The term brand means different things to the different roles of buyer and seller, with buyers generally associating brand with a product or service, and merchants associating brand with identity. Brand can also identify the company behind the specific product -- that's not just a biscuit, that's Britannia biscuit. This use of brand puts a "face" behind the name, so to speak, even if the "face" is the result of advertising copy and television commercials. This use of brand also says nothing of quality, just the buyer's exposure to the brand's PR and media hype. For the typical merchant, branding is a way of taking everything that is good about the company -positive shopping experience, professionalism, superior service, product knowledge, whatever the company decides is important for a customer to believe about the company -- and wrapping these characteristics into a package that can be evoked by the brand as signifier.

1 . 1 I ntr o d uc ti o n t o B r a ndi ng
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as ³A name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors´. A brand is thus a product or service that¶s adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. These differences may be functional, rational, or tangible- relate to product performance of the brand.

Branding has been around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer to those of another. The earliest signs of branding can be traced to Europe where the medieval guilds required that craftsmen put trademarks on their product to protect themselves and producer against inferior quality substitutes. Also in fine arts branding began with artists signing their works. Brands today play a number of important roles that improve the consumer¶s lives and enhance the financial value of firms.

Brands identify the source or maker of the product and allow consumers-either individual or organizations- to assign responsibility to a particular manufacturer or distributor. Consumers

may evaluate the identical product differently depending how it is branded. Consumers lean about the brand with its past experience and the marketing program. As consumers lives becomes more complicated, time starved the ability of brand to simplify decision making is invaluable. Brands also perform valuable functions for the firm. First they simplify the product handling and tracing. Brands help to organize inventory and accounting records. The brand name can be protected registered trademarks. The intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the brand and can reap the benefits over a long period of time.

Brands can signal a certain level of quality so that satisfied buyers can easily choose the product again. Brand loyalty provides predictability and security of demand for the firm and creates barriers to entry that makes it difficult for other firms to enter the market. This brand loyalty can translate into willingness to pay higher price. In this sense branding can be seen as powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. Brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property that can influence consumer¶s behavior. Strong brand results in better earnings and profit performance for firms, which in turn, creates greater value for shareholders.

How do you ³BRAND´ a product? Although firms provide the impetus to brand creation through marketing programs and other activities, ultimately a brand is something that resides in the mind of the consumers. A brand is a perpetual identity that is rooted in reality but reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the ultimate choice of the consumers. Branding is endowing products and services with the power of brands. To brand a product, it is necessary to teach the consumers ³who´ the product-by giving a name. Branding involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organize their knowledge about products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and in process provides value to the firm

Branding can be applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possible to brand: y y A physical good (Nestle soup, Pantene shampoo or Maruti Swift), A service (Kingfisher Airlines, TATA AIG medical insurance),

y y y y

A store (Big Bazaar, BATA stores), A place (The state of Kerala, Pushkar Mela), A person (Shahrukh Khan, Sachin Tendulkar), An organization (UNICEF or BCCI),

Brand is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image that you associate with the company or a product. When you think of Volvo, you think of safety. When you think of Nike, you think of Michael Jordon or µJust Do It¶. When you think of IBM, you think of µBig Blue¶. The fact that you remember the brand name and have positive associations with that brand makes your product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction you get from product.

While Brand X cola or even Pepsi-Cola may win blind taste tests over Coca-Cola, the fact is that more people buy Coke than any other Cola. The fond memories of childhood and refreshment that people have when they drink Coke is often more important than a little bit better cola taste. It I this emotional relationship with brands that make them so powerful.

1.2 Purpose of Branding

The purpose of branding is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. A brand is a set of elements or ³brand assets´ that in combination create a

unique, memorable, unmistakable, and valuable relationship between an organization and its customers. The brand is carried by a set of compelling visual, written and vocal tools to represent the business plan and intentions of an organization.

Branding is the voice and image that represents your business plan to the outside world. What your company, products and services stand for should all be captured in your branding strategy, and represented consistently throughout all your brand assets and in your daily marketing activities

The brand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many manageable elements of branding system, including both visual image assets and language assets. The process of managing the brand to the business plan is important not only in ³big change situation´ where the brand redefinition is required, but also in the management of routine marketing variables and tactics. This does not have to be a ³ground-up´ situation where there are wholesale changes to the business. Rather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the business plan are incremental and the work of the brand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the branding strategy and resulting brand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing variables.


and brand personality. McDonalds television are a series of one brand association after another. HUMAN RESOURCE. starting in yellow arches in the low right corner of the screen and following with associations of Big Mac. brand toons etc. A good brand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations with the brand.3 Brand Identity Brand Identity includes brand names. positioning. How do we determine our Brand Identity? Brand has been called the most powerful idea in commercial world. an animal (the Merrill lynch bull) etc. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COST ACCOUNTING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA. what benefits it provides and why it is better than the completion? Brand personality adds emotion.JIMDO. culture and myth to brand identity by the use of a famous spokesperson (Bill CosbyJello). a character (Pink Panther). A positioning statement tells what business the company is in. The first step in creating a brand for your company is branding workshop. food quality etc. logos. Brand associations are the attributes that costumer thinks of when they hear or see the brand name. kids. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR. brand associations.ACCOUNTING. happy meal. Ronald MacDonald. Do you want your company¶s brand identity created for you by competitors and .COM 1. yet few companies create a brand identity.

