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15684002 All About Branding Final Project Report 3

15684002 All About Branding Final Project Report 3

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11/01/2011

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Sections

  • How do we determine our Brand Identity?
  • Owned Word
  • Slogan
  • Company Word
  • Colors
  • Symbols and Logos
  • Cartoons and Animations
  • Objects
  • The Brand
  • Perceiving the brand:
  • Choosing a Brand Name
  • Among the desirable qualities of a brand name. Some are:
  • Brand Element Choice Criteria
  • An example of this sort of belief is:
  • To Buyer:
  • To Seller:
  • AMUL BUTTER GIRL
  • BRANDING-SPECIAL FOCUS ON TOON BRANDING
  • Q1. Identify the following toon mascots and their products or either of
  • Q2. Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot
  • Q4. Do you think nowadays Brand Mascots are losing importance to
  • Brand Personality?
  • Q5. Which is your most memorable toon mascot?
  • Q6. Why do you think this Brand Mascot is most memorable one?

1.

ALL ABOUT BRANDING
The term brand means different things to the different roles of buyer and seller, with buyers generally associating brand with a product or service, and merchants associating brand with identity. Brand can also identify the company behind the specific product -- that's not just a biscuit, that's Britannia biscuit. This use of brand puts a "face" behind the name, so to speak, even if the "face" is the result of advertising copy and television commercials. This use of brand also says nothing of quality, just the buyer's exposure to the brand's PR and media hype. For the typical merchant, branding is a way of taking everything that is good about the company -positive shopping experience, professionalism, superior service, product knowledge, whatever the company decides is important for a customer to believe about the company -- and wrapping these characteristics into a package that can be evoked by the brand as signifier.

1 . 1 I ntr o d uc ti o n t o B r a ndi ng
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as ³A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors´. A brand is thus a product or service that¶s adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product performance of the brand.

Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer to those of another. The earliest signs of branding can be traced to Europe where the medieval guilds required that craftsmen put trademarks on their product to protect themselves and producer against inferior quality substitutes. Also in fine arts branding began with artists signing their works. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve the consumer¶s lives and enhance the financial value of firms.

Brands identify the source or maker of the product and allow consumers-either individual or organizations- to assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor. Consumers

may evaluate the identical product differently depending how it is branded. Consumers lean about the brand with its past experience and the marketing program. As consumers lives becomes more complicated, time starved the ability of brand to simplify decision making is invaluable. Brands also perform valuable functions for the firm. First they simplify the product handling and tracing. Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. The brand name can be protected registered trademarks. The intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and can reap the benefits over a long period of time.

Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. Brand loyalty provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that makes it difficult for other firms to enter the market. This brand loyalty can translate into willingness to pay higher price. In this sense branding can be seen as powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. Brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer¶s behavior. Strong brand results in better earnings and profit performance for firms, which in turn, creates greater value for shareholders.

How do you ³BRAND´ a product? Although firms provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities, ultimately a brand is something that resides in the mind of the consumers. A brand is a perpetual identity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the ultimate choice of the consumers. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of brands. To brand a product, it is necessary to teach the consumers ³who´ the product-by giving a name. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and in process provides value to the firm

Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand: y y A physical good (Nestle soup, Pantene shampoo or Maruti Swift), A service (Kingfisher Airlines, TATA AIG medical insurance),

y y y y

A store (Big Bazaar, BATA stores), A place (The state of Kerala, Pushkar Mela), A person (Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar), An organization (UNICEF or BCCI),

Brand is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that you associate with the company or a product. When you think of Volvo, you think of safety. When you think of Nike, you think of Michael Jordon or µJust Do It¶. When you think of IBM, you think of µBig Blue¶. The fact that you remember the brand name and have positive associations with that brand makes your product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction you get from product.

While Brand X cola or even Pepsi-Cola may win blind taste tests over Coca-Cola, the fact is that more people buy Coke than any other Cola. The fond memories of childhood and refreshment that people have when they drink Coke is often more important than a little bit better cola taste. It I this emotional relationship with brands that make them so powerful.

1.2 Purpose of Branding

The purpose of branding is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. A brand is a set of elements or ³brand assets´ that in combination create a

unique, memorable, unmistakable, and valuable relationship between an organization and its customers. The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual, written and vocal tools to represent the business plan and intentions of an organization.

Branding is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the outside world. What your company, products and services stand for should all be captured in your branding strategy, and represented consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing activities

The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system, including both visual image assets and language assets. The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in ³big change situation´ where the brand redefinition is required, but also in the management of routine marketing variables and tactics. This does not have to be a ³ground-up´ situation where there are wholesale changes to the business. Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing variables.

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what benefits it provides and why it is better than the completion? Brand personality adds emotion. food quality etc.ACCOUNTING. Brand associations are the attributes that costumer thinks of when they hear or see the brand name. and brand personality. How do we determine our Brand Identity? Brand has been called the most powerful idea in commercial world. brand associations. starting in yellow arches in the low right corner of the screen and following with associations of Big Mac.JIMDO. a character (Pink Panther). HUMAN RESOURCE. positioning.COM 1. A good brand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations with the brand. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR.3 Brand Identity Brand Identity includes brand names. The first step in creating a brand for your company is branding workshop. culture and myth to brand identity by the use of a famous spokesperson (Bill CosbyJello). McDonalds television are a series of one brand association after another. brand toons etc. Ronald MacDonald. yet few companies create a brand identity. happy meal. an animal (the Merrill lynch bull) etc. logos. kids. Do you want your company¶s brand identity created for you by competitors and . FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COST ACCOUNTING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA. A positioning statement tells what business the company is in.

