Utilization of Artificial Rain Gauge for Hydro Meteorological Study(Field Report) | Rain | Hydrology

UTILIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL RAIN GAUGE FOR HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL STUDY

(FIELD REPORT)
Yustinus Adityawan 1)
e-mail : killrockforfun@yahoo.co.id Undergraduate Student of Environmental Geography Department Geography Faculty Gadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, 2010
1)

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out at Sengkan Village, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Special Province. The taping and measuring of rain event took place during 10 days observation. The purposes of this research are 1) to know design of simple rain gauge which it is able to record rain event and
2)

to know the correlation between rainfall and rain duration (day and minutes) during

laboratory observation took place. The methods of this research can be divided into 2 methods. First method is to make simple rain gauge instrument based the things around us. Rain gauge setting must be counted aspects, which those can be influent taping and measuring process. Those aspects were existence of something around the instrument such as vegetation and building, where those can be made rainfall splash came in into the instrument; and easily to monitoring. Second method was linear regression, it was used to know the correlation between rainfall and rain duration during 10 days observation. Based on calculation result of regression between time duration (day and minute) and rainfall, It wasn’t found any relevance/correlation between time duration and rainfall.

Key words : Artificial rain gauge, simple rain gauge design, correlation between rainfall and time duration

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1. Introduction Hydrology can be defined as a science which had relationship with earth’s water, occuring process, hydrology at ecological life is as water supplier for any kind utilization. Explanation about hydrological condition at certain area has important relevance with hydrologic cycles. Where hydrologic cycles can be defined as water circulation within upper, at surface, and below the earth (Sharp, 2007). One of the components from hydrologic cycles is rain, which it becomes source for groundwater and water surface.

circulation and distribution, chemistry and physical behavior, and reaction with their environment, included the relevance with organism (International Glossary of Hydrology, 1974 in Seyhan, 1977). The role of study

hydrology at ecological life at certain area has important role. The role of

Figure 1. Hydrologic Cycle
(Source : http://www.waterprotection.ca/images/watercycle.jpg)

Rain can be defined as a form of drop water which it has diameter more than 0,5 mm or smaller and wide scattered at certain area (Soewarno, .

2000). The process which formed rain depended a lot of factors, such as wind direction, coordinate position, and altitude.

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Taping process and measuring of rain have important role for climatological and hydrological

gauge and manual measurement for recorded rain. Rain gauge is kind of an instruments, which it is used by meteorologist and hydrologist to

applications at certain area (Habib et al, 2001; Gómez, 2007; Beek et al, 2010). Taping process and measuring can be obtained with a lot of instruments such as remote sensing (TRMM Precipitation Radar) and rain gauge. In this paper, author used rain

gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (solid precipitation is measured by a snow gauge) over a set period of time

(http://wikipedia.com, 2010).

Figure 2. Rain Gauge
(Source : Wikipedia.com, 2010)

The development at certain region had an effects on physical, social, and ecological aspects. One of the effects of the development process was an amount of water required increasingly for many utilization, like industrial, agricultural, and household. The rise of an amount of water required at certain region must be

balanced hydrological

with

the

other such

of as

branchs,

hydrometeorology. Hydrometeorology is a science which studies atmosphere and land at hydrologic cycles, with pressing at the relevance between both of them (Nurjani, 2008). Rain is a part of hydrometeorological branchs, include

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quantity, time and space distribution. The taping and measuring of rain need an expensive instrument which it is difficult to obtain by local

direction of wind, evaporation, and fragment of rain didn’t computable. The accuracy of space

distribution of rain at certain area needs a lot of network instrument,

government, institution, academician, and society. At this paper, author is

where those need much operation cost and many instruments to record and measure rain at certain area.

practicing on measurement and taping of rain. Rain data was obtained from simple rain gauge instrument, where it was made by author. Systematic error aspects such as velocity and the

Therefore, it was needed simple of rain gauge instrument which it can be used by a lot of societies in Indonesia.