unhappy customers? Of course not. in every news release. Here are some well-known brands slogans. in communications with employees and in every sales call or media interview. which people on the street may easily recall or recognize: COMPANY British Airways Ford LIC SLOGAN ³The world¶s favorite airline´ ³Quality is our number one job´ ³Jeevan ke saath bhi jeevan ke baad bhi´ . Owned Word A strong brand name should trigger another word. pound that message in every ad. a slogan. Strong brands typically exhibit an owned word. Our advice to executives is to research their customers and find the top ranked reasons that the customers buy their product rather than their competitors. a color. Here is the list of brands that own a word: Slogan Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their brand name which is repeated in every ad they use. a symbol. a favorable one. and set of stories. By continuous repetition of messages customer will think of your product and then buy it. Company Vo lvo BMW Mercedes Fe der a l E xpre ss A p p l e c o mp u t e r s Lot us Ko d a k W o rd ³S a f e t y´ ³ D r i v i n g p e r fo r m a n c e ´ ³E n g i n e e r i n g ´ ³ O ve r n i g ht ´ ³Grap h ic s´ ³S p r e a d s h e e t s ´ ³F ilm´ 1.4 Tools for Building Brand Identity Brand builders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the brand image. Then.

hoping that his or her quality transfer to the brand.Colors It helps for a company or a brand to use a consistent set of color to and in the brand recognition. Many companies hire a well-known spokesperson. Caterpillar paints all its construction equipments yellow. The advertising agency Leo Burnett has successfully created a number of memorable animated characters. IBM uses blue in its publications. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their symbols. animated. Nike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and likableness. Symbols and Logos Companies would be wise to adapt a symbol or logo to use in their communications. Cartoons and Animations A less expensive approach is to develop a character. Here are some well known brand cartoons which people may recognize: Company ICICI Prudential Amul Butter McDonalds All Out mosquito Repellent Pillsbury 7 Up Cartoon or Animation Chintamani Utterly Butterly Girl Ronald Louis Doughboy Fido Dido . to advertise its shoes. Yellow is the color of Kodak film. to etch the brand¶s image into customer¶s mind. and IBM is called ³Big Blues´. even naming the product after them.

digit-able. distinctiveness. The prudential insurance company features the rock of Gibraltar. The simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the 4 D¶s of Branding.Objects Still another approach is to choose an object to represent a company or brand. The more unique and distinct your communications. the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. In this briefing we demonstrate how to calculate the brand strength. suggesting that buying insurance is equivalent to having an umbrella available when it rains. 1. the source of next generation competency will be branding. which are easily remembered by people. solid ad dependable. Marketers who match their brand with customers needs will have a sustainable competitive advantage. Companies have developed many logos or abstracts. The travelers¶ insurance company uses an umbrella. y Distinctiveness: your brand should be distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will be exposed. In rapidly evolving market for consumer. . and industrial products and services. Even the way the brand name is written makes a brand recognizable and memorable. the price premium associated with the products categories. suggesting that buying an insurance is equivalent to ³owing a peace of rock ³which is of course. defendable. branding has become a source of competitive advantage. and type of customers attracted to the ³Premium Products´. differentiation. There are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your brand. Measuring Brand Effectiveness There are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of brands.5 Brand Effectiveness With an increase in global competition.

People are aware of the Mercedes car brand. . or not at all. Much can go wrong. an interested observer. distributors and dealers can affect brand experience. The mind it exists in may be that of a customer. but cannot envisage any circumstance under which they would (could!) buy a Mercedes. Much of the brand manager¶s work is to build a brand image. Awareness of a brand may be irrelevant to any purchasing decision that an individual may make. a potential customer. Building brand therefore calls for more than brand image building.6 Brand and Reputation A brand exists in the mind. 1. a disinterested observer. They are aware of Marlboro (and scores of other cigarette brands) but as a non-smoker they will never convert their awareness into purchase. This goes for all brand assets. Male with no children are not targeted by Pampers or Huggies but still are aware of the brands. y Defendable: you will be investing in creating your brand assets and in all cases your brand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close approximations.. symbols and other visual assets.y Differentiation: the brand strategy and brand assets must set you¶re offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering. But its job doesn¶t stop there. This applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos. The brand manager needs to make sure that brand experience matches the brand image. It calls for managing every brand contact that customer might have with brand. or almost anybody. y Digit-able: in most businesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all brand assets be leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. A fine brand of canned soup described in a full page color ad may be found in dented and dusty condition in the bottom shelf of a supermarket. The ad describing a gracious hotel chain is belied by the behavior of a surly concierge. Since all the employees..