Company Vo lvo BMW Mercedes Fe der a l E xpre ss A p p l e c o mp u t e r s Lot us Ko d a k W o rd ³S a f e t y´ ³ D r i v i n g p e r fo r m a n c e ´ ³E n g i n e e r i n g ´ ³ O ve r n i g ht ´ ³Grap h ic s´ ³S p r e a d s h e e t s ´ ³F ilm´ 1. a favorable one. a symbol.4 Tools for Building Brand Identity Brand builders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the brand image. a color. in every news release. Here are some well-known brands slogans. Owned Word A strong brand name should trigger another word. Then. which people on the street may easily recall or recognize: COMPANY British Airways Ford LIC SLOGAN ³The world¶s favorite airline´ ³Quality is our number one job´ ³Jeevan ke saath bhi jeevan ke baad bhi´ . and set of stories. in communications with employees and in every sales call or media interview.unhappy customers? Of course not. Strong brands typically exhibit an owned word. a slogan. pound that message in every ad. Here is the list of brands that own a word: Slogan Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their brand name which is repeated in every ad they use. By continuous repetition of messages customer will think of your product and then buy it. Our advice to executives is to research their customers and find the top ranked reasons that the customers buy their product rather than their competitors.

Colors It helps for a company or a brand to use a consistent set of color to and in the brand recognition. even naming the product after them. animated. and IBM is called ³Big Blues´. Many companies hire a well-known spokesperson. IBM uses blue in its publications. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their symbols. Cartoons and Animations A less expensive approach is to develop a character. to etch the brand¶s image into customer¶s mind. hoping that his or her quality transfer to the brand. Nike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and likableness. The advertising agency Leo Burnett has successfully created a number of memorable animated characters. Here are some well known brand cartoons which people may recognize: Company ICICI Prudential Amul Butter McDonalds All Out mosquito Repellent Pillsbury 7 Up Cartoon or Animation Chintamani Utterly Butterly Girl Ronald Louis Doughboy Fido Dido . to advertise its shoes. Symbols and Logos Companies would be wise to adapt a symbol or logo to use in their communications. Caterpillar paints all its construction equipments yellow. Yellow is the color of Kodak film.

y Distinctiveness: your brand should be distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will be exposed. There are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your brand. suggesting that buying insurance is equivalent to having an umbrella available when it rains.5 Brand Effectiveness With an increase in global competition. Even the way the brand name is written makes a brand recognizable and memorable. The simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the 4 D¶s of Branding. suggesting that buying an insurance is equivalent to ³owing a peace of rock ³which is of course.Objects Still another approach is to choose an object to represent a company or brand. Companies have developed many logos or abstracts. . In this briefing we demonstrate how to calculate the brand strength. the price premium associated with the products categories. The more unique and distinct your communications. The travelers¶ insurance company uses an umbrella. The prudential insurance company features the rock of Gibraltar. defendable. and industrial products and services. which are easily remembered by people. distinctiveness. branding has become a source of competitive advantage. solid ad dependable. the source of next generation competency will be branding. Measuring Brand Effectiveness There are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of brands. the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. In rapidly evolving market for consumer. digit-able. 1. Marketers who match their brand with customers needs will have a sustainable competitive advantage. differentiation. and type of customers attracted to the ³Premium Products´.

a disinterested observer. symbols and other visual assets. . Building brand therefore calls for more than brand image building. This goes for all brand assets. an interested observer. a potential customer. It calls for managing every brand contact that customer might have with brand. The ad describing a gracious hotel chain is belied by the behavior of a surly concierge. distributors and dealers can affect brand experience. y Defendable: you will be investing in creating your brand assets and in all cases your brand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close approximations. or not at all. or almost anybody.6 Brand and Reputation A brand exists in the mind. Since all the employees. Much of the brand manager¶s work is to build a brand image. y Digit-able: in most businesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all brand assets be leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. They are aware of Marlboro (and scores of other cigarette brands) but as a non-smoker they will never convert their awareness into purchase. Much can go wrong. This applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos. People are aware of the Mercedes car brand.. but cannot envisage any circumstance under which they would (could!) buy a Mercedes. The mind it exists in may be that of a customer.y Differentiation: the brand strategy and brand assets must set you¶re offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering. A fine brand of canned soup described in a full page color ad may be found in dented and dusty condition in the bottom shelf of a supermarket. Awareness of a brand may be irrelevant to any purchasing decision that an individual may make. 1. The brand manager needs to make sure that brand experience matches the brand image. Male with no children are not targeted by Pampers or Huggies but still are aware of the brands. But its job doesn¶t stop there..

It may also mean insensitivity. a Coca-Cola. The most obvious are: -  He visits a McDonald¶s restaurant or a Shell petrol station. technical excellence. The Brand To any individual a brand (in his mind) is a complex combination of experiences. This is when the individual actually has a "Brand experience". beliefs. They are as follows: y Experience: The most powerful influence is experiential. But are or not a potential customer. This part argues that such distinctions are fallacious for all companies. environmental pollution. It is a brand which may represent (to any one individual) diversity. a service brand and a brand with a long history. They have no idea what an Intel chip is. a husband and so on. an investor. a Compaq or a Shell. . abuse of power and other negative perceptions. financial strength etc. They will never buy a Boeing 777 but might be impressed by the aircraft and favor an airline that flies them. These companies¶ reputations are part and parcel of their brand.People wear many hats. but that investors buy reputations. People may be an employee. but might be persuaded that it is a good thing to have in my PC and therefore buy a computer from a company that uses them. Those potential employees join companies because of their reputation. Some conventional wisdoms state that customers buy brands. internationality. but especially for single brand companies such as a McDonalds. Perceiving the brand: An individual builds up his perceptions of a brand via a wide range of communications channels. a product brand. perceptions and associations that have grown up over time. For example Coca-Cola is a company brand. Their brands are their reputation. Brand Aware argues that there is no difference between "Brand" and "Reputation". etc. They hate McDonald¶s hamburgers but might love their stock market record and therefore be a potential customer for their stock. that the media and other "stakeholders" judge a company on its reputation in some way as a distinct concept from its brand. a citizen.

