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Introduction to Human Behavior

By: Jeffrey Eric Criste


–Aims to understand others
–To determine how and why people behave the way they do.
–Is a complicated phenomenon influenced by many factors.
–A collection of activities influenced by culture, attitude, emotions, values, ethics,
authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion and coercion.

Classifications of Human Behavior

•Conscious - State of awareness of thoughts, feelings, perception and what is going on

in the environment.
Unconscious –
•Overt - Open to public observation
•Covert - Unseen objects such as thoughts, feelings or responses which are not easily
•Rational - Pertaining to reason, influenced or guided by reason rather than emotion.
•Irrational - Illogical

•Voluntary - Intentional
•Involuntary – Doing something against your will, action made without intent or
carried out despite an attempt to prevent them.
•Simple – ex. What you see is what you get.
•Complex - compound complicated behavior. ex. Drinking alcohol


•Human behavior is motivated

motivation – driving force behind all action of an organism
•Human behavior has multiple causes.
- Influenced by culture
•Human behavior can be adaptive and maladaptive
•Human are social beings
•Any person depend upon each other for survival
•People need interaction
•People play an integral part in creating their experience
•Human lives are continuous process of change.
•Every person is different yet the same.
•Individual is a unique person.
Theoretical approaches about the factors that cause, maintain, alter behavior, and
mental process:

–Is based on the belief that childhood experiences greatly influence the development of
late personality traits and psychological problems. It also stresses the influence of
unconscious fears, desires and motivations on thoughts and behavior.

–Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his/her future, a large
capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth & enormous
potential for self-fulfillment.

–Studieshow organism learn new behavior or modify existing ones, depending on
whether events in their environment reward of punish these behavior.

–Examines how we process, store, and use information, and how this information
influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember believe and feel.

Focuses on how genes, hormones & nervous system interact with the environment to
influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions at coping techniques.

Theories that explain motivation to Human Behavior


•Needs such as air, food, water, shelter, rest, sleep, activity and temperature maintenance
are crucial for survival.


•The need for safety has both physical and psychological aspects. The person needs to
feel safe both in the physical environment and in relationship.


•The third level needs includes giving and receiving affection, attaining a place in group,
and maintaining the feeling of belonging.

•The individual needs both self-esteem (ex. Feelings of independence, competence, and
self-respect) and esteem from others (ex. Recognition, respect, and appreciation)
•When the need for self-esteem is satisfied, the individual strives for self-actualization,
the innate need to develop one’s maximum potential and realize one’s abilities and


•This theory explained that human behavior is motivated by an inner force called the
human mind. This theory was introduced by SIGMUND FREUD

•SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939) was an Austrian physician who worked as an

neurologist. Early in his career, he used hypnosis to treat people with physical and
emotional problem. From his work with these patients, he began to conceptualize a
theory of human behavior.
•Freud theorized that people have two (2) basic instincts – SEXUAL and
AGGRESSION. These two (2) basic instincts are not always socially acceptable. When
people exhibit behavior that is nor acceptable, they often experience punishment, guilt
and anxiety.
•Freud’s theory describes a conflict between a person’s instinctual needs for gratification
and the demands of society for socialization. For Freud, a person’s core tendency is to
maximize instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt.
–Addresses the relationship among inner experience, behavior, social roles & functioning.
This theory proposes that conflicts among unconscious motivating factors affect behavior

–CONSCIOUS – aware of here and now, in contact with reality.
•It functions only when the person is awake.

•Contains the partially forgotten memories that can be recalled at will. Preconscious
serves as the “watchman” by preventing unacceptable & anxiety producing memories
from reaching the conscious awareness.

–UNCONSCIOUS – The largest part of the personality that is often compared to the
hidden iceberg under the water that contains memory that are forgotten & cannot be
brought back to consciousness at will.