They are as follows: y Experience: The most powerful influence is experiential. People may be an employee. a Coca-Cola. They have no idea what an Intel chip is. The most obvious are: -  He visits a McDonald¶s restaurant or a Shell petrol station. It may also mean insensitivity. These companies¶ reputations are part and parcel of their brand. a service brand and a brand with a long history. but especially for single brand companies such as a McDonalds. technical excellence. etc. For example Coca-Cola is a company brand. Those potential employees join companies because of their reputation. beliefs. internationality. This part argues that such distinctions are fallacious for all companies. a product brand. The Brand To any individual a brand (in his mind) is a complex combination of experiences. They will never buy a Boeing 777 but might be impressed by the aircraft and favor an airline that flies them. environmental pollution. a citizen. It is a brand which may represent (to any one individual) diversity. This is when the individual actually has a "Brand experience". that the media and other "stakeholders" judge a company on its reputation in some way as a distinct concept from its brand. but might be persuaded that it is a good thing to have in my PC and therefore buy a computer from a company that uses them. an investor. Their brands are their reputation. abuse of power and other negative perceptions. But are or not a potential customer. Perceiving the brand: An individual builds up his perceptions of a brand via a wide range of communications channels. financial strength etc. perceptions and associations that have grown up over time. a Compaq or a Shell. They hate McDonald¶s hamburgers but might love their stock market record and therefore be a potential customer for their stock. Some conventional wisdoms state that customers buy brands. but that investors buy reputations. a husband and so on.People wear many hats. Brand Aware argues that there is no difference between "Brand" and "Reputation". .

 He visits a corporate website.  He attends an interview at the company.) . y Media reports and stories: Individuals will be exposed to a wide variety of reports about companies in the media (print and broadcast) where the editorial content is only partly influence able by the company (in some cases) or not at all (in most cases).  He buys a share in the company. or travels to one on business or vacation. This advertising may be in a wide range of media:  TV commercials for products and services  Recruitment ads inviting employment applications  "Corporate" TV commercials promoting the company's "reputation"  Web based advertising  An ad for the company¶s branded products or services in a wide variety of print media. y Advertising: Over time an individual who lives in a country in which the company/brand is active.  He meets an employee of the company.  He contacts the company office for information.  Billboards on highways  Radio  Point of sale etc. These stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources:  Press releases  Press conferences  Reporting of "events"  Investigative journalism  Stories passed to the media by third parties (Non governmental organizations etc. will be exposed to their advertising. etc.  He views a Coca-Cola bottler's facility. He buys a Coca-Cola branded product or service.

recognize and remember. quality (Safety stores. with famous companies (or to observe them) is part of their job. When price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. Some are: y y y It should suggest something about the product benefits. What does the brand name mean? What associations. In choosing a brand name. These individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include: -  Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance  Existing or potential suppliers of products and services  Existing or potential industrial/commercial customers 1. it must be consistent with the value positioning of the brand. Healthy choice). They will usually procure their information from a variety of sources and via a variety of channels of communication. or from a specific business need. performances and expectations does it evoke? What degree of preferences does it create? Choosing a Brand Name A brand name first must be chosen then its various meanings and promises must be built up through brand identity work. It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages etc. Calvin Klein).y Professional/business interest: For some individuals to interface professionally.7 Building the Brand The art of marketing is largely art of brand building. In naming a product or service the company may face many possibilities: it could choose name of the person (Honda. Among the desirable qualities of a brand name. Building Positive Associations . y y It should be distinctive. Then price is the thing that counts. or an artificial name (Exxon. It should suggest product qualities such action or color It should be easy to pronounce. But just having a brand is not enough. it will probably be viewed as a commodity. location (American airlines). When something is not a brand. short names help a lot to recognize the product to the customers. Kodak).

y Personality: A strong brand should exhibit some personality traits. . If a car brand does not trigger any attribute. then it would be a weak brand. The fact that it is a German company adds more pictures in the mind of the buyers about the character and the culture of the brand. Thus if Mercedes were a person we would think of someone who is middle age. y Company Values: A strong brand should connote values that the company holds. y Benefits: A strong brand should suggest benefits. Thus we would expect Mercedes to draw buyers who are older. Thus Mercedes triggers the idea of well performing car that is enjoyable to drive and prestigious to own. Donald Quality Toys In trying to build a rich set of positive associations for a brand. If Mercedes were an animal we might think of lion or its implied personality. affluent and professional. Thus Mercedes is proud of its engineers and engineering innovations and is very organized and efficient in its operations. the brand builder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning: y Attributes: A strong brand should trigger in buyers mind certain attributes. rugged and expensive. y Users: A strong brand should suggest the type of people who buy the brand. For example. serious. here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds: y y y y y y Kids Fun Happy Meal Ronald Mc. not just features. Thus a Mercedes automobile attributes a picture of well-engineered car that is durable. well-organized and somewhat authoritarian.The best known brand names carry associations.

company values. Brand element can be chosen to build as much as brand equity as possible. y Meaningful: To what extent is brand element credible and suggestive of the corresponding category? Does it suggest something about a product ingredient or a type of person who might use the brand? . Nike can help. personality and users in the buyer¶s mind. the empowering ³Just Do It´ slogan and the mythological ³Nike´ name based on the winged goddess of victory. y Memorable: How easily is the brand element recalled? How easily recognized? Is this true at both purchase and consumption? Short brand name like tide. The first three can be characterized by brand building in terms of how brand equity can be build through judicious choice of brand element. The latter three are more defensive and are concerned with how the brand equity contained in the brand element can be leveraged and preserved in the face of various opportunities and constraints. brands when their very name connotes positive attributes. The brand builder¶s job is to create a brand identity that builds on those dimensions.8 Choosing Brand Elements Brand elements are those trademarks devices that serve to identify and differentiate the brand. Nike has distinctive ³swoosh´ logo.In summary. The test of the brand building ability of these elements is what consumers think or feel about the product if they only knew about the brand element. 1. Brand Element Choice Criteria There are six criteria in choosing brand element. benefits. Most strong brands employ multiple brand elements. A brand element provides positive contribution to brand equity.