will be exposed to their advertising. This advertising may be in a wide range of media:  TV commercials for products and services  Recruitment ads inviting employment applications  "Corporate" TV commercials promoting the company's "reputation"  Web based advertising  An ad for the company¶s branded products or services in a wide variety of print media. y Media reports and stories: Individuals will be exposed to a wide variety of reports about companies in the media (print and broadcast) where the editorial content is only partly influence able by the company (in some cases) or not at all (in most cases). or travels to one on business or vacation.  Billboards on highways  Radio  Point of sale etc. He buys a Coca-Cola branded product or service. These stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources:  Press releases  Press conferences  Reporting of "events"  Investigative journalism  Stories passed to the media by third parties (Non governmental organizations etc. etc.  He attends an interview at the company.  He buys a share in the company.  He views a Coca-Cola bottler's facility. y Advertising: Over time an individual who lives in a country in which the company/brand is active.  He visits a corporate website.  He contacts the company office for information.  He meets an employee of the company.) .

In choosing a brand name.y Professional/business interest: For some individuals to interface professionally. with famous companies (or to observe them) is part of their job. short names help a lot to recognize the product to the customers. When price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. it must be consistent with the value positioning of the brand. Calvin Klein). Healthy choice). it will probably be viewed as a commodity. It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages etc. They will usually procure their information from a variety of sources and via a variety of channels of communication. location (American airlines). Then price is the thing that counts.7 Building the Brand The art of marketing is largely art of brand building. It should suggest product qualities such action or color It should be easy to pronounce. y y It should be distinctive. quality (Safety stores. recognize and remember. Building Positive Associations . Among the desirable qualities of a brand name. But just having a brand is not enough. Kodak). When something is not a brand. What does the brand name mean? What associations. or an artificial name (Exxon. or from a specific business need. performances and expectations does it evoke? What degree of preferences does it create? Choosing a Brand Name A brand name first must be chosen then its various meanings and promises must be built up through brand identity work. These individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include: -  Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance  Existing or potential suppliers of products and services  Existing or potential industrial/commercial customers 1. In naming a product or service the company may face many possibilities: it could choose name of the person (Honda. Some are: y y y It should suggest something about the product benefits.

Thus Mercedes is proud of its engineers and engineering innovations and is very organized and efficient in its operations. y Company Values: A strong brand should connote values that the company holds. well-organized and somewhat authoritarian. not just features. For example. y Users: A strong brand should suggest the type of people who buy the brand.The best known brand names carry associations. The fact that it is a German company adds more pictures in the mind of the buyers about the character and the culture of the brand. y Personality: A strong brand should exhibit some personality traits. affluent and professional. Donald Quality Toys In trying to build a rich set of positive associations for a brand. If a car brand does not trigger any attribute. Thus Mercedes triggers the idea of well performing car that is enjoyable to drive and prestigious to own. Thus if Mercedes were a person we would think of someone who is middle age. . rugged and expensive. Thus we would expect Mercedes to draw buyers who are older. If Mercedes were an animal we might think of lion or its implied personality. here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds: y y y y y y Kids Fun Happy Meal Ronald Mc. y Benefits: A strong brand should suggest benefits. the brand builder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning: y Attributes: A strong brand should trigger in buyers mind certain attributes. serious. then it would be a weak brand. Thus a Mercedes automobile attributes a picture of well-engineered car that is durable.

8 Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trademarks devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. 1. y Meaningful: To what extent is brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or a type of person who might use the brand? . y Memorable: How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand name like tide. brands when their very name connotes positive attributes. Nike can help. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. Nike has distinctive ³swoosh´ logo. benefits. The brand builder¶s job is to create a brand identity that builds on those dimensions. Brand element can be chosen to build as much as brand equity as possible. The test of the brand building ability of these elements is what consumers think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element.In summary. Brand Element Choice Criteria There are six criteria in choosing brand element. A brand element provides positive contribution to brand equity. The latter three are more defensive and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in the brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of various opportunities and constraints. personality and users in the buyer¶s mind. The first three can be characterized by brand building in terms of how brand equity can be build through judicious choice of brand element. company values. the empowering ³Just Do It´ slogan and the mythological ³Nike´ name based on the winged goddess of victory.

y Protectable: How legally protectable is the brand element? How competitively protectable? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories such as Kleenex. and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Wheel. Brand elements can play a number of roles. she doesn¶t look a day over 35. brand elements should be easily recognized and recalled and inherently descriptive and persuasive. etc retain their trademarks rights and not become generic. Xerox.y Likeability: How aesthetically appealing does consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually. Jell-O. If consumers do not examine much information in making their product decisions. verbally. y Transferable: Can a brand element be used to introduce new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? y Adaptable: How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty corker received 8 makeovers through the years-although she is 75 yrs old. Memorable or meaningful brand elements can reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness and link brand associations. . The different associations that arise from likeability and appeal of the brand elements may also play a critical role in the equity of brand. Sunsilk etc evoke much imagery.

