This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF
THEORY AND PROBLEMS
OF
ELECTROMAGNETICS
Second Edition
JOSEPHAED~STER
Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engirurering The University of Akron
SCHAUM'S OUTLINE SERIES McGRAW·HILL
New York San Francisco Waahington. D.C. Auckland Bogota Carocaa Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New DeIJ.i
San Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto
McGrawHill
~
A Division o/The McGraw·Hill Companies
JOSEPH A. EDMINISTER is currently Director of Corporate Relations for the College of Engineering at Cornell University. In 1984 he held an IEEE Congressional Fellowship in the office of Congressman Dennis E. Eckart (DOH). He received BEE. MSE and JD degrees from the University of Akron. He served as professor of electrical engineering. acting department head of electrical engineering. assistant dean and acting dean of engineering, all at the University of Akron. He is an attorney in the state of Ohio and a registered patent attorney. He taught electric circuit analysis and electromagnetic theory throughout his academic career. He is a Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering from The University of Akron.
Appendix B is jointly copyrighted © 1995 by McGraw·Hill. Inc. and MathSoft, Inc.
Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of ELECfROMAGNETICS
Copyright © 1993, 1979 by The McGrawHili Companies, Inc. An ri,bts reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no put of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any fonn or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior wrinen pennission of the publisher.
5678910 II 12 13 14 15 1617 18 1920 PRS PRS 9 8
IS 8 N 0  07  02123 4  1 (Formerly published under ISBN 0070189935.)
Sponsoring Editor: David Beckwith Production Supervisor: AI Rihner Editing Supervisor: Patty Andrews Front Matter Editor: Maureen Walker
Libnry of Conpess CaUlogiaJmhblialtion n ....
Edminister, Joseph.
Schaum's outline of theory and problems of electromagnetics I by Joseph A. Edminister.2nd ed.
p. cm.{Schaum·s outline series)
Includes index.
ISBN 0070189935
I. Electromagnetism. 1. Title. II. Title: Theory and problems of electromagnetics. III. Series.
0C760.E35 1993
S37'.02'02dc20 9143302
CIP
JOSEPH A. EOMINISTER
Preface
The second edition of Schaum's Outline of Electromagnetics offers three new chaptersin transmission lines, waveguides, and antennas. These have been included to make the book a more powerful tool for students and practitioners of electromagnetic field theory. I take pleasure here in thanking my colleagues
M. L. Kult and K. F. Lee for their contribution of this valuable material.
The basic approach of the first edition has been retained: "As in other Schaum's Outlines the emphasis is on how to solve problems. Each chapter consists of an ample set of problems with detailed solutions, and a further set of problems with answers, preceded by a simplified outline of the principles and facts needed to understand the problems and their solutions. Throughout the book the mathematics has been kept as simple as possible, and an abstract approach has been avoided. Concrete examples are liberally used and numerous graphs and sketches are given. I have found in many years of teaching that the solution of most problems begins with a carefully drawn sketch."
Once again it is to my students=my former studentsethat I wish to dedicate this book.
iii
Chapter 1
VECTOR ANALYSIS ......................•...........•.............••.......•.....•..
1
Contents
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Vector Notation 1.3 Vector Algebra 1.4 Coordinate Systems 1.5 Differential Volume, Surface, and Line Elements
Chapter 2 COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRlC HELD INTENSITY •••••••••••• 13 2.1 Coulomb's Law 2.2 Electric Field Intensity 2.3 Charge Distributions
2.4 Standard Charge Configurations
Chapter 3 ELECfRlC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW 32
3.1 Net Charge in a Region 3.2 Electric flux and flux Density 3.3 Gauss'
Law 3.4 Relation Between flux Density and Electric Field Intensity
3.5 Special Gaussian Surfaces
Oiapter 4 DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM ••••••••••••••••••• 47 4.1 Divergence 4.2 Divergence in Cartesian Coordinates 4.3 Divergence of D
4.4 The Del Operator 4.5 The Divergence Theorem
Chapter 5 THE ELECTROSTATIC HELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND
POTENTl.AL ••.•.•....•••..•.•..•••.•..•••..••...•••..•••.....•••...••. ••••.••....•..••••. 59
5.1 Work Done in Moving a Point Charge 5.2 Conservative Property of the Electrostatic Field 5.3 Electric Potential Between Two Points 5.4 Potential of a Point Charge 5.5 Potential of a Charge Distribution 5.6 Gradient 5.7 Relationship Between E and V 5.8 Energy in Static Electric Fields
Chapter 6 CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS ••••••••••••••• 76 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Charges in Motion 6.3 Convention Current Density J
6.4 Conduction Current Density J 6.5 Conductivity 0 6.6 Current I
6.7 Resistance R 6.8 Current Sheet Density K 6.9 Continuity of Current
6.10 ConductorDielectric Boundary Conditions
Chapter 7 CAPACITANCE AND DIELECTRIC MATERIALS 95
7.1 Polarization P and Relative Permittivity £, 7.2 Capacitance 7.3 MultipleDielectric Capacitors 7.4 Energy Stored in a Capacitor 7.5 FixedVoltage D
and E 7.6 FixedCharge D and E 7.7 Boundary Conditions at the Interface of
Two Dielectrics
Chapter B LAPLACE'S EQUATION •••..••...••..•..••...••.••••••..•.••..•....••........•..... 114
8.1 Introduction 8.2 Poisson's Equation and Laplace's Equation 8.3 Explicit Forms of Laplace's Equation 8.4 Uniqueness Theorem 8.5 Mean Value and Maximum Value Theorems 8.6 Cartesian Solution in One Variable 8.7 Cartesian Product Solution 8.8 Cylindrical Product Solution 8.9 Spherical Product Solution
v
Cb8pter 11
INDUCTANCE AND MAGNETIC CIRCUI1'S 169
11.1 Inductance 11.2 Standard Conductor Configurations 11.3 Faraday's Law
and SelfInductance 11.4 IntemalInductance 11.5 MutualInductance 11.6 Mag
netic Circuits 11.7 The BH Curve 11.8 Ampere's Law for Magnetic Circuits
11.9 CoreswithAirGaps 11.10 MultipleCoils 11.11 Parallel Magnetic Circuits
vi CONTENTS
Cb8pter 9 AMPERE'S LAW AND THE MAGNETIC nELD 135
9.1 Introduction 9.2 BiotSavart Law 9.3 Ampere's Law 9.4 Curl 9.5 Relationship of J and H 9.6 Magnetic Flux Density B 9.7 Vector Magnetic Poten
tial A 9.8 Stokes'Theorem
Cb8pter 10 FORCES AND TORQUES IN MAGNETIC nELDS 154
10.1 Magnetic Force on Particles 10.2 Electric and Magnetic Fields Com
bined 10.3 Magnetic Force on a Current Element 10.4 Work and Power
10.5 Torque 10.6 Magnetic Moment of a Planar Coil
Chapter 12 DISPLACEMENT CURRENT AND INDUCED EMF 192
12.1 Displacement Current 12.2 Ratio of Ie to ID 12.3 Faraday's Law and Lenz's Law 12.4 Conductors in Motion Through TimeIndependent Fields
12.5 Conductors in Motion Through TimeDependent Fields
Chapter 13 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND BOUNDARY CONDmONS ••••••• lOS 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Boundary Relations for Magnetic Fields 13.3 Current
Sheet at the Boundary 13.4 Summary of Boundary Conditions 13.5 Maxwell's Equations
Chapter 14 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 216
14.1 Introduction 14.2 Wave Equations 14.3 Solutions in Cartesian Coord
inates 14.4 Solutions for Partially Conducting Media 14.5 Solutions for Perfect Dielectrics 14.6 Solutions for Good Conductors; Skin Depth 14.7 Interface Conditions at Normal Incidence 14.8 Oblique Incidence and Snell's Laws
14.9 Perpendicular Polarization 14.10 Parallel Polarization 14.11 Standing Waves
14.12 Power and the Poynting Vector
Chapter 15 TRANSMISSION LINES •• ••• •••••••• ••••• ••• ••• •••••••• •••••• ••••••••••• ••••••• '1:37
15.1 Introduction 15.2 Distributed Parameters 15.3 Incremental Model; Voltages and Currents 15.4 Sinusoidal SteadyState Excitation 15.5 The Smith Chart 15.6 Impedance Matching 15.7 SingleStub Matching 15.8 DoubleStub Matching 15.9 Impedance Measurement 15.10 Transients in Lossless Lines
Chapter 16 WA VEGUIDES •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 274
16.1 Introduction 16.2 Transverse and Axial Fields 16.3 TE and TM Modes; Wave Impedances 16.4 Determination of the Axial Fields 16.5 Mode Cutoff Frequencies 16.6 Dominant Mode 16.7 Power Transmitted in a Lossless Waveguide 16.8 Power Dissipation in a Lossy Waveguide
CONTENTS
Chapter 17
ANTENNAS . ..........•...... 193
17.1 Introduction 17.2 Current Source and the E and H Fields 17.3 Electric (Hertzian) Dipole Antenna 17.4 Antenna Parameters 17.5 Small CircularLoop Antenna 17.6 FiniteLength Dipole 17.7 Monopole Antenna 17.8 Selfand Mutual Impedances 17.9 The Receiving Antenna 17.10 Linear Arrays 17.11 Reflectors
Appendix A .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... 315
AppendixB
INDEX
vii
317
333
Chapter 1
Vector Analysis
1.1 INI'RODUcnON
Vectors are introduced in physics and mathematics courses, primarily in the cartesian coordinate system. Although cylindrical coordinates may be found in calculus texts, the spherical coordinate system is seldom presented. All three coordinate systems must be used in electromagnetics. As the notation, both for the vectors and the coordinate systems, differs from one text to another, a thorough understanding of the notation employed herein is essential for setting up the problems and obtaining solutions.
1.1 VEcrOR NOTATION
In order to distinguish vectors (quantities having magnitude and direction) from scalars (quantities having magnitude only) the vectors are denoted by boldface symbols. A unit vector, one of absolute value (or magnitude or length) 1, will in this book always be indicated by a boldface, lowercase a. The unit vector in the direction of a vector A is determined by dividing A by its absolute value:
or
A A
By use of the unit vectors .... , .Y' .z along the x, y, and z axes of a cartesian coordinate system, an arbitrary vector can be written in component form:
A = A ....... + Ay•y + Azaz
In terms of components, the absolute value of a vector is defined by IAI =A = v'A;+A;+A~
1.3 VEcrOR ALGEBRA
1. Vectors may be added and subtracted.
A ± B = (A + Ay•y + Az•z) ± (B ....... + By•y + Bz•z)
= (A ± B ... ) .... + (Ay ± By).y + (Az• Bz).z
2. The associative, distributive, and commutative laws apply.
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
k(A +B) = kA+ kB (k1 + k2)A = k1A+k2A
A+B=B+A
3. The dot product of two vectors is, by definition,
A· B=ABcos8
(read "A dot B")
where 8 is the smaller angle between A and B. In Example 1 it is shown that AoB=A ... B ... + AyBy + AzBz
which gives, in particular, IAI = VA 0 A.
1
2
VECTOR ANALYSIS
[CHAP. 1
EXAMPLE 1. The dot product obeys the distributive and scalar multiplication laws
A· (B+C) = A· B +A·C
A· kB = k(A • B)
This being the case,
A· B = (Ax.x + Ayay + Azaz)' (Bxax + Byay + B.a.) = AxBx(ax· ax) + AyBy(a,.· ay) + AzB.(a.· a.) + Ax By(ax • ay) + ... + AzBy(a.· ay}
However, ax • ax = a,. • a,. = az • a. = 1 because the cos (J in the dot product is unity when the angle is zero. And when (J = 90", cos (J is zero; hence all other dot products of the unit vectors are zero. Thus
A· B =A"Bx + AyBy +A.B.
4. The cross product of two vectors is, by definition,
A X D = (AB sin 8).n
(read "A cross B")
where 8 is the smaller angle between A and D, and .n is a unit vector normal to the plane determined by A and D when they are drawn from a common point. There are two normals to the plane, so further specification is needed. The normal selected is the one in the direction of advance of a righthand screw when A is turned toward D (Fig. 11). Because of this direction requirement, the commutative law does not apply to the cross product; instead,
AXD=DxA
Fig. 11
Expanding the cross product in component form,
A X D = (A ....... + Ay•y + Az•z) X (B ....... + By•y + Bz•z)
= (AyBz  AzBy) ... + (AzB ...  A x Bz).y + (A ... By  AyB x ).z which is conveniently expressed as a determinant:
...
AXD= A x
CHAP. 1]
VECfOR ANALYSIS
EXAMPLE 2. Given A = lax + 4ay  3a, and B = ax  a,., find A· B and A X B.
A· B = (2)(1) + (4)( 1) + (3)(0) = 2
ax .y az
AxB= 2 4 3 = 3ax 3ay 6az 1 1 0
1.4 COORDINATE SYSTEMS
A problem which has cylindrical or spherical symmetry could be expressed and solved in the familiar cartesian coordinate system. However, the solution would fail to show the symmetry and in most cases would be needlessly complex. Therefore, throughout this book, in addition to the cartesian coordinate system, the circular cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems will be used. All three will be examined together in order to illustrate the similarities and the differences.
A point P is described by three coordinates, in cartesian (x, y, z), in circular cylindrical (r, q" z), and in spherical (r, 0, q,), as shown in Fig. 12. The order of specifying the coordinates is important and should be carefully followed. The angle q, is the same angle in both the cylindrical and spherical systems. But, in the order of the coordinates, q, appears in the second position in cylindrical, (r, q" z), and the third position in spherical, (r, 0, q,). The same symbol, r, is used in both cylindrical and spherical for two quite different things. In cylindrical coordinates r measures the distance from the z axis in a plane normal to the z axis, while in the spherical system r measures the distance from the origin to the point. It should be clear from the context of the problem which r is intended.
z
z
z
~ P(x,y,z)
I
I z
~ Ptr,», z)
I
Iz
x
x
x
(0) Cartesian
(c) Spherical
(b) Cylindrical
FIg. 11
A point is also defined by the intersection of three orthogonal surfaces, as shown in Fig. 13. In cartesian coordinates the surfaces are the infinite planes x = const., y = const., and z = const. In cylindrical coordinates, z = const. is the same infinite plane as in cartesian; q, = const. is a half plane with its edge along the z axis; r = const. is a right circular cylinder. These three surfaces are orthogonal and their intersection locates point P. In spherical coordinates, q, = const. is the same half plane as in cylindrical; r = const. is a sphere with its center at the origin; 0 = const. is a right circular cone whose axis is the z axis and whose vertex is at the origin. Note that 0 is limited to the range O:s 0 :S st.
Figure 14 shows the three unit vectors at point P. In the cartesian system the unit vectors have fixed directions, independent of the location of P. This is not true for the other two systems (except in the case of az). Each unit vector is normal to its coordinate surface and is in the direction in which the coordinate increases. Notice that all these systems are righthanded:
a,Xae=a9>
3
4
z
z = const.
x
(0) Cartesian
VECTOR ANALYSIS
z
r= const.
x
(b) Cylindrical
Fig. 13
The component forms of a vector in the three systems are
A = Axax + Ayay + Azaz A = A,a, + A.,.a.,. + Azaz A = A,a, + Aeae + A."a.,.
(cartesian) (cylindrical) (spherical)
[CHAP. 1
z
() = const.
x
It should be noted that the components Ax, A" A.", etc., are not generally constants but more often are functions of the coordinates in that particular system.
z
x
(0) Cartesian
z
x
(b) Cylindrical
Fig. 14
I~y
~ = const.
(c) Spherical
z
y
1.5 DIFFERENTIAL VOLUME, SURFACE, AND LINE ELEMENTS
There are relatively few problems in electromagnetics that can be solved without some sort of integrationalong a curve, over a surface, or throughout a volume. Hence the corresponding differential elements must be clearly understood.
When the coordinates of point P are expanded to (x + dx, y + dy, Z + dz) or (r + dr, q, + dq" z + dz) or (r + dr, 0 + dO, q, + dq,), a differential volume dv is formed. To the first order in infinitesimal quantities the differential volume is. in all three coordinate systems, a rectangular box. The value of dv in each system is given in Fig. 15.
(c) Spherical
CHAP. I}
VECTOR ANALYSIS
z
z
z
x
du=dx dy dz
dv = r2 sin 8 drd8 dIP
dv = rdrdIPdz
(a) Cartesian
(b) Cylindrical Fig. 15
From Fig. 15 may also be read the areas of the surface elements that bound the differential volume. For instance. in spherical coordinates. the differential suiface element perpendicular to a,
(c) Spherical
is
dS = (r dO)(r sin 0 d<J» = r2 sin 0 dO d<J>
The differential line element. dt is the diagonal through P. Thus
dt2 = dx2 + dy? + dz2 (cartesian)
dt2 = dr2 + r2 d<J>2 + dz2 (cylindrical)
dt2 = dr2 + r2 d02 + r2 sin2 0 dq,z (spherical)
Solved Problems
1.1. Show that the vector directed from M(x .. Y .. ZI) to N(x2, Y2, Z2) in Fig. 16 is given by (X2  x I)a.o: + (Y2  YI)ay + (Z2  zl)az
Fig. 16
The coordinates of M and N are used to write the two position vectors A and B in Fig. 16.
Then
A =X •• " + Y'.y + Zl.z B=X2." + Y~y + Z~.
B  A = (X2  Xl)." + (Y2  Yl).y + (Z2  Zl) ••
5
6
VECTOR ANALYSIS
[CHAP. 1
1.2. Find the vector A directed from (2, 4, 1) to (0, 2,0) in 'cartesian coordinates and find the
".., unit vector along A.
• A=(O 2)_. + [2 (4)]a,. + (01)_. = 28. + 2a,. a.
IAI2 = (_2)2 + (2)2 + ( 1)2 = 9
A 2 2 1
A = IAI =  3 . + 3 a,.  3'
1.3.
Find the distance between (5, 3rr/2, 0) and (5, rr/2, 10) in cylindrical coordinates.
First, obtain the cartesian position vectors A and B (see Fig. 17).
A = Sa,.
B=S_,. + lOa.
z
(5,7C/2.10)
Fig. 17
Then B  A = lOlly + lOa. and the required distance between the points is IBAI=10V2
The cylindrical coordinates of the points cannot be used to obtain a vector between the points in the same manner as was employed in Problem 1.1 in cartesian coordinates.
1.4. Show that A = 4 ....  Zay  Hz and B = a ... + 41ly  4Hz are perpendicular.
Since the dot product contains cos 8, a dot product of zero from any two nonzero vectors implies that 8 = 90".
A· B=(4)(1) + (2)(4) + (1)(4) =0
1.5. Given A = Za ... + 4.y and B = 6ay  4.z, find the smaller angle between them using (a) i!:a. the cross product, (b) the dot product .
.til!! . ,. .
(a) AXB= 2 4 0 =168.+88,.+128.
o 6 4
IAI = V(2)2 + (4)2 + (0)2 = 4.47 IBI = V(0)2 + (6f + (_4)2 = 7.21
IA X BI = V( 16)2 + (8)2 + (12)2 = 21.54 Then, since IA X BI = IAIIBI sin 8,
. 21.54
SID 8 = (4.47)(7.21) 0.668
or
8 =41.9"
CHAP. 1]
VECTOR ANALYSIS
(b)
A • B = (2)(0) + (4)(6) + (0)( 4) = 24
(J= A·B 24 =0.745
cos IAIIBI (4.47)(7.21)
or
1.6. Given F = (y  l)ax + 2xa,., find the vector at (2,2, 1) and its projection on B, I:. where B = 5ax  ay + 2Hz•
F(2, 2, 1) = (2  l)ax + (2)(2)a" =ax + 48,.