•ID – represents psychological energy, or libido and it operates on pleasure principles

which can be understood as a demand to take care of needs immediately. The ID only
knows that what it wants and what it wants right away regardless of the present
–does not care about morals, society and other individuals
–starts from birth to 6 months
–demanding, unrealistic, primitive, instinctual, uncivilized, undisciplined
•EGO – is the one that relates to the world or reality to satisfy the demands of the ID.
The ego operates by reality principle & uses problem solving based on how it judges
reality. It controls the demands of & mediates between the ID and the Superego
according to the demands of the reality.
–operates on conscious level
–begins in the first 6 or 8 months of life and fairly well developed at age 2 or 3 years
–serves to control and guide actions of an individual

•SUPEREGO- is the one that rewards the moral behavior and punishes actions that are
not acceptable by creating guilt. The superego is our conscience, a residue of internalized
values & moral training of early childhood.
•operates on both conscious and unconscious
•functions on MORAL PRINCIPLE
•develops around the age of 3-4 or 4-5 and fairly well developed at age 10 years

•Ego Ideal – rewards the person with feeling of well-being and pride when a person
conforms to the demands of the superego.
•concern with what is believe to be morally or basically right.

•Conscience – punishes the person with guilt feelings when person
–deviates from the demands of the superego.
– concern with what is believe to be morally or basically wrong.


•Oral - 0-18 months

–The infants pleasure is believed to center around gratification from using his mouth for
sucking and satisfying hunger. Feeling and activities are focused on & expressed by the
mouth and are orally dominated.

•Anal - 18 mos. - 3 years

–Begins w/ the attainment of neuromuscular control of the anal sphincter.
–Toilet training is the crucial issue requiring delayed gratification in compromising
between enjoyment of bowel function and limitations set by social expectations for the

- 3 to 6 years
–Increasedcuriosity re: the genitals, questioning and self-stimulation or

•Latent - 6 –12 years

–Thechild realizes that desires directed to the parent of opposite sex are not feasible, and
become occupied with socializing with peers, refining roles and relationships.

•Genital - 12 - 20 years *adult sexuality

–Develops awareness of body & sexual part.
–Represents an emergence of sexual interest w/c can now be expressed in an overt
heterosexual relationship.

Erik Erikson

•The developmental theory of Erik Erikson (1963) was based on Freud’s work.
Erikson expanded Freud’s theory to include cultural and social influences in
addition to biologic processes. He believed there was an interrelationship between
such variables that impact the psychosocial development of an individual
throughout life .
Psychosocial Theory
•based on four major organizing concepts:
–(1) stages of development
–(2) development goal or task
–(3) psychosocial crisis
–(4) the process of coping.

Erickson believed that development is a continuous process consisting of distinct phases

characterized by the achievement of developmental goals. He emphasized that certain
tasks progressed in a definite order, but were affected by the social environment and
significant others.

Stages of Development

•Erikson identified eight stages of development from birth through old age and death. He
was one of the first theorists who acknowledged the continuation of personality
development into the adult years. At each stage, Erikson presented a developmental crisis
which had to be mastered. Each crises is a set of normal stresses imposed on a person by
the demands of society. The internal ego identity and the external expectations of an
individuals behavior by society are in conflict. These demands vary from one stage to the
next and must be resolved or at least the tension must be reduced to successfully advance
to the next stage.

Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)

•the first stage is the period of infancy. As the infant learns to rely on caregivers so that
basic needs of warmth, food, and comfort are met, he begins to believe and trust in his
caregivers. Mistrust may occur if care is inconsistent or inadequate. The infant may view
the environment as being unsafe or chaotic.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 years old)

•during the toddler years, the child begins to learn more about his environment through
newly learned motor and language skills. He is gaining independence through parental
encouragement with activities of daily life, such as eating, toileting, and dressing. Shame
and doubt result if the parents are overprotective and do not allow the child a chance to
attempt new skills. Expectations that are too high for the developmental age of the child
can produce feelings of inadequacy in the child.

Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years old)

•a time for seeking new experiences and imagining the “how” and “why” of surrounding
activities. Confidence gained as a toddler now allows the preschooler a sense of initiative
in learning. Guilt is the negative result of restrictions or reprimands for their many
questions and explorations. Guilt can be seen an a hesitancy to attempt more challenging
skills in motor or language development.