brand equity represents the degree to which a brand's name alone contributes value to the offering (again. and differentiated advantage over competitors. including the firm. In other words. above that which would result for an otherwise identical product without the brand's name. sustainable. from the perspective of the consumer).9 What is Brand Equity? There is no universally accepted definition of brand equity. There are several stakeholders concerned with brand equity. channel members.1. it is the consumer that is the most critical component in defining brand equity. the channel. et al (1995) writes that "« brand equity represents the value (to a consumer) of a product. and some would even argue the financial markets." y The Marketing Science Institute (1988) defines brand equity as." . Some researchers in the field of marketing have defined brand equity as follows: y Lance Leuthesser. the consumer. But ultimately. there are several common characteristics of the many definitions that are used today. However. From the following examples it is clear that brand equity is multi-dimensional. "The set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand's customers. and parent corporations that permit the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong. The term means different things for different companies and products.

some of which will be described shortly. Brand Equity as Brand Value. and the actual price that a brand may get when sold? A brand is likely to have a much greater value to one purchaser than another depending on the synergy that exists. A description of the associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand. This involves determining what future cash flows the company could achieve if it owned and took advantage of the brand." and the third "brand description. . they will each be briefly explained. and brand description will usually affect or explain some of the brand loyalty. Because of the importance of each of these elements of brand equity. Brand value involves actually placing a dollar or rupee value on a brand name. it is important to note that there is a significant difference between an "objective" valuation created for balance sheet purposes. The reasons for doing this are usually to set a price when the brand is sold and also to include the brand as an intangible asset on a balance sheet (a practice which is not used in some countries).Brand equity can be defined as three distinct elements: y The total value of a brand as a separable asset -.when it is sold or included on a balance sheet. the first can be classified as "brand valuation. the value of a brand to a certain purchaser is often estimated through scenario planning. Of those three concepts. While there are many methods for making this measurement. y y A measure of the strength of consumers' attachment to a brand." the second "brand loyalty." Brand loyalty will be a factor that affects the overall brand value. For acquisitions.

What this means is that there is no such thing as an absolute value for a brand. . and brand value needs to be considered as only one component of the overall equity of a brand.

and time to respond to competitive innovations. trademarks and goodwill. if reported.and I would fare better than you. and you could have all the bricks and mortar . would be valuable for capital marketers and shareholders. y Brand Loyalty and Equity refer to the notion that some brands are "stronger" or better than others. a basis for a price premium.' y Awareness measures--focus on identifying a brand as being associated with a product category. The variety of measures used for brand loyalty usually is a combination of one or more of the following: y Price/demand measures--focus on a brand's ability to command a higher price or make consumers less sensitive to price increases than price increases for competing brands. Brand equity has the potential to become the set of measures of business performance that matter most. The motivation for brand equity comes from the observation that many marketing efforts "realize" benefits. such as sales or profit and these are accounted for in the firm¶s profit and loss . y Behavioral measures--focus on consumers' behavior. I would take the brands. An example of this sort of belief is: ³If the businesses were split up.Brand Equity as Brand Loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity and is a way to gauge the strength of a brand. brand equity. It represents a barrier to entry.´ The optimism for the concept can be stated on the fact that when one would say as a predictor of future financial performance. y Attitudinal measures--focus on general evaluative measures such as 'liking' or 'disliking.

It might be the ability to not be substituted when out of stock. high price.. or building brands. However. which might be represented by a high share of category requirements.figures. You could spend lots of money on advertising. it might be the ability to charge a price premium.theories about brand loyalty and equity are used to represent aspects of brand strength. At least one advertising agency offers to partner companies in this sort of activity.g. This "strength" can take a number of forms. So marketing strategies could be putting money into (or out of) the brand equity bank account. limited / premium distribution rights. having a positive brand Attitude.g. fancy packing. Future strength might be in terms of some sort of long-term competitive advantage or the ability to sustain brand extensions. or high proportion of solebuyers. e.. One of the most common times this argument is used is when discussing the role of advertising versus sales promotion. after sales service. e. Brand loyalty / Equity advocates . hopefully you have got the idea . is that there are many different definitions and viewpoints on what exactly brand equity is and how to measure it. We need to be clear just what people mean when they talk about brand equity or brand loyalty.. So that is a problem. Consumers saying good things about your brand. there is the possibility that management might choose between taking realized benefits and "storing" them future. extended warranties). consumers predominantly buying your brand. But the question is as always how do we know? That is are we actually building the brand with all our advertising (or other brand building 4 p¶s decisions e. see no immediate effects. One of the things is that as with many concepts in marketing.g. but you could save your job by saying that you had "built the brand".So.

associations and awareness. The first four categories represent customer perceptions of the brand along the four dimensions of brand equity. . We want to be able to detect that our efforts are doing something to the brand. the final component of brand equity. Customer Satisfaction: A direct measure of customer satisfaction can be applied to existing customers. These techniques can be both qualitative and quantitative. But this is an evasion. They work by getting the respondent to link each brand with pictures or words. Qualitative Measures of Brand Equity The Brand Equity Ten are ten sets of measures grouped into five categories. The fifth includes two sets of market behavior measures. concerns the actual attributes of the brand.loyalty. A wide variety of techniques exist for matching consumer associations with perceptions of a brand. The focus can be the last use experience or simply the use experience from the customer's view. These attributes or associations are major creators of brand loyalty. y Loyalty Price Premium: A basic indicator of loyalty is the amount a customer will pay for a product in comparison to other comparable products. A price premium can be determined by simply asking consumers how much more they would be willing to pay for the brand. Brand Equity as Brand Description Brand description.One of the ruses used by proponents of brand equity or loyalty is to claim that these measures do not capture all the important aspects of brands strength. These attributes then can be measured with multi-dimensional scaling to position the attributes relative to one another. and so we need to know ways that this might show up in. perceived quality. which attempt to gauge the strength of a brand.

