Grinding | Grinding (Abrasive Cutting) | Abrasive

Production Processes





Syllabus: Introduction, classification of grinding machines, grinding wheel composition, types and shapes of grinding wheels, designation as per IS 551-1954, types of grinding operations

Statistical Analysis
BTE Papers Summer 2004 Winter 2004 Summer 2005 Marks allotted for this Chapter 20 20 20

whose cutting elements are of abrasive materials.1 shows the basic arrangement of surface grinding. In this process.1. The most common one is surface grinding. 4.Production Processes 4-2 Grinding 4.2 Advantages of Grinding Process : [ Asked in Exam : W – 04 !!! ] • The different advantages of grinding over other cutting operations are : (i) Extremely smooth finish desirable at contact and bearing surfaces can be produced by grinding operation due to large number of cutting edges on the grinding wheel.1 : Grinding operation Fig. (ii) No surface marks because the wheel has considerable width. (iii) The grain geometry is highly random and the time of contact between the chip and an abrasive grain is very small. 4. The abrasives used have high resistance to wear the heat and possess large hardness. In old days emery and corundum were used as abrasives.1.1.75 to 1. (iii) Very accurate dimensions and smoother surface finish can be achieved within short time.1. 4. thus exposing fresh new grains. (iv) The high temperatures (1000-1400°C) are usually encountered in grinding resulting into rapid grain wear and high induced surface in the workpiece. This process can give a surface finish in the range of 0. There are various types of grinding. .25 µ m.1 Features of Grinding Process : (i) Grinding wheel has a self-sharpening character. the conventional cutting tool is replaced by an abrasive tool. This process is accompanied by a certain amount of metal removal. (ii) The operation is intermittent in nature and produces discontinuous chips. 4. Modern grinding wheels are made with the artificial abrasives like silicon carbide and aluminous oxide. This means that the dull or worn-out grains of the grinding wheel are removed either by fracture or tearing of the bond. (v) The grinding action depends strongly upon the characteristics of the grinding wheel. Fig.1 Introduction : Grinding and finishing operations are used for the final finish and super finish.

4. (ii) To obtain better finish on the surface.Production Processes 4-3 Grinding (iv) Complex profiles can be produced accurately with relatively inexpensive turning templates.2 • Classification of Grinding Machines: Different types of grinding machines are based on the operations to be performed with the help of grinding wheel. etc.1. (iii) To machine hard surfaces which are otherwise difficult to be machined by the high speed steel tools or carbide cutters. 4. (iv) To sharpen the cutting tools. (v) Grinding is the only method of removing material from materials after hardening. Those are Rough grinders 1) Floor grinders 2) swing frame grinders 3) portable and flexible shaft grinders 4) belt grinders Cylindrical grinders 1) Plain cylindrical grinders 3) Centre less grinders Surface grinders 1) Reciprocating table type Special type grinders 1) Internal grinders 3) Crankshaft grinders 2) tool and cutter grinders 4) thread grinders 2) rotary table type 2) universal cylindrical grinders .3 (i) Applications of Grinding Wheel : To remove a very small amount of metal from the workpiece to bring its dimensions within very close tolerances.

Cylindrical. centerless. Surface grinding on horizontal and vertical spindle grinders. Cutter and tool grinder. surface. . used mainly for sharpening milling cutters and reamers. Saw gumming. recesses provide clearance for mounting flanges. centerless. Cutter and tool grinder and surface grinding on vertical and horizontal spindle machines. Cylindrical. cutter. and offhand grinding operations. gashing milling cutter teeth. Cutter and tool grinder.3 Types and shapes Shape Name Straight (Type 1) Cylinder (Type 2) Tapered (both sides) (Type 4) Recessed (one side) (Type 5) Straight cup (Type 6) Recessed (both sides) (Type 7) Flaring cup (Type 11) Dish (Type 12) Saucer (Type 13) Applications Cylindrical. centerless and surface grinders.Production Processes 4-4 Grinding 4. internal. its thin edge permits it to be used in narrow slots. recess provides clearance for the mounting flange. tapered sides lessen the chance of the wheel’s breaking. internal and surface grinders. Snagging operations.