Memorable or meaningful brand elements can reduce the burden on marketing communications to build awareness and link brand associations. . she doesn¶t look a day over 35. y Transferable: Can a brand element be used to introduce new products in the same or different categories? To what extent does the brand element add to brand equity across geographic boundaries and market segments? y Adaptable: How adaptable and updatable is the brand element? Betty corker received 8 makeovers through the years-although she is 75 yrs old.y Likeability: How aesthetically appealing does consumers find the brand element? Is it inherently likeable visually. etc retain their trademarks rights and not become generic. brand elements should be easily recognized and recalled and inherently descriptive and persuasive. Jell-O. The different associations that arise from likeability and appeal of the brand elements may also play a critical role in the equity of brand. If consumers do not examine much information in making their product decisions. y Protectable: How legally protectable is the brand element? How competitively protectable? Can it be easily copied? It is important that names that become synonymous with product categories such as Kleenex. Sunsilk etc evoke much imagery. and in other ways? Concrete brand names such as Wheel. Xerox. Brand elements can play a number of roles. verbally.

et al (1995) writes that "« brand equity represents the value (to a consumer) of a product. But ultimately." y The Marketing Science Institute (1988) defines brand equity as. sustainable. the channel. channel members. The term means different things for different companies and products." . and parent corporations that permit the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong. and differentiated advantage over competitors. and some would even argue the financial markets. there are several common characteristics of the many definitions that are used today. the consumer. However. There are several stakeholders concerned with brand equity. In other words. from the perspective of the consumer). including the firm. it is the consumer that is the most critical component in defining brand equity. Some researchers in the field of marketing have defined brand equity as follows: y Lance Leuthesser. From the following examples it is clear that brand equity is multi-dimensional.9 What is Brand Equity? There is no universally accepted definition of brand equity. "The set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand's customers. brand equity represents the degree to which a brand's name alone contributes value to the offering (again. above that which would result for an otherwise identical product without the brand's name.1.

. and brand description will usually affect or explain some of the brand loyalty. The reasons for doing this are usually to set a price when the brand is sold and also to include the brand as an intangible asset on a balance sheet (a practice which is not used in some countries). and the actual price that a brand may get when sold? A brand is likely to have a much greater value to one purchaser than another depending on the synergy that exists." and the third "brand description." the second "brand loyalty.Brand equity can be defined as three distinct elements: y The total value of a brand as a separable asset -. the first can be classified as "brand valuation. Brand Equity as Brand Value. Because of the importance of each of these elements of brand equity. Brand value involves actually placing a dollar or rupee value on a brand name. While there are many methods for making this measurement." Brand loyalty will be a factor that affects the overall brand value. For acquisitions. it is important to note that there is a significant difference between an "objective" valuation created for balance sheet purposes. they will each be briefly explained. the value of a brand to a certain purchaser is often estimated through scenario planning. A description of the associations and beliefs the consumer has about the brand.when it is sold or included on a balance sheet. This involves determining what future cash flows the company could achieve if it owned and took advantage of the brand. y y A measure of the strength of consumers' attachment to a brand. Of those three concepts. some of which will be described shortly.

What this means is that there is no such thing as an absolute value for a brand. . and brand value needs to be considered as only one component of the overall equity of a brand.

I would take the brands.' y Awareness measures--focus on identifying a brand as being associated with a product category. The motivation for brand equity comes from the observation that many marketing efforts "realize" benefits. An example of this sort of belief is: ³If the businesses were split up. It represents a barrier to entry. trademarks and goodwill. would be valuable for capital marketers and shareholders. and time to respond to competitive innovations. if reported. y Attitudinal measures--focus on general evaluative measures such as 'liking' or 'disliking. Brand equity has the potential to become the set of measures of business performance that matter most. y Brand Loyalty and Equity refer to the notion that some brands are "stronger" or better than others.and I would fare better than you.´ The optimism for the concept can be stated on the fact that when one would say as a predictor of future financial performance. a basis for a price premium. The variety of measures used for brand loyalty usually is a combination of one or more of the following: y Price/demand measures--focus on a brand's ability to command a higher price or make consumers less sensitive to price increases than price increases for competing brands.Brand Equity as Brand Loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity and is a way to gauge the strength of a brand. brand equity. and you could have all the bricks and mortar . such as sales or profit and these are accounted for in the firm¶s profit and loss . y Behavioral measures--focus on consumers' behavior.

hopefully you have got the idea . So marketing strategies could be putting money into (or out of) the brand equity bank account. e. However.figures. after sales service. We need to be clear just what people mean when they talk about brand equity or brand loyalty.g. At least one advertising agency offers to partner companies in this sort of activity. see no immediate effects. limited / premium distribution rights. So that is a problem. One of the things is that as with many concepts in marketing. extended warranties). or high proportion of solebuyers. e.. is that there are many different definitions and viewpoints on what exactly brand equity is and how to measure it.So. One of the most common times this argument is used is when discussing the role of advertising versus sales promotion. You could spend lots of money on advertising. but you could save your job by saying that you had "built the brand". or building brands.theories about brand loyalty and equity are used to represent aspects of brand strength.g. Future strength might be in terms of some sort of long-term competitive advantage or the ability to sustain brand extensions. consumers predominantly buying your brand.. it might be the ability to charge a price premium. It might be the ability to not be substituted when out of stock. there is the possibility that management might choose between taking realized benefits and "storing" them future.. Consumers saying good things about your brand. But the question is as always how do we know? That is are we actually building the brand with all our advertising (or other brand building 4 p¶s decisions e. fancy packing. Brand loyalty / Equity advocates . which might be represented by a high share of category requirements. This "strength" can take a number of forms. having a positive brand Attitude. high price.g.

Qualitative Measures of Brand Equity The Brand Equity Ten are ten sets of measures grouped into five categories. and so we need to know ways that this might show up in. A price premium can be determined by simply asking consumers how much more they would be willing to pay for the brand. These techniques can be both qualitative and quantitative.One of the ruses used by proponents of brand equity or loyalty is to claim that these measures do not capture all the important aspects of brands strength. The first four categories represent customer perceptions of the brand along the four dimensions of brand equity. associations and awareness. We want to be able to detect that our efforts are doing something to the brand.loyalty. Brand Equity as Brand Description Brand description. the final component of brand equity. y Loyalty Price Premium: A basic indicator of loyalty is the amount a customer will pay for a product in comparison to other comparable products. The fifth includes two sets of market behavior measures. But this is an evasion. . which attempt to gauge the strength of a brand. perceived quality. They work by getting the respondent to link each brand with pictures or words. concerns the actual attributes of the brand. These attributes then can be measured with multi-dimensional scaling to position the attributes relative to one another. A wide variety of techniques exist for matching consumer associations with perceptions of a brand. These attributes or associations are major creators of brand loyalty. Customer Satisfaction: A direct measure of customer satisfaction can be applied to existing customers. The focus can be the last use experience or simply the use experience from the customer's view.

its popularity and its innovative qualities. leadership often taps innovation within a product class. y Associations/ Differentiation Measures Perceived Value: This dimension simply involves determining whether the product provides good value for the money and whether there are reasons to buy this brand over competitive brands. Third. brand dominance. if enough consumers are buying into the brand concept it must have merit. the brand personality can provide links to the brands emotional and selfexpressive benefits. Second. Brand Personality: This element is based on the brand-as-person perspective. For some brands. people are uneasy swimming against the tide are a likely to buy a popular product. y Awareness Measures Brand awareness reflects the salience of the product in the consumer's mind and involves various levels including recognition. . and brand knowledge and brand opinion. Namely. price elasticities. Organizational Associations: This dimension considers the type of organization that lies behind the brand. brand usage and stock return. It can be calculated by asking consumers to directly compare similar brands.y Perceived Quality and Leadership Measures Perceived Quality is one of the key dimensions of brand equity and has been shown to be associated with price premiums. Leadership/Popularity has three dimensions. First. leadership taps the dynamics of consumer acceptance. This can be measured by asking consumers about the product's leadership position. recall.

Calculating market price and distribution coverage can provide or more accurate picture of the product's true strength.y Market Behavior Measures Market Share: The performance of a brand as measured by market share often provides a valid and dynamic reflection of the brand's standing with customers. many brand managers are forced to focus on short-term goals such as market share and profits. In the end. Managing brand equity is a continual process with long-term implications. Unfortunately. If management feels it is necessary to change the direction of a brand or change a product it must be careful not to change too quickly. For example. Many programs that are implemented to boost short-term sales or market share may be detrimental to the long-term viability of the brand. consumers met changes with adverse reactions. It is critical for managers to realize that brand equity can have positive as well as negative effects on a product or company. and consumers reacted so poorly to the new product that the old formula was reintroduced and the new formula eventually was discontinued. Price and Distribution indices: Market share can prove deceptive when it increases as a result of reduced prices or promotions. There are many examples of companies that have changed a product or brand too much or too quickly. Relative market price can be calculated by dividing the average price at which the product was sold during the month by the average price at which all the brands were sold. Proctor & Gamble has started to test market a . The product has certain attributes or characteristics that deliver the equity to the consumer. it is the customer that truly defines what brand equity means. If any of these attributes are changed or eliminated. Having a long-term outlook and projecting a consistent image of your brand to the customer will maximize the results of building brand equity. They changed the formula of their flagship product Coke. the equity delivered to the consumer is also changed. Managing Brand Equity Consistency is the key to successfully building and managing brand equity. The consumer through the product experiences brand equity. The most famous example is Coca-Cola. On these occasions.

launching a new brand is extremely consuming in terms of money and time. in part. Ultimately. decay. Once a definition of brand equity is established. Many people may think that building and maintaining brand equity is solely the responsibility of brand managers. It develops most. because consumers may become loyal to the coupon or promotion and not to the product itself. "I doubt that many would welcome a commodity marketplace in which one competed solely on price. For example. if not all. In many categories. It may be more cost effective to extend a current brand than introduce a new brand. of the research and data that companies will use for deciding strategic issues. all of which can be easily duplicated by competition. but it is actually a cross-functional team effort. Financial managers are important because they can fully analyze the costs of maintaining and building brand equity. said. Marketing research is critical for many obvious reasons. Graham Phillips. In 1988.program to move away from using coupons to a system of every day low prices. brand equity is the only point of differentiation between products." This quote clearly demonstrates the importance of managing brand equity. This is. the responsibility of tracking . Constant promotional programs erode margins and eventually brand loyalty. and eventual bankruptcy. Marketing research can also help determine how brand equity is actually measured. brand equity is damaged. Chairman of Ogilvy and Mather Worldwide. This would lead to ever decreasing profits. About the only aspect of the marketing mix that cannot be duplicated is a strong brand image. promotion and trade deals.