the brand personality can provide links to the brands emotional and selfexpressive benefits. y Associations/ Differentiation Measures Perceived Value: This dimension simply involves determining whether the product provides good value for the money and whether there are reasons to buy this brand over competitive brands. price elasticities. For some brands. Brand Personality: This element is based on the brand-as-person perspective. First. people are uneasy swimming against the tide are a likely to buy a popular product. Second. Namely. if enough consumers are buying into the brand concept it must have merit. Third. its popularity and its innovative qualities. brand usage and stock return. leadership taps the dynamics of consumer acceptance. brand dominance.y Perceived Quality and Leadership Measures Perceived Quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity and has been shown to be associated with price premiums. leadership often taps innovation within a product class. Organizational Associations: This dimension considers the type of organization that lies behind the brand. It can be calculated by asking consumers to directly compare similar brands. recall. . and brand knowledge and brand opinion. Leadership/Popularity has three dimensions. This can be measured by asking consumers about the product's leadership position. y Awareness Measures Brand awareness reflects the salience of the product in the consumer's mind and involves various levels including recognition.

For example. If management feels it is necessary to change the direction of a brand or change a product it must be careful not to change too quickly. Proctor & Gamble has started to test market a . consumers met changes with adverse reactions. They changed the formula of their flagship product Coke. Many programs that are implemented to boost short-term sales or market share may be detrimental to the long-term viability of the brand. The product has certain attributes or characteristics that deliver the equity to the consumer. the equity delivered to the consumer is also changed. The consumer through the product experiences brand equity. it is the customer that truly defines what brand equity means. The most famous example is Coca-Cola. Managing Brand Equity Consistency is the key to successfully building and managing brand equity. and consumers reacted so poorly to the new product that the old formula was reintroduced and the new formula eventually was discontinued. On these occasions. many brand managers are forced to focus on short-term goals such as market share and profits. In the end. There are many examples of companies that have changed a product or brand too much or too quickly.y Market Behavior Measures Market Share: The performance of a brand as measured by market share often provides a valid and dynamic reflection of the brand's standing with customers. Relative market price can be calculated by dividing the average price at which the product was sold during the month by the average price at which all the brands were sold. Having a long-term outlook and projecting a consistent image of your brand to the customer will maximize the results of building brand equity. It is critical for managers to realize that brand equity can have positive as well as negative effects on a product or company. If any of these attributes are changed or eliminated. Price and Distribution indices: Market share can prove deceptive when it increases as a result of reduced prices or promotions. Managing brand equity is a continual process with long-term implications. Calculating market price and distribution coverage can provide or more accurate picture of the product's true strength. Unfortunately.

launching a new brand is extremely consuming in terms of money and time. decay. This is. Marketing research is critical for many obvious reasons. and eventual bankruptcy.program to move away from using coupons to a system of every day low prices. brand equity is the only point of differentiation between products. promotion and trade deals. For example." This quote clearly demonstrates the importance of managing brand equity. if not all. About the only aspect of the marketing mix that cannot be duplicated is a strong brand image. Many people may think that building and maintaining brand equity is solely the responsibility of brand managers. said. Financial managers are important because they can fully analyze the costs of maintaining and building brand equity. Ultimately. brand equity is damaged. Constant promotional programs erode margins and eventually brand loyalty. Graham Phillips. in part. but it is actually a cross-functional team effort. "I doubt that many would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on price. all of which can be easily duplicated by competition. In many categories. It develops most. This would lead to ever decreasing profits. In 1988. Once a definition of brand equity is established. Chairman of Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide. because consumers may become loyal to the coupon or promotion and not to the product itself. Marketing research can also help determine how brand equity is actually measured. the responsibility of tracking . It may be more cost effective to extend a current brand than introduce a new brand. of the research and data that companies will use for deciding strategic issues.

The brand is properly positioned. The brand stays relevant. y y y The brand is given proper. The brand¶s manager understands what the brand means to customers. . The brand is consistent. sustained support. Branding benefits buyers as well as sellers in the following manner To Buyer: y y y y Help buyers identify the product that they like/dislike. The company monitors source of brand equity. Helps buyers evaluate quality of products especially if unable to judge products characteristics. y y Helps reduce buyers¶ perceived risk of purchase. The pricing strategy is based on consumer perceptions of value.1.10 The World Strongest Brand Share 10 Attributes y y y y y y y The brand excels at delivering the benefits consumers truly desire. The brand portfolio and hierarchy makes sense. The brand makes use of and co-ordinates a full repertoire of marketing activities to build equity. Rolex or Mercedes. Identify marketer Helps reduce the time needed for purchase.e. i.. Buyer may derive a psychological reward from owning the brand.

designs. . lower co. Example. BPL telephones.. advertising and promotional costs.e. Reduce price comparisons Brand helps firm introduce a new product that carries the name of one or more of its existing products. Contact lenses Brand identifies the companies¶ products making repeat purchases easier for customers. i..half as much as using a new brand. Firms may be able to charge a premium for the brand. Helps foster brand loyalty helping to stabilize market share.. y y y y Easier cooperation with intermediaries with well known brands Facilitates promotional efforts.To Seller: y y y y y Differentiate product offering from competitors Helps segment market by creating tailored images.

