Done By :Mahfooz Arian Roll No:22 Class: SY .BA
Some well known leaders of the world
Deferent type of Leadership Styles
When developing your leadership skills. perform as a team.
The Laissez Faire Leadership Style:
The style is largely a "hands off" view that tends to minimize the amount of directi on and face time required. Works well if you have highly trained and highly motivated direct reports. but it is falling out of favor in many countries. The style presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper. to use their expertise as a starting point to encourage dialogue between all levels of decision-making. one must soon confront an important practical question. identifying problems.
. and initiating change that makes for substantive improvement rather than managing change. Some people have argued that the style is popular with today's CEO's. Leadership is about setting and not just reacting to agendas. it's best to understand that there are many from which to choose and as part of your leadership development effort. McSwain.Concepts of Leadership
According to Ann Marie E. solve complex problems. to establish processes and transparency in decision -making.
Three Classic Leadership Styles
One dimension of has to do with control and one's perception of how much control one should give to people. you should consider developing as many leadership styles as possible. "What leadership styles work best for me and my organization?" To answer this question. to articulate their own values and visions clearly but not impose them. the autocratic style high control and the participative lies somewhere in between. improve quality. and provide outstanding customer service.
The Autocratic Leadership Style :
The autocratic style has its advocates.
The Participative Leadership Style:
It's hard to order and demand someone to be creative. who have much in common with feudal lords in Medieval Europe. leadership is about capacity: the capacity of leaders to listen and observe. Assistant Professor at Lincoln University. The laissez faire style implies low control.
it is extremely hard to teach.
The Transactional Leadership Style :
The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo. Others. The importance of the research cannot be over estimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style.
This is practiced by the military services such as the US Army. the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. Surprisingly.
. It's considered to be a "by the book" approach in which the person works within the rules. management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a serie s of studies to determine whether leaders should be more task or relationship (people) oriented. US Air Force. Visionary Leadership. a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situation s. The leadership style focuses on how the leader defines the future for followers and moves them toward it. and many large corporations. We see a number of ineffective managers who didn't know the behaviors to use when one taking over a new group. almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. groups do not automatically accept a new "boss" as leader. bureaucratic organizations. it's commonly seen in large. and Organizations
Charisma is a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership. While extremely powerful. As such. Groups. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out wit the competition.Situational Leadership
The Transformational Leadership Style :
The primary focus of this leadership style is to make change happen in:
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The Emergent Leadership Style :
Contrary to the belief of many. In the 1950s.
shocked really." Today. For example.
A great coach is definitely a leader who also possess a unique gift --the ability to teach and train."
Some leaders have put the needs of their followers first. "We were surprised. Rather than being directive. to discover the types of leadership required for turning a good company into a great one. a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charge were suddenly made "team leaders. One suspects these leaders are rare in business." reflects this philosophy of service. whether that culture is organizational or national. but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team. For example.
Leadership Influence Styles
Here one looks at the b ehaviors associated how one exercises influence.Team Leadership :
A few years ago.
Level 5 Leadership:
This term was coined by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great: Why Some Company¶s Make the Leap and Other Don¶t. the motto of the Los Angeles Police Department." What he seems to have found is what The Economist calls "The Cult of the Faceless Boss.
Facilitative Leadership :
This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. As Collins says in his book. companies have gotten smarter about teams. does the person mostly punish? Do they know how to reward?
Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture. one uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus. "To Protect and Serve.
theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors. Since Allport's time. The statistical technique of factor analysis.Theories of leadership Trait theory:
In psychology. Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits. Other researchers argue that more factors are needed to adequately describe human personality. thought. differ among individuals e. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy and influence behavior. In his approach. traits are relatively stable over time. determining a behavior taxonomy and identifying broad leadership style s. Hans Eysenck has suggested that personality is reducible to three major traits. Cardinal traits are those by which an individual may be strongly recognized. evaluating the behavior of 'successful' leaders. trait theorists have focused more on group statistics than on single individuals.g. Allport called these two emphases "nomothetic" and "idiographic. however. which he sometimes referred to as dispositions.David McClelland. Trait theory is a major approach to the study of human personality. Common traits are those recognized within a culture and may vary between cultures." respectively. which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior. There is a nearly unlimited number of potential traits that could be used to describe personality. Gordon Allport was an early pioneer in the study of traits.
Behavioral and style theories:
In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach. and emotion. According to this perspective. has demonstrated that particular clusters of traits reliably correlate together.
