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Midterm Test

Mathematical Logic

Time Limit = 2 hours

Importance Note

1. Exam is closed books, closed computer, three note quarto pages allowed, open

dictionary.

2. Do not collaborate.

3. Please answer the question in the space provided below the question.

4. There are 11 problems and all problems have equal weight.

Name :

ID :

Signature :

Problem 1

Translate the following sentence into logic. Define P1 to mean “John knows C,” P2 to

mean “John knows Java”, and P3 as”John knows Prolog.” Q stands for “John enjoys

working with people,” and R means “John is senior programmer.”

John knows either C, Java, or Prolog, and he enjoys working with people.

Otherwise, he would not be senior programmer.

Answer :

¬ ¬ ¬

Problem 2

Prove that P ∧ (S ⇒ W) ⇒ (Y ⇒ Z ) ≡ P∨ Y ∨ Z ∨ (S ∧ W). Use statement

algebra in your proof.

Answer :

1

Problem 3

Solve this famous logic puzzle, attributed to Albert Einstein, and known as the zebra

puzzle. Five men with different nationalities and with different jobs live in consecutive

houses on a street. These houses are painted different colors. The men have different pets

and have different favorite drinks. Determine who owns a zebra and whose favorite drink

is mineral water (which is one of the favorite drinks) given these clues : The Englishman

lives in the red house. The Spaniard owns a dog. The Japanese man is a painter. The

Italian drinks tea. The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left. The green house is

immediately to the right of the white one. The photographer breeds snails. The diplomat

lives in the yellow house. Milk is drunk in the middle house. The owner of the green

house drinks coffee. The Norwegian's house is next to the blue one. The violinist drinks

orange juice. The fox is in a house next to that of the physician. The horse is in a house

next to that of the diplomat. [Hint: Make a table where the rows represent the men and

columns represent the color of their houses, their jobs, their pets, and their

favorite drinks and use logical reasoning to determine the correct entries in the table]

Answer :

Problem 4

Prove this argument by natural derivation

1. U ⇒ W

2. X ⇒ Y

3. Z ⇒ W

4. X ⇒ A

5. W ⇒ X

6. [U ⇒ Y) ∧ (Z ⇒ A)] ⇒ (U ∨ Z)

Y∨ A

Answer :

2

Problem 5

Prove this argument by natural derivation

1. A ⇒ (B ∧ C)

2. (B ∨ D) ⇒ E

3. D ∨ A

E

Answer :

Problem 6

Prove this argument by resolution

¬

1. U ⇒ W

¬

2. W

3. U ⇒ X∨ Y

¬

4. X ⇒ Z

5. A ⇒ Z

6. A

Y

Answer :

3

Problem 7

Construct a formal proof of validity for the following argument, using the abbreviations

suggested.

If Tom received the message, then Tom took the plane, but if Tom did not take the

plane, then Tom missed the meeting. If Tom missed the meeting, then Dave was

elected to the board, but if Dave was elected to the board, then Tom received the

message. If either Tom did not miss the meeting or Tom did not receive the

message, then either Tom did not take the plane or Dave was elected to the board.

Tom did not miss the meeting. Therefore, either Tom did not receive the message

or Tom did not miss the meeting.

(R : Tom received the message. P : Tom took the plane. M : Tom missed the

meeting. D : Dave was elected to the board )

Answer :

Problem 9

Give a formal derivation to prove the following sentences.Use the suggested notation.

If there are any geniuses, then all great composers are geniuses. If anyone is

temperamental, all geniuses are temperamental. Therefore, if anyone is a

temperamental genius, then all great composers are temperamental.

( G(x) : x is a genius. C(x) : x is a great composer; P(x) : x is a person.

T(x) : x is temperamental.)

Answer :

4

Problem 10

Prove the following by derivation

∀x [I(x) ⇒ P(x) ∧ (M(x) ∧ S(x))]

∃X (I(x) ∧J(x))

∃X (J(x) ∧ M(x))

Answer :

Problem 11

Give a formal derivation to prove the following sentences.Use the suggested notation.

The universe of discourse is animals.

All birds have wings and feathers. Therefore, all birds have feathers.

( B(x) : x is a bird. W(x) : x has wing; F(x) : x has feather)

Answer :

5

Good Luck

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