and also serve as a memory hook to pick a particular brand from clutter´. Hutch¶s Boy-Girl duo. the Handiplast Boy. Fido-Dido of 7-Up etc are some of the examples of the toons used for marketing the product. and if that means exploring other forms of art. Kellogg¶s animated kid and bear are intertwined in people¶s minds. Industry officials say animation could be used as creative idea to express a particular value.1 Toon Branding Looks like the ad industry can¶t have enough of animation. then why not?´ HLL¶s Annapoorna uses Flintstone like characters to drive its USP. ³Creative people have to look at different ways to get message across. ³Toon illustrations create excitement. heart-shaped kisses for the audience. while the Claymation characters Of Amaron. the claymation Chintamani of ICICI. pick on sleeping politicians to get their value across. Digital characters are fast stepping into the realm of corporate brands. ALL ABOUT TOON BRANDING 2. the Amul girl. . almost becoming part of the logo of the brand ± like A-I am Maharaja or Amul Girl. as well as the classic Asian paint¶s ex-mascot Gattoo. The toons in All Out Mosquito repellent ad.2. Nike also used ³swoosh´ logo sign to bring immediate recall value. ³Most advisers are using animation for top of the mind recall´ says McCann Erickson¶s Prasoon Joshi. O&M¶s Piyush Pandey says his firm encourages the idea of breaking form. or it could be a sacrosanct image. an O&M creative. McCann¶s new commercial for Coca-Cola¶s vanilla variant has the model blowing animated.

´ says Rahul Welde. it broke the clutter and became likeable in a very non-financial advertising style. media. for that matter.Welde claims to have used animation where it could add to the creative quotient of the commercial which give something unexpected to the audience. ³Animation is no kid stuff anymore. an animated poodle talking to Rani Mukherjee and her gang of friends in the Fanta commercialthey¶ve all got the cool punch with animation. With Claymation (clay + animation). ³Gross thinks at time look cute in animation rather than the real thing. but the kid was killed after he was linked to child labour.As mnemonics flow thick and fast characters get established in the consumers mind. Mr.´ says Abhishekh Bhatia. E. Famous House of Animation. ³We used to do three animation ad films a year five years ago. companies across sectors are more willing than ever before to use animation in their ad films. the Chintamani ad was initially a radio jingle. general manager. . and then there was the trend of using real kids. Be it Bollywood actress Mallika Sherawat asking Fido to make her more curvy or Aishwarya Rai diving into the sea with a Frisbee or. The number of animation ad films produced per year in the past five years has increased at least eight times and feature films like Hum Tum (had cartoons of Saif Ali Khan And Rani Mukherjee coming in between the film)are backing the overall trend around animation.´ says. ICICI Prudential¶s Chintamani and Anand Rathi Securities happening in the past few months. a division of Famous Studios. Asian Paint¶s Gattoo was the rage. However at times they are given a hasty burial. One sees a fair number of youth and adult targeted content happening in the form of animation in films and TV shows these days. Hindustan Unilever Limited. With a string of animated commercials such as Pepsodent (Bhoot Police). say in case of a fat man. First it was retro advertising.Suresh. now it¶s two every month. The ad world¶s latest obsession is with animation. Creative director.

Besides the advantage of visual appeal. many complex issues. who was then involved in launching the campaign from ICICI Prudential. The popularity of cartoons among youngsters. such as stunts. VP and Senior Creative Director at JWT. Malaysia. Shrek. with the use of animation. However. Moreover.´ says Chauhan of JWT 2. can be done away with. Lion King. The contribution to the sales of pension schemes of the group rose 30% after the campaign. Animated ones cost around Rs. But there are scripts that needs animation to prove the point as in the case of Oye Bubbly (Pepsi Commercial) last year.Kill Bill. most of the global award winning campaigns have used animation extensively. we need to work for three weeks to get it absolutely right. Contract Advertising.director marketing. ³It¶s a nice way of doing a boring script. ³However a real character interacting with an animated character is not a novelty.2 CASE STUDY AMUL BUTTER GIRL (The moppet who put Amul on India's breakfast table) . Industry sources say a simple animation ad is less expensive than an ad with decent production quality that costs around Rs. Animation ad also helps keep costs down. Prudential Assurance.a gradual transformation over the past few years. what creative directors hate about animation is the fact that it takes a lot more time ³For A Fido itself. Unileaf Tea or Levi¶s Mr. be it Euro RSCG¶s Waterboy.´ points Ashish Chakravarty. There are other viewpoints too. It is a style and a lot of people are catching on it but this is not the end of it.Lova Lova. Run Lola Run.for instance the stunt in the Lux Commercial couldn¶t be done so perfectly by the real character (here Aishwarya Rai) vis-à-vis the animated character. head creative. 70-80 Lakh. Grrr Honda. all of which have cutting edge animation.´ says Anuja Chauhan. 30-40lakh on an average.

Mrs. "People loved it. Round eyed. had a staid. chuckled at the Amul hoarding that casts her sometime as the coy. There are other people too. boring image. from strategically placed hoardings at many traffic lights. Sheela Mane. The butter. For 30 odd years the Utterly Butterly girl has managed to keep her fan following intact. corporate ads. which had been launched in 1945. shy Madhuri. No other brand comes even close to it. last year. It is her four-year-old who draws her attention to the hoarding that has come up overnight. a 28-year-old housewife is out in the balcony drying clothes. . Amul's sale figures have jumped from 1000 tonnes a year in 1966 to over 25. How often have we stopped. "It was the first Amul hoarding that was put up in Mumbai. winking at you. She is the Amul moppet everyone loves to love (including prickly votaries of the Shiv Sena and BJP). From her second floor flat she can see her neighbors on the road. She expects the worst but can see no signs of an accident. clinched the account for Amul butter. So much so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest running campaign ever. ASP. primarily because the earlier advertising agency which was in charge of the account preferred to stick to routine. then the managing director of the advertising agency.000 tonnes a year in 1997. All because a thumb-sized girl climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell on the masses. Unable to curb her curiosity Sheela Mane hurries down to see what all the commotion is about.50 years after it was first launched. dressed in her little polka dotted dress and a red and white bow." Call her the Friday to Friday star. holding out her favourite packet of butter." recalls Sheela Mane. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company launched butter and called it Utterly Butterly. It all began in 1966 when Sylvester daCunha. looked. The crowd seems to be growing larger by the minute. a bold sensuous Urmila or simply as herself. chubby cheeked. Bombay (Summer of 1967) : A Charni Road flat. I remember it was our favorite topic of discussion for the next one week! Everywhere we went somehow or the other the campaign always seemed to crop up in our conversation.