Rolex or Mercedes. The brand makes use of and co-ordinates a full repertoire of marketing activities to build equity. sustained support. Buyer may derive a psychological reward from owning the brand. y y y The brand is given proper. The brand is properly positioned. The brand is consistent.10 The World Strongest Brand Share 10 Attributes y y y y y y y The brand excels at delivering the benefits consumers truly desire. i. . The pricing strategy is based on consumer perceptions of value. Helps buyers evaluate quality of products especially if unable to judge products characteristics. Branding benefits buyers as well as sellers in the following manner To Buyer: y y y y Help buyers identify the product that they like/dislike.e. The brand stays relevant. The brand¶s manager understands what the brand means to customers. y y Helps reduce buyers¶ perceived risk of purchase.. Identify marketer Helps reduce the time needed for purchase. The brand portfolio and hierarchy makes sense. The company monitors source of brand equity.1.

Firms may be able to charge a premium for the brand. designs. Contact lenses Brand identifies the companies¶ products making repeat purchases easier for customers. i. y y y y Easier cooperation with intermediaries with well known brands Facilitates promotional efforts. BPL telephones. lower co. Reduce price comparisons Brand helps firm introduce a new product that carries the name of one or more of its existing products.. . advertising and promotional costs.To Seller: y y y y y Differentiate product offering from competitors Helps segment market by creating tailored images.. Example.half as much as using a new brand. Helps foster brand loyalty helping to stabilize market share.e..

³Toon illustrations create excitement. almost becoming part of the logo of the brand ± like A-I am Maharaja or Amul Girl.2. ³Creative people have to look at different ways to get message across. then why not?´ HLL¶s Annapoorna uses Flintstone like characters to drive its USP. Nike also used ³swoosh´ logo sign to bring immediate recall value. the claymation Chintamani of ICICI. .1 Toon Branding Looks like the ad industry can¶t have enough of animation. heart-shaped kisses for the audience. Digital characters are fast stepping into the realm of corporate brands. ³Most advisers are using animation for top of the mind recall´ says McCann Erickson¶s Prasoon Joshi. the Handiplast Boy. The toons in All Out Mosquito repellent ad. and also serve as a memory hook to pick a particular brand from clutter´. Fido-Dido of 7-Up etc are some of the examples of the toons used for marketing the product. pick on sleeping politicians to get their value across. while the Claymation characters Of Amaron. O&M¶s Piyush Pandey says his firm encourages the idea of breaking form. the Amul girl. McCann¶s new commercial for Coca-Cola¶s vanilla variant has the model blowing animated. ALL ABOUT TOON BRANDING 2. Hutch¶s Boy-Girl duo. Industry officials say animation could be used as creative idea to express a particular value. Kellogg¶s animated kid and bear are intertwined in people¶s minds. and if that means exploring other forms of art. or it could be a sacrosanct image. an O&M creative. as well as the classic Asian paint¶s ex-mascot Gattoo.

say in case of a fat man.´ says. the Chintamani ad was initially a radio jingle. for that matter. First it was retro advertising. general manager. Be it Bollywood actress Mallika Sherawat asking Fido to make her more curvy or Aishwarya Rai diving into the sea with a Frisbee or. a division of Famous Studios. The number of animation ad films produced per year in the past five years has increased at least eight times and feature films like Hum Tum (had cartoons of Saif Ali Khan And Rani Mukherjee coming in between the film)are backing the overall trend around animation. With Claymation (clay + animation). E.Welde claims to have used animation where it could add to the creative quotient of the commercial which give something unexpected to the audience. Famous House of Animation. but the kid was killed after he was linked to child labour.As mnemonics flow thick and fast characters get established in the consumers mind. The ad world¶s latest obsession is with animation.Suresh. it broke the clutter and became likeable in a very non-financial advertising style. ³Gross thinks at time look cute in animation rather than the real thing. ³Animation is no kid stuff anymore. With a string of animated commercials such as Pepsodent (Bhoot Police). an animated poodle talking to Rani Mukherjee and her gang of friends in the Fanta commercialthey¶ve all got the cool punch with animation. Asian Paint¶s Gattoo was the rage. ICICI Prudential¶s Chintamani and Anand Rathi Securities happening in the past few months. One sees a fair number of youth and adult targeted content happening in the form of animation in films and TV shows these days. now it¶s two every month. .´ says Rahul Welde.´ says Abhishekh Bhatia. companies across sectors are more willing than ever before to use animation in their ad films. Hindustan Unilever Limited. media. Creative director. However at times they are given a hasty burial. Mr. and then there was the trend of using real kids. ³We used to do three animation ad films a year five years ago.