2. Main Research Questions The difference of physical conditions at certain area will be influenced with social and ecological aspects. One of physical condition which has influent to human life is rain. Taping and measuring processes of rain were doing during 10 days. It depended on rain even took place at these range times. The rain aspects were observed, those were rainfall, rain duration, and rain intensity. Based the
1)

explanation

on

above, the main research questions of this paper are How is design of
2)

simple rain gauge instrument, which it able to record rain event and How is

the correlation between rainfall and rain duration (day and minutes) during laboratory observation took place.

3. Objectives The aims of this paper are 1) to know design of simple rain gauge which it is able to record rain event and 2) to know the correlation between rainfall and rain duration (day and minutes) during laboratory

observation took place.

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4. Methods, Results, and Discussion 4.1. Design of Simple Rain Gauge. Simple rain gauge can be useful for a lot of societies in developing contries like Indonesia, such as academition, which it useful for study about climate condition at certain area; institution and simple rain gauge easily can be found around us. Those are : a. Ex-bottle, like Coca-Cola bottle, it was used to gather the amount of liquid precipitation. b. Glue, it was used to make the bottom of ex-bottle came to flat relatively. c. Paper, it was used to record data. d. Cutter/Scissors, it was used to cut ex-bottle. e. Ruler, to measure the height of amount of liquid precipitation in the bottle. f. Pen or pencil g. Watch, to know precipitation duration. h. Microsoft Exel, to know the correlation between rainfall and
Figure 1. The matters of Simple Rain Gauge

government which it useful matter for evaluation of development planning, where it was considering physical aspect such hydrometeorological data or rain data.

rain duration.

The making process of rain gauge is simple relatively and it is easy to apply for various civitas, which those for expert or still

biginner. The matters of this design of

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Figure 2. The bottom of ex-bottle is’nt flat enough to measure the amount of liquid and to make the bottom of ex-bottle become flat, author use glue.

Rain gauge setting must be counted aspects, which those can be influent taping and measuring process. Those aspects were existence of something around the instrument such as vegetation and building, where those can be made rainfall splash came in into the instrument; and easy to measure the instrument. Sometimes rain data doesn’t has good quality, it was caused by systematic and random errors.

has influence to rain quality data. Because wind data wasn’t available, so wind didn’t computable. Rain gauge must accurate, include a) sputtering of raindrop mustn’t come in into the bottle, b) water losses from resovoir by

evaporation must be minimum, c) if snow, must melt. Selection place and the type of rain gauge depend many factors like reliable data, the type of data, the type of precipitation, the cost and

Humidity, evaporation, wind (velocity and direction) are an examples of systematic error. In this paper,

treatment, easily to monitoring, and far away from any disruptions. So when rain occurred at certain time, measurement must be done.

systematic error wasn’t calculated by author. Wind is important factor who

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A

D

D

B

H

H

1

Information
Glue The amount of liquid after rain event

H

1

Height (after filled)

H D

Height(empty) Diameter

Figure 3. Design of Rain Gauge

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4.2. The Correlation Between Rainfall, Rain Duration, and Rain Iintensity. The method was used to know correlation between rain duration with rainfall was linear regression. Taping and measuring processes of If the value of regression goes up to 1 or more than 0.5, so it has the meaning that it has correlation

between rainfall dan rain duration. If the value of regression less than 0.5, so it has the meaning that it hasn’t no correlation between rainfall and rain duration.

precipitation data include rainfall dan time duration during precipitation occured. Microsoft Exel was used for tabulation data and to know the regression.

Regression between Height and Observation Days
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3-Sep-10 5-Sep-10 7-Sep-10 9-Sep-10 11-Sep10 Days y = 0.1512x - 6088.2 R2 = 0.001 Series1 Linear (Series1)

Height (mm)

13-Sep10

15-Sep10

17-Sep10

19-Sep10

Figure 4. Regression between time duration (day) and rainfall.

