This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# Rating a boiler The ASME boiler and pressure vessel code recommends that th e boiler output be expressed as

:

the heat output in steam (in Btu/hr.) units of evaporation (total heat output of the boiler unit in KBtu) actual evaporation (pounds of steam per hour at the observed steam P,T or quality)

The terms like boiler horsepower or amount of heating surface have become obsolete now.

Efficiency of boiler

The efficiency of a boiler is the percentage of input energy that is converted into steam. Input power being mainly the energy in fuel (power consumption of auxiliaries being negligible) Output power being mainly the energy in steam The main losses of energy being: the flue gas loss ( the most vital) the loss due to unburnt fuel the loss in hot water blown down from the boiler the losses due to radiation, conduction, and convection from the boiler structure the sensible heat in the ash of very high ash fuels

The efficiency of the steam generation unit can be calculated by two methods: 1. Direct method 2. Indirect method y Direct method: It involves measurement of both heat input and heat output.

Input heat is calculated by the calorific value of fuel and the volume flow rate of the fuel. With natural gas, the process is quite simple: a simple gas meter can be employed and the corrections for temperature and pressure are made. The calorific value of fuel can be used same as that provided by gas suppliers With diesel oil the process is a bit difficult as the viscosity of oil is more sensitive to changes of pressure and temperature. For test a gas meter designed for the oil being burnt can only be used. A precisely calibrated day tank is the most suitable for measuring the volume of the oil . Output heat can be measured by installing modern flow meters like variableorifice or vortex shedding type and correcting the flow measurement for temperature and pressure. But installing a meter is not an easy task because its loading effect disturbs the actual value of flow. The wetness of steam also makes the calculations difficult. For small boilers this problem can be countered by measuring the flow rate of feed water rather than calculating the steam flow. y Indirect method (also called losses method or efficiency by difference) In this method all the losses occurring in the boiler are calculated and subtracted from 100%. The flue gas loss can be due to the sensible heat in the gasses leaving the boiler and/or the heat energy absorbed by the moisture present in the fuel. Seigert developed very simplified formulae for dry gas and water vapour losses which were further modified and improved by Dunninghum and Nonhebel. These formulae are now a part of the BS845 standard. They give the losses as percentage of the gross calorific value of fuel: Dry gas losses Water vapour losses

Losses due to unburnt gases Losses due to unburnt carbon in the ash and riddling

Losses due to unburnt coal in grit and dust

Where K is the Seigert constant t3 is the temperature of the gas exit from the boiler ( oC) ta is the temperature of the air entering the boiler ( oC) VCO2 is the percentage of CO2 in the dry flue gasses (%v/v) mH2O is the percentage of moisture in the fuel as fired (%m/m) H is the percentage of hydrogen in the fuel as fired (%m/m) Q is the gross calorific value of the fuel as fired (KJ/Kg) VCO is the percentage CO in the flue gases K1 is another constant M1 is the mass of ash and riddling collected during the test (Kg) M2 is mass of grit and dust collected during the test (Kg) Ml is the mass of fuel fired during the test (Kg) a1 is the percentage mass of ash and riddling (%m/m)

a2 is the percentage mass of grit and dust (%m/m) The losses due to radiation, conduction and convection range from 1% for boilers up to 2MW to 0.3% for boilers above 5 MW.

NB:

Where C is the carbon content of fuel in (%m/m) Typical values of k are Coal Heavy fuel oil Gas oil Natural gas Typical values of H are Coal Heavy fuel oil Gas oil Natural gas 4.1%m/m 11.4%m/m 13%m/m 24.4%m/m 0.62 0.51 0.48 0.35

The losses L4 and L5 are only significant in case of solid fuels. The indirect method is preferred over the direct method because it is : 1. Simple 2. Identifies the loss areas which need attention 3. It is more accurate The tolerance in the calculation for both the methods is ±2%. The standards used in the measurement of efficiency are: 1. BS845 (British standard)

2. ASME PTC-4-1 Power Test Code Steam Generating Unit (U.S. standard ) Example: Volume of gas used = 100 m3/hr Calorific value of fuel = 10000 KJ/Kg Moisture content of fuel = 5% Carbon content of fuel = 50% Hydrogen content of fuel = 24.4% CO2 content in the exit gases, dry basis = 10% CO content of exit gases, dry basis = 200 ppm. (negligible) Temperature of exit gases = 230oC Temperature of air entering = 20 oC Then the outputs are: K= 1.275 L1 = 26.775% L2=64.88% Let the boiler under consideration is a 6MW boiler the radiation etc. losses are 0.3%, therefore, Total losses are 91.96% Efficiency is 100-91.96 = 8.04% Output = (input) x (efficiency) = (100*10000*8.04)/100) = 80400 KJ/hr. Output = 80400/3600 KW Output = 22.33 KW