. whereas secondary traits are more peripheral. Many psychologists currently believe that five factors are sufficient. central traits are basic to an individual's personality.
The leader remains uninvolved in work decisions unless asked.For example. and very infrequently gives prais . future steps were uncertain to a large degree. but a set of traits is crucia l. demand strict compliance to his orders. Leadership takes a strong personality with a well developed positive ego. based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.. perhaps even essential.The results seemed to confirm that the democratic climate was preferred The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. assisted by the leader. the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making.g. Bird. selfconfidence and a high self -esteem is useful. Members are given choices and collectively decide the division of labor. perspectives are gained from group discussion and technical advice from a leader. Praise and criticism in such an environment are objective. Before accomplishin g tasks. 1948 [Mann. Not so much as a pattern of motives. To lead. does not participate in the division of labor. Authoritarian climates were characterized by leaders who make decisions alone. Democratic climates were characterized by collective decision processes.
. the overall evidence suggested that person s who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. praise and criticism and the management of the group tasks ( project management) according to three styles: (1) authoritarian
(2) democratic and (3) laissez-faire
. however. Stogdill.
The Rise of Alternative Leadership Theories :-
In the late 1940s and early 1950s. 1940. In each. Laissez faire climates gave freedom to the group for policy determination witho ut any participation from the leader. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven -year-old boys under different types of work climate. a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e. and dictate each step taken. Kurt Lewin. Ronald Lipitt. Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies. fact minded and given by a group member without necessarily having participated extensively in the actual work. and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. In reviewing the extant literature. 1959 )prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. The leader is not necessarily hostile but is aloof from participation in work and commonly offers personal praise and criticism for the work done.
This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades. Equipped with new methods. improvements in researchers¶ use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks ]. during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses. leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait. This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive and parsimonious picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past.
The Reemergence of the Trait Theory :-
New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership.Subsequently. leadership researchers revealed the following: Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tas ks Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as:
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intelligence adjustment extraversion conscientiousness openness to experience general self-efficacy
. in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. as situational approaches (see alernative leadership theories below) posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations. but not others. For example. Additionally.
The Ma agerial Grid
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For instance. & Craig. Many distinct conceptualizations are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance. Now humanity spends a major portion of waking hours working for organizations. overall definition of leadership performance (Yukl. and leader emergence (Kaiser et al. leadership was one of the dimensions that he identified. While these aspects may be related. and research supports the notion that leaders do contribute to key organizational outcomes (Day & Lord. performance of the group or organization.
In prehistoric times. The higher his position in the hierarchy. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. humanity was preoccupied with personal security. or even leader emergence. entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. There is no consistent. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit. and tasks make up this work structure. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life ² the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves. ma intenance. Her/His need to identify with a community that provides
. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. 1990). they are different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied/research focus Leadership in organizations An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization . positions. leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual leader. 1988. Divisions. Kaiser. protection. Hogan. Job performance generally refers to behavior that is expected to contribute to organizational success (Campbell. sections. the greater his presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization.. the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relatio nships with clients or with its members. 2006). including outcomes such as leader effectiveness. jobs. Thus. Each of these measures can be considered conceptu ally distinct. leader advancement. 2008). 2008). According to Weber's definition. Campbell identified a number of specific types of performance dimensions. and survival. Each employee receives a salary and enjoys a degree of tenure that safeguards her/him from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients. In order to facilitate successful performance it is important to understand and accurately measure leadership performance.leadership is important. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. a leader emerg es within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. departments.
Their personal qualities. and a commitment to persist. protection. leaders Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Halpern & Lubar ). Bennis. been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings. because authority is only potentially available to him. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce action through the control of a means of punishment. In the absence of sufficient personal competence. management by exception) and "transformational" leadership (characteri sed by eg charisma. creativity). in the organisational context. Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief. only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. Every organization needs leaders at every level.security. However. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy. contingent reward. That those two adjectives are in fact used equally well with the noun "management" as with the noun "leadership" indicates that there is such a messy overlap between the two in academic practice that attempts to pontificate about their differences are largely a waste of time
Leadership by a group:
. Leaders are recognized by their capacity for caring for others. and a feeling of belonging continues unchanged from prehistoric times. a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge her/his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. the emerg ent leader wields influence or power. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards a specific result. and Leadership Presence. (elevos. or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. the demands of the situation. Leadership can be defined as one's ability to get others to willingly follow. paraphrased from Leaders. However. and generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns (19 8) between "transactional" leadership (characterised by eg emphasis on procedures. she or he must possess adequate personal attributes to match his authority. Influence is the ability of a person to gain co operation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. personal relationships. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent. or unofficial. It is not dependent on title or formal authority.
Leadership versus management
Over the years the philosophical terminology of "management" and "leadership" have. An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of his po sition. clear communication. maintenance. with commensurate authority.
There must be interpersonal relationship. as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment. Leaders who demonstrate persistence. or by impeding the creativity within the team. it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success. but more commonly uses rotating leadership.contrast to individual leadership. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity. A team structure can involve sharing power equally on all issues. The team member(s) best able to handle any given phase of the project become(s) the temporary leader(s). reducing costs. Priorities: Members know what needs to be done next. Additionally. Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a team to achieve success. In this situation. determination and synergistic communication skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups.
Characteristics of a Team
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There must be an awareness of unity on the part of all its members.
Ten characteristics of well -functioning teams:
Purpose: Members proudly share a sense of why the team exists and are invested in accomplishing its mission and goals. Members must have a chance to contribute. The member must have the ability to act toget her toward a common goal. Others may see the traditional leaders hip of a boss as costing too much in team performance. or downsizing. even unintentionally. In some situations. some organizations have ad opted group leadership. A team of people with diverse skills and from all parts of an organization assembles to lead a project. learn from and work with others. A common example of group leadership involves cross-functional teams. more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. the maintenance of the boss becomes too expensive . and by when to achieve team goals. by whom. tenacity.either by draining the resources of the group as a whole.
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Roles: Members know their roles in getting tasks done and when to allow a more skillful member to do a certain task. Success: Members know clearly when the team has met with success and share in this equally and proudly. hence acts as a motivating force.
. Self Confidence.Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers¶ needs and. Ability to articulate the vision . 4.They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. and willing to take on high personal risk. .These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change. Behavior that is out of the ordinary. A vision. Effectiveness: Members find team meetings efficient and productive and look forward to this time together. 3. 5. Perceived as being a change agent . Decisions: Authority and decision-making lines are clearly understood.
Key Characteristics of Charismatic leaders
1. Environmental sensitivity. Training: Opportunities for feedback and updating skills are provided and taken advantage of by team members.This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. unconventional. 2. Norms: Group norms for working together are set and seen as standards for every one in the groups. Personal traits: members feel their unique personalities are appreciated and well utilized. the more likely that followers will at tribute extraordinary vision to the leader. these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers. and engage in self -sacrifice to achieve their vision. Strong convictions about vision . 6. and counter to norms.Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed.Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel. Conflict: Conflict is dealt with openly and is considered important to decision making and personal growth. incur high costs. When successful .They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo.
recognizes accomp lishment Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards. avoids making decisions
Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission. Inspiration: Communicates high expectations. treats each employee individually. Intellectual Stimulations : Promotes intelligence.Transactional vs Transformational leaders
Characteristics of Transactional and transformational leaders: Transactional Leaders
Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort. uses symbols to focus efforts. expresses important purposes in simple ways. Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention. coaches. Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities.
The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders
. advises. rationality. takes corrective action. promises rewards for good performance. and careful problem solving. instills pride. gains respect trust.
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or legal obligation to do so (McQueeney 165).
. and even taki ng office supplies home for your personal use. and visionary leader behaviors that make up transformational and charismatic leadership. which is important for followers to accept the vision of the leader These are critical and direct components to leading ethically. Such values can be. where there is a personal. In ethical leadership it is important for the leader to consider how his or her decisions impact others. Motivating involves engaging others in an intellectual and emotional commitment between leaders and followers that makes both parties equally responsible in the pursuit of a common goal. accomplishment. ethical leadership falls within the nexus of inspiring. Business leaders must make decisions that will not only benefit them. which is a style component of transformational leadership . professional. then it can cause mistrust. ethics in leadership are very important. quality. ethical. When practicing ethics. and dedication. stimulating. and expect. actions they engage in and ways they influence others´ Leaders who are ethical demonstrate a l evel of integrity that is important for stimulating a sense of leader trustworthiness. Ethical leaders assist followers in gaining a sense of personal competence that allows them to be self -sufficient by encouraging and empowering them. Inspirational motivation involves inspiring others to work towards the leader¶s vision for the group and to be committed to the group. efficiency.decisions they make. values. These characteristics of ethical leaders are similar to inspirational motivation. but also th ey must think about how the other people will be effected (Stansbury 33). If you never make clear what you want. The best leaders make known their values and their ethics and preach them in their leadership style and actions. and use their social power to serve the greater good instead of selfserving interests. ambition. For your organization. when in fact it hasn't even been written yet. you gain the respect and admiration of employees. honesty. you might want to let employees know your values right off the bat. It consists of communicating complete and accurate information. and also aware of how their decisions impact others. which is usually a list of rules that tells you what behaviors are right and what are wrong in the company. telling someone the "check is in the mail". The character and integrity of the leader provide the basis for personal characteristics that direct a leader¶s ethical beliefs. and decisions. Similarly.
Ethical leadership in organizations
In organizational communication. Individual values and beliefs impact the ethical decisions of leaders Leaders who are ethical are people-oriented. teamwork. Being unethical in the workplace can include anything from taking personal phone calls while at your desk. Motivating followers to put the needs or interests of the group ahead of their own is another quality of ethical l eaders. with the satisfaction of knowing you did the right thing. Most organizations create an ethical code.
The theory po stulates that failure in leadership is related to unfavorable conditions.or IDEAL Leadership -. Given the right conditions. These activities have ranged from MBA style programs offered at university business schools to action learning . but also to the society at large. Ideal Leadership defines a leader as one who moves his or her organization forward in a positive direction.
Leadership development refers to any activity that enhances the quality of leadership within an individual or organization. and predictive theory.Inter-Disciplinary Leadership -. prescriptive. It prescribes adjustments to a leader's capital in relation to the theory in order to make a leader more effective. The four vital Leadership Conditions n ecessary for these capacities to make a difference are a place where the leader can hold sway. The scientific nature of the Ideal Leadership Model is reflected in that it that it is a descriptive. a professor at the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga (Latvia). high-ropes courses and executive retreats. The six critical Leadership Capit al capacities are the vision and values that constitute the leader's philosophy. It also can accurately predict who would be effective in leadership and under what circumstances they would be effective. The model identifies six critical capabilities that are grouped under Leadership Capital and four capacities termed Leadership conditions. and people who are ready for leadership.is a scientific leadership theory developed in 2001 by Larry Stout.
. a period that calls for his or her leadership. the result is favorable not only to the particular organization. It fully describes all the divergent elements that compose the leadership phenomenon. or inadequate capital (termed anti-leadership). combined with adequate capital. the wisdom and courage that compose the leader's personal composition. and the trust and voice that enable them to influence others. a position that conveys leadership authority. based on a leadership assessment measured by leadershipmetrics.
such as the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. These experiences may include 360 degree feedback . Development is also more likely to occur when the design of the development program:
Integrates a range of developmental experiences over a set period of time (eg 6-12 months). Achieving such development takes focus. an internal focus of control. leadership development has focused on developing the leadership abilities and attitudes of individuals. and self -monitoring. Just like people aren't all born with the ability to. mentoring and more. play football like Zinedine Zidane or sing like Luciano Pavarotti. executive coaching. Personal characteristics that associated with successful leadership development include leader motivation to learn. go to great lengths to only accept candidates who show the highest potential to lead well . experiential classroom style programs. say. However.
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Individual learner characteristics The quality and nature of the leadership development program Genuine support for behavioural change from the leader's supervisor
Military officer training academies. everyone can develop their leadership effectiveness. The success of leadership development efforts has been linked to three variables . Different personal characteristics can help or hinder a person's leadership effectiveness and require formalized programs for developing leadership competencies. a high achievement drive and personali ty traits such as openness to experience. knowing what to do and doing what you know are two very different outcomes. business school style coursework. Involve goal setting.Developing Individual Leaders
Traditionally. people aren't all born with the ability to lead. management expert Henry Mintzberg is one person to highlight this dilemma. following an assessment of key developmental needs and then evaluate the achievement of goals after a given time period. It is estimated that as little as 15% of learning from traditional classroom style training results in sustained behavioral change within the workplace . reflective journaling. practice and persistence more akin to learning a musical instrument than reading a book Classroom-style training and associated reading is effective in helping leaders to know more about what is involved in leading well.
Leadership studies has origins in the social sciences .
. sociology. concrete experience 2. .Experiential learning : positioning the individual in the focus of the learning process.Among key concepts in leadership development one may find: . Leadership degree programs generally relate to: aspects of Leadership .
Leadership studies is a multidisciplinary academic field of study that focuses on leadership in organizational contexts and in human life. there are numerous academic programs (spanning several academic colleges and departments) related to the study of leadership. anthropology. management and education). history and philosophy). Today. undergraduate through doctoral. the study of leadership has been of interest to scholars from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds. psychology). forming abstract concept 4. Leadership Studies . going through the four stages of experiential learning as formulated by David A.
Leadership in Higher Education
Leadership has become one of the fastest growing academic fields in higher education . observation and reflection 3. and Organizational Leadership (although there are a number of leadership -oriented concentrations in other academic areas). At all levels.. in humanities . testing in new situations.Visioning: Developing the ability to formulate a clear image of the aspired future o f an organization unit. an increasing number of colleges and universities have begun developing not only individual courses. as Albert Bandura formulated: A person's belief about his capabilities to produce effects . as well as in professional and applied fields of study .Self efficacy : The right training and coaching should bring about 'Self efficacy' in the trainee. Kolb: 1. but entire degree programs specifically devoted to the study of leadership.
As an academic area of inquiry. The field of leadership studies is closely linked to the field of organizational studies.
. leadership has only become the focus of contemporary academic studies in the last 60 years. and participative leadership. The discipline (which encompasses a host of sub -fields) is filled with definitions. relationship oriented behavior. The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: "initiating structure. Rost (1991) has argued allows scholars and practitioners to think radically new thoughts about leadership that are not possible from a unidisciplinary approach. specialization and concentration areas have been developed around the study of leadership." These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another. Contemporary leadership scholars and researchers have often been questioned about the nature of their work.disciplinary academic fields of study in general. education.and indicated that leaders could be classi fied as either "employee centered. functions. theories. Most of these academic programs have been designed to be multidisciplinary in nature²drawing upon theories and applications from related fields such as sociology. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli. and particularly more so in the last two decades." or "job centered. but much of the confusion surrounding leadership as a field of study may be attributed to a lack of understanding regarding inter. styles. By 1962. the research findings on leadership provide a far more sophisticated and complex view of the phenomenon than most of the simplistic views presented in the popular press. The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. Such an approach. These questionnaires are known a s the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LDBQ) and the Supervisor Behavior Description Questionnaire (SDBQ). and management. and medicine. however.
History of Leadership as a Field of Study
The study of leadership can be dated back to Plato. and historical examples of successful and diverse leaders. competencies. Some of the earliest studies on leadership include:
The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the 1940s and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs." These studies identified three critical characteristics of effective leaders: task oriented behavior. and its place within the academy. Collectively. the LDBQ was on version XII.and multi. The Michigan Leadership Studies which began in the 1950s . psychology." and "consideration. philosophy.Even among some of the more established and traditional academic disciplines such as engineering.
The first doctoral program in Leadership Studies was established at the University of San Diego in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences in 19 9. for the economic benefit of the firm.y
McGregors Theory X & Theory Y developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s at MIT Sloan School of Management . the two theories of management diverge. They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results (on the one axis) and concern for people (on the other axis).
In addition to these studies. Transactional & Transformational theories of Leadership : The transactional leader focuses on managerial reward and contingent valuation. from an academic perspective leadership has been studied from several theoretical lenses:
Trait & Behavioral theories of Leadership : Attempt to describe the types of behavior and personality tendencies associated with effective leadership.The first undergraduate school of Leadership Studie s was established at the University of Richmond (The Jepson School) in 1992. Beyond this point.The growth of transpersonal psychology means that this field has relevance to Transpersonal business studies. the essence of self leadership theory is that behaviors are directed toward the attainment of super-ordinate goals. including people.
. Information-Processing Leadership theory: [Focuses on the role of social perception in identifying leadership abilities. Self Leadership theory:Although behaviorally oriented. Both theories begin with the premise that the role of manag ement is to assemble the factors of production. Situational & Contingency theories of Leadership : Incorporate environmental and situational considerations into leader behavior. The transformational leader focuses on motivation and goal attainment. Blake & McCanse Leadership Grid [ developed the orientation of "task orientation" and "people orientation" in leader behavior. These theories described employee motivation in the workforce. Functional Leadership theory: Suggests that a leader¶s primary responsibility is to see that whatever is necessary in relation to group needs is taken care of.
focused on identifying the qualities of a leader based on our personal experiences rather than treat leadership in an organizational contex t/contextual fashion affecting team performance. We also proposed the model that leadership in a small group environment evolves in the context of strength of intrapersonal relationships. Our work. Leadership itself is a complex system. Future work should explore the degree to which team size. aggregated team characteristics. therefore. and member homogeneity/heterogeneity affect leadership emergence
Identifying how leaders emerge in a complex environment proved illusive primarily due to very different concepts of leadership.