so to say. "We knew our campaign was going to be successful. Sylvester daCunha decided it was time for a change of image. lamp kiosks and the bus sites of the city were splashed with the moppet on a horse. clothed in a tantalizing choli all but covering her upper regions. Sylvester daCunha. Thorough bread. The baseline simply said. gimmickry and all else. And so it came about that the famous Amul Moppet was born. then the creative team working on the Amul account came up with a clincher -. village belle. "The response was phenomenal.'Hurry Amul. food was something one couldn't afford to fool around with. And who better than a little girl?" says Sylvester daCunha. when the city first saw the beginning of the Hare Rama Hare Krishna movement. Not just adults." For the first one year the ads made statements of some kind or the other but they had not yet acquired the topical tone. That October. The year Sylvester daCunha took over the account. "Eustace Fernandez (the art director) and I decided that we needed a girl who would worm her way into a housewife's heart. the country saw the birth of a campaign whose charm has endured fickle public opinion. In 1967. It was a decision that would stand the daCunhas in good stead in the years to come. more dum. for too long. It was a matter of just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. Mohammad Khan and Usha Bhandarkar. It had been taken too seriously. Sylvester decided that giving the ads a solid concept would give them extra mileage. even children were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul. The Amul girl who lends herself so completely to Amul butter." recalls Sylvester daCunha.. This one was sexy. In 1969. created as a rival to the Polson butter girl.One of the first Amul hoardings In India. Hurry .

If the Naxalite movement was the happening thing in Calcutta. cholbe na cholbe na (won't do. There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea.Hurry'. From then on Amul began playing the role of a social observer. Sumona Varma. They have to say something. "They are almost part of our culture."We had the option of being sweet and playing it safe." he says laughing. Ganpati Bappa More Ghya (Ganpati Bappa take more). "Bread without Amul Butter. won't do). I especially like the ads on the backs of the butter packets. It is surprising how vigilant the . What does she do with these ads? "I have made an album of them to amuse my grandchildren. they couldn't have anyone not taking that seriously. There are numerous ads that are risqué in tone. India looked forward to Amul's evocative humour. If there was an Indian Airlines strike Amul would be there again saying. Indian Airlines won¶t fly without Amul. "For over 10 years I have been collecting Amul ads. aren't they? My grandchildren are already beginning to realize that these ads are not just a source of amusement. A fine balance had to be struck. We have a campaign that is strong enough to make a statement. Over the years the campaign acquired that all important Amul touch. The high command came down heavy on that one. The Gandhi cap was a symbol of independence. So ultimately we discontinued the ad. "The Indian Airlines one really angered the authorities. "says Mrs. Bombay reacted to the ad with a fervor that was almost as devout as the Iskon fever." Despite some of the negative reactions that the ads have got." says Sylvester daCunha. or making an impact." she laughs. DaCunhas have made it a policy not to play it safe. Amul would be up there on the hoardings saying. They make them aware of what is happening around them. So despite their reluctance the hoardings were wiped clean. I didn't want the hoardings to be pleasant or tame. That was the first of the many topical ads that were in the offing. The Shiv Sena people said that if we didn't do something about removing the ad they would come and destroy our office. "We ran a couple of ads that created quite a furore. They said if they didn't take down the ads they would stop supplying Amul butter on the plane." says Rahul daCunha. "Then there was an ad during the Ganpati festival which said. Then there was the time when the Amul girl was shown wearing the Gandhi cap.

Even when the Enron ads (Enr on or off) were running.political forces are in this country. It is pure and simple. Where does Amul's magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines. Rebecca Mark wrote to us saying how much she liked them. That we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy. DATA ANALYSIS 3." There were other instances too. everyday fun. Indians do have a sense of humour. While most people agree that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that the Amul ads continue to tease laughter out of them." says Rahul daCunha in amused tones. Indentify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one: . They don't pander to your nationality or certain sentiments. Heroine Addiction. He said he had asked his assistant to take a photograph of himself with the ad because he had found it so funny.1 SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE BRANDING-SPECIAL FOCUS ON TOON BRANDING QUESTIONAIRE Q1. the Amul ads have come a long way. From the Sixties to the Nineties. 3. afterall. Amul's little joke on Hussain had the artist ringing the daCunhas up to request them for a blow up of the ad "He said that he had seen the hoarding while passing through a small district in UP.

Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? ² Always ² Sometime ² Often ² Very Rare .____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 1st page of questionnaire Q2.

Toon Mascot is mare popular in the rural or urban areas? Give reasons? . Do you think nowadays brand mascots are losing importance to brand personality? ² Yes ² No ² Don¶t Know Q5. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? ² Amul Butter Girl ² Fido Dido ² Chintamani (ICICI) ² Any other __________________ Q6.Q3. ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2nd page of questionnaire Q7. If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality of a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? Give reasons? A7. Why do you think this brand mascot is the most memorable one? A6. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q8. Do you relate any product with toons? ² Always ² Sometime ² Often ² Very Rare Q4.