But there are scripts that needs animation to prove the point as in the case of Oye Bubbly (Pepsi Commercial) last year. what creative directors hate about animation is the fact that it takes a lot more time ³For A Fido itself.2 CASE STUDY AMUL BUTTER GIRL (The moppet who put Amul on India's breakfast table) . Animation ad also helps keep costs down.Lova Lova.a gradual transformation over the past few years. Unileaf Tea or Levi¶s Mr. The popularity of cartoons among youngsters. Animated ones cost around Rs. who was then involved in launching the campaign from ICICI Prudential. many complex issues. with the use of animation. Moreover. be it Euro RSCG¶s Waterboy. 30-40lakh on an average. Industry sources say a simple animation ad is less expensive than an ad with decent production quality that costs around Rs. ³However a real character interacting with an animated character is not a novelty. Shrek. we need to work for three weeks to get it absolutely right. Run Lola Run. The contribution to the sales of pension schemes of the group rose 30% after the campaign. head creative. most of the global award winning campaigns have used animation extensively. such as stunts. However.´ says Chauhan of JWT 2.director marketing.´ points Ashish Chakravarty. Lion King. Besides the advantage of visual appeal. ³It¶s a nice way of doing a boring script. Contract Advertising.Kill Bill. VP and Senior Creative Director at JWT. Malaysia. Grrr Honda.´ says Anuja Chauhan. can be done away with. It is a style and a lot of people are catching on it but this is not the end of it. There are other viewpoints too. 70-80 Lakh.for instance the stunt in the Lux Commercial couldn¶t be done so perfectly by the real character (here Aishwarya Rai) vis-à-vis the animated character. all of which have cutting edge animation. Prudential Assurance.

She expects the worst but can see no signs of an accident. So much so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest running campaign ever. It is her four-year-old who draws her attention to the hoarding that has come up overnight. From her second floor flat she can see her neighbors on the road. had a staid. primarily because the earlier advertising agency which was in charge of the account preferred to stick to routine." recalls Sheela Mane. from strategically placed hoardings at many traffic lights. The butter. dressed in her little polka dotted dress and a red and white bow. then the managing director of the advertising agency. She is the Amul moppet everyone loves to love (including prickly votaries of the Shiv Sena and BJP). The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company launched butter and called it Utterly Butterly.000 tonnes a year in 1997. looked. holding out her favourite packet of butter." Call her the Friday to Friday star. I remember it was our favorite topic of discussion for the next one week! Everywhere we went somehow or the other the campaign always seemed to crop up in our conversation. ASP. All because a thumb-sized girl climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell on the masses. Round eyed. There are other people too. The crowd seems to be growing larger by the minute. corporate ads.50 years after it was first launched. No other brand comes even close to it. last year. Amul's sale figures have jumped from 1000 tonnes a year in 1966 to over 25. clinched the account for Amul butter. . Bombay (Summer of 1967) : A Charni Road flat. chuckled at the Amul hoarding that casts her sometime as the coy. winking at you. shy Madhuri. Mrs. It all began in 1966 when Sylvester daCunha. Sheela Mane. "People loved it. chubby cheeked. For 30 odd years the Utterly Butterly girl has managed to keep her fan following intact. a bold sensuous Urmila or simply as herself. Unable to curb her curiosity Sheela Mane hurries down to see what all the commotion is about. which had been launched in 1945. boring image. "It was the first Amul hoarding that was put up in Mumbai. a 28-year-old housewife is out in the balcony drying clothes. How often have we stopped.

That October. "Eustace Fernandez (the art director) and I decided that we needed a girl who would worm her way into a housewife's heart. It had been taken too seriously. It was a decision that would stand the daCunhas in good stead in the years to come. And who better than a little girl?" says Sylvester daCunha. clothed in a tantalizing choli all but covering her upper regions. village belle. It was a matter of just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. Thorough bread. when the city first saw the beginning of the Hare Rama Hare Krishna movement. even children were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. Not just adults. Sylvester daCunha decided it was time for a change of image.. In 1967. created as a rival to the Polson butter girl. "The response was phenomenal.'Hurry Amul. This one was sexy. "We knew our campaign was going to be successful. The baseline simply said. Hurry . more dum. Sylvester daCunha. lamp kiosks and the bus sites of the city were splashed with the moppet on a horse. And so it came about that the famous Amul Moppet was born. then the creative team working on the Amul account came up with a clincher -. Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul.One of the first Amul hoardings In India. The year Sylvester daCunha took over the account." recalls Sylvester daCunha. food was something one couldn't afford to fool around with. the country saw the birth of a campaign whose charm has endured fickle public opinion. so to say. for too long. gimmickry and all else. Sylvester decided that giving the ads a solid concept would give them extra mileage." For the first one year the ads made statements of some kind or the other but they had not yet acquired the topical tone. In 1969. Mohammad Khan and Usha Bhandarkar. The Amul girl who lends herself so completely to Amul butter.

