± CA kX = CA0 xA Constant Density BR kt = CA0 ± CA 36 .

CSTR (Constant Density) CA PFR X = (CA0 ± CA) / -rA X ! ´ dCA / rA CA0 CA First Order X = (CA0 ± CA) / kCA kX = (CA0 ± CA)/CA kX = xA /(1-xA) X ! ´ dCA / kCA C ln ! ln( xA) ! kX 1 CA0 37 CA0 A Constant Density BR CA ln ! kt CA0 .

CSTR (Constant Density) CA PFR X = (CA0 ± CA) / -rA X ! ´ dCA / rA CA0 CA Second Order X = (CA0 ± CA) / kCA2 X ! ´ dCA / kC 1 1 ! kX C A C A0 CA0 2 A kX = (CA0 ± CA)/CA2 kX CA0 = xA /(1-xA)2 Constant Density BR 1 1 ! kt C A C A0 38 .

Constant Density 39 .

For constant density: The performance of the Batch reactor is similar to that of PFR for all orders The performance of all the three reactors is the same in case of zero order reaction The performance of PFR is superior to that of a CSTR for all orders > 0 For all reaction orders > 0 The volume of a CSTR required for obtaining a given conversion is larger than that of PFR For the same volumes of PFR & CSTR. the conversion obtained is larger in the case of PFR 40 .

CSTR X = CA0xA / -rA (Variable Density) CA 1 xA ! C A0 1 I A x A PFR xA X ! CA0 ´ dxA / rA 0 xA Zero Order X = CA0 xA / k kX = CA0 xA X ! CA0 ´ dxA / k 0 kX = CA0xA Variable Density BR: C A0 ln(1 I A x A ) ! kI At 41 .

CSTR X = CA0xA / -rA (Variable Density) CA 1 xA ! C A0 1 I A x A PFR x A X ! CA0 ´ dxA / rA 0 xA First Order X = CA0 xA / kCA kX = CA0 xA/CA X ! CA0 ´ dxA / kCA 0 kX ! (1 I A ) ln( xA ) I A xA 1 Variable Density BR: ln(1 x A ) ! kt 42 .

CSTR X = CA0xA / -rA (Variable Density) CA 1 xA ! C A0 1 I A x A PFR xA X ! CA0 ´ dxA / rA 0 xA Second Order X = CA0 xA / kCA2 X ! CA0 ´ dxA / kC 0 2 A A 2 2 A kX = CA0 xA / CA2 CA0kX ! 2I A (1 I A ) ln(1 xA ) I x (I A 1) xA /(1 xA ) Variable Density BR: x A (1 I A ) /(1 x A ) I A ln(1 x A ) ! kC A0t 43 .

Variable Density 44 .

Relative performance of plug flow and continuous-flow stirred tank reactors Fraction unreacted is larger in CSTR for a given Da 45 .

Comparison of reactor volume required for a given conversion for a first-order reaction in a PFR and a CSTR For small conversions VCSTR/VPFR = 1 (selection of reactor not very critical). For large conversions. VCSTR/VPFR is very large (selection of 46 reactor very critical). .

For Variable density: The performance of CSTR & PFR is similar in case of zero order (irrespective of constant / variable density) The performance of BR is different from the performance of PFR (the performance was similar in the case of constant density) The performance of PFR is superior to that of a CSTR for all orders > 0 (same as constant density) 47 .

CSTR and PFR Reactors Criteria Reactor size for given conversion Simplicity and Cost Continuous operation Large throughput Cleanout On-line analysis Product quality Batch + + + - CSTR + + + + + + PFR + + + + + 48 .Comparison of possible advantages (+) and Disadvantages (-) for Batch.

Edward That which today calls itself science gives us more and more information. 49 . and less and less understanding. an indigestible glut of information.ANY CLARIFICATIONS ? Abbey.

- XMSDS Sodium Hexametaphosphate 9924995
- Cooling Tower Theory.pdf
- watertech_mar 04.pdf
- general-driving-principles-english.pdf
- road-signs-english.pdf
- 0deec51ec02c556e15000000
- MQP-Design and Analysis of an Absorption Refrigeration System
- Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment
- Science 2
- sachin-tendulkar-cv2
- Heat Exchanger Lecture(2)
- 4.Ideal Reactors

- Reactors
- Basics of Reactor Design MAC2
- Chemical Reactor Selection and Design Ppt
- 02-Ideal Reactors 2008
- 4.Ideal Reactors
- Reactor Design Basics
- Styrene Design Problem
- Preparation of Thiokol Rubber
- Bauer Solucionario Tomo2
- Gas Absorption.docx
- Main Project Documentation
- Solid-Liquid Phase Diagram
- m2l10
- Unit II. Part -b. Waste Water Engineering
- Reactors 001
- Use of Nano Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent for Cotton by a.i. Wasif and s.k. Laga
- CSG Water Management Plan
- Waste Management
- Energy Best Practices Food Industry Guidebook
- Waste Water Treatment
- United Nations eGovernment Survey 2010
- Hydraulics IOE PPT
- Batch Reactors
- Sugden Parachor
- Oxidation
- Job Hazrd Analysis
- Membrne Reactor- An Innovation in Waste Water Treatment
- Go Google 20 Ways to Reach More Customers
- Domestic Wastewater
- Nanopraticle Synthesis
- 4.Ideal Reactors

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd