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# In a commercial electric power plant, large generators produce energy that is transferred out of the plant by electrical transmission

. These generators use magnetic induction to generate a potential difference when coils of wire in the generator are rotated in a magnetic field. The source of energy to rotate the coils might be falling water, burning fossil fuels, or a nuclear reaction. (Michael Melford/Getty Images)

•Faraday’s law of induction •Motional e.m.f •Lenz’s law •Induced e.m.f’s and electric fields •Maxwell’s equations

Michael Faraday British Physicist and Chemist (1791–1867) Faraday is often regarded as the greatest experimental scientist of the 1800s. His many contributions to the study of electricity include the invention of the electric motor, electric generator, and transformer, as well as the discovery of electromagnetic induction and the laws of electrolysis. Greatly influenced by religion, he refused to work on the development of poison gas for the British military. (By kind permission of the President and Council of the Royal Society)

p.968

(a) When a magnet is moved toward a loop of wire connected to a sensitive ammeter, the ammeter deflects as shown, indicating that a current is induced in the loop. (b) When the magnet is held stationary, there is no induced current in the loop, even when the magnet is inside the loop. (c) When the magnet is moved away from the loop, the ammeter deflects in the opposite direction, indicating that the induced current is opposite that shown in part (a). Changing the direction of the magnet’s motion changes the direction of the current induced by that motion.

Faraday’s experiment. When the switch in the primary circuit is closed, the ammeter in the secondary circuit deflects momentarily. The emf induced in the secondary circuit is caused by the changing magnetic field through the secondary coil.

• Relationship between current and changing magnetic field. An electric current can be induced in a circuit by a changing magnetic field. • In faraday’s experiment an induced emf is produced in the secondary circuit by the changing magnetic field. • The emf induced in a circuit is directly proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux thro’ the circuit – Faraday’s Law of Induction

d   dt

Where

  B.dA

is the magnetic flux thro’ the circuit.

If coil consist of N loops all of the same area, ΦB is the same magnetic flux thro’ one loop, an emf is induced in every loop. The loops are in series, so their emfs add, thus total emf

d   N dt

Suppose that a loop enclosing an area A lies in a uniform magnetic field B, the magnetic flux thro’ the loop = BA cos θ

d    BA cos  dt
From the above equation, an emf can be induced in several ways: The magnitude of B can change with time The area enclosed by the loop can change with time The angle θ between B and the normal to the loop can change with time Any combination of the above can occur

1.1 Some applications of Faraday’s law
Essential components of a ground fault interrupter (GFI) – an interesting safety device that protects users of electrical appliances from electric shock

(a) In an electric guitar, a vibrating magnetized string induces an emf in a pickup coil. (b) The pickups (the circles beneath the metallic strings) of this electric guitar detect the vibrations of the strings and send this information through an amplifier and into speakers. (A switch on the guitar allows the musician to select which set of six pickups is used.) Charles D. Winters

1.2 Problems : Question 1
• A coil consists of 200 turns of wire. Each turn is a square of side 18 cm, and a uniform magnetic field directed perpendicular to the plane of the coil is turned on. If the field changes linearly from 0 to 0.5 T in 0.8 s what is the magnitude of the induced emf in the coil while the field is changing? • Area of one turn of the coil = (0.18 m)2 = 0.0324 m2. • At t = 0, Φ = 0 because B = 0 • At t = 0.8 s, Φ = BA = (0.5o T)(0.0324 m2) = 0.0162 T.m2 • Therefore magnitude of induced emf:

 0.0162 T.m2  0  N  200 t 0.80 s ε  4.1 T.m2 s 1  4.1 V

2. Motional emf
• Previously emf induced in a stationary circuit, but magnetic field changes with time • Motional emf is where the emf is induced in a conductor moving thro’ a constant magnetic field
A straight electrical conductor of length moving with a velocity v through a uniform magnetic field B directed perpendicular to v. Due to the magnetic force on electrons, the ends of the conductor become oppositely charged. This establishes an electric field in the conductor. In steady state, the electric and magnetic forces on an electron in the wire are balanced.

When charges accumulate at both ends, downward magnetic force qvB is balanced by the upward electric force qE, hence

qE = qvB or E =vB
But ∆V = El , therefore ∆V = El = Blv , a potential difference is maintained between the ends of the conductor as long as the conductor continues to move thro’ the uniform magnetic field.

Consider a circuit consisting of a conducting bar of length l sliding along two fixed parallel conducting rails ( hence forming a closed circuit) Assume bar has zero resistance, and an applied force Fapp to pull the bar with velocity v. This sets up an induced current because the charges are free to move. In this case the rate of change of magnetic flux and the corresponding induced motional emf across the bar is proportional to the change in area of the loop.

Area enclosed = lx Hence, Φ = Blx

d d dx     Blx   Bl dt dt dt   Blv Hence, Bl v I  R R ε

As the bar moves thro’ the uniform B it experiences a magnetic force FB of magnitude IlB. The direction of this force is opposite to the motion of bar Moving with constant velocity implies applied force must be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to magnetic force

P  Fapp

Blv R lBv   B2l 2v 2   2 v  IlBv 
R R R

The change in energy in the system during some time interval must be equal to the transfer of energy into the system by work, or power input is equal to the rate at which energy is delivered to the resistor.

• Consider again the moving bar (as in the previous example) on two frictionless parallel rails in the presence of magnetic field. The bar has mass m and its length l • Using Newton’s law, find the velocity of the bar as a function of time, given that the bar is given an initial velocity of vi to the right and is released at t = 0.

• The magnetic force if FB = -IlB, where the negative sign indicates that the retarding force is to the left.
FB  ma  m dv  IlB dt

dv B 2l 2 m  v dt R  B 2l 2  dv dt    mR  v   v

v1

dv  B l  v mR

2 2 t

 dt
0

 B 2l 2   v  t   t     ln   mR  τ  v1   

where

τ

mR B 2l 2

 B 2l 2   v   t   t ln    v   mR  τ  1  

where

τ

mR B 2l 2

• The velocity can be expressed in the exponential form:

v  v te 

t

3. Lenz’s Law
The induced current in a loop is in the direction that creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in magnetic flux thro’ the area enclosed by the loop.
(a) As the conducting bar slides on the two fixed conducting rails, the magnetic flux due to the external magnetic field into the page through the area enclosed by the loop increases in time. By Lenz’s law, the induced current must be counterclockwise so as to produce a counteracting magnetic field directed out of the page. (b) When the bar moves to the left, the induced current must be clockwise. Why?

(b)When the bar moves to the left, the induced current must be clockwise. Why? When bar is moving to the left, the external magnetic flux thro’ the area enclosed by the loop decreases with time. Because the field is directed into page, the direction of the induced current must be clockwise if it is to produce a field that is also directed into the page.

(a) When the magnet is moved toward the stationary conducting loop, a current is induced in the direction shown. (b) This induced current produces its own magnetic field directed to the left that counteracts the increasing external flux. (c) When the magnet is moved away from the stationary conducting loop, a current is induced in the direction shown. (d) This induced current produces a magnetic field directed to the right and so counteracts the decreasing external flux.

Fig 31-15, p.979

4. Induced emf and electric fields
• When a current is induced in a conducting loop, an electric field is created as a result of the changing magnetic flux.
Consider a conducting loop of radius r in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the loop. If B changes in time, an electric field is induced in a direction tangent to the circumference of the loop.

If magnetic field changes with time, then according to Faraday’s law, an emf Є = - dΦ/dt is induced in the loop. The induction of a current implies the presence of induced electric field E, which must be tangent to the loop because this is the direction in which the charges in the wire move in response to the electric force. The work done in moving in moving a test charge once around the loop is qЄ The force to move the charge is qE, the work done once around the loop is qE(2πr), hence qЄ = qE(2πr)

E but

 2r

Φ  BA  r 2B E  1 d r dB  2r dt 2 dt

Hence,

r dB E  2 dt
If the time variation of the magnetic field is specified, we can easily calculate the induced electric field from the above equation The emf for any closed path can be expressed as the line integral of E.ds over path:

   E .ds

In more general case, E may not be constant and the path may not be a circle. Hence Faraday’s law of induction, Є=-dΦ/dt can be written in the general form

 E .ds  

d dt

The induced electric field E in the above equation is a nonconservative field that is generated by a changing magnetic field.

4.1 Electric field induced by a changing magnetic field in a solenoid
• A long solenoid of radius R has n turns of wire per unit length and carries a time varying current that varies sinusoidally as I = Imaxcos ωt, where Imax is the maximum current and ω is the angular frequency of the alternating current • Determine the magnitude of the induced electric field outside the solenoid at a distance r > R from its central axis.

Let the line of integral to be a circle of radius r.
By symmetry the magnitude of E is constant on this path and that E is tangent to it. The magnetic flux thro’ the area enclosed by this path is BA = BπR2

 

d 2 2 dB E.ds   BR  R dt dt E.ds  E2r   R 2
2

dB butB  o dt

d E2r   R onImax cost  dt E

onImax R 2
2r

sin t

5. Generators and motors

(a) Schematic diagram of an AC generator. An emf is induced in a loop that rotates in a magnetic field. (b) The alternating emf induced in the loop plotted as a function of time.

(a) Schematic diagram of an AC generator. An emf is induced in a loop that rotates in a magnetic field. (b) The alternating emf induced in the loop plotted as a function of time.

  BA cos  BA cost d d   N  NAB cost   NAB sin t dt dt

 max  NAB

(a) Schematic diagram of a DC generator. (b) The magnitude of the emf varies in time but the polarity never changes.

A hybrid drive systems is where a gasoline and an electric motor are combined to increase the fuel economy and reduce emissions. In this type of car, power to the wheels can come from either the gasoline engine or the electric motor. In normal driving, the electric motor accelerates the vehicle from rest until it is moving at a speed of about 24 kmh-1. During this acceleration, the engine is not running, so that gasoline is not used, hence no emission. When a hybrid vehicle brake, the motor acts as a generator and returns some of the kinetic energy of the vehicle back to the battery as stored energy.

6. Eddy currents
Formation of eddy currents in a conducting plate moving through a magnetic field. As the plate enters or leaves the field, the changing magnetic flux induces an emf, which causes eddy currents in the plate.

Fig 31-25, p.986

(a) As the conducting plate enters the field (position 1), the eddy currents are counterclockwise. As the plate leaves the field (position 2), the currents are clockwise. In either case, the force on the plate is opposite the velocity, and eventually the plate comes to rest. (b) When slots are cut in the conducting plate, the eddy currents are reduced and the plate swings more freely through the magnetic field.

• The braking systems on many subway and rapid-transit cars make use of electromagnetic induction and eddy currents. An electromagnet attached to the train is positioned near the steel rails. The braking action occurs when a large current is passed thro’ the electromagnet. The relative motion of the magnet and rails induces eddy currents in the rails, and the direction of these currents produces a drag force on the moving train.Because the eddy current decrease steadily in magnitude as the train slows down, the braking effect is quite smooth. • However eddy currents are often undesirable because they represent a transformation of mechanical energy to internal energy. To reduce this energy loss, conducting parts are often laminated- that is they are built up in thin layers separated by a nonconducting material such as lacquer or metal oxide. This layered structure inscreases the resistance of eddy currents to individual layers. Such a laminated structure is used in transformer cores.

7. Maxwell’s Equations
• Equations regarded as basis of all electrical and magnetic phenomena • Equations tend to be in agreement with special theory of relativity • The following equations are in free space, that is in the absence of any dielectric or magnetic material

Maxwell’s Equations

 E.dA   o
s

q

……(1) Gauss’s law

 B.dA  0
s

…..(2) Gauss’s law in magnetism

 

d B E.ds   dt

d E B.ds  oI   o o dt

(4) Ampere-Maxwell law

Maxwell’s Equations

 E.dA   o
s

q

……(1) Gauss’s law

The total electric flux thro’ any closed surface equals the net charge inside that surface divided by Єo. This law relates an electric field to the charge distribution that creates it

Maxwell’s Equations

 B.dA  0
s

…..(2) Gauss’s law in magnetism

The net magnetic flux thro’ a closed surface is zero.

That is the number of magnetic field lines that enter a closed volume must equal the number that leave that volume. This implies that magnetic field lines cannot begin or end at any point.

Maxwell’s Equations

dB E.ds   dt

The emf, which is the integral of the electric field around any closed path, equals the rate of change of magnetic flux thro’ any surface area bounded by that path. One consequence od Faraday’s law is the current induced in a conducting loop placed in a time-varying magnetic field.

Maxwell’s Equations

dE B.ds  oI   o o dt

(4) Ampere-Maxwell law

Generalized form of Ampere’s law, and describes the creation of a magnetic field by an electric field and electric currents: the line integral of the magnetic field around any closed path is the sum of μo times the net current thro’ that path and Єoμo times the rate of change of electric flux thro’ any surface bounded by that path

• Once the electric and magnetic fields are known at some point in space, the force acting on a particle of charge q can be calculated from the expression • F = qE + qv x B • This relationship is called the Lorentz force law. Maxwell’s equation together with this law, completely describe all classical electromagnetic interactions.

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