As indicated in Fig. 18, the projection of one vector on a second vector is obtained by expressing the unit vector in the direction of the second vector and taking the dot product.
A·B Proj. A on B = A· aB =181
A/l
~ L __
aB B
'y'
Proj. Aon B
Fig. 18
Thus, at (2,2, 1),
Proj. F on B = F· B = (1)(5) + (4)(1) + (0)(2) 1
IBI v'3O v30
L7. Given A = ax + ay• B = ax + 2Hz, and C = 2Hy + a,; find (A x B) x C and compare it with A x (B x C).
ax ay a.
AXB= 1 10 =2ax2a,.a. 1 0 2
Then
ax ay a.
(AXB)XC= 2 2 1 =2a,.+4a.
o 2 1
A similar calculation gives A X (B X C) = 2ax  2a,. + 3a.. Thus the parentheses that indicate which cross product is to be taken first are essential in the vector triple product.
1.8. Using the vectors A, B, and C of Problem 1.7, find A. B x C and compare it with A x B·C.
From Problem 1.7, B X C = 4ax  a,. + 2a.. Then
A· B X C = (1)( 4) + (1)( 1) + (0)(2) = 5 Also from Problem 1.7, A X B = 2ax  2ay  a.. Then
AX B· C = (2)(0)+ (2)(2) + (1)(1) =5
Parentheses are not needed in the scalar triple product since it has meaning only when the cross product is taken first. In general, it can be shown that
Ax A,. A.
A·BXC= e, By B. c, C,. C.
7
8
vscroa ANALYSIS
[CHAP. 1
As long as the vectors appear in the same cyclic order the result is the same. The scalar triple products not in this cyclic order have a change in sign.
1.9. Express the unit vector which points from z = h on the z axis toward (r, t/I, 0) in cylindrical coordinates. See Fig. 19.
z
h
x
Fig. 19
The vector R is the difference of two vectors:
R=,a,haz
R ,a,ha.
a _
R IRI  v',2 + h2
The angle tP does not appear explicitly in these expressions. Nevertheless, both Rand aR vary with tP through a,.
1.10. Express the unit vector which is directed toward the origin from an arbitrary point on the plane z = 5, as shown in Fig. 110.
z
x
(x,y, 5
Fla. 110
Since the problem is in cartesian coordinates, the twopoint formula of Problem 1.1 applies.
R= xaz  Ylly + Sa. xaz  ylly + Sa. aR = _:=;;:==:;;::::::;:::""" v'x2+ y2+25
1.11. Use the spherical coordinate system to find the area of the strip a :s (J :s fJ on the spherical .... , shell of radius a (Fig. 111). What results when a = 0 and fJ = n?
• The differential surface element is [see Fig. 15(c)]
dS = ,2 sin e de dtP
CHAP. I]
VECfOR ANALYSIS
z
Fig. 111
A = f" f a2sin Od8dtIJ = 2.1ra2(cos a  cos fJ)
When a = 0 and fJ = st, A = 4.1ra2, the surface area of the entire sphere.
Then
1.12. Obtain the expression for the volume of a sphere of radius a from the differential volume.
From Fig. 15(c), dv = ,2 sin 8 dr dO dtIJ. Then
Iz"I"IU 4
v = ,2 sin Odrd8dtIJ =lra3
o 0 0 3
1.13. Use the cylindrical coordinate system to find the area of the curved surface of a right circular a. cylinder where r = 2 m, h = 5 m, and 30° :s; cp :s; 1200 (see Fig. 112).
r!I!!
Fig.lU
The differential surface element is dS = r dtIJ dz, Then
Is 12"/3
A = 2 d</> dz
o n/6
=5nm2
1.14. Transform
from cartesian to cylindrical coordinates.
9
10
VECfOR ANALYSIS
[CHAP. 1
Referring to Fig. 12(b), x=rcos4>
y=rsin4>
r= v'x2+ y2
Hence
A = r sin 4>ax + r cos 4>fIy + r cosl 4>a~
Now the projections of the cartesian unit vectors on a" .. , and a~ are obtained:
ax' a, = cos 4> fly • a, = sin 4>
ax'" = sin 4> fly'" = cos 4> a~ ·a.=O
ax = cos 4>a,  sin 4> .. fly = sin 4>a, + cos 4>a.
fly' a~ = 0 a~'a~=l
ax'a~=O
a~'a,=O
Therefore
a~=a~
and
A = 2r sin 4> cos 4>a, + (r cosl 4>  r sinl 4> >a. + , cosl 4>a~
1.1.5. A vector of magnitude 10 points from (5, 5rr/4, 0) in cylindrical coordinates toward the origin • (Fig. 113). Express the vector in carte~an coordinates.
y
Fla. 113
In cylindrical coordinates, the vector may be expressed as lOa" where 4> = ;r/4. Hence
If 10 A =lOcos=
x 4 V2
.;r 10 A =10slO=
,. 4 V2
A~=O
so that
10 10
A=a +fIy
V2"V2
Notice that the value of the radial coordinate, 5, is immaterial.
Supplementary Problems
1.16. Given A = 4fIy + 10a~ and B = 2a" + 3ay, find the projection of A on B.
AM. 12/vTI
1.17. Given A = (lO/V2)(ax + a~) and B = 3(fIy + a~), express the projection of B on A as a vector in
the direction of A. AM. 1.5O(ax + a~)
1.18. Find the angle between A = lOa,. + 2a~ and B = 4fIy + 0.5a~ using both the dot product and the
cross product. AM. 161S
I.U. Find the angle between A = 5.88,. + 1.55a~ and B = 6.93a,. + 4.0a~ using both the dot product
and the cross product. AM. 135°
CHAP. 1]
VECfOR ANALYSIS
1.20. Given the plane 4x + 3y + 2z = 12, find the unit vector normal to the surface in the direction away
from the origin. Ans. (4a .. + 3&,. + 18.)/V29
I.ll. Find the relationship which the cartesian components of A and B must satisfy if the vector fields are everywhere parallel.
A. Ay A.
Ans. ==B.. By B.
1.12. Express the unit vector directed toward the origin from an arbitrary point on the line described by x=O, y=3.
Ans.
3a za
a= ,. •
V9+z2
1.l3. Express the unit vector directed toward the point (x .. Yl, Zl) from an arbitrary point in the plane y = 5.
a = ~(X:..;l::;:::x:::)=a=. ;:+=(=:Y=l +=5=:)a~,,;::+~(Z=1 ==z~):;;a.
V(x1xf+(Yl +5f+(Zlzf
Ans.
1.24. Express the unit vector directed toward the point (0,0, h) from an arbitrary point in the plane z = 2. a = __x;::a .. :;:=y=&,.:;{=+=(:::h=+=2:::;),=a.
Vx2+ y2 + (h + 2)2
Ans.
1.25. Given A = 5a.. and B = 4a .. + Byay, find By such that the angle between A and B is 45°. If B also
has a term B.a .. what relationship must exist between By and B.? Ans. By = ±4, VB; + B! = 4
1.16. Show that the absolute value of A' B X C is the volume of the parallelepiped with edges A, B, and C. (Hint: First show that the base has area IB XCI.)
1.27. Given A = 18 ..  a.. B = 3a .. + ay, and C = 18 .. + 6a"  4a., show that C is 1. to both A and B.
1.28. Given A = a ..  ay, B = 18., and C = a .. + 3&,., find A· B X C. Examine other variations of
this scalar triple product. Ans. 4, ±4
1.19. Using the vectors of Problem 1.28 find (A X B) X C.
Ans. Sa.
1.30. Find the unit vector directed from (2, 5, 2) toward (14, 5,3).
12 5
Ans. a = 13 ax + 13 a.
1.31. Find the vector directed from (1O,3;r/4, :rc/6) to (5, :rc/4, rr}, where the endpoints are given in spherical
coordinates. Ans. 9.66a ..  3.54.y + 10.61 ••
1.32. Find the distance between (2, :rc/6, 0) and (1,:rr, 2), where the points are given in cylindrical
coordinates. Ans. 3.53
1.33. Find the distance between (1, :rr/4, 0) and (1, 3;r/4, :rc), where the points are given in spherical
coordinates. Ans. 2.0
1.34. Use spherical coordinates and integrate to find the area of the region 0 :s tP :S a on the spherical shell
of radius Q. What is the result when a = 2:rr? Ans. 2002, A = 4;ra2
1.35. Use cylindrical coordinates to find the area of the curved surface of a right circular cylinder of radius Q
and height h. Ans. 2:rrah
11
12
VEcrOR ANALYSIS
[CHAP. 1
1.36. Use cylindrical coordinates and integrate to obtain the volume of the right circular cylinder of Problem
1.35. Ans. Jw2h
1.37. Use spherical coordinates to write the differential surface areas dSI and d~ and then integrate to obtain
the areas of the surfaces marked 1 and 2 in Fig. 114. Ans. n/4, n/6
z
x
y
Fig. 114
1.38. Use spherical coordinates to find the volume of a hemispherical shell of inner radius 2.00 m and outer
radius 2.02 m. Ans. O.162n m"
1.39. Using spherical coordinates to express the differential volume, integrate to obtain the volume defined
O Tn. 3
by 1::Sr::s2m, O::se::Sn/2, and ::S(j>::sn/2. Ans.6m
Chapter 2
Coulomb Forces and Electric Field Intensity
2.1 COULOMB'S LAW
There is a force between two charges which is directly proportional to the charge magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the separation distance. This is Coulomb's law, which was developed from work with small charged bodies and a delicate torsion balance. In vector form, it is stated thus,
F= Q1Q28
4Jl£d2
Rationalized SI units will be used throughout this book. The force is in newtons (N), the distance is in meters (m), and the (derived) unit of charge is the coulomb (C). The system is rationalized by the factor 4Jl, introduced in Coulomb's law in order that it not appear later in Maxwell's equations. e is the permittivity of the medium, with the units C2/N· m2 or, equivalently, farads per meter (F/m). For free space or vacuum,
109
e = £0 = 8.854 X 1012 F/m = F/m 36Jl
For media other than free space, e = £O£r , where e, is the relative permittivity or dielectric constant. Free space is to be assumed in all problems and examples, as well as the approximate value for £0, unless there is a statement to the contrary.
For point charges of like sign the Coulomb force is one of repulsion, while for unlike charges the
force is attractive. To incorporate this information rewrite Coulomb's law as follows:
F  QJQ2  QJQ2 R
1  2 821  3 21
4Jl£oR21 4Jl£oR21
where FI is the force on charge QI due to a second charge Q2, 821 is the unit vector directed from Q2 to QI ,and R21 = R21821 is the displacement vector from Q2 to QI .
EXAMPLE 1. Find the force on charge Q •• 20 ",C, due to charge Q2. 300 ",C, where Q. is at (0, 1,2) m and Q2 at (2, 0, 0) m.
Because 1 C is a rather large unit, charges are often given in microcoulombs (",C), nanocoulombs (nC), or picocoulombs (pC). (See Appendix for the SI prefix system.) Referring to Fig. 21,
R21 = 2a .. + ay + 2a R21 = '11(2)2+ 12 + 22= 3
z
x
Fla. 21 13
14
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
and
1
ttz. = 3 (2a .. +a, +2az)
F = (20 x 106)(300 x 106) ( 2a .. + ay + 2az)
• 4n(109/36Jr)(3)Z 3
= 6(2a ..  j  2az) N
1Mn
1M force magnitude is 6 N and the direction is such that Q. is attracted to Qz (unlike charges attract).
This force relationship is bilinear in the charges. Consequently, superposition applies, and the force on a charge Q. due to n  1 other charges Q2 , Q3' ... , Q" is the vector sum of the individual forces:
QIQ2 QIQ3 QI ~ Q"
FI = 2 ~l + 2 a31 + ... =  £J 2 akl
4.1r£oR21 4n£oR31 4n£0 k2 R"l
This superposition extends in a natural way to the case where charge is continuously distributed through some spatial region: one simply replaces the above vector sum by a vector integral (see Section 2.3).
The force field in the region of an isolated charge Q is spherically symmetric. This is made evident by locating Q at the origin of a spherical coordinate system, so that the position vector R, from Q to a small test charge Q,« Q, is simply ra,.. Then
F'=4Q,Q 2a, n£or
showing that on the spherical surface r = constant, IF,I is constant, and F, is radial.
2.2 ELEcrRIC FIELD INTENSITY
Suppose that the aboveconsidered test charge Q, is sufficiently small so as not to disturb significantly the field of the fixed point charge Q. Then the electric field intensity, E, due to Q is defined to be the force per unit charge on Q,: E = F,IQ, .
For Q at the origin of a spherical coordinate system [see Fig. 22(a)], the electric field intensity at an arbitrary point P is, from Section 2.1,
/E
p(r, 6,,,,)
(a) Spherical
(b) Cartesian
CHAP.2J
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
In an arbitrary cartesian coordinate system [see Fig. 22(b)],
Q
E= aR
41rEoR2
The units of E are newtons per coulomb (N/C) or the equivalent, volts per meter (V/m).
EXAMPLE 2. Find E at (0,3,4) m in cartesian coordinates due to a point charge Q = O.S J.lC at the origin.
In this case
R=3sy+4sz R=S sR=0.6ay+0.8sz
O.S x 10"
E = 41l(109/36n)(S)2 (O.6ay + 0.8sz) Thus lEI = 180 Vim in the direction SR = 0.6s. + 0.8 Sz.
2.3 CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS
Volume Charge
When charge is distributed throughout a specified volume, each charge element contributes to the electric field at an external point. A summation or integration is then required to obtain the total electric field. Even though electric charge in its smallest division is found to be an electron or proton, it is useful to consider continuous (in fact, differentiable) charge distributions and to define a charge density by
dQ
p=dv
Note the units in parentheses, which is meant to signify that p will be in C/m3 provided that the variables are expressed in proper SI units (C for Q and rrr' for v). This convention will be used throughout this book.
With reference to volume v in Fig. 23, each differential charge dQ produces a differential electric field
P IdE
•
Fig. 23
at the observation point P. Assuming that the only charge in the region is contained within the volume, the total electric field at P is obtained by integration over the volume:
E=I paR dv v 41rEoR2
15
16
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
Sheet Charge
Charge may also be distributed over a surface or a sheet. Then each differential charge dQ on the sheet results in a differential electric field
dQ
dE = 2aR
4.TCEoR
at point P (see Fig. 24). If the surface charge density is p, (C/m2) and if no other charge is present in the region, then the total electric field at P is
E= f psaR dS Js4.TCEoR2
P/dE
•
s
Fig. 24
Line Charge
If charge is distributed over a (curved) line, each differential charge dQ along the line produces a differential electric field
at P (see Fig. 25). And if the line charge density is Pt (C/m), and no other charge is in the region, then the total electric field at P is
Fig. 25
It should be emphasized that in all three of the above charge distributions and corresponding integrals for E, the unit vector aR is variable, depending on the coordinates of the charge element dQ. Thus aR cannot be removed from the integrand. It should also be noticed that whenever the appropriate integral converges, it defines E at an internal point of the charge distribution.
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
17
2.4 STANDARD CHARGE CONFIGURATIONS
In three special cases the integration discussed in Section 2.3 is either unnecessary or easily carried out. In regard to these standard configurations (and to others which will be covered in this chapter) it should be noted that the charge is not "on a conductor." When a problem states that charge is distributed in the form of a disk, for example, it does not mean a diskshaped conductor with charge on the surface. (In Chapter 6, conductors with surface charge will be examined.) Although it may now require a stretch of the imagination, these charges should be thought of as somehow suspended in space, fixed in the specified configuration.
Point Charge
As previously determined, the field of a single point charge Q is given by
E = ____g__ a (spherical coordinates)
4.1E'Eor2 r
See Fig. 22(a). This is a spherically symmetric field that follows an inversesquare law (like gravitation).
Infinite Line Cbarge
If charge is distributed with uniform density p~ (C/m) along an infinite, straight linewhich will be chosen as the z axisthen the field is given by
E=~a 2.1E'Eor r
(cylindrical coordinates)
See Fig. 26. This field has cylindrical symmetry and is inversely proportional to the first power of the distance from the line charge. For a derivation of E, see Problem 2.9.
y
00
FIg. 26
EXAMPLE 3. A uniform line charge, infinite in extent, with p, = 20 nClm, lies along the z axis. Find E at (6,8,3)m.
In cylindrical coordinates r = "';62 + 82 = 10 m. The field is constant with z, Thus
20x 109
E = 2Jr(10 9/36n)(10) a, = 368, V 1m
18
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
Infinite Plane CllarJe
If charge is distributed with uniform density p, (C/m2) over an infinite plane. then the field is given by
E='&. 2Eo n
See Fig. 27. This field is of constant magnitude and has mirror symmetry about the plane charge. For a derivation of this expression, see Problem 2.12.
f'ia.l7
EXAMPLE 4. Charge (1/3.71") nC/m2• Find E.
is distributed uniformly over the plane z = 10 em with a density p. =
P. (1/3.71")109
lEI = 2£0 = 2(10 9/36.71") 6 V 1m
Above the sheet (z > 10 em), E = 68. V 1m; and for z < 10 em, E = 68. VIm.
Solved Problems
1.1. Two point charges, Q}=50IlC and Q2=101lC, are located at (I,I,3)m and .1111 (3, 1,0) m, respectively (Fig. 28). Find the force on Ql.
R21 = 48.  3a. 48 3a
all = :K Z
5
QIQ2
FI =4 R2821 .71"£0 21
= (SO x 106)(105) (4 ...  38.)
411"(10 "/36.71")(5)2 5
= (0.18)( 0. Sa.  0.68.) N
z
QI (1,1, 3) FIg.l8
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
The force has a magnitude of 0.18 N and a direction given by the unit vector 0.88"  0.6a.. In component form,
2.2.
Refer to Fig. 29. Find the force on a 100 ",C charge at (0,0,3) m if four like charges of 20 #lC are located on the x and y axes at ±4 m.
z
FIg. 29
Consider the force due to the charge at y = 4,
(104)(20 x 106) (<by + 3 •• )
4n(10!l/36n)(5)2 5
The y component will be canceled by the charge at y = 4. Similarly, the x components due to the other two charges will cancel. Hence
F=4(~)a •• ) = 1.73 •• N
1.3. Refer to Fig. 210. Point charge Q. = 300 #lC, located at (1, 1, 3) m, experiences a force
:z
FIg. 210
due to point charge Q2 at (3, 3, 2) m. Determine Q2.
Note that, because
19
20
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
the given force is along R21 (see Problem 1.21), as it must be.
Q.Q2 F·=4R28R n£o
Solving, Q2 = 40 IlC.
1.4.
•
Find the force on a point charge of 50 pC at (0,0, 5) m due to a charge of 500Jr pC that is uniformly distributed over the circular disk r s: 5 m, Z = 0 m (see Fig. 211) .
:z
(0,0,5)
x
Fig. 111
The charge density is
Q SOOn x 106
P. = A = n(5)2 0.2 x 104 C/m2
In cylindrical coordinates,
R= '.,+58.
Then each differential charge results in a differential force
dF= (50 x 1O6)(p.,d,dt,p) (,.,+5 •• ) 4n(1O 9/36n)(,2+25) y,2+25
Before integrating, note that the radial components will cancel and that 8. is constant. Hence F = im is (50 x 106)(0.2 x 104)5, d, dtp •
o 0 4n(109/36n)(,2 + 25)312 Z
is ,d, [ 1 ]S
= 90n 0 (,2 + 25)312.' = 90n y,2 + 25 0.' = 16.568. N
1.5 •
•
Repeat Problem 2.4 for a disk of radius 2 m.
