# Digital Electronics

1. What is a binary coded decimal? When a computer handles numbers in binary in group of four digits, the number system is called Binary Coded Decimal (BCD). 2. State the rules for adding two BCD numbers? The rules for adding two BCD numbers are: a) Add the two numbers, using the rules for binary addition. b) If a four bit sum is equal to or less than 9, it is a valid BCD number. c) If a four bit sum is greater than 9, or if a carry-out of the group is generated, it is an invalid result, add 6(0110) to the four-bit sum in order to skip the six invalid states and return to the code to 8421.if a carry results when 6 is added, simply add the carry to the next four bit group. 3. State and explain Boolean algebra? Boolean algebra is a set of rules, laws and theorems by which logical operations can be expressed mathematically. It is a convenient and systematic way of expressing and analyzing the operation of digital circuits and systems. 4. State and explain De Morgan's theorems. De Morgan's first theorem states that the complement of a product is equal to the sum of the complements. (i.e.)AB'=A'+B' De Morgan’s second theorem states that the complement of a sum is equal to the product of the complements. 5. Define sum of products. The sum of products is a Boolean expression containing AND terms, called the product terms of one or more literals each. The sum denotes the ORing of these terms. eg.F=y'+xy+x'yz' 6. Define product of sum. A product of sum is a Boolean expression containing OR terms, called sum terms. Each term may have any number of literals. the product terms denote the ANDing of these terms.

8. 9. 12. 14. the prime implicant is said to be essential. What is minterm? the product term containing all the k variables of a function in either complemented or uncomplemented form is called a minterm. with each squares representing one minterm of the function. in which the map diagram is made up of squares.'. Explain the closure property of Boolean algebra. What is a binary operator? The binary operator defined on a set S of elements is a rule that assigns to each pair unique elements from S. . What is maxterm? A sum term containing all the k variables of the function either in complemented or uncomplemented form is called a max term.F=x(y'+z)(x'+y+z') 7. 10. A set S is closed with respect to a binary operator if for every pair of elements of S the binary operator specifies the rule for obtaining a unique element of S. What are basic properties of Boolean algebra? The basic properties of Boolean algebra are commutative property. 11. 13. What is a karnaugh map? A karnaugh map or k map is a pictorial form of truth table. Boolean algebra is closure with respect to operator '+' and '. What is a prime implicant? A prime implicant is a product term obtained by combining the maximum possible number of adjacent squares in the map.eg. associativity and distributivity. What is an essential implicant? If a min term is covered by only one prime implicant.

State the associative property of boolean algebra. to designate power of 2 by which the number . State the absorption law of Boolean algebra. 19. The distributive property is: A+BC= (A+B) (A+C) 18. 3. List the conditions for tabulation method The conditions for tabulation method are as follows: 1.15. The distributive property states that ANDing several variables and Oaring the result with a single variable is equivalent to ORing the single variable with each of the of the several variables and then ANDing the sums. The absorption law of Boolean algebra is given by X+XY=X. The associative property is stated as follows: A+ (B+C) = (A+B) +C 16. What is min term canonical form? Logical sum of all the min terms having the value of 1 is called min term Canonical form. the number in the section below is greater than the number in the section above by a power of 2. State the distributive property of Boolean algebra. The commutative property states that the order in which the variables are ORed makes no difference. X(X+Y) =X. 2 check both the numbers to show that they have been used and write them down in column b. State the commutative property of Boolean algebra. include a third number in column b in paranthesis. The commutative property is: A+B=B+A 17. The associative property of Boolean algebra states that the ORing of several variables results in the same regardless of the grouping of the variables. 20.

