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Mediator Microbial Fuel Cell Mediator-less Microbial Fuel Cell Microbial Electrolysis Cell
Wouldn¶t it be better if we held the meeting at someplace quieter?
Activation losses are caused by the slowness of the reactions taking place on the electrode surface. The voltage decreases somewhat due to the electrochemical reaction kinetics. This can be seen in the lefthand section of the current-voltage curve above. The ohmic losses result from resistance to the flow of ions in the electrolyte and electrons through the cell hardware and various interconnections. The corresponding voltage drop is essentially proportional to current density, hence the term "ohmic losses". Mass transport losses result from the decrease in reactant concentration at the surface of the electrodes as fuel is used. At maximum (limiting) current, the concentration at the catalyst surface is practically zero, as the reactants are consumed as soon as they are supplied to the surface. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of microorganisms A typical microbial fuel cell consists of anode and cathode compartments separated by a cation (positively charged ion) specific membrane. In the anode compartment, fuel is oxidized by microorganisms, generating electrons and protons. Electrons are transferred to the cathode compartment through an external electric circuit, and the protons are transferred to the cathode compartment through the membrane. Electrons and protons are consumed in the cathode compartment, combining with oxygen to form water. In general, there are two types of microbial fuel cells: mediator and mediator-less microbial fuel cells.
When micro-organisms consume a substrate such as sugar in aerobic conditions they produce carbon dioxide and water. However when oxygen is not present they produce carbon dioxide, protons and electrons as described below Most of the microbial cells are electrochemically inactive. The electron transfer from microbial cells to the electrode is facilitated by mediators such as thionine, methyl viologen, methyl blue, humic acid, neutral red and so on
in a reverse of the process MEC's generate hydrogen or methane directly by applying an electric current to bacteria .Whilst MFC's produce electric current by the bacterial decomposition of hydrocarbons in water.