Reducing the radius has two effects: the charge density is increased by a factor
P2=(5)2=625
PI (2)2 .
while the integral over r becomes
i2 ,d,
o (,2 + 25)312 = 0.0143
The resulting force is
instead of
is ,d,
o (,2 + 25)312 = 0.0586
(0.0143)
F = (6.25) 0.0586 (16.568. N) = 25.27 a, N
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
2.6. Find the expression for the electric field at P due to a point charge Q at (Xl> Yl. ZI). Repeat with the charge placed at the origin.
As shown in Fig. 212,
z
ro.».»
x
Fig. 212
Q E=4R2aR 1f£o
_ Q (x  x I)ax + (y  YI)ay + (z  ZI)8,  41f£o [(x  X 1)2 + (y  YI)2 + (z  Z.)2]312
When the charge is at the origin,
Then
E = Q xax + ya,. + za. 4.n£o (x2 + y2 + Z2)312
but this expression fails to show the symmetry of the field. In spherical coordinates with Q at the origin,
and now the symmetry is apparent.
2.7. Find E at the origin due to a point charge of 64.4 nC located at (4,3,2) m in cartesian coordinates.
The electric field intensity due to a point charge Q at the origin in spherical coordinates is
E=_Q_8
41f£O,2 r
In this problem the distance is V29 m and the vector from the charge to the origin, where E is to be evaluated, is R = 4 ....  3a,.  Za e
64.4 X 109 (4.x  3ay  Zaz) (4a.  3ay  Za,)
E = 41f(1O9/36.n)(29) V29 = (20.0) V29 V 1m
2.8. Find E at (0,0,5) m due to QI = 0.35 pC at (0,4,0) m and Q2 = 0.55 pC at (3,0,0) m (see Fig. 213).
RI = 4ay + 58. R2 = 38 ... + 58,
E _ 0.35 X 106 (411,. + 5a,)
1 41f(1O9/361f)(41) WI
= 48.Oay + 60.0.. VIm
21
22
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
x
y
Fig. loU
and
~ 0.55 X 106 (3.~ + 5 •• )
4n(10 9/36n)(34) v'34
=74.911 .. 124.911, VIm
E = E. + ~ = 74.911~  48.Oay  64.911. V 1m
2.9.
Charge is distributed uniformly along an infinite straight line with constant density p~. Develop the expression for E at the general point P.
Cylindrical coordinates will be used, with the line charge as the z axis (see Fig. 214). At P,
dE = _5?_ (r.r  z.,)
4nEoR2 Yr2 + Z2
~
Fig.1014
Since for every dQ at z there is another charge dQ at z, the z components cancel. Then
[ p,rdz
E= Il,
~ 4nEo(r2 + Z2)312
p,r [ Z]~ p,
= 4nEo r2yr2 + Z2 _~.r = 2nEor·r
2.10. On the line described by x = 2 m, Y = 4 m there is a uniform charge distribution of density p~:::: 20 nC/m. Determine the electric field E at (2. 1.4) m.
With some modification for cartesian coordinates the expression obtained in Problem 2.9 can be used with this uniform line charge. Since the line is parallel to az, the field has no z
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
component. Referring to Fig. 215,
and
R = 4a ... + 3,. 20 X 109 (4a .. + 38,.)
E = 2Jr£o(5) 5 = 57.611 .. + 43.28,. Vim
Fia·115
2.11. As shown in Fig. 216, two uniform line charges of density p~ = 4 nC/m lie in the It x = 0 plane at y = ±4 m. Find E at (4,0, 10) m.
y
p~ (0.4,z)
p~ (0, 4.z)
Fig. 116
The line charges are both parallel to •• ; their fields are radial and parallel to the xy plane. For either line charge the magnitude of the field at P would be
E =.J!!.._ =]! VIm 2.71"£or Vi
The field due to both line charges is, by superposition,
E=2(~COS45°)." = 188 .. VIm
Z.U. Develop an expression for E due to charge uniformly distributed over an infinite plane with .ill density Ps'
23
24
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
1be cylindrical coordinate system will be used, with the charge in the z = 0 plane as shown in Fig. 217.
z
P(O ••• z)
Fig. z,,17
Symmetry about the z axis results in cancellation of the radial components.
E 1" [ p.rz dr dIP
= 0 0 41&'£u(? + Z2)312 a.
'Ibis result is for points above the xy plane. Below tbe xy plane tbe unit vector changes to a.. The generalized form may be written using a" • the unit normal vector:
E P.
=a 2£0 "
1be electric field is everywhere normal to the plane of the charge and its magnitude is independent of the distance from the plane.
2.13. As shown in Fig. 218. the plane y = 3 m contains a uniform charge distribution of density Ps = (108/6n) C/m2. Determine E at all points.
,:%~~.\'\';!1.~~~~;::3")
Fig. z,,18
For y >3m,
E=1?!.. ... 2£0
=3Oa,. VIm
andfor y<3m,
E= 3Oay VIm
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECfRIC FIELD INTENSITY
2.14. Two infinite uniform sheets of charge, each with density Ps, are located at x = ± 1 (Fig. 219). Determine E in all regions.
Fig. 219
Only parts of the two sheets of charge are shown in Fig. 219. are directed along x, independent of the distance. Then
{ (P8/£0)a%
E,+~== 0
(P8/£0)a% x > 1
Both sheets result in E fields that
x<l l<x<1
2.15. Repeat Problem 2.14 with p, on x = 1 and  Ps on x = 1.
{o x<1
s, + E2 = o(ps/€o)ax 1 <x < 1
x>1
2.16. A uniform sheet charge with p, = (l/33l) nC/m2 is located at z = 5 m and a uniform line charge with p, = (  25/9) nCJm at z = 3m, y = 3 m. Find E at (x, 1, 0) m.
The two charge configurations are parallel to the x axis. Hence the view in Fig. 220 is taken looking at the yz plane from positive x. Due to the sheet charge,
E P2 '=2a" £0
z
Fig. 220
At P, a" = az and
E8=fia. Vim
Due to the line charge,
25
26
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
and at P
E~ = Bay  6a. V 1m The total electric field is the sum, E = E~ + E. = Bay  12a. VIm.
2.17. Determine E at (2,0,2) m due to three standard charge distributions as follows: a uniform sheet at x = 0 m with PsI = (l/33l) nC/m2, a uniform sheet at x = 4 m with Ps2 = ( l/33l) nC/m2, and a uniform line at x = 6 rn, Y = 0 m with P, =  2 nC/m.
Since the three charge configurations are parallel with a.. there will be no z component of the field. Point (2,0,2) will have the same field as any point (2,0, z). In Fig. 221, P is located between the two sheet charges, where the fields add due to the difference in sign.
E Po. P.2 P~
=2a" +2a" +2a,
£0 £0 1f£o'
= 6a~ + 6a~ + 9a~ = 21a .. VIm
Pr) P.2
 .......... ~ E E
x=O x=4
Fig. loll
2.18. As shown in Fig. 222, charge is distributed along the z axis between z = ±5 m with a . uniform density p, = 20 nC/m. Determine E at (2,0,0) m in cartesian coordinates. Also express the answer in cylindrical coordinates.
dE _ 20 x 109 dz (28 ..  za.) ( I )
 41f(109/361f)(4 + Z2) V4+? V m
r
x
dQ= PI dz (2,0, 0) it...y
s
Symmetry with respect to the z = 0 plane eliminates any z component in the result.
15 2dz
E = 180 5 (4 + Z2)312 a~ = 167a~ VIm
In cylindrical coordinates, E = 167a, V 1m.
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
2.19. Charge is distributed along the z axis from z = 5 m to 00 and from z = 5 m to 00 (see Fig. 223) with the same density as in Problem 2.18, 20 nC/m. Find E at (2,0,0) m.
E 20 x 109 dz (2a"  zaz) I
d = 41f(109/361f) (4 + Z2) v'4+Z2 (V m)
tco FIg. loll
Again the z component vanishes.
[[ 2dz 15 2dz ]
E = 180 5 (4 + Z2)312 + _~ (4 + z~312 ax
= 13ax VIm
In cylindrical coordinates, E = 138, Vim.
When the charge configurations of Problems 2.18 and 2.19 are superimposed, the result is a uniform line charge.
p,
E=a,= 18Oa, VIm 21f£or
2.20. Find tbe electric field intensity E at (0, 4>, h) in cylindrical coordinates due to the uniformly charged disk r s a, z = 0 (see Fig. 224).
)'
x
FIg.lo24
If the constant charge density is p ..
dE= p"rdrdq, (ra,+haz) 41f£o(,2 + h2) v',2 + h2
27
28
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
The radial components cancel. Therefore
p.h 12J< 1" r dr dq,
E a
 4Jr£0 0 0 (r2 + h2)312 •
P,h( 1 1)
= 2£0 V02+h2 +"h a.
Note that as 0+00, E+(p./2£o)a., the field due to a uniform plane sheet.
Z.21.
Il
Charge lies on the circular disk r ::S a, Z = 0 with density P s = Po sin2 t/J. at (0, t/J, h).
Determine E
dE = po(sin2 q,)r dr dq, (rar + ha.)
4Jr£o(r2 + h2) Vr2 + h2
The charge distribution, though not uniform, still is symmetrical such that all radial components cancel.
E= Poh 1lnL"(sin2q,)rdrdq, =poh( 1 !)
4 ( 2 h2)312 a. • rr::;; + a.
Jr£o 0 0 r + 4£0 VO + h2 h
2.ll. Charge lies on the circular disk r::S 4 m, Z = 0 with density p, = (to4Ir) (C/m2). Il Determine E at r = 0, Z = 3 m.
dE = (104Ir)r dr dq, (rar + 3a.) (V 1m)
4Jr£o(r2 + 9) V,z + 9
As in Problems 2.20 and 2.21 the radial component vanishes by symmetry.
L2"'14 d,dq,
E = (2.7 x Hf') ( 2 312 a. = 1.51 x Uf'a. V 1m
o r +9)
or
1.51a. MV/m
2.23. Charge lies in the Z =  3 m plane in the form of a square sheet defined by 2 ::S X ::S 2 m,  2 ::S Y ::S 2 m with charge density P s = 2(x2 + y2 + 9)312 nC/m2• Find E at the origin.
From Fig. 225.
R= xa.  yay + 3a. (m)
dQ = P. dx dy = 2(x2 + y2 + 9)312 X 109 dx dy (C)
z
dE
(2,2,3) \_ky ~~,..,....,.,.....,.....,.(2, 2, 3)
x
(2,2,3)
(2,2, 3) Fig. 115
and so
CHAP. 2]
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
Due to symmetry, only the z component of E exists.
12 12 6 X 109 cU dy
E = 4 az = 864., Vim
2 2 1f€o
2.24. A charge of uniform density o, = 0.3 nC/m2 covers the plane 2x  3y + z = 6 m. Find E on the side of the plane containing the origin.
Since this charge configuration is a uniform sheet, E = Psl2€o and E = (17.0) ... VIm. The unit normal vectors for a plane Ax + By + Cz = Dare
A.x + Ba" + Ca, • = ± :t:::;;::==:;;::::::::::::~
" VA2+B2+C2
Therefore, the unit normal vectors for this plane are
2ax  3a" + .z ... = ± =~=
Vt4
From Fig. 226 it is evident that the unit vector on the side of the plane containing the origin is produced by the negative sign. The electric field at the origin is
z
x
Supplementary Problems
2.25. Two point charges, Q. = 250 pC and Q2 = 300 pC, are located at (5,0,0) m and (0,0, 5) m,
( (ax + az)
Am. F2 = 13.5) v'2 N
respectively. Find the force on Q2
2.26. Two point charges, Q. = 30 pC and Q2= 100 pC, are located at (2,0,5) m and (1,0, 2) m,
respectively. Find the force on Q.. Am. F. = (0.465)( 3~ 7.z) N
2:1.7. In Problem 2.26 find the force on Q2.
Am. F.
2.28. Four point charges, each 20 pC, are on the x and y axes at ±4 m. Find the force on a lOOpC point
charge at (0,0, 3) m. Am. 1. 73.z N
29
30
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
[CHAP. 2
2.19. Ten identical charges of 500 pC each are spaced equally around a circle of radius 2 m. Find the force
on a charge of 20 pC located on the axis, 2 m from the plane of the circle. Am. (79.5)( a.,) N
2.30. Determine the force on a point charge of 50 pC at (0,0, 5) m due to a point charge of 5001f pC at the origin. Compare the answer with Problems 2.4 and 2.5, where this same total charge is distributed over
a circular disk. Am. 28.3a. N
2.31. Find the force on a point charge of 30 pC at (0, 0, 5) m due to a 4 m square in the z = 0 plane between x = ±2 m and y = ±2 m with a total charge of 500 pC, distributed uniformly.
Am. 4.668. N
2.32. Two identical point charges of Q(C) each are separated by a distance d(m). Express the electric field E for points along the line joining the two charges.
Am. If the charges are at x = 0 and x = d, then, for 0 < x < d,
E = 4;EJ~  (d ~X)2 ]a. (VIm)
2.33. Identical charges of Q(C) are located at the eight corners of a cube with a side l (m). Show that the coulomb force on each charge has magnitude (3.29Q2/41fEol2) N.
2.34. Show that the electric field E outside a spherical shell of uniform charge density P. is the same as E due to the total charge on the shell located at the center.
2.35. Develop the expression in cartesian coordinates for E due to an infinitely long, straight charge
configuration of uniform density p~.
E = p, xa. + yay 21fEo x2 + y2
Am.
2.36. Two uniform line charges of P~ = 4 nC/m each are parallel to the z axis at x = 0, y = ±4 m.
Determine the electric field E at (±4, 0, z) m. Am. ± 18a. V 1m
2.37. Two uniform line charges of Pi = 5 nC/m each are parallel to the x axis, one at z = 0, y = 2m
and the other at z=O, y=4m. Find Eat(4,1,3)m. Am.30a.V/m
2.38. Determine E at the origin due to a uniform line charge distribution with Pi = 3.30 nC/m located
at x=3m, y=4m. Am. 7.13a.9.5Oay VIm
2.39. Referring to Problem 2.38, at what other points will the value of E be the same?
Am. (0,0, z)
2.40. Two meters from the z axis, lEI due to a uniform line charge along the z axis is known to be
1.80 x 10' V 1m. Find the uniform charge density Pt. Am. 2.0 pC/m
2.41. The plane +x + 3y  6z = 6 m contains a uniform charge distribution P. = 0.53 nC/m2• Find E on
d . Am. 3O(a.  :~46)' + 6az) Vim
the si e containing the ongin. V'Kl
2.42. Two infinite sheets of uniform charge density P. = (1O9/61f) C/m2 are located at z = 5 m and y = S m. Determine the uniform line charge density p, necessary to produce the same
value of E at (4,2,2) m, if the line charge is located at z = 0, y = O. Am. 0.667 nC/m
2.43. Two uniform charge distributions are as follows: a sheet of uniform charge density P. = 50 nC/m2 at y = 2 m and a uniform line of p~ = 0.2pC/m at z = 2 m, y = I m. At what
points in the region will E be zero? Am. (x, 2.273, 2.0) m
2.44. A uniform sheet of charge with P. = (1/31f) nC/m2 is located at z = 5 m and a uniform line of charge with p, = ( 25/9) nC/m is located at z =  3 m, y = 3 m. Find the electric field E at
(O,I,O)m. Am. Bay VIm
CHAP.2J
COULOMB FORCES AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
2.45. A uniform line charge of p, = (V2 x lO8/6) C/m lies along the x axis and a uniform sheet of charge is located at y = 5 m. Along the line y = 3 m, Z = 3 m the electric field E has only a z
component. What is P. for the sheet? Ans. 125 pC/m2
2.46. A uniform line charge of p, = 3.30 nC/m is located at x = 3 m, y = 4 m. A point charge Q is 2 m from the origin. Find the charge Q and its location such that the electric field is zero at the
origin. Ans. 5.28 nC at (1.2, 1.6,0) m
2.47. A circular ring of charge with radius 2 m lies in the z = 0 plane, with center at the origin. If the uniform charge density is p, = lO nC/m, find the point charge Q at the origin which would produce
the same electric field E at (0,0,5) m. Ans. 100.5 nC
2.48.
The circular disk r S 2 m in the Z = 0 plane has
Determine the electric field E for the point (0, .p, h). Ans .
a charge density PJ = 108/,
l.13xlOJ ( I )
• ~azVm hv't"t"n
2.49. Examine the result in Problem 2.48 as h becomes much greater than 2 m and compare it to the field at h which results when the total charge on the disk is concentrated at the origin.
2.50. A finite sheet of charge, of density P. = 2x(x2 + y2 + 4)312 (C/m2), lies in the z = 0 plane for Os x s 2 m and 0 s y :s 2 m. Determine E at (0, 0, 2) m.
Ans. (IS x 109)(  ~6 ax 4ay +8&.) VIm = IS(  ~6 ax 4ay + 8&.) GV/m
2.51. Determine the electric field E at (8, 0, 0) m due to a charge of 10 nC distributed uniformly along the x axis between x = 5 m and x = 5 m. Repeat for the same total charge distributed between
x = 1 m and x = 1 m. Ans. 2.31ax VIm, 1.43ax VIm
2.52. The circular disk r s; 1 m, Z = 0 has a charge density P. = 2(,2 + 25)3I2eIO, (C/m2). Find E at
(0,0,5) m. Ans. 5.668 .. GV 1m
2.53. Show that the electric field is zero everywhere inside a uniformly cbarged spherical shell.
2.54. Charge is distributed with constant density p throughout a spherical volume of radius a. By using the results of Problems 2.34 and 2.53, show that
'So
,~o
where, is the distance from the center of the sphere.
31
Chapter 3
Electric Flux and Gauss' Law
3.1 NET CHARGE IN A REGION
With charge density defined as in Section 2.3, it is possible to obtain the net charge contained in a specified volume by integration. From
dQ=pdv (C)
it follows that
Q= LPdV (C)
In general, p will not be constant throughout the volume v.
EXAMPLE 1. Find the charge in the volume defined by 1:s , s 2 m in spherical coordinates, if 5 cos' q,
p= (C/m})
,.
By integration,
3.1 ELECTRIC FLUX AND FLUX DENSITY
Electric flux '1', a scalar field, and its density 0, a vector field, are useful quantities in solving certain problems, as will be seen in this and subsequent chapters. Unlike E, these fields are not directly measurable; their existence was inferred from nineteenthcentury experiments in ... , electrostatics.
A,EXAMPLE 2. Referring to Fig. 31, a charge +Q is first fixed in place and a spherical, concentric, conducting shell is then closed around it. Initially the shell has no net charge on its surface. Now if a conducting path to ground is momenta,ily completed by closing a switch, a charge Q, equal in magnitude but of opposite sign, is discovered on the shell. This charge Q might be accounted for by a transient How of negative charge from the ground, through the switch, and onto the shell. But what could provoke such a How? The early experimenters suggested that aflux from the +Q to the conductor surface induced, or displaced, the charge Q onto the surface. Consequently, it has also been called displacement flux, and the use of the symbol D is a reminder of this early concept.
By definition, electrix flux 'I' originates on positive charge and terminates on negative charge. In the absence of negative charge, the flux 'I' terminates at infinity. Also by definition. one coulomb of electric charge gives rise to one coulomb of electric flux. Hence
'1'= Q (C)
In Fig. 32(a) the flux lines leave +Q and terminate on Q. This assumes that the two charges are of equal magnitude. The case of positive charge with no negative charge in the region is illustrated in Fig. 32(b). Here the flux lines are equally spaced throughout the solid angle. and reach out toward infinity.