What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to remember over a long period of time? ² Cute ² Happy Face ² Suitable to the product ² Innovative ² Entertaining ² Any other _____________________ `Q10.A8. 2 S ta ti s ti c a l D a ta Q1. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q9. bags etc? ² Yes ² No ² Depends on the mascot ² Don¶t know NAME: AGE: PROFESSION: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 3rd page of questionnaire 3 . accessories. Identi fy the fo llo wing toon ma sc ots and thei r p roduct s o r eith e r o f the one? . Would you like if toon mascots are also advertised through clothing.

o n l y 3 p e r s o n s w e r e no t a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a l l t h e p r o d u c t s c o r r e c t l y.1 No. . c o m w a s t h e l e a s t p o p u la r o n e .71% 8.57% 0 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O u t o f t he 3 5 r e s p o nd e nt 1 5 w e r e a b l e t o id e nt i f y a l l t h e p r o d u c t s c o r r e c t l y o n t h e b a s i s o f it s t o o n m a s c o t a lo ne w h i c h c o m e s u p t o 4 2 . T he mo s t i d e nt i f i e d m a s c o t is 7 u p F i d o . of 15 8 9 3 respondents (out of 35) (Y Axis) % 42. 5 7 % i. 35 28 21 14 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Q2. of toons correctly identified (X axis) 2 0 1 0 6 5 4 3 No. Can you recogni ze a p roduct on the b asi s o f it s b rand ma sco t alone? 2 Recognition of product on basis of brand mascot (X axis) Always of 3 Sometime 20 Often 12 Very Rare 0 No. e .D i d o w he r e a s mo n s t e r . 8 6 % . W h e r e a s o n l y 8 .86% 25.86% 22.

D o y o u re l a t e a n y p r o d u c t w i t h t o o n s ? 3 Ability of relating products with toons (X Axis) .57% 57. 5 7 % w e r e a l w a ys a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t he p r o d u c t o n t he ba s i s o f i t s br a nd m a s c o t 35 28 21 14 7 0 Always Sometime Often Very Rare Q 3 . W h e r e a s o n l y 8 .29% 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O f t h e 3 5 r e s p o nd e nt s 2 0 s a i d . 1 4 % o f t he t o t a l s a m p l e s i z e .respondents (out of 35) Y-Axis % 8. t ha t t he y w e r e s o m e t i m e s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t he p r o d u c t o n t he b a s i s o f B r a n d M a s c o t a lo ne w h i c h c o me s t o a r o u n d 5 7 .14% 34.

71% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O u t o f 3 5 r e s p o nd e nt s 1 6 p e o p l e o ft e n r e l a t e d the p r o d u c t s w it h t he i r t o o n m a s c o t s w h i c h c o m e u p t o a r o u nd 4 5 .No.57% 40% 45. of respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % Always 3 Sometime 14 Often 16 Very Rare 2 8.7% 5. 7 1 % o f t he r e s p o n d e n t s ve r y r a r e l y r e l a t e d t h e p r o d u c t s w it h t o o ns 35 28 21 14 7 0 Always Sometime Often Very Rare . 7 % . W h e r e a s o n l y 5 .

4 3 % o f t he t o t a l p e o p l e s u r ve ye d h a d t he o p i n io n t h a t B r a n d M a s c o t s a r e no t lo s i n g i m p o r t a nc e t o B r a nd P e r s o n a l it y w he r e a s 1 4 . D o y o u t h i n k n o w a d a y s B ra n d M a s c o t s a r e l o s i n g i m p o rt a n c e t o B ra n d P e r s o n a l i t y ? 4 Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality (X-axis) No 18 Don¶t No 5 Yes No.Q 4 . of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.43% 14.29% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : 5 1 .29% 51. 2 9 % ha d no o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s a m e 35 28 21 14 7 0 Yes No Don t No .

D i d o a nd C h i nt a m a n i w it h 1 4 . 2 9 % a nd 2 . 7 1 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e nt s o p t e d fo r A m u l B u t t e r G ir l a s t h e i r mo s t m e mo r a b l e t o o n m a s c o t fo l lo w e d b y F i d o . 8 6 % resp ect ive ly 35 28 21 14 7 0 Amul Butter Girl Fido Dido Chintamani Any Other .29% 2.71% 14. W h i c h i s y o u r m o s t m e m o ra b l e t o o n m a s c o t ? 5 Most Memorable Toon Mascot (X-axis) Fido Dido 5 Chintamani 1 Any Other 0 Amul Butter Girl No.Q 5 . of 30 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 85.86% 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : o n t h e ba s i s o f t he s u r v e y c o nd u c t e d 8 5 .

42% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : Ac c o r d i n g t o t he s u r v e y c o nd u c t e d A m u l B u t t e r G ir l i s t h e mo s t me mo r a b l e t o o n m a s c o t be c a u s e it h a s b e e n i n t he m a r k e t s i n c e a v e r y lo n g t i m e a nd a l s o it i s v e r y a t t e nt io n s e e k i n g b e c a u s e it i s a l w a y s r e l a t e d t o t he c u r r e nt a f f a i r s FOR COMPLETE REPORT AND DOWNLOADING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34.JIMDO.28% 11.Q 6 . W h y d o y o u t h i n k t h i s B ra n d M a s c o t i s m o s t m e m o ra b l e o n e ? 6 Reason for Amul Butter Girl being most memorable (X-axis) Cute/ Happy 5 Good Attention Animation Seeking 4 7 Innovative 4 Long Lasting No.COM .28% 14.42% 20% 11.

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