AND gate 2. This type of gate is used for any type of applications. Classify the digital logic families? The digital logic families can be classified as 1. Complementary MOS 5.Pin Grid Array 27.Plastic Quad Flat Pack PGA. The Schottky TTL. Metal oxide semiconductor family(MOS family).Leadless Chip Carrier PLCC.Diode Transistor logic I2L. Which gates are called as the universal gates? What are its advantages? The NAND and NOR gates are called as the universal gates. I2L. HTL logic comes under the saturated logic family. MOS They are further classified as N-channel CMOS . TTL. 26. Mention the different IC packages? DIP. Classify the MOS digital logic family? The MOS logic family is classified into two types namely 4. NOT gate 22. Mention the classification of BJT digital logic family? The BJT family is classified as follows: RTL. What are the basic digital logic gates? The three basic logic gates are 1. This number in the paranthesis tells the position of difference in binary notation. Classify the logic family by operation? The Bipolar logic family is classified into 1.Emitter Coupled Logic 25. P.Plastic Leaded Chip carrier PQFP. DTL. Unsaturated logic. 23.channel CMOS and Pchannel MOS and N. OR gate 3. 24. 21. Saturated logic 2. .channel MOS.Dual in line package LCC.differ.Resistor Transistor Logic DTL.Integrated Injection Logic TTL.Transistor Transistor Logic ECL. and ECL logic comes under the unsaturated logic family. Bipolar transistor family (BJT family) 2. The RTL.

30. 37. Open collector output 2. Define fan in? Fan in is the number of inputs connected to the gate without any degradation in the voltage level. For operation in such surroundings there is available a type of DTL gate which possesses a high threshold to noise immunity. Define noise margin? Noise margin is the limit of a noise voltage which may be present without impairing the proper operations of the circuit. 34.28. Define Fan-out? Fan out specifies the number of standard loads that he output of the gate can drive with out impairment of its normal operation. What is depletion mode operation MOS? . What are the type of TTL logic? 1. 36. The temperature in which the performance of the IC is effective is called as operating temperature. 31. 32. Tri-state output. What is Operating temperature? All the gates or semiconductor devices are temperature sensitive in nature. This type of gate is called HTL logic or High Threshold Logic. Operating temperature of the IC vary from 00 C to 700 c. 35. Totem-Pole Output 3. 33. What is propagation delay? Propagation delay is the average transition delay time for the signal to propagate from input to output when the signals change in value. What is High Threshold Logic? Some digital circuits operate in environments which produce very high noise signals. Mention the important characteristics of digital IC’s? Fan out Power dissipation Propagation Delay Noise Margin Fan In Operating temperature Power supply requirements 29. Define power dissipation? Power dissipation is the power consumed by the gate which must be available for the power supply.

Either type of device is turned of if its gate.source voltage is zero.Some of them are mentioned below they are. 2)Asynchronous sequential circuit. The resulting transistor is called as schottky transistor.source voltage is negative 3. Mention the characteristics of MOS transistor? 1. 39.channel MOS conducts when its gate. In this mode current flows unless the channel is depleted by an applied gate field. The n.channel MOS conducts when its gate.to.source voltage is positive.If the channel is initially doped lightly with p-type impurity a conducting channel exists at zero gate voltage and the device is said to operate in depletion mode. The presence of schottky diode between the base and the collector prevents the transistor from going into saturation. 2.A flip-flop maintains its output state either at 1 or 0 until directed by an input signal to change its state. 38. 41)What are the classification of sequential circuits? The sequential circuits are classified on the basis of timing of their signals into two types. How a schottky transistor is formed and what are its uses? A schottky diode is formed by the combination of metal and semiconductor. What is enhancement mode operation of MOS? If the region beneath the gate is left initially uncharged a channel must be induced by the gate field before current can flow. 4 2)Define Flipflop. The use of schottky transistor in TTL decreases the propagation delay without a sacrifice of power dissipation.to. RS flip-flop SR flip-flop D flip-flop JK flip-flop T flip-flop 4 4)What is the operation of RS flip-flop? . 40. . 43)What are the different types of flip-flop? There are various types of flipflop.to. Thus the channel current is enhanced by the gate voltage and such a device is said to operate in the enhancement mode. The basic unit for storage is flipflop. 1)Synchronous sequential circuit.They are. The p.