32
CHAP.3J
ELECfRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
Fig.3l
~ \/
+Q. "':.Q /.\
~
(a) (b)
Fig. 31 If in the neighborhood of point P the lines of flux have the direction of the unit vector a (see Fig. 33) and if an amount of flux d'll crosses the differential area dS, which is a normal to a, then the electric flux density at P is
Fig. 33
A volume charge distribution of density p (e/mJ) is shown enclosed by surface S in Fig. 34. Since each coulomb of charge Q has, by definition, one coulomb of flux '1', it follows that the net flux crossing the closed surface S is an exact measure of the net charge enclosed. However, the
33
34
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
density D may vary in magnitude and direction from point to point of S; in general, D will not be along the normal to S. If, at the surface element dS, D makes an angle 8 with the normal, then the differential flux crossing dS is given by
d'P = D dS cos 8 = D . dSan = D • dS
where dS is the vector surface element, of magnitude dS and direction an. The unit vector an is always taken to point out of S, so that d'P is the amount of flux passing from the interior of S to the exterior of S through dS.
Fig. 34
3.3 GAUSS' LAW
Gauss' law states that The total flux out of a closed surface is equal to the net charge within the surface. This can be written in integral form as
A great deal of valuable information can be obtained from Gauss' law through clever choice of the surface of integration; see Section 3.5.
3.4 RELATION BETWEEN FLUX DENSITY AND ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY
Consider a point charge Q (assumed positive, for simplicity) at the origin (Fig. 35). If this is enclosed by a spherical surface of radius r, then, by symmetry, D due to Q is of constant magnitude over the surface and is everywhere normal to the surface. Gauss' law then gives
Q = f D • dS = D f dS = D (4.rrr2)
z
1,/0
T
Fig. 35
CHAP. 3]
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
from which D = Q/4lrr2. Therefore
But, from Section 2.2, the electric field intensity due to Q is
It follows that D = £oE.
More generally, for any electric field in an isotropic medium of permittivity £,
D=£E
Thus, D and E fields will have exactly the same form, since they differ only by a factor which is a constant of the medium. While the electric field E due to a charge configuration is a function of the permittivity £, the electric fiux density D is not. In problems involving multiple dielectrics a distinct advantage will be found in first obtaining D, then converting to E within each dielectric.
3.S SPECIAL GAUSSIAN SURFACES
The surface over which Gauss' law is applied must be closed. but it can be made up of several surface elements. If these surface elements can be selected so that D is either normal or tangential, and if IDI is constant over any element to which D is normal, then the integration becomes very simple. Thus the defining conditions of a special gaussian surface are
1. The surface is closed.
2. At each point of the surface D is either normal or tangential to the surface.
3. D is sectionally constant over that part of the surface where D is normal.
EXAMPLE 3 Use a special gaussian surface to find D due to a uniform line change p, (C/m).
Take the line charge as the z axis of cylindrical coordinates (Fig. 36). By cylindrical symmetry, D can
00
00
Fig.U
35
36
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
only have an r component, and this component can only depend on r. Thus, the special gaussian surface for this problem is a closed right circular cylinder whose axis is the z axis (Fig. 37). Applying Gauss' law,
Q = i D . dS + L D· dS + L D . dS
D
D
D
dS
00
Fig. 37
Over surfaces 1 and 3, D and dS are orthogonal, and so the integrals vanish. Over 2, D and dS are parallel (or antiparallel, if p~ is negative), and D is constant because r is constant. Thus,
Q = D L dS = D(21frL)
where L is the length of the cylinder. But the enclosed charge is Q = PfL_ Hence,
D =l!.!_ Znr
and
Observe the simplicity of the above derivation as compared to Problem 2.9.
The one serious limitation of the method of special gaussian surfaces is that it can be utilized only for highly symmetrical charge configurations. However, for other configurations, the method can still provide quick approximations to the field at locations very close to or very far from the charges. See Problem 3.36.
Solved Problems
3.1. Find the charge in the volume defined by 0:::; x :::; 1 m, 0:::; y :::; 1 m, and 0:::; z :::; 1 m if p = 30x2y (JlC/m3). What change occurs for the limits 1:::; y :::; 0 m?
Since dQ = p dv,
Q = (' I' I' 30x2y dx dy dz = 5 pC Ju 0 0
For the change in limits on y,
J'J" I'
Q = 30x2ydxdydz = 5pC
(J 1 I)
CHAP. 3]
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
3.2. Three point charges, QI = 30 nC, Q2 = 150 nC, and Q3 = 70 nC, are enclosed by surface S. What net flux crosses S?
..
_ Since electric flux was defined as originating on positive charge and terminating on negative charge.
part of the flux from the positive charges terminates on the negative charge.
'l'net = Qnet = 30 + 150  70 = 110 nC
3.3. What net flux crosses the closed surface S shown in Fig. 38, which contains a charge distribution in the form of a plane disk of radius 4 m with a density Ps =
•
_ (sin2 t/J )t2r (Ctm2)?
L2Jr L4 (Sin2 4')
'I'=Q= 0 0 ~ rdrd4'=2nC
Fig. 38
3.4. A circular disk of radius 4 m with a charge density Ps = 12 sin tJ> pCtm2 is enclosed by surface S. What net flux crosses S?
'I' = Q = L2Jr f (12 sin 4')rdr d4' = 0 IlC
Since the disk contains equal amounts of positive and negative charge [sin (4' + n) = sin 4']. no net flux crosses S.
3.S. Charge in the form of a plane sheet with density Ps = 40 pCtm2 is located at z = 0.5 m. A uniform line charge of P, = 6 pCtm lies along the y axis. What net flux crosses the surface of a cube 2 m on an edge, centered at the origin, as shown in Fig. 39?
'I' = Qen<:
z
x
Fig. 39
37
38
ELECfRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
The charge enclosed from the plane is
Q = (4 m2)(40 /lC/m2) = 160 /lC
and from the line
Q = (2 m)( 6 /lC/m) = 12 /lC Thus, Qenc = 'P = 160  12 = 148/lC.
3.6. A point charge Q is at the origin of a spherical coordinate system. Find the flux which crosses the portion of a spherical shell described by a::; (J s f3 (Fig. 310). What is the result if a = 0 and f3 = :n: /2?
z
r
Fig. 310
The total flux 'P = Q crosses a complete spherical shell of area 4nr2. The area of the strip is given by
= 2nr2( cos (l'  cos fJ)
Then the flux through the strip is
A Q
'Pne. = 2 Q =(cos a  cosfJ)
4nr 2
For a = 0, fJ = n/2 (a hemisphere), this becomes 'Pne. = Q/2.
3.7. A uniform line charge with p£= 50 f.J.C/m lies along the x axis. What flux per unit length, 'II / L. crosses the portion of the z = 3m plane bounded by y = ±2 m?
The flux is uniformly distributed around the line charge. Thus the amount crossing the strip is obtained from the angle subtended compared to 2n. In Fig. 311,
a = 2 arctan G) = 1.176 rad
Then
'P (1.176)
 = 50  = 9.36/lC/m
L 2n
CHAP. 3]
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
z
FIg. 311
3.8. A point charge, Q = 30 nC, is located at the origin in cartesian coordinates. Find the electric flux density D at (1,3, 4) m.
Referring to Fig. 312,
Q
0= 4nR2aR
= 30 x 109 (a .. + 3ay  4ao)
4n(26) V26
= (9.18 x 1011)(a .. + 3ay  4ao) C/m2 V26
or, more conveniently, D = 91.8pC/m2•
z
x
0,3,4)
\n
FIg. 312
3.9. Two identical uniform line charges lie along the x and y axes with charge densities p, = 20 "C/m. Obtain D at (3,3,3) m.
The distance from the observation point to either line charge is 3v2 m. Considering first the line charge on the x axis,
O p~
1=211.1 nr1
20 ",C/m (Ily +_ ao)
2n(3V2 m) v'2
and now the y axis line charge,
O2 = 2P~ at'2 20 ",C/m (a .. +_ ao)
nr2 2n(3V2m) V2
39
40
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
The total flux density is the vector sum,
0= 20 (a .. + ay + 18z) = (2.25)(' + a,. + 18z) ",C/m2
2n(3v'2) vz v'6
3.10. Given that D = lOx8x (C/m2), determine the flux crossing a lm2 area that is normal to the x axis at x = 3 m.
Since 0 is constant over the area and perpendicular to it,
'I' = DA = (30 C/m2)(1 m') = 30 C
3.11. Determine the flux crossing a 1 mm by 1 mm area on the surface of a cylindrical shell ill. at r=IOm, z=2m, 4>=53.2° if
.!II!!! D = 2x8x + 2(1 Y)8y + 4Z8z (C/m2)
At point P (see Fig. 313),
x = 10 cos 53.2° = 6 y = 10 sin 53.2° = 8
z
x
Fig. 313
Then, at P,
0= 118z 14a,. + Sa. C/m2
Now, on a cylinder of radius 10m, a Imm" patch is essentially planar, with directed area dS = 106(0.6a .. + 0.8a,.) m2
d'l' = O. dS = (118 .. 14ay + Sa.). 1O6(0.6a .. + 0.8a,.) = 4.0 ",C
Then
The negative sign indicates that flux crosses this differential surface in a direction toward the z axis rather than outward in the direction of dS.
3.U. A uniform line charge of Pt = 3pc;tm lies along the z axis, and a concentric circular cylinder of radius 2 m has Ps = (1.5/4.n) pCtm2• Both distributions are infinite in extent with z, Use Gauss' law to find D in all regions.
Using the special gaussian surface A in Fig. 314 and processing as in Example 3,
O p, =a,. 2nr
0<r<2
CHAP. 3]
ELECfRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
z
t
Fig. 314
Using the special gaussian surface B.
Qenc=fOodS (p, + 4:rrp.)L = D(2:rrrL)
from which
p,+4:rrp.
0= a r>2
2:rrr r
For the numerical data,
{0.477 / 2)
a, (IlC m
0 r
O.~39 a, (p.C/m2)
0<r<2m
r>2m
3.13. Use Gauss' law to show that D and E are zero at all points in the plane of a uniformly charged circular ring that are inside the ring.
Consider, instead of one ring, the charge configuration shown in Fig. 315, where the uniformly charged cylinder is infinite in extent, made up of many rings. For gaussian surface 1,
Qcnc= 0= D fdS
z
x
_l_dz
T
FIg. 315
41
42
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
Hence D ... 0 for r < R. Since'll is completely in the radial direction, a slice dz can be taken from the cylinder of charge and the result found above will still apply to this ring. For all points within the ring, in the plane of the ring, D and E are zero.
3.14. A charge configuration in cylindrical coordinates is given by p = 5re2r (C/m3). Use Gauss' law to find D.
Since p is not a function of '" or z, the flux 'II is completely radial. It is also true that, for r constant, the flux density D must be of constant magnitude. Then a proper special gaussian surface is a closed right circular cylinder. The integrals over the plane ends vanish, so that Gauss' law becomes
e., = I D • dS
lateral aurfacc
LL L21< f Sre2rrdrd",dz=D(21UL)
5nL[e2r( ,z  r l) + U = D(2nrL)
D = 2.5 n  e2r(r2 + r + m., (C/m2) r
Hence
3.e. The volume in cylindrical coordinates between r = 2 m and r = 4 m contains a uniform charge density p (C/m3). Use Gauss' law to find D in all regions.
From Fig. 316, for 0<r<2m,
Q."" = D(2.7rrL) D=O
1IIc·316
For 2srS4m,
npL(,z  4) = D(2.7rrL) P
D = 2r (,z  4)., (C/m2)
For r>4m,
12npL = D(2.7rrL) 6p
D = ., (C/m2) r
CHAP. 3]
ELECfRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
3.16. The volume in spherical coordinates described by r s a contains a uniform charge density p. Use Gauss' law to determine D anI compare your results with those for the corresponding E field, found in Problem 2.5t',. What point charge at the origin will result in the same D field for r > a?
For a gaussian surface such as l: in Fig. 317.
and
D=pra, 3
rSa
z
x
r=a
FIg. 317
For points outside the charge distribution,
r>a
whence
If a point charge Q = ~.7ra3p is placed at the origin, the D field for r > a will be the same. This point charge is the same as the total charge contained in the volume.
3.17. A parallelplate capacitor has a surface charge on the lower side of the upper plate of + Ps
• (C/m2). The upper surface of the lower plate contains =o, (C/m2). Neglect fringing and use Gauss' law to find D and E in the region between the plates.
e«I
All flux leaving the positive charge on the upper plate terminates on the equal negative charge on
the lower plate. The statement neglect fringing insures that all flux is normal to the plates. For the special gaussian surface shown in Fig. 318,
Qenc = I. D  dS + L D· dS + J.. D· dS
lop botlom .. de
=0+ Lorn DdS+O
or p.A = D I dS = DA
where A is the area. Consequently,
E=P .... (VIm)
Eo
and
Both are directed from the positive to the negative plate.
43
44
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
Fig. 318
Supplementary Problems
3.18. Find the net charge enclosed in a cube 2 m on an edge, parallel to the axes and centered at the origin, if the charge density is
AIlS. 84.9I'C
3.19. Find the charge enclosed in the volume 1 S r S 3 m, 0 s tp s 1r/3, 0 s z s 2 m given the charge
density p = 2z sin2 4' (C/m3). AIlS. 4.91 C
3.20. Given a charge density in spherical coordinates
p = .!!!2_ e "'" cos" 4' (rlro)2
find the amounts of charge in the spherical volumes enclosed by r = '0, r = 5'0' and r = 00. AIlS. 3.CJ7poro, 6.24poro, 6.28poro
3.21. A closed surface S contains a finite line charge distribution, 0 s € s st m, with charge density p,= posin~ (C/m)
What net flux crosses the surface S?
AIlS. 2po (C)
3.22. Charge is distributed in the spherical region r s 2 m with density 200
p =  (I'C/m3)
,2
What net flux crosses the surfaces r = 1 rn, r = 4 m, and r = 500 m? AIlS. ~1rI'C,l~1rI'C,l~1rI'C
3.23. A point charge Q is at the origin of spherical coordinates and a spherical shell charge distribution at r = a has a total charge of Q'  Q. uniformly distributed. What flux crosses the surfaces r =
k for k <a and k >a? AIlS. Q, Q'
3.24. A uniform line charge with p, = 3 ",C/m lies along the x axis. What flux crosses a spherical surface
centered at the origin with r = 3 m? AIlS. 18",C
3.25. If a point charge Q is at the origin, find an expression for the flux which crosses the portion of a sphere, (3ex
centered at the origin, described by ex s 4' s (3. AIlS. ~ Q
CHAP. 31
ELECTRIC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
3.26. A point charge of Q (C) is at the center of a spherical coordinate system. Find the flux'll which crosses
an area of 4Jr m2 on a concentric spherical shell of radius 3 m. AIlS. Q/9 (C)
3.27. An area of 40.2 m2 on the surface of a spherical shell of radius 4 m is crossed by 10 pC of flux in an
inward direction. What point charge at the origin is indicated? AIlS. 50 pC
3.28. A uniform line charge p~ lies along the x axis. What percent of the flux from the line crosses the strip
of the y = 6 plane having 1 s Z s I? AIlS. 5.26%
3.19. A point charge, Q = 3 nC, is located at the origin of a cartesian coordinate system. What flux'll crosses the portion of the z = 2 m plane for which 4 s x s 4 m and 4 s y s 4 m?
AIlS. 0.5nC
3.30. A uniform line charge with p~= 5 I'C/m lies along the x axis. Find D at (3,2,1) m.
AIlS. (0.356)(2aVi .z) pC/m2
3.31.
A point charge of +Q is at the origin of a spherical coordinate system, surrounded by a concentric uniform distribution of charge on a spherical shell at r = a for which the total charge is Q. Find the flux 'II crossing spherical surfaces at r < a and r > a. Obtain D in all regions.
{+Q
AIlS. 'II = 4Jrr2D = 0
r<a
r>a
3.31. Given that D = 500e0_1x•• (I'C/m2), find the flux'll crossing surfaces of area 1 m2 normal to the x
axis and located at x = 1 m, x = 5 m, and x = 10 m. AIlS. 452 I'C, 303 I'C, 184 pC
3.33. Given that D = 5x2 •• + IOz.z (C/m2), find the net outward flux crossing the surface of a cube 2 m
on an edge centered at the origin. The edges of the cube are parallel to the axes. AIlS. 80 C
3.34. Given that
in cylindrical coordinates, find the outward flux crossing the right circular cylinder described
by r = Zb, z = 0, and z = 5b (m). AIlS. 129b2 (C)
3.35. Given that
sin cp D= 2rcos cp.~ ~.z
in cylindrical coordinates, find the flux crossing the portion of the z = 0 plane defined by r S a, Os cp S Jr /2. Repeat for 3Jr /2 S cp S 2Jr. Assume flux positive in the a, direction.
AIlS.
a a 3'3
3.36. In cyclindrical coordinates, the disk r s a, z = 0 carries charge with nonuniform density p.(r, cpl. Use appropriate special gaussian surfaces to find approximate values of D on the z axis (a) very close to the disk (0 < z ~a), (b) very far from the disk (z ~ a).
p (0 cp) Q (2"[
AIlS. (a) .; ; (b) 4Jrz2 where Q= Jo 0 p.(r, cp)rdrdcp
3.37. A point charge, Q = 2000 pC, is at the ongm of spherical coordinates. A concentric spherical .,+ distribution of charge at r = 1 m has a charge density P. = 40Jr pC/m2. What surface charge ca. density on a concentric shell at r = 2 m would result in D = 0 for r > 2 m?
~ AIlS. 71.2 pCtm2
45
46
ELECfRlC FLUX AND GAUSS' LAW
[CHAP. 3
3.38. Given a charge distribution with density p = 5r (C/m3) in spherical coordinates, use Gauss' law to
find D. Am. (5r2/4)a,. (C/m2)
3.39. A uniform charge density of 2C/m3 exists in the volume 2sx s4m (cartesian coordinates). Use
Gauss' law to find D in all regions. Am. 28" C/m2, 2(x  3)8" (C/m2), 28" C/m2
3AO. Use Gauss' law to find D and E in the region between the concentric conductors of a cylindrical
capacitor. The inner cylinder is of radius o. Neglect fringing. Am. p.,,(olr), p .. (al£or)
3.41. A conductor of substantial thickness has a surface charge of density P.. Assuming that 'II = 0 within the conductor, show that D = ±p. just outside the conductor, by constructing a small special gaussian surface.
Chapter 4
Divergence and the Divergence Theorem
4.1 DIVERGENCE
There are two main indicators of the manner in which a vector field changes from point to point throughout space. The first of these is divergence, which will be examined here. It is a scalar and bears a similarity to the derivative of a function. The second is curl, a vector which will be examined when magnetic fields are discussed in Chapter 9.
When the divergence of a vector field is nonzero, that region is said to contain sources or sinks, sources when the divergence is positive, sinks when negative. In static electric fields there is a correspondence between positive divergence, sources, and positive electric charge Q. Electric flux 'I' by definition originates on positive charge. Thus, a region which contains positive charges contains the sources of '1'. The divergence of the electric flux density D will be positive in this region. A similar correspondence exists between negative divergence. sinks. and negative electric charge.
Divergence of the vector field A at the point P is defined by
fAodS
div A = lim A...O ~v
Here the integration is over the surface of an infinitesimal volume ~v that shrinks to point P.
4.2 DIVERGENCE IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
The divergence can be expressed for any vector field in any coordinate system. For the development in cartesian coordinates a cube is selected with edges Sx, ~y, and ~z parallel to the x, y, and z axes, as shown in Fig. 41. Then the vector field A is defined at P, the corner of the cube with the lowest values of the coordinates x, y, and z.
A = Axax + Ayay + Azaz
z
y
FIg. 41
In order to express pA· dS for the cube, all six faces must be covered. On each face, the direction of dS is outward. Since the faces are normal to the three axes, only one component of A will cross any two parallel faces.