Based on calculation result of regression between time duration (day and minute) and rainfall, It wasn’t found any relevance/correlation

Regression between time duration (day) and rainfall has value as 0.001 and the value of regression between minute and rainfall is 0.2536.

between time duration and rainfall.

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Regression between Height (mm) and Time Duration (minute)
70 60 50 Height 40 30 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

y = 0.0837x + 9.9006 R2 = 0.2536

Time Duration (minute) Series1 Linear (Series1)

Figure 5. Regression between time duration (minute) and rainfall.

The value percent of rainfall doesn’t depend from time duration of rain event, but depends on intensity. The greater of rain intesity influences to rainfall. Time duration becomes not important, but sometimes it becomes important too depends on situation, place, and another aspects.

5. Conclusions 1. Artificial rain gauge is an easily tool which it can be recorded and taped rain event, cheap relatively. 2. Design of rain gauge is simple to apply or use for any kind of society. 3. Based on calculation result of regression between time duration (day and minute) and rainfall, didn’t find any relevance/correlation between time duration and rainfall. 4. The value percent of rainfall doesn’t depend from time duration of rain event, but depends on rain intensity.

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6. References Beek, C.Z.Van de., Leijnse, H., Torfs, P.J.J.F., and Uijlenhoet,R., 2010, Climatology of Daily Rainfall Semivariance Netherlands, In The Quality Lab, Geography Faculty, UGM. Sevruk, B., and Lapin, M., 1993, Precipitation Quality Symp. Measurement Proc., & Int. and

Hydrol.Earth

Control, on

Sysy.Sci.Discuss., 7, 2085-2120. Gómez, M.R.S., 2007, Spatial And Temporal Rainfall Gauge Data Analysis And Validation With TRMM Microwave Radiometer Surface Master Rainfall Thesis, Retrievals, Netherland:

Precipitation

Evaporation, Vol. 1, Slovak Hydrometeorological Bratislava, Slovakia. Seyhan, E., 1977, Fundamentals of Hydrology, Amsterdam: Instituut voor Aardwetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit. Sharp, J.M., 2007, A Glossary of Hydrogeological Terms, Texas: Department of Geological Institute,

International Institute For GeoInformation Science And Earth Observation. Habib, E., Krajewski, W.F., and Kruger, A., 2001, Sampling Errors Of Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Measurements, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, pp. 159 - 166. Nurjani, E., 2008, Manual Book For Hydrometeorology Lab Work, Yogyakarta: Hydrology and Air

Sciences, The University of Texas. Soewarno, 2000, Jilid Citra Hidrologi Satu, Aditya

Operasional Bandung: Bakti. PT.

www.wikipedia.com/ was accessed at August 26, 2010.

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Appendix
Table 1. The result of Taping and Measuring Rain Event
Time No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Day Saturday, Sept 04, 2010 Sunday, Sept 05, 2010 Monday, Sept 06, 2010 Wednesday, Sept 08, 2010 Friday, Sept 10, 2010 Saturday, Sept 11, 2010 Saturday, Sept 11, 2011 7 Sunday, Sept 12, 2010 Sunday, Sept 12, 2010 8 Thursday, Sept 16, 2010 Thursday, Sept 16, 2011 9 10 Friday, Sept 17, 2010 Saturday, Sept 18, 2010 Total Source : Field Measurement, 2010 (during 10 days) Start 15.36 17.50 13.30 13.15 19.05 12.55 21.10 15.31 20.50 1.00 18.00 13.30 18.48 Finish 18.45 19.15 20.38 19.10 19.14 13.30 23.55 16.01 21.45 4.05 21.30 14.05 19.28 Time Duration minute 189 85 248 355 9 35 165 30 55 185 210 35 40 1641 second 11340 5100 14880 21300 540 2100 9900 1800 3300 11100 12600 2100 2400 98460 Height (mm) 21 12 15 48 5 22 63 7 4 23 10 30 6 266 Volume (mm3) 1305.61 746.06 932.58 2984.26 310.86 1367.78 3916.84 435.20 248.69 1429.96 621.72 1865.16 373.03 16537.75

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