Due to this in the positive half of the clock pulse if both J and K are high then output toggles continuously. the output Q is set and if D=0. • When K input is high and J input is low the Q output of flip-flop is reset. the output is reset. • When both the inputs K and J are low the output does not change • When both the inputs K and J are high it is possible to set or reset the flip-flop (ie) the output toggle on the next positive clock edge.The term edge triggering means that the flip-flop changes state either at the positive edge or . When R input is high and S input is low the Q output of flip-flop is reset. 46)What is the operation of D flip-flop? In D flip-flop during the occurrence of clock pulse if D=1. 48)What is the operation of T flip-flop? T flip-flop is also known as Toggle flip-flop.• • • • When R input is low and S input is high the Q output of flip-flop is set. In JK flip-flop output is fed back to the input. • When T=1 the output switch to the complement state (ie) the output toggles. • When both the inputs R and S are high the output is unpredictable. 49)Define race around condition. 45)What is the operation of SR flip-flop? • When R input is low and S input is high the Q output of flip-flop is set. When both the inputs R and S are low the output does not change When both the inputs R and S are high the output is unpredictable. • When R input is high and S input is low the Q output of flip-flop is reset. • When both the inputs R and S are low the output does not change. Therefore change in the output results change in the input. 50)What is edge-triggered flip-flop? The problem of race around condition can solved by edge-triggering flipflop.This condition is called ‘race around condition’. 47)What is the operation of JK flip-flop? • When K input is low and J input is high the Q output of flip-flop is set. • When T=0 there is no change in the output.

The binary information in a register can be moved from stage to stage within the register or into or out of the register upon application of clock pulses. The time required to change the voltage level from 90% to 10% is known as fall time(tf). 51)What is a master-slave flip-flop? A master-slave flip-flop consists of two flip-flops where one circuit serves as a master and the other as a slave.It is denoted as tsetup. 54)Define skew and clock skew. 60) What are the different types of shift type? There are five types. 55)Define setup time. 56)Define hold time. This gives rise to group of registers called shift registers. 58)Define registers. A propagation delay is the time required to change the output after the application of the input.It is denoted as thold . 53)Define fall time.negative edge of the clock pulse and it is sensitive to its inputs only at this transition of the clock. 57)Define propagation delay. . The hold time is the minimum time for which the voltage levels at the excitation inputs must remain constant after the triggering edge of the clock pulse in order for the levels to be reliably clocked into the flipflop. 59) Define shift registers. The time required to change the voltage level from 10% to 90% is known as rise time(tr). The phase shift between the rectangular clock waveforms is referred to as skew and the time delay between the two clock pulses is called clock skew. They are. The setup time is the minimum time required to maintain a constant voltage levels at the excitation inputs of the flip-flop device prior to the triggering edge of the clock pulse in order for the levels to be reliably clocked into the flipflop. A register is a group of flip-flops flip-flop can store 1 bit information. This type of bit movement or shifting is essential for certain arithmetic and logic operations used in microprocessors. So an nbit register has a group of n flip-flops and is capable of storing any binary information/number containing n-bits. 52)Define rise time.

62)Explain the flip-flop excitation tables for JK flip-flop In JK flip-flop also there are four possible transition from present state to next state.They are.and if Qn+1 has to be 1 regardless the value of Qn.  11 transition: This can happen either when S=1 and R=0 or S=0 and R=0.the state of the flip-flop remains unchanged.Serial In Serial Out Shift Register Serial In Parallel Out Shift Register Parallel In Serial Out Shift Register Parallel In Parallel Out Shift Register Bidirectional Shift Register 61)Explain the flip-flop excitation tables for RS FF.  01 transition: This can happen either when J=1 and K=0 or when J=K=1.  11 transition: This can happen when K=0 and J=0 or J=1. RS flip-flop In RS flip-flop there are four possible transition from the present state to the next state. 65)Explain ROM .for 00 and 11 transitions T must be 0 and for 01 and 10 transitions must be 1. 63)Explain the flip-flop excitation tables for D flip-flop In D flip-flop the next state is always equal to the D input and it is independent of the present state. 64)Explain the flip-flop excitation tables for T flip-flop When input T=1 the state of the flip-flop is complemented. when T=0.  00 transition: This can happen either when R=S=0 or when R=1 and S=0.Therefore D must be 0 if Qn+1 has to 0.They are.  01 transition: This can happen only when S=1 and R=0. Therefore.  00 transition: This can happen when J=0 and K=1 or K=0.  10 transition: This can happen either when J=0 and K=1 or when J=K=1.  10 transition: This can happen only when S=0 and R=1.