47
48
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
[CHAP. 4
In Fig. 42 the cube is turned such that face 1 is in full view; the x components of A over the faces to the left and right of 1 are indicated. Since the faces are small,
( A·dS=Ax(x)~y~z
J1eft face
J. A· dS = Ax(x +~) ~y tl.Z
right face
[ aA..]
= A .. (x) + aX ~ ~y tl.Z
dS dS
~x
so that the total for these two faces is
aA ..
ax ~~y~z
The same procedure is applied to the remaining two pairs of faces and the results combined.
f (aA.. aAy aAz)
A·dS= ++ ~~y~z
ax ay az
Dividing by ~ ~y ~z = ~v and letting ~v+O, one obtains
d· A aA.., aAy aAz IV =++
ax ay az
The same approach may be used in cylindrical (Problem 4.1) and in spherical coordinates.
(cartesian)
1 a 1 aAot> aAz
divA=(rA )++
r ar r r aq, az
(cylindrical)
. 1 a 2 1 a . 1 aAot>
dlvA="2a (r Ar)+~(Ja (A6sm (J)+.
r r r sm (J r sin (J aq,
(spherical)
EXAMPLE 1. Given the vector field A = 5x2( sin ';)... find div A at x = 1.
. a ( 2..7tX) 2 ( .7tX) :tr • .7tX 5 2.7tX .7tX
dlvA= 5x sm =5x cos +lOxsm=.7tX cos+lOxsin
ax 2 22 22 2 2
and div AI .. _. = 10.
EXAMPLE 2. In cylindrical coordinates a vector field is given by A = r sin cP., + r2 cos cP •• + 2re 5.... Find div A at 0, tr/2, 0).
div A=!~(~sin cP)+!~(r2cos cP) +~(2re5') =2sincP rsin cP lOre50
r ar r acP az
and
CHAP. 4]
DIVERGENCE AND mE DIVERGENCE mEOREM
EXAMPLE 3. In spherical coordinates a vector field is given by A = (5/r2) sin (Jar + r cot (Jae + r sin (J cos </1.. Find div A.
d.A la(S·(J) 1 a(.(J ) 1 a .
IV =2 SID +:(J r sm cot s +.(rslD(Jcos</l)=lsin</l
r ar r sID a(J r SID (J a</l
4.3 DIVERGENCE OF D
From Gauss' law (Section 3.3),
fD•dS
Q"nc ~v
In the limit,
fD.dS
lim =divD= lim Q"nc=p
AvO ~v A...O ~v
This important result is one of MaxweU's equations for static fields:
divD=p
and
if £ is constant throughout the region under examination (if not, div £E = pl. Thus both E and D fields will have divergence of zero in any isotropic chargefree region.
EXAMPLE 4. In spherical coordinates the region r s 0 contains a uniform charge density p, while for r> 0 the charge density is zero. From Problem 2.54, E = Era" where E, = (pr /3Eo) for r s a and E, = (pal/3£or2) for r > o. Then, for r s 0,
. la(2pr) 1( 2P) P
dJVE=2 r  =2 3r  =
r ar 3£0 r 3£0 £0
and, for r > 0,
d. E 1 a ( 2 pal )
IV = r  =0
,2 ar 3£or2
4.4 mE DEL OPERATOR
Vector analysis has its own shorthand, which the reader must note with care. At this point a vector operator, symbolized V, is defined in cartesian coordinates by
V=~a +~g+~a
ax >: ay y az Z
In the calculus a differential operator D is sometimes used to represent dldx. The symbols V and J are also operators; standing alone, without any indication of what they are to operate on, they look strange. And so V, standing alone, simply suggests the taking of certain partial derivatives, each foUowed by a unit vector. However, when V is dotted with a vector A, the result is the divergence of A.
(a a a) aAx aAy aAz •
V"A= 8 +a +8 ·(A 8 +A 8 +A 8 )=++=dlvA
ax x ay y az z x x y y z z ax ay az
Hereafter, the divergence of a vector field will be written V· A.
49
50
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
[CHAP. 4
Warning! The del operator is defined only in cartesian coordinates. When V· A is written for the divergence of A in other coordinate systems, it does not mean that a del operator can be defined for these systems. For example, the divergence in cylindrical coordinates will be written as
V.A=!~(rA )+! aA,,+ aAz
r sr r r aq, az
(see Section 4.2). This does not imply that
i s la() a()
V=;ar(r )a'+;a6I1" +~az
in cylindrical coordinates. In fact, the expression would give false results when used in VV (the gradient, Chapter 5) or V X A (the curl, Chapter 9).
4.5 THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
Gauss' law states that the closed surface integral of D· dS is equal to the charge enclosed. If the charge density function p is known throughout the volume, then the charge enclosed may be obtained from an integration of p throughout the volume. Thus,
fD< dS= f pdv = a.:
But p=V·D, andso
f D < dS = f (V· D) dv
This is the divergence theorem, also known as Gauss' divergence theorem. It is a threedimensional analog of Green's theorem for the plane. While it was arrived at from known relationships among D, Q, and P, the theorem is applicable to any sufficiently regular vector field.
divergence theorem
f A < dS = L (V . A) dv
Of course, the volume v is that which is enclosed by the surface S.
EXAMPLE 5. The region r s a in spherical coordinates has an electric field intensity
pr E=a 3£ '
Examine both sides of the divergence theorem for this vector field. For S, choose the spherical surface r = b s a.
f (V· E)dv
12,.. 1" pb3
= sin (Jd(Jdt/>
o 0 3E'
4npb3
=
I2"I"[p
then  ,2 sin (J dr d(J dt/>
o () (I E
4npb3
=
The divergence theorem applies to timevarying as well as static fields In any coordinate
CHAP. 4]
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
system. The theorem is used most often in derivations where it becomes necessary to change from a closed surface integration to a volume integration. But it may also be used to convert the volume integral of a function that can be expressed as the divergence of a vector field into a closed surface integral.
Solved Problems
4.1. Develop the expression for divergence in cylindrical coordinates.
A deltavolume is shown in Fig. 43 with edges fl.r, r fl.ip, and fl.z. The vector field A is defined at P, the corner with the lowest values of the coordinates r, ip. and z, as
A = A,a, + A.. + Azaz
z
y
Fig. 43
By definition,
fA•dS
div A = lim _d"__ fl.v
To express ~ A • dS all six faces of the volume must be covered. For the radial component of A refer to Fig. 44.
oo~
~+.1r)
Ar(r)
Fig. 44
Over the left face,
fA. dS   Arr fl.ip fl.z
and over the right face,
I A· dS  Ar(r + fl.r)(r + fl.r) fl.4'/» fl.z
(BAr )
 Ar + a; fl.r (r + fl.r) fl.4'/» fl.z
(BAr)
Arr fl.ip fl.z + Ar +ra; ll.r fl.ip fl.z
51
(1)
(aAr) a 1 a
Ar + ra; llr!'lIP!'lz = ar (rAr)!'lr!'lIP!'lz = ;: ar (rAr}!'lv
(2)
52
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
[CHAP. 4
where the term in (!'lr)2 has been neglected. The net contribution of this pair of faces is then
since !'lv = r !'lr !'lIP !'lz.
Similarly, the faces normal to .. yield
and
for a net contribution of
(3)
and the faces normal to 8z yield
and
for a net contribution of
aAZA uV az
(4)
When (2), (3) and (4) are combined to give ~ A • dS, (1) yields
div A =! a(rAr) +! aA4> + aA.
r ar r alP az
4.2 •
•
Show that V • E is zero for the field of a uniform line charge.
For a line charge, in cylindrical coordinates,
PI' E=ar
21rf'or
Then
The divergence of E for this charge configuration is zero everywhere except at r = 0, where the expression is indeterminate.
4.3. Show that the D field due to a point charge has a divergence of zero.
For a point charge. in spherical coordinates,
Then, for r > 0,
4.4. Given A=eY(cosxa .. sinxay), find VA.
a a
V· A =  (eY cos x) +( eY sin x) = eY( sinx) + eY(sinx) = 0
ax ay
CHAP. 4]
DIVERGENCE AND TIlE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
4.5. Given A = x2ax + yzay + xyaz, find V • A.
a a a
v ·A=(x2) +(yz) +(xy) =2x +z
ax ay az
4.6. Given A = (x2 + y2)I12ax' find V • A at (2.2.0).
11
4.7. Given A = r sin q,a, + 2r cos q,a.p + 2z2az, find V· A.
and
v • AI(2.2.0) = 8.84 X 102
la . la a
v ·A= (r2sm tJ» + (2r cos tJ» +_(2Z2)
r ar r atJ> az
= 2 sin tJ>  2 sin tJ> + 4z = 4z
4.8. Given A= 10sin2 q,a, +ra.p + [(z2/r)cos2 q,]az, find V· A at (2, q" 5).
v . A = 10 sin2 4> + 2z cos2 4> r
and
4.9. Given A = (5/r2)8, + (lO/sin 8)a8  r2q, sin 8a.p, find V· A.
la( 1 a 1 a 2 •
V·A= 5)+(IO)+(r 4>sm 6)=r
r2 ar r sin 6 so r sin 6 a4>
4.10. Given A = 5 sin 8a8 + 5 sin q,a.p' find V· A at (0.5. n/4, n/4).
and
V Ala 5 .2) I a ( . ) COS 6 COS 4> . =( sm 6 + 5sm4> =10+5
r sin 6 a6 r sin 6 atJ> r r sin 6
V • AI(o.s.,../4.,../4) = 24.14
4.11. Given that D = pozaz in the region 1 ~ z ~ 1 in cartesian coordinates and D = (poz/lzl)az elsewhere, find the charge density.
V·D=p
For 1:s z :s 1,
a
p = az (Poz) = Po
and for z < lor z > I,
The charge distribution is shown in Fig. 45.
z
Po :0 __
I
Fig. 45
53
54
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
[CHAP. 4
4.U. Given that D = (10rJ/4)a, (C/m2) in the region 0< r ~ 3 m in cylindrical coordinates and D = (810/4r)a, (C/m2) elsewhere, find the charge density.
For 0<,53m,
and for r > 3 m,
1 a p=(81O/4)=0 ,a,
4.13. Given that
Q
D = 2 (1  cos 3r)a, 7fr
in spherical coordinates, find the charge density.
1 a [ 2 Q ] 3Q.
p= r (Icos3r) =sm3,
,2 a, 1'C,2 1'C,2
4.14. In the region O<r~lm, D=(2x 1O4/r)a, (C/m2) and for r>lm, D=(4x 1O4/r2)a, (C/m2). in spherical coordinates. Find the charge density in both regions.
For 0<,51 m,
and for r > 1 m,
4.15. In the region r ~ 2, D = (Sr2/4)a, and for r > 2, D = (20/r2)a" in spherical coordinates. Find the charge density.
For ,52,
1 a
p =(5r4/4) = 5r ,2 a,
and for ,>2,
1 a p=(20)=O ,2 a,
4.16. Given that D = (lOxJ/3)ax (C/m2), evaluate both sides of the divergence theorem for the volume of a cube, 2 m on an edge, centered at the origin and with edges parallel to the axes.
1. D· dS = i (V, D) dv
r vol
Since D has only an x component, D· dS is zero on all but the faces at x = 1 m and x = 1 m (see Fig. 46).
1. il It 10(1) II it 10(1)
rDodS= _I _13axodydzax+ _I _13axodydz(ax)
40 40 80
=+=C
333
CHAP. 4]
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
55
z
y
Now for the right side of the divergence theorem. Since V· D = IOx2,
1 11 11 11 11 11 [ %3]2 80
_(V.D)dv= 1 1 _1(IOx2)dtdydz= 1 _1103 _ldydz="3C
4.17. Given that A = JOe'a,  2zaz in cylindrical coordinates, evaluate both sides of the • divergence theorem for the volume enclosed by r = 2, Z = 0, and Z = 5 (Fig. 47).
fA. dS= I (V· A)dv
A,
It is noted that Az = 0 for z = 0 and hence A· dS is zero over that part of the surface. fA•dS= f f" 3Oe2."2d~dz.,+ L2>I f 2(S) •• ',drdq,az
= 6Oe2(2Jr)(S) 10(211')(2) = 129.4
For the right side of the divergence theorem:
1 a a 3Oe'
V· A,,",;: a, (30re') + az (2z) = ,  3Oe'  2
f (V· A)dv = f L2I< f (~' 3Oe' 2),drdq,dZ = 129.4
and
4.18 Given that D = (10r3/4)., (C/m2) in cylindrical coordinates, evaluate both sides of the ~ divergence theorem for the volume enclosed by r = 1 m, r = 2 m, Z = 0 and Z = 10 m ~ (see Fig. 48).
fD. dS= I (V. D)dv
56
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
(CHAP. 4
z
Since D has no z component, D· dS is zero for the top and bottom. On the inner cylindrical surface dS is in the direction a,.
i. LID L2>o 10
j D· dS OK 0 "4 (1)3a,· (1) d(j) dz( a,)
11012"10
+ 0 0 "4 (2)3a, • (2) d(j) dza,
 20011' 20011'
=+ 16=750nC
4 4
From the right side of the divergence theorem:
1 a (10r4)
V·D=  =10r2
rar 4
and
4.19. Given that D = (5r2/4)., (C/m2) in spherical coordinates, ~ divergence theorem for the volume enclosed by r = 4 m and
~ fD•dS= f (V·D)dv
evaluate both sides of the 8 = n/4 (see Fig. 49).
z
Fla. 49
Since D has only a radial component, D· dS has a nonzero value only on the surface r = 4 m.
CHAP. 4)
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
For the right side of the divergence theorem:
1 a (5r4)
V·D=  =5r r2 ar 4
and
f 1Z""1,,"/414
(V· D) dv = 0 0 0 (5r)r2 sin 6 dr d6 d4J = 589.1 C
Supplementary Problems
4.20. Develop the divergence in spherical coordinates. Use the deltavolume with edges Ar, r A6, and r sin 6 AtP.
4.21. Show that V· E is zero for the field of a uniform sheet charge.
4.22. The field of an electric dipole with the charges at ±d /2 on the z axis is E = 4 Qd 3 (2 cos 6a, + sin 6all) !cEor
Show that the divergence of this field is zero.
4.23. Given A = e5Xax + 2 cos yay + 2 sin zaz, find V' A at the origin.
AIlS. 7.0
4.24. Given A = (3x + y2)ax + (x  y2)ay, find V· A.
AIlS. 32y
4.25. Given A = 2xyax + zay + yz2az, find V· A at (2, 1,3).
AIlS. 8.0
4.26. Given A = 4xyax  xyZay + 5 sin zaz, find V· A at (2,2,0). AIlS. 5.0
4.27. Given A = 2r cos2l/1a, + 3r2 sin z~ + 4z sin21/1 a,.; find V· A. AIlS. 4.0
4.28. Given A = (lO/r2)a, + 5e2Za., find V· A at (2, 1/1, 1).
AIlS. 2.60
4.29. Given A = 5 cos ra, + (3zeZ,/r)a., find V· A at (!C, 1/1, z).
AIlS. 1.59
4.30. Given A = lOa, + 5 sin 6all , find V· A. AIlS. (2 + cos 6)(IO/r)
4.31. Given A = ra,  r2 cot 6all , find V· A. AIlS. 3r
4.32. Given A = [(10 sirr' 6)/r)a, (N/m), find V· A at (2 m, !C/4 rad, n/2 rad). AIlS. 1.25 N/mz.
4.33. Given A = r2 sin 6a, + 13l/1all + 2ra4> ' find V· A. AIlS. 4r sin 6 + C~I/I) cot 6 4.34. Show that the divergence of E is zero if E = (100/r)a4> + 4Oaz•
4.35. In the region a:S r:S b (cylindrical coordinates),
57
58
DIVERGENCE AND THE DIVERGENCE THEOREM
[CHAP. 4
and for r > b,
For r < a, D = O. Find P in all three regions.
AIlS. 0, Po, 0
4.36. In the region 0<r:s2 (cylindrical coordinates), D=(4rI+2eO.5r+4rleO.5,)a" and for r >
2, D = (2.057/r)ar _ Find p in both regions. AIlS. _e05r,0
4.37.
In the region r :s 2 (cylindrical [3/(128r»)ar• Find p in both regions.
coordinates), D = [lOr + (r2/3»)a. , and AIlS. 20+r, 0
r>2, D=
for
4.38. Given D = 10 sin Ba. + 2 cos Baa, find the charge density.
sin B
AIlS. 5(18+ 2coe B)
4.39. Given
3, D=a ,z + 1 •
in spherical coordinates, find the charge density.
4.40. Given
in spherical coordinates, find the charge density.
AIlS. 4Oe2T
4.41. In the region ,:os; 1 (spherical coordinates),
D= (~ ~)a.
and for r > 1, D = [5/(63r2»)ar _ Find the charge density in both regions.
AIlS. 4 r2, 0
4.42. The region r es Zm (spherical coordinates) has a field E=(5rxlO5/Eo)a. (V/m). Find the net
charge enclosed by the shell r = 2 m. AIIS_ 5.03 x 103 C
4.43. Given that D = (5r2/4)ar in spherical coordinates, evaluate both sides of the divergence theorem for
the volume enclosed between r = 1 and r = 2_ AIlS. 751r
4.44. Given that D = (IOr1/4)a. in cylindrical coordinates, evaluate both sides of the divergence theorem
for the volume enclosed by r = 2, Z = 0, and Z = 10. AIlS. 8001r
4.45. Given that D = 10 sin Bar + 2 cos Baa, evaluate both sides of the divergence theorem for the volume
enclosed by the shell r = 2. AIlS. 401r2
Chapter 5
The Electrostatic Field: Work, Energy, and Potential
5.1 WORK DONE IN MOVING A POINT CHARGE
A charge Q experiences a force F in an electric field E. In order to maintain the charge in equilibrium a force Fa must be applied in opposition (Fig. 51):
F=QE
Fa= QE
E
F,,.F
Q
Fig. 51
Work is defined as a force acting over a distance. Therefore, a differential amount of work dW is done when the applied force Fa produces a differential displacement dl of the charge; i.e. moves the charge through the distance dt = Idll. Quantitatively,
dW =Fa' dl= QE· dl
Note that when Q is positive and dl is in the direction of E, dW =  QE dt < 0, indicating that work was done by the electric field. [Analogously, the gravitational field of the earth performs work on a (positive) mass M as it is moved from a higher elevation to a lower one.] On the other hand, a positive dW indicates work done against the electric field (cf. lifting the mass M).
Component forms of the differential displacement vector are as follows:
dl = dxe, + dye; + dzaz (cartesian)
dl = drs; + r d4>a4> + dze, (cylindrical)
dl = dra, + r dlJae + r sin lJ d4>a4>
(spherical)
The corresponding expressions for dt were displayed in Section 1.5.
EXAMPLE 1. An electrostatic field is given by E = (x/2 + 2y)ax + 2xay (V 1m). Find the work done in moving a point charge Q = 20 IlC (a) from the origin to (4,0,0) m, and (b) from (4,0,0) m to (4,2,0) m.
(a) The first path is along the x axis, so that dl = dx ax.
dW = QE· dl = (20 x 1O6)(~ + 2Y) dx W = (20 x 106) f (~+ 2y) dx = 80llJ (b) The second path is in the ay direction, so that dl = dylly.