3. 4. 2. Each type can further be sub-divided into Spindle Sr. No. 4. Horizonta l Horizonta l Vertical Vertical Table Reciprocating Rotary Reciprocating Rotary .1 : Common grinding wheel shapes and applications 4. W – 04 !!! ] A standard marking system for the grinding wheel provides convenient shorthand notation to describe wheels in terms that are meaningful to those with at least a little grinding experience.Production Processes 4-5 Grinding Shape 6 . 1.4.4 • • Wheel designation [ Asked in Exam : S – 04. Name Applications Idle running for 5-10 minutes Table 4. Properties of a grinding wheel marking system : (i) Abrasive type (ii) Size of grain (iii) Grade (iv) Structure (v) Type of bond (vi) Manufacturers symbol for identification.5 Types of grinding operations Surface Grinding : • • The types of wheels used are determined by the spindle position.

the workpieces are held between the grinding wheel and the regulation wheel and a work rest blade. In all. Machines are made. . The workpiece is given a longitudinal force. as shown in Fig. hobs. No manual handling of the part is required. rate of production is high and cost of production is less. (ii) The wheel – must revolve around its own axis. Internal Grinding : Internal grinding is used to obtain very accurate sizes and good surface finish on holes made by other operations.Production Processes 4-6 Grinding Cylindrical Grinding: [Asked in Exam: W – 04!!!] • • • A typical centre type cylindrical grinding consists of cylindrical workpiece mounted between the two either revolving ends or two dead ends resting on the machine bed as shown in Fig. Here the grinding wheel diameter is smaller in size than that of the hole being ground.6. 4. that are able to finish holes from a few thousands of an inch in diameter to 5 feet or more . creating movement or through feed.3. By tilting the rotational axis of the regulating wheel with respect to the grinding wheel. broaches etc. In this method. such as milling cutters. (iii) The wheel must pass over the work and (iv) The wheel must be fed to the work by hand or automatically. drills. Centreless Grinding : [ Asked in Exam : S – 04. four movements are essential in this type of grinding (i) The work – must revolve around its own axis. W – 04. S – 05 !!! ] • • • • • In centreless grinding.6. Tool and Cutter Grinding : • Tool and cutter grinder is designed for sharpening a variety of tools and cutters. flat surfaces. Grinding machines are designed properly for finishing parts of cylindrical. Grinding wheels of small diameter wear out rapidly and require more frequent dressings. The kind of surface machined largely determines the type of grinding machines. 4.2 The workpiece is capable of revolving with the help of an independent motor and the grinding wheel also rotates around its own axis by another independent motor.

cam grinding. • . They also can be categorized as SPM (Special purpose machines). The above mentioned operations are carried out for the specific job. they are manufactured to do highly specialized work.6.e. etc. crankshaft grinding is carried for crankshaft. The significant feature of these type of grinding machines is that. thread grinding. cam grinding for cams and so on. These machines vary in design from single purpose grinders used to sharpen cemented carbide tipped tool bits to complex universal machines capable of doing any type of cutter grinding.Production Processes 4-7 Grinding • A cutter grinder is a machine which supports the cutter while a rotating abrasive wheel is applied to the cutting edge for the purpose of sharpening it. 4. (a) Tool and cutter grinding Fig. they mention i. for a specific job namely crankshaft grinding.4 (b) Block diagram of a tool and cutter Special Grinding processes • Special purpose machine tools are the one which are typically used for a particular type of operation.

9. Fig. • Fig. 3.1(b).6 :Way grinding 4. 3.Production Processes 4-8 Grinding (a) Single wheel grinding Fig. 4.9. Again.1(a) and (b). heavy single purpose machine used to grind the various surfaces of the ways and beds of machines. 3.6. 3. Fig. 4.5 : Thread grinding (b) Plunge cut grinding • A typical thread grinding machine is shown in Figs.2.6 Mounting of Grinding Wheel .1(a) shows circular disc with the thread form being given the feed equal to the pitch of the thread under consideration.9.9. The wheel is cup. This is then plunged to achieve the objective. Way grinders : These are large.6. depicts a figure wherein the threads are ground using a circular drum which has the desired thread profile and the height equal to the complete length the threads. ring or segmented mounted on vertical spindle and can be tilted at any angle as shown in Fig.

3) (4 Marks) Q.3) (4 Marks) Explain working principle of centreless grinding. stating its advantages. (Section 4.6) ( 8 Marks) Q. 3 Explain the main factors to be considered in selection of a grinding wheel. (Section 4. State any four advantages. sketch and state uses of any four types of grinding wheels.3) (4 Marks) Winter 2004 – Total Marks 20 Q. (Section 4. 1 Q.7 BTE Questions Summer 2004 – Total Marks 20 Q. 9 Explain with neat sketch working principle of centreless grinding. (Section 4.5) (4 Marks) List.Production Processes 4-9 Grinding 4. Describe the different methods of feeding the job on centreless grinding machine. (Section 4. 6 S 30 R 7 V 17 (Section 4.6) (4 Marks) Summer 2005 – Total Marks 20 . 5 Identify the following grinding wheel W Q. 2 What are the abrasives? Name artificial abrasives used for manufacturing grinding wheel.

3) (4 Marks) Q. 13 What are the advantages of centreless grinding over centre type grinding ? (Section 4. 10 What materials are used in the manufacture of grinding wheels ? (Section 4. 11 What are the different types of bonds used in the manufacture of abrasive wheels ? (Section 4.6) (4 Marks) (4 Marks)  .Production Processes 4-10 Grinding Q.3) (4 Marks) Q.

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