The PROMs are one time programmable. PROMs use the fuses with material like nichrome and polycrystalline. Each bit combination of the input variables is called an address. 66)What are the types of ROM? 1. 70) What is RAM? Random Access Memory. 68)ExplainEPROM  EPROM(Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) EPROM use MOS circuitry. Data is stored as charge or no charge on an insulated layer or an insulated floating gate in the device.EEPROM 67)Explain PROM  PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) It allows user to store data or program. It is not possible to erase selective information.It consists of n input lines and m output lines.What are excitation variables? -next state variables in asynchronous sequential circuits 73. The user can blow these fuses by passing around 20 to 50 mA of current for the period 5 to 20µs.What is fundamental mode sequential circuit? -input variables changes if the circuit is stable -inputs are levels. They store 1’s and 0’s as a packet of charge in a buried layer of the IC chip. Each bit combination that comes out of the output lines is called a word. Read and write operations can be carried out. The chip can be reprogrammed.PROM 2. EEPROM allows selective erasing at the register level rather than erasing all the information since the information can be changed by using electrical signals.What are secondary variables? -present state variables in asynchronous sequential circuits 72.EPROM 3. We can erase the stored data in the EPROMs by exposing the chip to uv light via its quartz window for 15 to 20 minutes.The number of distinct addresses possible with n input variables is 2n.The blowing of fuses is called programming of ROM.not pulses -only one input can change at a given time 74. Once programmed. 69)Explain EEPROM  EEPROM(Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) EEPROM also use MOS circuitry.What are pulse mode circuit? . 71. the information is stored permanent.A read only memory(ROM) is a device that includes both the decoder and the OR gates within a single IC package.

When do race condition occur? -two or more binary state variables change their valu in response to the change in i/p variable 77.What is hazard? -unwanted switching transients 83.What is critical race? -final stable state depends on the order in which the state variable changes -race condition is harmful 79.What are the different techniques used in state assignment? -shared row state assignment -one hot state assignment 81.what is dynamic hazard? -output changes 3 or more timeswhen it changes from 1 to 0 or 0 to 1 .-inputs are pulses -width of pulses are long for circuit to repond to the input -pulsewidth must not be so long that it is still present after the new state is reached 75.What are the steps for the design of asynchronous sequential circuit? -construction of primitive flow table -reduction of flow table -state assignment is made -realization of primitive flow table 82.What are the significance of state assignment? In synchronous circuits-state assignments are made with the objective of circuit reduction Asynchronous circuits-its objective is to avoid critical races 76.what is static 0 hazard? -output goes momentarily 1 when it should remain at 0 85.makes a transition through a series of unstable state 80.What is non critical race? -final stable state does not depend on the order in which the statevariable changes -race condition is not harmful 78.What is static 1 hazard? -output goes momentarily 0 when it should remain at 1 84.When does a cycle occur? -asynchronous ckt.

What is a multiplexer? It selects information from many inputs and passes through single output line.What is a half subtracter? 2input 2 o/p device.What is combinational circuit? Output depends on the given input.What is a half adder? 2input 2 o/p device.What are the advantages of SM chart? -easy to understand the operation -east to convert to several equivalent forms 90.What is a comparator? It is used to compare 2 binary numbers.What is the cause for essential hazards? -unequal delays along 2 or more path from same input 87. - .What is a full adder? 3input 2 o/p device.What is a full subtracter? 3input 2 o/p device. 92. 93.Used for 2 bit addition.It has no storage element.design of digital systems 89.What is SM chart? -describes the behavior of a state machine -used in hardware. 98. 95.What is the other name of multiplexer? Dataselector 97.What is encoder? Used for data conversion 99. 100.Used for 2 bit subtraction.Used for 3 bit subtraction 96.What is primitive flow chart? -one stable state per row 91.Used for 3 bit addition 94.What is a demultiplexer? It receives information from single line and passes it through many lines.86.What is flow table? -state table of an synchronous sequential network 88.