W = (20 x 106) f 2x dy = 320llJ
59
60
THE ELECfROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
5.2 CONSERVATIVE PROPERTY OF THE ELECfROSTA TIC FIELD
The work done in moving a point charge from one location, B, to another, A, in a static electric field is independent of the path taken. Thus, in terms of Fig. 52,
IE. dl = L E· dl
CD ~
or
1. E.dl=O j~
where the last integral is over the closed contour formed by <D described positively and ~ described negatively. Conversely, if a vector field F has the property that ~ F • dl = 0 over every closed contour, then the value of any tine integral of F is determined solely by the endpoints of the path. Such a field F is called conservative; it can be shown that a criterion for the conservative property is that the curl of F vanish identically (see Section 9.4).
Fig.SZ
EXAMPLE 2. For the E field of Example 1. find the work done in moving the same charge from (4.2,0) back to (0, 0, 0) along a straightline path.
W = (20 x 1O~ fO.o.O) [ (~+ 2y)ax + 2xay] • (dx ax + dy ay)
(4.2.0)
1(0.0.0) (X )
= (20 x tof» 2 + 2y dx + 2x dy
(4.2.0)
The equation of the path is y = x/2; therefore, dy = ~ dx and
W = (20 x to6) f h dx = 400 ",J
From Example 1. 80 + 320 = 400 ",J of work was spent against the field along the outgoing. rightangled path. Exactly this much work was returned by the field along the incoming, straightline path, for a roundtrip total of zero (conservative field).
5.3 ELECfRlC POTENTIAL BETWEEN TWO POINTS
The potential of point A with respect to point B is defined as the work done in moving a unit positive charge. Qu. from B to A.
VAB= W =  LA E.dl (J/C or V)
Qu B
It should be observed that the initial, or reference, point is the lower limit of the line integral. Then, too, the minus sign must not be omitted. This sign came into the expression by way of the force Fa = QE, which had to be applied to put the charge in equilibrium.
Because E is a conservative field,
CHAP. 5)
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
whence VAB may be considered as the potential difference between points A and B. When VAB is positive, work must be done to move the unit positive charge from B to A, and point A is said to be at a higher potential than point B.
5.4 POTENTIAL OF A POINT CHARGE
Since the electric field due to a point charge Q is completely in the radial direction,
fA irA Q irA dr Q (1 1
VAB=  E·dl=  E dr=  = 
B rH r 4.7rEo re r2 4.7rEo rA rB)
For a positive charge Q, point A is at a higher potential than point B when rA is smaller than rB• If the reference point B is now allowed to move out to infinity,
VA~ = 4;EII c: ~)
or
Considerable use will be made of this equation in the materials that follow. The greatest danger lies in forgetting where the reference is and attempting to apply the equation to charge distributions which themselves extend to infinity.
5.5 POTENTIAL OF A CHARGE DISTRIBUTION
If charge is distributed throughout some finite volume with a known charge density p (C/m3), then the potential at some external point can be determined. To do so, a differential charge at a general point within the volume is identified, as shown in Fig. 53. Then at P,
dV =__!!Q_
4.7rEoR
Integration over the volume gives the total potential at P:
J pdv
V 
vOI4.7rEoR
where dQ is replaced by p dv. Now R must not be confused with r of the spherical coordinate system. And R is not a vector but the distance from dQ to the fixed point P. Finally, R almost always varies from place to place throughout the volume and so cannot be removed from the integrand.
dV "'p
R
Fig. 53
If charge is distributed over a surface or a line, the above expression for V holds, provided that the integration is over the surface or the line and that P s or Pt' is used in place of p. It must be emphasized that all these expressions for the potential at an external point are based upon a zero reference at infinity.
61
62
THE ELECfROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP_ 5
EXAMPLE 3. A total charge of ~ nC is uniformly distributed in the form of a circular disk of radius 2 m. Find the potential due to this charge at a point on the axis, 2 m from the disk. Compare this potential with that which results if all of the charge is at the center of the disk.
Using Fig_ 54,
and
Q lOM
Ps = A = 3.n C/m2
V = 30 (2n (2 rdrdcJ> = 49_7 V .n J" Jo v'4+r2
R=v'4+r2 (m)
With the total charge at the center of the disk, the expression for the potential of a point charge applies:
Q 4°xlO9
V= 3 =60V
4.nEoZ 4.n(10 9/36.n)2
10. O. 21
Fig. 54
5.6 GRADIENT
At this point another operation of vector analysis is introduced. Figure 55(a) shows two neighboring points, M and N, of the region in which a scalar function V is defined. The vector separation of the two points is
M(x,y,z)
N(x + dx , y + av, z + dz)
~V(X'Y'Z)=C2
~
V(x, Y. z) =CI
}'
Z
y
x
(a)
(b)
Fig. 55
CHAP. 5)
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
From the calculus, the change in V from M to N is given by
av av av
dV =  dx +  dy +  dz
ax ay az
Now, the del operator, introduced in Section 4.4, operating on V gives
av av av
VV=a +a +a ax x ay Y az Z
It follows that
dV=VV·dr
The vector field VV (also written grad V) is called the gradient of the scalar function V. It is seen that, for fixed Idrl, the change in V in a given direction ds is proportional to the projection of VV in that direction. Thus VV lies in the direction of maximum increase of the function V.
Another view of the gradient is obtained by allowing the points M and N to lie on the same equipotential (if V is a potential) surface, Vex, y, z) = c. [see Fig. 55(b»). Then dV = 0, which implies that VV is perpendicular to dr. But dr is tangent to the equipotential surface; indeed, for a suitable location of N, it represents any tangent through M. Therefore, VV must be along the surface normal at M. Since VV is in the direction of increasing V, it points from Vex, y, z) = c. to V(x, y, z) = C2, where c2> Ct. The gradient of a potential function is a vector field that is everywhere normal to the equipotential surfaces.
The gradient in the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems follows directly from that in the cartesian system. It is noted that each term contains the partial derivative of V with respect to distance in the direction of that particular unit vector.
av av av
VV = a ax +  8y + a a, (cartesian)
x ay z
av av av
VV = a a, + a a", + a a, (cylindrical)
r r 4> z
av av av
VV=a, +ao +. 8 (spherical)
ar r aB r Sin B a<l> '"
While VV is written for grad V in any coordinate system, it must be remembered that the del operator is defined only in cartesian coordinates.
S.7 RELA TIONSmp BETWEEN E AND V
From the integral expression for the potential of A with respect to B, the differential of V may be written
dV=E·dl
On the other hand,
dV=VV ·dr
Since dl = dr is an arbitrary small displacement, it follows that E=VV
The electric field intensity E may be obtained when the potential function V is known by simply taking the negative of the gradient of V. The gradient was found to be a vector normal to the equipotential surfaces, directed to a positive change in V. With the negative sign here, the E field is found to be directed from higher to lower levels of potential V.
63
64
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
EXAMPLE 4. In spherical coordinates and relative to infinity, the potential in the region r > 0 surrounding a point charge Q is V = QI41CEor. Hence,
E = VV = ~ (_g__). =___Q_.
ar 41CEor ' 41CEor2'
in agreement with Coulomb's law. (V is obtained in principle by integrating E; so it is not surprising that differentiation of V gives back E.)
5.8 ENERGY IN STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS
Consider the work required to assemble, charge by charge, a distribution of n = 3 point charges. The region is assumed initially to be chargefree and with E = 0 throughout.
Referring to Fig. 56, the work required to place the first charge, Q., into position 1 is zero. Then, when Q2 is moved toward the region, work equal to the product of this charge and the potential due to Q. is required. The total work to position the three charges is
WE= WI + W2+ WJ
= 0 + (Q2 V2 .• ) + (Q3 V3•1 + Q3 V3.2)
The potential V2.1 must be read "the potential at point 2 due to charge Q. at position 1." (This rather unusual notation will not appear again in this book.) The work WE is the energy stored in the electric field of the charge distribition. (See Problem 5.17 for a comment on this identification.)
Now if the three charges were brought into place in reverse order, the total work would be
WE = W3 + W2 + W.
= 0 + (Q2 V2.3) + (Q. V r, 3 + Q. V1.2)
When the two expressions above are added, the result is twice the stored energy: 2WE = Q,(VI.2 + V1.3) + Q2(V2.1 + V2.3) + Q3(V3., + V3.2)
The term Q,(V r. 2 + Vu) was the work done against the fields of Q2 and QJ, the only other charges in the region. Hence, V1.2 + V1.3 = VI' the potential at position 1. Then
2WE = QI VI + Q2V2 + Q3V3
1 n
and WE=2m~. QmVm
for a region containing n point charges. For a region with a charge density p (C/mJ) the summation becomes an integration,
Other forms (see Problem 5.12) of the expression for stored energy are
1 f D2
WE =2 ;dv
00
Fig. S6
CHAP. 5)
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
In an electric circuit, the energy stored in the field of a capacitor is given by WE = !QV = !CV2
where C is the capacitance (in farads), V is the voltage difference between the two conductors making up the capacitor, and Q is the magnitude of the total charge on one of the conductors.
EXAMPLE 5. A parallelplate capacitor, for which C = £A/d, has a constant voltage V applied across the plates (Fig. 57). Find the stored energy in the electric field.
d
Fig. 57
With fringing neglected, the field is E = (V /d)an between the plates and E = 0 elsewhere.
WE=iJ ££2dv
1 =CV2 2
As an alternate approach, the total charge on one conductor may be found from 0 at the surface via Gauss' law (Section 3.3).
£V D=a d "
Then
£VA Q=IDIA=d
1 1 (£AV2) 1 2
W=2QV=2 =r: =2CV
Solved Problems
5.1.
Given the electric field E = lxax  4yay (V 1m), find the work done in moving a point charge +2 C (a) from (2,0,0) m to (0,0,0) and then from (0,0,0) [0 (0,2,0); (b) from (2, 0, 0) to (0, 2, 0) along the straightline path joining the two points. (See Fig. 58.)
(a) Along the x axis, y = dy = dz = 0, and
dW = 2(2xax)' (dx ax) = 4x dx
"1+
a.
Mlllhcacl
65
66
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
(0.2.0)
l2. II. II)
«(I)
(I> )
+ ..... .\
lal
ru. O. 0)
Fig. 58
Along the y axis, x = dx = dz = (l, and
dW = 2( 4ya.) . (dyay) = 8y dy
W = 4 f x dx + 8 f y dy = 24 J
Thus
(b) The straightline path has the parametric equations
x=22t y=2t z=O
where 0 ~ t ~ 1. Hence,
and
dW = 2[2(2  2t)ax  4(2t)ay]. [(  2 dt)a, + (2 dt)a,] =16(I+t)dt
W = 16 (' (I + t) dt = 24 J Jo
5.2.
Find the work done in moving a point charge Q = 5 lie from the origin to (2 m, :rr/4, :rr12), spherical coordinates, in the field
rf+
sa.
Mathcad
10
E=5erI4a +a (Vim) r r sin e <P
In spherical coordinates,
dl = drs, + r dfJaH + r sin e d¢a.p
Choose the path shown in Fig. 59. Along segment I, dfJ = d¢ = 0, and dW = QE . dl = (5 x 10 ")(5e·rf·dr) Along segment II, dr = dfJ = 0, and
dW = QE· d)= (5 x 10 ")(lOd¢)
x
Fig. 59
CHAP.5f
TIlE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
Along segment III, dr = dq, = 0, and
dW = QE·dl=O
Therefore,
W = (25 x 106) f e,'4dr+ (50+ 1O~ r dq, = 117.9 I'J In this case, the field does 117.91'J of work on the moving charge.
5.3. Given the field E = (klr)., in cylindrical coordinates, show that the work needed to move a point charge Q from any radial distance r to a point at twice that radial distance is independent of r.
Since the field has only a radial component,
kQ dW= QE·dI= QE,dr=dr r
For the limits of integration use rl and 2rl.
LUI dr
W = kQ = kQ In2
'1 r
independent of rl•
5.4. For a line charge p~= (109/2) C/m on the z axis, find VAB, where A is (2 m, Jr/2, 0) and B is (4 m, x, 5 m).
VAB = LA E. dl
where
Since the field due to the line charge is completely in the radial direction, the dot product with dl results in E,dr.
f.A 109
VAB =  B 2(2.1fEor) dr = 9[ln rJ: = 6.24 V
5.5. In the field of Problem 5.4, find VBC, where re = 4 m and rc = 10 m. Then find VAC and compare with the sum of VAB and VBC•
VBC = 9[ln rJ~~ = 9(1n 4 In 10) = 8.25 V VAC = 9[ln rJ~: = 9(ln 2  In 10) = 14.49 V VAB + VBC = 6.24 V + 8.25 V = 14.49 V = VAC
5.6. Given the field E = (16Ir2)., (V 1m) in spherical coordinates, find the potential of point (2 m, x, Jr/2) with respect to (4 m, O,Jr).
The equipotential surfaces are concentric spherical shells. Let r = 2 m be A and r = 4 m,
B. Then
VAB =  f (~!6) dr = 4 V
5.7.
A line charge p~ = 400 pC/m lies along the x axis and the surface of zero potential passes through the point (0,5,12) m in cartesian coordinates (see Fig. 510). Find the potential ~t (2,3, 4) m .
i!:i .!I!!
67
68
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
z
Line charge
y
Fig. 510
With the line charge along the x axis, the x coordinates of the two points may be ignored.
'A = v'9 + 16 = 5 m
TB = \125 + 144 = 13 m
Then
I'", Pt Pt rA
V"B=  dT= In=6.88V
'8 21rf=or 2Jr£o'e
S.B.
Find the potential at 'A = 5 m with respect to TB = 15 m due to a point charge Q = 500 pC at the origin and zero reference at infinity.
Due to a point charge,
To find the potential difference, the zero reference is not needed.
500 x 1012 (1 1 )
  =060V
VAB  4Jr(lO 9/36Jr) 5 15 .
The zero reference at infinity may be used to find Y. and ~s·
v.=__Q_ (51) = 0.90 V 4JrEo
VIS = __Q_ (..!.) = 0.30 V
4JrEo 15
Then
5.9. Forty nanocoulombs of charge is uniformly distributed around a circular ring of radius 2 m. Find the potential at a point on the axis 5 m from the plane of the ring. Compare with the result where all the charge is at the origin in the form of a point charge.
With the charge in a line,
V=f ptdf 4JrEoR
40 x 109 108
Pt= =C/m
2Jr(2) Jr
and (see Fig. 511) R = v'29 m, df = (2 m) dq,.
Here
CHAP. 5)
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
z
F1g. Sll
If the charge is concentrated at the origin,
40x 109
V = (5) = 72.0 V
4.1rEo
S.10. Five equal point charges, Q = 20 nC, are located at x = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 m. Find the potential at the origin.
j&
Mllthcad
1 "Qm 20 X 109 (1 1 1 1 1)
V= L = ++++ =261 V
4.1rEom=,Rm 4.1rEo 2 3 4 5 6
s.u. Charge is distributed uniformly along a straight line of finite length 2L (Fig. 512). Show that for two external points near the midpoint, such that r, and '2 are small compared to the length, the potential V'2 is the same as for an infinite line charge.
L
Fig. SoU
69
70
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
The potential at point 1 with zero reference at infinity is
il. PI dz
VI =2 " II'
" 4Jr£,,(z + ,,) 
2p, [ y''' ]/.
=  In (z + z " + ,,) "
4Jr£()
= __f!_!_ [In (L + v'L 2 + ,D  In,.] 2JrE"
Similarly, the potential at point 2 is
Now if L~'I and L~'2'
P,
VI = (In 2L In '1) 2JrE()
P,
V, =  (In 2L  In ,,)
2Jr£"
Then
P, '2
VI' = VI  V2=ln
2JrEII '1
which agrees with the expression found in Problem 5.7 for the infinite line.
s.u. Charge distributed throughout a volume v with density p gives rise to an electric field with energy content
Show that an equivalent expression for the stored energy is
1 J 2
WE=2 EE dv
Figure 513 shows the chargecontaining volume v enclosed within a large sphere of radius
R. Since P vanishes outside v.
If II II
l¥t .. = pdv= pVdv= (V'D)Vdv
. 2 I' 2 ~phcn('dl 2 .. phCTU:::.tl
volume
volume
Sphere
Fig. 513
CHAP. 5)
THE ELECfROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
The vector identity V· V A = A· VV + V(V • A), applied to the integrand, gives
WE =!J (V. VD)dv _!J (D' VV)dv
2 ophericaJ 2 opheric:aJ
volume yolume
This expression holds for an arbitrarily large radius R; the plan is to let R + 00.
The first integral on the right equals, by the divergence theorem,
!1 VD.dS
2 T.Pheric:aJ surface
Now, as the enclosing sphere becomes very large, the enclosed volume charge looks like a point charge. Thus, at the surface, D appears as kJ/R2 and V appears as kzlR. So the integrand is decreasing as 1/ R3. Since the surface area increases only as R2, it follows that
lim 1 VD . dS = 0
R_ T.pherical
aurfacc
The remaining integral gives, in the limit,
And since D = EE, the stored energy is also given by
WE=~J EE2dv
or
5.13. Given the potential function V = 2x + 4y (V) in free space, find the stored energy in a Im3 volume centered at the origin. Examine other Im3 volumes.
(av av av)
E= VV =  ax ax + ay 8" + az 8z = 28, 48" (VIm)
This field is constant in magnitude (E = v'2O VIm) and direction over all space, and so the total stored energy is infinite. (The field could be that within an infinite parallelplate capacitor. It would take an infinite amount of work to charge such a capacitor.)
Nevertheless, it is possible to speak of an energy density for this and other fields. The expression
WE=~f Eedv
suggests that each tiny volume dv be assigned the energy content w dv, where W=~Ee
For the present field, the energy density is constant:
1 108
W =  Eo(2O) =  J/m3
2 36n
and so every I_m3 volume contains (1O8/36n) J of energy.
5.14.
Two thin conducting half planes; at t/> = 0 and t/> = xl«, are insulated from each other along the z axis. Given that the potential function for 0 s t/> s n/6 is V = ( (i)q,/n) V, find the energy stored between the half planes for 0.1 s r s 0.6 m and 0 s z s 1 m. Assume free space.
To find the energy, W;;, stored in a limited region of space, one must integrate the energy density (see Problem 5.13) through the region. Between the half planes,
E= VV = !~ (OOt/»8 = 00 8 (VIm)
r at/> n ." nr'"
71
72
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
and so
£ 111"'6 [.6 (60)2 300£
W;'= 2° ° 0 0.1 1rr rdrd4>dz=~ln6=1.51nJ
S.lS. The electric field between two concentric cylindrical conductors at r = 0.01 m and r = 0.05 m is given by E = (IOSlr)ar (V 1m), fringing neglected. Find the energy stored in a 0.5m length. Assume free space.
1 J e J." +0.5 L211 LO.os (lOS)2
W;' = 2 £oE2 dv = 20" 0 0.01 ; r dr d4> dz = 0.224 J
S.16. Find the stored energy in a system of four identical point charges, Q = 4 nC, at the corners of a square 1 m on a side. What is the stored energy in the system when only two charges at opposite corners are in place?
2WE = QI Yt + Q2"i+ Q3l3+ Q4V4=4QI VI where the last equality follows from the symmetry of the system.
Q Q Q 4 X 109 (1 1 1)
VI = 2 + J + 4 =  +  + ::: = 97.5 V
41f£IIR 12 4Jr£oR 13 41f£oR 14 4Jr£" 1 1 v'2
Then
WE = 2QI VI = 2(4 x 109)(97.5) = 780nJ
For only two charges in place,
9 (4 x 109)
2WE=QIVI=(4X 10 ) =102nJ
41f£0v'2
S.17. What energy is stored in the system of two point charges, Ql = 3 nC and Q2 = 3 nC, separated by a distance of d = 0.2 m?