Industry vs. Inferiority (7-12 years old)

•the school-age child focuses on the end results of his accomplishments. He gains much
pleasure in finishing projects and receiving recognition from family, teacher, and
schoolmates. This sense of industry is benefited by rewards, such as good grades or
winning games. As sense of competition develops through peer interaction and also
assists in development of sense of industry.
• If child is not accepted by his peers or cannot meet expectations of adults, a
feeling of inferiority and lack of self-worth may occur. However, the school-age child
receives feedback from many persons at this time due to increased social interaction from
the home. This increased interpersonal exchange allows for negative influences to be
encountered with support from more positive influences.

Identity vs. role confusion ( 12 – 18 years old)

•the adolescent is faced with many changes occurring in his own body. Hormonal
changes cause physiologic growth of secondary sex characteristics and labile mood
swings. The transition from childhood to adulthood requires many decisions based on the
teenager’s perception of self. Achieving a stable sense of identity is the major task for the
adolescent. Attempting various roles enables one to acquire an idea of self from personal
observations and from peers, parents, or other role models. Occasionally, rebellion and
resistance to conformity are the norm.
• Role confusion may occur if the adolescent is unable to obtain a sense of who he
really is, or the direction in which he plans to take in his life. This fluctuation between
identity and role confusion makes adolescence a period of turmoil for many

Intimacy vs. Isolation (20’s – young adult)

•the task of the young adult is intimacy, which involves uniting self-identity with
identities of friends for social or career endeavors. It includes the development of close
personal relationships based on commitment to others, which necessitates self sacrifice
and compromise. Fear or such commitments can predispose the young adult to isolation
and loneliness

Generativity vs. Stagnation – (late 20’s to 50’s- middle adult)

•the middle adult years are time of concern for the next generation and guiding one’s
own children or those friends, relatives, or community groups. This sense of guidance is
exhibited in a variety of creative approaches to one’s work or life experiences. There is an
intense desire to leave a contribution to the world. If generativity does not occur,
stagnation result. The person becomes self-absorbed, is obsessed with his own health
needs, or regresses to earlier means of coping.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair ( 50’s and beyond- old adult)

•later adulthood or old age allows for the reminiscence of life events with the attainment
of purpose and fulfillment. Positive feelings present a sense of ego integrity. When the
aging adult believes his life was a series of failures or missed directions, a sense of
despair may prevail. During this final stage of development a final attempt to resolve the
cumulative conflicts throughout life should occur.


–COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS- “Psychic Inheritance”

•Contains the universal memories & history of all humans
•A reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with.

•Determined by individual personal experience

–Repeated images
–The structural component of the collective unconscious. It is a universal thought form
(idea) that contains large element of emotion.
–Can be a mythical figure, such as Hero, the Nurturing Mother, the Powerful Father or the
Wicked Witch.

–Represents your public image.
–Is the public personality, the aspect of self that one reveals to others, the role that society
expects one to play. The persona is frequently at variance with true identity.


–Feminine archetype in man is anima, and masculine archetype in woman is animus.

–Archetype reflects the prehistoric fear of wild animals & represents the animal side of
human nature. The shadow contains the opposite of what we feel ourselves to be.
–It consists of the animal instincts that human inherited in their evolution from lower
forms of life.
–Serves as a “trash can”.
–It is the “dark side” of the ego, and the evil that we are capable of is often stored there.
•Amoral – neither good nor bad, just like animals

–Orients the person towards the inner subjective world.
–Describes the person who is focused inward, cautious, shy, timid & reflective.

–Orients the person towards the external, outside world
–Describes the person who is outgoing, sociable, assertive & energetic
–Jung’s view, motivation comes not only from past conflicts but also from future goals
and the need for self-fulfillment. He also believed that a healthy person maintains a
balance in all spheres – male and female, introversion and extroversion, conscious and
unconscious – and has the ability to accept the past and strive for the future.

Application to nursing:
•Jung emphasized the importance of symbolism, rituals, and spirituality. When we enter
a client’s environment, we see symbols of importance to that person. We become aware
of the client’s rituals of self-care. When client’s rituals interfere with growth and health,
we look for the conflicts and anxiety behind the behaviors.

The End

•Thank You