2WE = QI VI + Q2 V2 = QI(4Jr~: d) + Q2(4Jr~: d)
w: = QIQ2 = _ (3 X 109)2 = 405 nJ
E 41f£0 d 41f(1O 9/36Jr)(O.2)
whence
It may seem paradoxical that the stored energy turns out to be negative here. whereas ~£E2, and hence
is necessarily positive. The reason for the discrepancy is that in equating the work done in assembling a system of point charges to the energy stored in the field, one neglects the infinite energy already in the field when the charges were at infinity. (It took an infinite amount of work to create the separate charges at infinity.) Thus, the above result, WE = 405 nJ, may be taken to mean that the energy is 405 nJ below the (infinite) reference level at infinity. Since only energy differences have physical significance, the reference level may properly be disregarded.
5.1S. A spherical conducting shell of radius a, centered at the origin, has a potential field
v{Vo
Voalr
rS,a
r>a
with the zero reference at infinity. Find an expression for the stored energy that this
CHAP. 5]
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
potential represents
r<a r>a
If € t"L"r(v,a)2
WE:=z €oedv=o+; 10 ° 10 r~ r2sinOdrdOdq,=21f£oV;,a
Note that the total charge on the shell is, from Gauss' law,
Q = VA = (£:;oa)(4Jra2) = 41f£oVoa
while the potential at the shell is V = Yo' Thus, WE = ~QV, the familiar result for the energy stored in a capacitor (in this case, a spherical capacitor with the other plate of infinite radius).
Supplementary Problems
5.19. Find the work done in moving a point charge Q = 20 pC from the origin to (4,2,0) m in the field E = 2(x + 4Y)8x + 8x8,. (V 1m)
along the path X2 = By.
Am. 1.OOmJ
5.10. Repeat Problem 5.2 using the direct radial path.
Am. 39.35 pJ (the nature of the singularity along the z axis makes the field nonconservative)
5.21. Repeat Problem 5.2 using the path shown in Fig. 514.
Am. 117.9 pJ
z
x
Fig. 514
5.22. Find the work done in moving a point charge Q = 3 pC from (4 m, n; 0) to (2 m, Jr/2, 2 m),
cylindrical coordinates, in the field E = (Uflr)8, + Ufza, (V 1m). Am. 0.392 J
5.23. Find the difference in the amounts of work required to bring a point charge Q = 2 nC from infinity to r = 2 m and from infinity to r = 4 m, in the field E = (Hflr)8, (VIm).
Am. 1.39 x 104 J
5.24. A uniform line charge of density p~ = 1 nClm is arranged in the form of a square 6 m on a side, as
shown in Fig. 5·15. Find the potential at (0,0,5) m. Am. 35.6 V
5.25. Develop an expression for the potential at a point d meters radially outward from the midpoint of a finite line charge L meters long and of uniform density p, (C/m). Apply this result to Problem 5.24 as a check.
p, L/2 + vd2 + L2/4
Am. 21f£o In d (V)
73
74
THE ELECfROSTA TIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
[CHAP. 5
z
(0,0, S)
.Y
x
Fix. 515
5.26. Show that the potential at the origin due to a uniform surface charge density P. over the ring z = 0, R :5 r :5 R + 1 is independent of R.
5.27. A total charge of 160 nC is first separated into four equal point charges spaced at 90" intervals around a circle of 3 m radius. Find the potential at a point on the axis. 5 m from the plane of the circle. Separate the total charge into eight equal parts and repeat with the charges at 45°
intervals. What would be the answer in the limit p, = (160/6Jr) nC/m? Am. 247 V
S.lB. In spherical coordinates, point A is at a radius 2 m while B is at 4 m. Given the field E = (16/r2)8, (VIm), find the potential of point A, zero reference at infinity. Repeat for point B. Now express the potential difference VA  VB and compare the result with Problem 5.6.
Am. VA = 2VB = 8 V
5.19. If the zero potential reference is at r = 10 m and a point charge Q = 0.5 nC is at the origin, find the potentials at r = 5 m and r = 15 m. At what radius is the potential the same in magnitude as
that at r = 5 m but opposite in sign? Am. 0.45 V, 0.15 V, IX)
5.30. A point charge Q = 0.4 nC is located at (2,3,3) m in cartesian coordinates. Find the potential
difference VAB, where point A is (2,2,3) m and B is (2,3,3) m. Am. 2.70 V
5.31. Find the potential in spherical coordinates due to two equal but opposite point charges on the y axis
at y=±d/2. Assume r~d. Am. (Qdsin6)/(4Jr£or2)
5.32. Repeat Problem 5.31 with the charges on the z axis.
5.33. Find the charge densities on the conductors in Problem 5.14.
+60£0 60£0 2 Jr
Am.  (C/m2) on t/> = 0,  (C/m ) on t/> =
_ _ 6
5.34. A uniform line charge Pi = 2 nelm lies in the z = 0 plane parallel to the x axis at y = 3 m. Find
the potential difference VAH for the points A(2 m, 0, 4 m) and B(O, 0, 0) Am. 18.4 V
5.35. A uniform sheet of charge, P. = (1/6n) nC/m2, is at x = 0 and a second sheet, P. = (1/6Jr)nC/m\ is at x=lOm. Find VAB, VBe, and VAC for A(lOm,O,O), B(4m,O,O), and
C(O,O,O). Am. 36V,24V,60V
5.36. Given the cylindrical coordinate electric fields E = (5Ir)., (V 1m) for 0:5 r:5 2 m and E = 2.58, V 1m for r > 2 m, find the potential difference VAB for A(I m, 0, 0) and B( 4 m, 0, 0).
Am. 8.47V
5.37. A parallelplate capacitor 0.5 m by 1.0 m, has a separation distance of 2 em and a voltage difference of
10 V. Find the stored energy, assuming that e = £0. Am. 11.1 nJ
CHAP. 5]
THE ELECTROSTATIC FIELD: WORK, ENERGY, AND POTENTIAL
5.38. The capacitor described in Problem 5.37 has an applied voltage of 200 V. (a) Find the stored energy.
(b) Hold d, (Fig. 516) at 2 ern and the voltage difference at 200 V, while increasing d2 to 2.2cm. Find the final stored energy. [Hint: .6WE = l(.6C)V2]
AIlS. (a) 4.4 pJ; (b) 4.2 pJ
: ::'.':'.' .p' ,
: , ,. 
I' O.Sm1
Fig. 516
5.39. Find the energy stored in a system of three equal point charges, Q = 2 nC, arranged in a line with
0.5 m separation between them. AIlS. 180 nJ
5.40. Repeat Problem 5.39 if the charge in the center is 2 nC.
AIlS. 108nJ
5.41. Four equal point charges, Q = 2 nC, are to be placed at the comers of a square ~ m on a side, one at a time. Find the energy in the system after each charge is positioned.
AIlS. 0, 108 nJ, 292 nJ, 585 nJ
5.42. Given the electric field E = 5e'/Da, in cylindrical coordinates, find the energy stored in the volume
describedby r$,2a and 0$,z$,5a. AIlS. 7.89xl0JOaJ
5.43. Given a potential V = 3x2 + 4y2 (V), find the energy stored in the volume described by 0 es x$,
1 m, O$,y $, 1 m, and O$,z $, 1 m. AIlS. 147pJ
75
Chapter 6
Current, Current Density, and Conductors
6.1 INTRODUcnON
Electric current is the rate of transport of electric charge past a specified point or across a specified surface. The symbol I is generally used for constant currents and i for timevariable currents. The unit of current is the ampere (I A = 1 CIs; in the SI, the ampere is the basic unit and the coulomb is the derived unit).
Ohm's law relates current to voltage and resistance. For simple dc circuits, 1 = V / R. However, when charges are suspended in a liquid or a gas, or where both positive and negative charge carriers are present with different characteristics, the simple form of Ohm's law is insufficient. Consequently, the current density J (A/m2) receives more attention in electromagneties than does current I.
6.2 CHARGES IN MOTION
Consider the force on a positively charged particle in an electric field in vacuum, as shown in Fig.6I(a). This force, F= +QE, is unopposed and results in constant acceleration. Thus the charge moves in the direction of E with a velocity U that increases as long as the particle is in the E field. When the charge is in a liquid or gas, as shown in Fig. 6I(b), it collides repeatedly with particles in the medium, resulting in random changes in direction. But, for constant E and a homogeneous medium, the random velocity components cancel out, leaving a constant average velocity, known as the drift velocity U, along the direction of E. Conduction in metals takes place by movement of the electrons in the outermost shells of the atoms making up the crystalline structure. According to the electrongas theory, these electrons reach an average drift velocity in much the same way as a charged particle moving through a liquid or gas. The drift velocity is directly proportional to the electric field intensity,
U=llE
where 11, the mobility, has the units m2/V· s. Each cubic meter of a conductor contains on the order of IOU atoms. Good conductors have one or two electrons from each atom free to move upon application of the field. The mobility 11 varies with temperature and the crystalline structure of the solid. The particles in the solid have a vibratory motion which increases with temperature. This makes it more difficult for the charges to move. Thus, at higher temperatures the mobility 11 is reduced, resulting in a smaller drift velocity (or current) for a given E. In circuit analysis this phenomenon is accounted for by stating a resistivity for each material and specifying an increase in this resistivity with increasing temperature.
U ~+~Q~·==~~~E
(a) Vacuum
(b) Liquid or gas
Fig. 61
76
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
6.3 CONVECTION CURRENT DENSITY J
A set of charged particles giving rise to a charge density p in a volume v is shown in Fig. 62 to have a velocity U to the right. The particles arc assumed to maintain their relative positions within the volume. As this charge configuration passes a surface S it constitutes a convection current, with density
J = pU (A/m2)
Of course, if the cross section of v varies or if the density p is not constant throughout v, then J will not be constant with time. Further, J will be zero when the last portion of the volume crosses S. Nevertheless, the concept of a current density caused by a cloud of charged particles in motion is at times useful in the study of electromagnetic field theory.
, U

v JpU
s , ·~
Fig. 62 6_4 CONDUCTION CURRENT DENSITY J
Of more interest is the conduction current that occurs in the presence of an electric field within a conductor of fixed cross section. The current density is again given by
J = pU (A/m2)
which, in view of the relation U = /lE, can be written
J=aE
where 0= P/l is the conductivity of the material, in siemens per meter (S/m). In metallic conductors the charge carriers are electrons, which drift in a direction opposite to that of the electric field (Fig. 63). Hence, for electrons, both p and 11 are negative, which results in a positive conductivity a, just as in the case of positive charge carriers. It follows that J and E have the same direction regardless of the sign of the charge carriers. It is conventional to treat electrons moving to the left as positive charges moving to the right. and always to report p and 11 as positive.
The relation J = aE is often referred to as the point form of Ohm's law. The factor a takes into account the density of the electrons free to move (p) and the relative ease with which they move through the crystalline structure (11). As might be expected, a is a function of temperature.
E
s
Fig. 63
77
78
CURRENT. CURRENT DENSITY. AND CONDUCTORS
[CHAP. 6
EXAMPLE 1. What electric field intensity and current density correspond to a drift velocity of 6.0 x 104 mls in a silver conductor?
For silver 0= 61. 7 MS/m and I' = 5.6 x 10 3 m2/V . s.
U 6.0X 104
E == 103 = 1.07 x 10 I Vim
I' 5.6X 
J = aE = 6.61 x lOb A/m2
6.5 CONDUCfIVITY a
In a liquid or gas there are generally present both posinve and negative ions. some singly charged and others doubly charged. and possibly of different masses. A conductivity expression would include all such factors. However. if it is assumed that all the negative ions are alike and so too the positive ions. then the conductivity contains two terms as shown in Fig. 64(a). In a metallic conductor. only the valence electrons are free to move. In Fig. 64(b) they are shown in motion to the left. The conductivity then contains only one term, the product of the charge density of the electrons free to move. p; , and their mobility. #le
J E
0
 CD J
J

E e E

e
(J=P_Il_ +P+Il+
(a) Liquid or gas (b) Conductor
(e) Semiconductor
Fig. 64
A somewhat more complex conduction occurs in semiconductors such as germanium and silicon. In the crystal structure each atom has four covalent bonds with adjacent atoms. However. at room temperature, and upon influx of energy from some external source such as light. electrons can move out of the position called for by the covalent bonding. This creates an electronhole pair available for conduction. Such materials are called intrinsic semiconductors. Electronhole pairs have a short lifetime, disappearing by recombination. However. others are constantly being formed and at all times some are available for conduction. As shown in Fig. 64(c), the conductivity a consists of two terms, one for the electrons and another for the holes. In practice, impurities. in the form of valencethree or valencefive elements, are added to create ptype and ntype semiconductor materials. The intrinsic behavior just described continues. but is far overshadowed by the presence of extra electrons in ntype, or holes in ptype. materials. Then, in the conductivity a, one of the densities. p; or Ph , will far exceed the other.
EXAMPLE 2. Determine the conductivity of intrinsic germanium at room temperature.
At 300 K there are 2.5 x 1019 electronhole pairs per cubic meter. The electron mobility is I'~ = 0.38 m2/V, s and the hole mobility is I'h = 0.18 ml/V· s. Since the material is not doped, the numbers of electrons and holes are equal.
0= N.e(l'. + Ph) = (2.5 x 1019)(1.6 x 1019)(0.38 + 0.18) = 2.24 Slm
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcrORS
6.6 CURRENT I
Where current density J crosses a surface S, as in Fig. 65, the current I is obtained by integrating the dot product of J and dS.
dl=J· dS
Of course, J need not be uniform over Sand S need not be a plane surface.
J
Fig. 65
EXAMPLE 3. Find the current in the circular wire shown in Fig. 66 if the current density is J = 15(1 e1OOOr).. (A/m2). The radius of the wire is 2 mm.
l
cIS
....  ......
J
Fig. 66
A cross section of the wire is chosen for S. Then
dl=J·dS
= 15(1 e1OOOr) ••• r dr dtp ••
and
L2"[.002
I = 0 0 15(1  e Icro..»r dr drp
= 1.33 X 104 A = 0.133 rnA
Any surface S which has a perimeter that meets the outer surface of the conductor all the way around will have the same total current, I = 0.133 rnA, crossing it.
79
80
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
[CHAP. 6
6.7 RESISTANCE R
If a conductor of uniform crosssectional area A and length t, as shown in Fig. 67, has a voltage difference V between its ends, then
V E=e
aV J=
e
and
assuming that the current is uniformly distributed over the area A. The total current is then I=JA = aAV
e
Since Ohm's law states that V = IR, the resistance is
e
R= aA (0)
(Note that 1 Sl = 1 0; the siemens was formerly known as the mho.) This expression for resistance is generally applied to all conductors where the cross section remains constant over the length t. However, if the current density is greater along the surface area of the conductor than in the center, then the expression is not valid. For such nonuniform current distributions the resistance is given by
R= V V
I J . dS I aE· dS
If E is known rather than the voltage difference between the two faces, the resistance is given by
f E·dl
R=
f aE·dS
The numerator gives the voltage drop across the sample, while the denominator gives the total current I.
Fig. 67
EXAMPLE 4. Find the resistance between the inner and outer curved surfaces of the block shown in Fig. 68, where the material is silver for which a == 6.17 x 107 S/m.
If the same current I crosses both the inner and outer curved surfaces,
k
J ==a, r
k
E=a, or
and
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
Jo.o5m
Fig. 68
Then (5" = 0.0873 rad),
L3.o k
a,· dra,
R = 0.2 or
[.05 [.0873 k
a, . r dq, dza,
o 0 r
In 15
1.01 X 105 Q = 1O.11'Q
0(0.05)(0.0873)
6.8 CURRENT SHEET DENSITY K
At times current is confined to the surface of a conductor, such as the inside walls of a waveguide. For such a current sheet it is helpful to define the density vector K (in AIm), which gives the rate of charge transport per unit transverse length. (Some books use the notation Is.) Figure 69 shows a total current of I, in the form of a cylindrical sheet of radius r, flowing in the positive z direction. In this case,
1 K=a 21fr z
at each point of the sheet. For other sheets, K might vary from point to point.
1
r
Fig. 69
In general, the current flowing through a contour C within a current sheet is obtained by integrating the normal component of K along the contour.
EXAMPLE 5. A thin conducting sheet lies in the z = 0 plane for 0 < x < 0.05 m. An ay directed current of 25 A is sinusoidally distributed across the sheet, with linear density zero for x = 0 and x = 0.05 m and maximum at x = 0.025 m (see Fig. 610). Obtain an expression for K.
81
82
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
[CHAP. 6
Fig. 610
The data give K = (k sin 201rx)ay (AIm), for an unknown constant k. Then
or
I = 25 = I «, dx = k ["05 sin 201rx dx 25 = kl101r or k = 2501r AIm.
6.9 CONTINUITY OF CURRENT
Current I crossing a general surface S has been examined where J at the surface was known. Now, if the surface is closed, in order for net current to come out there must be a decrease of positive charge within:
1. J . dS = I =  dQ =  ~ f p dv
r dt at
where the unit normal in dS is the outwarddirected normal. Dividing by ~v,
fJ·dS
a f pdv
=
~v at ~v
As ~vO, the left side by definition approaches V· J, the divergence of the current density, while the right side approaches aplat. Thus
ap V·J= at
This is the equation 01 continuity for current. In it p stands for the net charge density, not just the density of mobile charge. As will be shown below, aplat can be nonzero within a conductor only transiently. Then the continuity equation, V· J = 0, becomes the field equivalent of Kirchhoff's current law, which states that the net current leaving a junction of several conductors is zero.
In the process of conduction, valence electrons are free to move upon the application of an electric field. So, to the extent that these electrons are in motion, static conditions no longer exist. However. these electrons should not be confused with net charge, for each conduction electron is balanced by a proton in the nuleus such that there is zero net charge in every ~v of the
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
material. Suppose, however, that through a temporary imbalance a region within a solid conductor has a net charge density Po at time t = O. Then, since J = aE = (a/ E" )0,
V.~O= _ ap
E" at
Now, the divergence operation consists of partial derivatives with respect to the spatial coordinates. If a and E" are constants, as they would be in a homogeneous sample, then they may be removed from the partial derivatives.
or
a ap ;(V' 0) =  at
a ap p=e at
ap a +p=O at E"
The solution to this equation is
Thus p decays exponentially, with a time constant T = E" / a, also known as the relaxation time. At t = T, P has decayed to 36.8% of its initial value. For a conductor T is extremely small, on the order of 1019• This confirms that free charge cannot remain within a conductor and instead is distributed evenly over the conductor surface.
EXAMPLE 6. Determine the relaxation time for silver, given that 0 = 6.17 X 107 S/m. If charge of density Po is placed within a silver block, find p after one. and also after five, time constants.
Since E= Eo,
E 1O936.7r
T =  = = 1.43 x 10 '" s
o 6.17 X 107
Therefore
at t = T: at t = 5T:
p = p"eI = 0.368Pn
p = p"e 5 = 6.74 x 10 'p"
6.10 CONDUCTORDIELECTRIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Under static conditions all net charge will be on the outer surfaces of a conductor and both E and 0 are therefore zero within the conductor. Because the electric field is a conservative field, the line integral of E· dl is zero for any closed path. A rectangular path with corners 1, 2, 3, 4 is shown in Fig. 611.
fE.dl+ fE•dl+ fE.dl+ L'E.dl=O
If the path lengths 2 to 3 and 4 to 1 are now permitted to approach zero, keeping the interface between them, then the second and fourth integrals are zero. The path from 3 to 4 is within the
J 2
~ectric
~1:===r""~~~ctor
4 3
Fig. 611
83
84
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
[CHAP. 6
conductor where E must be zero. This leaves
r E· dl= r E,d{=O
where E, is the tangential component of E at the surface of the dielectric. Since the interval 1 to 2 can be chosen arbitrarily,
E,= D,=O
at each point of the surface.
To discover the conditions on the normal components, a small, closed, right circular cylinder is placed across the interface as shown in Fig. 612. Gauss' law applied to this surface gives
or
fo. dS= a.:
L O· dS + 1 0 • dS + I. 0 • dS = ( o, dS
top bottom Side JA
The third integral is zero since, as just determined, D, = 0 on either side of the interface. The second integral is also zero, since the bottom of the cylinder is within the conductor, where 0 and E are zero. Then,
1 O· dS = 1 o; dS = 1. p, dS
top top t
which can hold only if
E =Ps n E
and
Fig.6U
EXAMPLE 7. The electric field intensity at a point on the surface of a conductor is given by E = O.2ax  0.38),  O.2a, (V 1m). Find the surface charge density at the point.
Supposing the conductor to be surrounded by free space,
En = ±IEI = ±0.412 Vim
(1011)
P. = 36.7r (±0.412) = ±3.64 pC/m2
The ambiguity in sign arises from that in the direction of the outer normal to the surface at the given point.
In short, under static conditions the field just outside a conductor is zero (both tangential and normal components) unless there exists a surface charge distribution. A surface charge does not imply a net charge in the conductor, however. To illustrate this, consider a positive charge at the origin of spherical coordinates. Now if this point charge is enclosed by an uncharged conducting
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcroRS
spherical shell of finite thickness, as shown in Fig. 613(a), then the field is still given by E= +Q a
41rEr2 r
except within the conductor itself, where E must be zero. The coulomb forces caused by +Q attract the conduction electrons to the inner surface, where they create a PSi of negative sign. Then the deficiency of electrons on the outer surface constitutes a positive surface charge density Ps2. The electric flux lines 'P, leaving the point charge +Q, terminate at the electrons on the inner surface of the conductor. as shown in Fig. 613(b). Then electric flux lines 'P originate once again on the positive charges on the outer surface of the conductor. It should be noted that the flux does not pass through the conductor and the net charge on the conductor remains zero.
Psi
(a)
(b)
Fig. 613
Solved Problems
6.1.
An AWG #12 copper conductor has an 80.8mil diameter. A 50·foot length carries a current of 20 A. Find the electric field intensity E, drift velocity U, the voltage drop, and the resistance for the 50 foot length.
Since a mil is I~ inch, the crosssectional area is
..J+
!iii.
Mathcad
A [(0.0808in)(2.54xlO2m)]2 6 2
= :It 2 1 in = 3.31 x 10 m
I 20
J = A = 3.31 x 106 = 6.04 x lot. A/m2
For copper, 0= 5.8 x 107 S/m. Then
Then
J 6.04 x 10"
E== = 1.04 x 10 IV/m
a 5.8 x 107
V = Et = (1.04 x 101)(50)(12)(0.0254) = 1.59 V V 1.59
R =7 = 20 = 7.95 x 1O2g
The electron mobility in copper is I' = 0.0032 m2/V . s, and since a = PI', the charge density
is
a 5.8 x 107
1.81 X lO"' C/m3 P =;= 0.0032
85
86
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcrORS
[CHAP. 6
From J = pU the drift velocity is now found as
J 6.05 x 10" 4
U== 81 Ow=3.34X 10 mls
p 1. x t
With this drift velocity an electron takes approximately 30 seconds to move a distance of 1 centimeter in the #12 copper conductor.
6.2. What current density and electric field intensity correspond to a drift velocity of 5.3 x 104 m/s in aluminum?
For aluminum, the conductivity is 0= 3.82 x 107 S/m and the mobility is '" = 0.0014 m2/V . s.
a 3.83 x 107
J = pU =; U = 0.0014 (5.3 x 104) = 1.45 x 107 A/m2
J U
E =  =  = 3.79 X 101 V 1m
a '"
6.3.
A long copper conductor has a circular cross section of diameter 3.0 mm and carries a current of 10 A. Each second, what percent of the conduction electrons must leave (to be replaced by others) a 100 mm length?
Avogadro's number is N = 6.02 X l<yb atoms/kmol. The specific gravity of copper is 8.96 and the atomic weight is 63.54. Assuming one conduction electron per atom, the number of electrons per unit volume is
N. = (6.02 x l<Ybatoms)( 1 kmol )(8.96 x 103 kg)(1 electron)
kmol 63.54 kg m3 atom
= 8.49 x 1(f" electrons/rrr'
The number of electrons in a 100 mm length is
(3 x 10 3)2
N =:It 2 (0.100)(8.49 X 1<Y") = 6.00 x 1(Y2
A toA current requires that
(C) ( 1 electron)
10 ; 1.6 x 10 19 C = 6.25 X 1019 electrons Is
pass a fixed point. Then the percent leaving the 100 mm length per second is 6.25 x 1019
6.00 X 1022 (100) = 0.104% per s
6.4. What current would result if all the conduction electrons in a Icentimeter cube of aluminum passed a specified point in 2.0 s? Assume one conduction electron per atom.
The density of aluminum is 2.70 x 10' kg/rrr' and the atomic weight is 26.98 kg/kmol. Then
and
N. = (6.02 x l<Yb)(26~98)(2. 70 x 103) = 6.02 x t<f8 electrons 1m3 tlQ (6.02 x 1021< electrons/m'jrtu 2 m}1(1.6 x 1019 C/e1ectron)
1== =4.82kA
tlt 2s
6.S. What is the density of free electrons In a metal for a mobility of 0.0046 m2/V· s and a conductivity of 29.1 MS/m?
CHAP. 61
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcrORS
Since 0= IlP,
and
a 29.1 x 10"
p== =6.33 x 109C/m3
Il 0.0046
6.33 X 109
N~ = 1.6 X 1019 3.96 x 1<f8 electrons/rrr'
6.6. Find the conductivity of ntype germanium (Ge) at 300 K, assuming one donor atom in each lOS atoms. The density of Ge is 5.32 x 103 kg/m" and the atomic weight is 72.6 kg/kmol.
The carriers in an ntype semiconductor material are electrons. Since 1 kmol of a substance contains 6.02 X 1(fh atoms, the carrier density is given by
N ( n28 atoms) ( 1 kmOI)( 2 0' kg)(electronS)
~= 6.02 x Iv  5.3 x I 
kmol 72.6 kg m3 10" atoms
= 4.41 x 1(fO electrons/rrr'
The intrinsic concentration nl for Ge at 300 K is 2.5 X 1019 m ". The massaction law, N~~ = n:, then gives the density of holes:
(2.5 X 1019)2
N = = 1.42 X 1018 holes/rrr'
~ 4.41 x l(fO
Because N~t> Nh, conductivity will be controlled by the donated electrons, whose mobility at 300 K is
0= N.,e"., = (4.41 x Hfo)(1.6 x 1019)(0.38) = 26.8 S/m
6.7. A conductor of uniform cross section and 150 m long has a voltage drop of 1.3 V and a current density of 4.65 x lOS A/m2• What is the conductivity of the material in the conductor?
Since E=V/t and J=aE,
4.65 X lW = oG~~)
or
0= 5.37 x 107 S/m
6.8. A table of resistivities gives 10.4 ohm circular mils per foot for annealed copper. What is the corresponding conductivity in siemens per meter?
A circular mil is the area of a circle with a diameter of one mil (10 3 in).
1 cir mil =.n[ (10; in)( 0.0254~) r = 5.07 x 1010 m2
The conductivity is the reciprocal of the resistivity.
(1ft )( in)( m)( 1 cir mil) 7
0= 1Q . . 12 0.0254: 507 10 10 2 =<=5.78xl0 S/m
0.4 cir mil ft m. x m
6.9. An A WG #20 aluminum wire has a resistance of 16.7 ohms per 1000 feet. What conductivity does this imply for aluminum?
From wire tables. a #20 wire has a diameter of 32 mils.
[32 X 103 ]2
A = 1t 2 (0.0254) = 5.19 x 107 m2
t = (1000 ft)(12 in/ft)(0.0254 m/in) = 3.05 x l(Y m
87
88
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcrORS
[CHAP. 6
Then from R = (loA,
3.05 x llY
0= (16.7)(5.19 x 107) = 35.2 MS/m
6.10. In a cylindrical conductor of radius 2 mm, the current density varies with the distance from
• the axis according to
Find the total current I.
f I 12,,[.002
1= '·dS= JdS= 0 0 lWe4OOrrdrdq,
[ e 400. ]0_002
= 2n(IW) (400)2 (400r  1) ° = 7.51 rnA
6.11. Find the current crossing the portion of the y = 0 plane defined by 0.1 ::5 x ::5 0.1 m and 0.002::5 Z ::5 0.002 m if
J = HY Ixl ay (A/m2)
I = II. dS = [_002 [_I tlY Ixl ay• dx dze; = 4 rnA
o_002 01
6.12. Find the current crossing the portion of the x = 0 plane defined by + st 14 ::5 Y ::5 1r/4m and 0.01::s;z::50.01m if
J = 100 cos 2ya_r (A/m2)
f [_01 1"14
1= , . dS = 0_01 "/4 100 cos 2yax • dy dzax = 2.0 A
6.13. Given J = 103 sin lJa, A/m2 in spherical coordinates, find the current crossing the spherical shell r = 0.02 m.
Since' and
dS = r2 sin 8 d8 dq,a,
are radial,
L2"1"
1= 0 tW(0·02fsin2 8d8dq, = 3.95 A
6.14. Show that the resistance of any conductor of constant crosssectional area A and length (is given by R = (loA, assuming uniform current distribution.
A constant cross section along the length (results in constant E, and the voltage drop is
V= I E·dl=E(
If the current is uniformly distributed over the area A,
1= I '·dS=JA=aEA
where a is the conductivity. Then, since R = VII,
e R=aA
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcroRS
6.15. Determine the resistance of the insulation in a length f of coaxial cable, as shown in Fig. 614.
(1) )
b
Fig. 614
Assume a total current I from the inner conductor to the outer conductor. Then, at a radial distance T,
I 1
J==A 2nTt
I
E= 2nurt
The voltage difference between the conductors is then
and so
1" I I b
Y.b= dT=ln
" b 2nurt 2no! a
and the resistance is
V 1 b
R==InI 2not a
6.16. A current sheet of width 4 m lies in the z = 0 plane and contains a total current of 10 A in a direction from the origin to (1, 3, 0) m. Find an expression for K.
At each point of the sheet, the direction of K is the unit vector ax + 3."
v10
and the magnitude of K is ~ Aim. Thus
K = lO(a .. + 3a,,) Aim
4 v10
6.17. As shown in Fig. 615, a current IT follows a filament down the z axis and enters a thin conducting sheet at z = O. Express K for this sheet.
y
x
Fig. 615
89
90
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUCTORS
[CHAP. 6
Consider a circle in the z = 0 plane. The current IT on the sheet spreads out uniformly over the circumference 2:rrT. The direction of K is a,. Then
IT K=a 2:rtr r
6.lB. For the current sheet of Problem 6.17 find the current in a 30" section of the plane (Fig. 616).
However, integration is not necessary, since for uniformly distributed current a 30" segment will contain 30"/360° or 1/12 of the total.
6.19. A current I (A) enters a thin right circular cylinder at the top, as shown In Fig. 617. Express K if the radius of the cylinder is 2 cm.
r
Fla. 617
On the top, the current is uniformly distributed over any circumference 2:rrT, so that
I
K= 2.nr' (AIm)
Down the side, the current is uniformly distributed over the circumference 2:rr(0.02 m), so that
I K=(_.) (AIm) 0.D4:rr
6.20. A cylindrical conductor of radius 0.05 m with its axis along the z axis has a surface charge density Ps = Po/z (C/m2). Write an expression for E at the surface.
Since D; = P.. En = p.IEo. At (0.05, tP, z},
E=Ea=.!!E...a (VIm)
"., EoZ"
6.11. A conductor occupying the region x ~ 5 has a surface charge density
p = Po
s~
Write expressions for E and D just outside the conductor.
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY. AND CONDUCTORS
The outer normal is ax Then, just outside the conductor.
Pu
and
D = D,,( a,) = p,( ax) =, rs=r:: (a,) vy~ + Z2
E = Pn (a)
EnVy' + Z2 x
6.22.
Two concentric cylindrical conductors, r" = 0.01 m and rh = 0.08 m, have charge densities P.w = 40 pe/m2 and P.h. such that D and E fields exist between the two cylinders but are zero elsewhere. See Fig. 618. Find Psh and write expressions for D and E between the cylinders.
vI+
sa.
Mathcad
Fig. 618
By symmetry. the field between the cylinders must be radial and a function of r only. Then, for r: < r < rs,
1 d V·D=(rDr)=O rdr
or
rD, =c
To evaluate the constant c, use the fact that D" = D, = P.<a at r = r: + O.
C = (0.01 )(40 x 10 12) = 4 x ltl U Cltt:
and so
a x io "
D = a, (C/m2)
r
D 4.52 X 102
E== a,
E" r
(Vim)
and
The density P,b is now found from
Supplementary Problems
6.23. Find the mobility of the conduction electrons in aluminum, given a conductivity 38.2 MS/m and
conduction electron density 1.70 x 102" m '. Ans. 1.40 x 10] m2/V . s
6.24. Repeat Problem 6.23 (a) for copper, where cr = 58.0 MS/m and N,. = 1.13 X 1029 m 3; (b) for silver. where a = 61. 7 MS/m and N, = 7.44 X 102" m '
Ans. (a) 3.21 x 10' m2/Y' s; (b) 5.18 x 10' m'IY . s
6.25. Find the concentration of holes. N" in ptype germanium, where a = UY Sim and the hole mobility
is Ilh=0.18m2/Y·s. Ans. 3.47xI02'm'
91
92
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcrORS
[CHAP. 6
6.26. Using the data of Problem 6.25, find the concentration of electrons, N~, if the intrinsic concentration is
n; = 2.S x 1019 m". Am. 1.80 x lOIS m"
6.27. Find the electron and hole concentrations in ntype silicon for which 0= 1O.0S/m, 1'. =
0.13m2/V,s, and n, = 1.5 x 101t'm3. Am. 4.81 x ICfOm3, 4.68 x 1011 rn"?
6.28.
6.19.
6.30.
6.31.
6.32.
6.33.
6.34.
6.35.
6.36.
6.37.
6.38.
6.40.
6.41.
6.42.
Determine the number of conduction electrons in a Imeter cube of tungsten, of which the density is 18.8 x lW kg/m" and the atomic weight is 184.0. Assume two conduction electrons per
atom. Am. 1.23 x ICf9
Find the number of conduction electrons in a Imeter cube of copper if 0 = 58 MS/m and I' = 3.2 X 103 m2/V· s. On the average, how many electrons is this per atom? The atomic weight is 63.54
and the density is 8.96 x IQl kg/rn". Am. 1.13 x IW9, 1.33
A copper bar of rectangular cross section 0.02 by 0.08 m and length 2.0 m has a voltage drop of 50 mY. Find the resistance, current, current density, electric field intensity, and conduction electron drift
velocity. Am. 21.61'Q, 2.32kA, 1.45MA/m2, 25mV/m, 0.08mm/s
An aluminum bus bar 0.01 by 0.07 m in cross section and of length 3 m carries a current of 300 A. Find the electric field intensity, current density, and conduction electron drift velocity.
Am. 1.12 x 102 V [tn, 4.28 x Hi' A/m2, 1.57 x 105 mls
A wire table gives for A WG #20 copper wire at 20 DC the resistance 33.31 Q/km. What conductivity
(in S/m) does this imply for copper? The diameter of A WG #20 is 32 mils. Am. 5.8 x 107 S/m
A wire table gives for AWG #18 platinum wire the resistance 1.21 x 103 Q/cm. What conductivity (in
S/m) does this imply for platinum? The diameter of A WG #18 is 40 mils. Am. 1.00 x 107 Sim
What is the conductivity of A WG #32 tungsten wire with a resistance of 0.0172 Q/cm? The diameter of AWG #32 is 8.0 mils. Am. 17.9MS/m
Determine the resistance per meter of a hollow cylindrical aluminum conductor with an outer diameter
of 32 mm and wall thickness 6 mm. Am. 53.4 I'Q/m
Find the resistance of an aluminum foil 1.0 mil thick and 5.0 em square (a) between opposite edges on a
square face, (b) between the two square faces. Am. (a) 1.03mQ; (b) 266pQ
Find the resistance of 100 ft of A WG #4/0 conductor in both copper and aluminum. An A WG #4/0
has a diameter of 460 mils. Am. 4.91 mQ, 7.46 mQ
Determine the resistance of a copper conductor 2 m long with a circular cross section and a radius of
1 mm at one end increasing linearly to a radius of 5 mm at the other. Am. 2.20 mQ
6.39.
Determine the resistance of a copper conductor 1 m long with a square cross section and a side I mm at
one end increasing linearly to 3 mm at the other. Am. 5.75 mQ
Develop an expression for the resistance of a conductor of length f if the cross section retains the same
e ( Ink)
Am 
. oA k1
shape and the area increases linearly from A to kA over f.
Find the current density in an A WG #12 conductor when it is carrying its rated current of 30 A. A #12
wire has a diameter of 81 mils. Am. 9.09 x 10" Afm2
Find the total current in a circular conductor of radius 2 mm if the current density varies with r according
to J = lQllr (Afm2). Am. 41t A
CHAP. 6]
CURRENT, CURRENT DENSITY, AND CONDUcrORS
6.43. In cylindrical coordinates, 1= 10eIOlNa. (A/m2) for the region 0.01:s,:s 0.02 m, 0 < z s: 1 m. Find the total current crossing the intersection of this region with the plane tP = const.
Am. 2.33 x 102 A
6.44. Given a current density
in spherical coordinates, find the current crossing the conical strip fJ = nl4, 0.001:s T:S 0.080 m. Am. 1.38 x 104 A
6.45.
Find the total current outward directed from a Imeter cube with one corner at the origin and edges
parallel to the coordinate axes if 1= 2x2ax + 2xy1ay + 2xya, (A/m2). Am. 3.0 A
6.46.
As shown in Fig. 619, a current of 50 A passes down the z axis, enters a thin spherical shell of radius 0.03 m, and at fJ = nl2 enters a plane sheet. Write expressions for the current sheet densities K in the spherical shell and in the plane.
265 7.96
Am. .  ao (Aim),  aT (AIm)
Sin fJ T
Fig. 619
6.47. A filamentary current of I (A) passes down the z axis to z = 5 X 102 m where it enters the portion O:s t/>:S nl4 of a spherical shell of radius 5 x 102 m. Find K for this current sheet.
801
Am. 'n ao (AIm) zr sm u
6.48. A current sheet of density K = 20a. AIm lies in the plane x = 0 and a current density 1= lOa. A/m2 also exists throughout space. (a) Find the current crossing the area enclosed by a circle of radius 0.5 m centered at the origin in the z = 0 plane. (b) Find the current crossing the
square Ixl :s0.25 m, Iyl :s0.25m, z =0. Am. (a) 27.9 A; (b) 12.5 A
6.49. A hollow, thinwalled, rectangular conductor 0.01 by 0.02 m carries a current of 10 A in the positive x
direction. Express K. Am. 167ax Aim
6.SO. A solid conductor has a surface described by x + Y = 3 m and extends toward the origin. At the surface the electric field intensity is 0.35 V 1m. Express E and D at the surface and find p •.
Am. ±0.247(ax+a,,) Vim, ±2.19xlO12(ax+ay) C/m2, ±3.lOxlO12C/m2
6.S1. A conductor that extends into the region z < 0 has one face in the plane z = 0, over which there is a surface charge density
p, = 5 x 1Oloe  Hlr sin" tP (C/m2)
in cylindrical coordinates. Find the electric field intensity at (0.15 m, n/3, 0).
Am. 9.45a. VIm
93
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.