So ultimately we discontinued the ad. or making an impact. They make them aware of what is happening around them. Amul would be up there on the hoardings saying. "Bread without Amul Butter. If there was an Indian Airlines strike Amul would be there again saying. That was the first of the many topical ads that were in the offing. Bombay reacted to the ad with a fervor that was almost as devout as the Iskon fever. The Shiv Sena people said that if we didn't do something about removing the ad they would come and destroy our office. Then there was the time when the Amul girl was shown wearing the Gandhi cap. Over the years the campaign acquired that all important Amul touch." he says laughing. they couldn't have anyone not taking that seriously. If the Naxalite movement was the happening thing in Calcutta. They said if they didn't take down the ads they would stop supplying Amul butter on the plane. "says Mrs. cholbe na cholbe na (won't do."We had the option of being sweet and playing it safe. I didn't want the hoardings to be pleasant or tame. "We ran a couple of ads that created quite a furore. "The Indian Airlines one really angered the authorities. DaCunhas have made it a policy not to play it safe. India looked forward to Amul's evocative humour. Ganpati Bappa More Ghya (Ganpati Bappa take more). The Gandhi cap was a symbol of independence." says Rahul daCunha. There are numerous ads that are risqué in tone. So despite their reluctance the hoardings were wiped clean. Sumona Varma. There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea. aren't they? My grandchildren are already beginning to realize that these ads are not just a source of amusement. "Then there was an ad during the Ganpati festival which said. We have a campaign that is strong enough to make a statement. It is surprising how vigilant the . What does she do with these ads? "I have made an album of them to amuse my grandchildren. The high command came down heavy on that one. "For over 10 years I have been collecting Amul ads." Despite some of the negative reactions that the ads have got. A fine balance had to be struck." says Sylvester daCunha. They have to say something. Indian Airlines won¶t fly without Amul.Hurry'. "They are almost part of our culture. From then on Amul began playing the role of a social observer." she laughs. won't do). I especially like the ads on the backs of the butter packets.

1 SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE BRANDING-SPECIAL FOCUS ON TOON BRANDING QUESTIONAIRE Q1. Amul's little joke on Hussain had the artist ringing the daCunhas up to request them for a blow up of the ad "He said that he had seen the hoarding while passing through a small district in UP. afterall. From the Sixties to the Nineties. DATA ANALYSIS 3. It is pure and simple. Where does Amul's magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines.political forces are in this country. They don't pander to your nationality or certain sentiments. Heroine Addiction. Even when the Enron ads (Enr on or off) were running. While most people agree that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that the Amul ads continue to tease laughter out of them." says Rahul daCunha in amused tones. Rebecca Mark wrote to us saying how much she liked them. Indians do have a sense of humour. That we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy. everyday fun. He said he had asked his assistant to take a photograph of himself with the ad because he had found it so funny. 3. Indentify the following toon mascots and their products or either of the one: ." There were other instances too. the Amul ads have come a long way.

Can you recognize a product on the basis of its brand mascot alone? ² Always ² Sometime ² Often ² Very Rare .____________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 1st page of questionnaire Q2.

Do you think nowadays brand mascots are losing importance to brand personality? ² Yes ² No ² Don¶t Know Q5. If you are to launch a new product will you depend on a brand personality of a toon mascot to build the brand image of your product? Give reasons? A7.Q3. Which is your most memorable toon mascot? ² Amul Butter Girl ² Fido Dido ² Chintamani (ICICI) ² Any other __________________ Q6. Do you relate any product with toons? ² Always ² Sometime ² Often ² Very Rare Q4. Why do you think this brand mascot is the most memorable one? A6. Toon Mascot is mare popular in the rural or urban areas? Give reasons? . ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q8. ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2nd page of questionnaire Q7.

2 S ta ti s ti c a l D a ta Q1.A8. What features do you think a toon mascot should possess so as to remember over a long period of time? ² Cute ² Happy Face ² Suitable to the product ² Innovative ² Entertaining ² Any other _____________________ `Q10. Identi fy the fo llo wing toon ma sc ots and thei r p roduct s o r eith e r o f the one? . Would you like if toon mascots are also advertised through clothing. accessories. bags etc? ² Yes ² No ² Depends on the mascot ² Don¶t know NAME: AGE: PROFESSION: _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 3rd page of questionnaire 3 . ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Q9.

of 15 8 9 3 respondents (out of 35) (Y Axis) % 42. c o m w a s t h e l e a s t p o p u la r o n e . 35 28 21 14 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Q2.86% 22.1 No. . of toons correctly identified (X axis) 2 0 1 0 6 5 4 3 No. Can you recogni ze a p roduct on the b asi s o f it s b rand ma sco t alone? 2 Recognition of product on basis of brand mascot (X axis) Always of 3 Sometime 20 Often 12 Very Rare 0 No. o n l y 3 p e r s o n s w e r e no t a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a l l t h e p r o d u c t s c o r r e c t l y. e .57% 0 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O u t o f t he 3 5 r e s p o nd e nt 1 5 w e r e a b l e t o id e nt i f y a l l t h e p r o d u c t s c o r r e c t l y o n t h e b a s i s o f it s t o o n m a s c o t a lo ne w h i c h c o m e s u p t o 4 2 .71% 8.D i d o w he r e a s mo n s t e r .86% 25. 5 7 % i. W h e r e a s o n l y 8 . T he mo s t i d e nt i f i e d m a s c o t is 7 u p F i d o . 8 6 % .

57% 57.14% 34. 1 4 % o f t he t o t a l s a m p l e s i z e . W h e r e a s o n l y 8 . t ha t t he y w e r e s o m e t i m e s a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t he p r o d u c t o n t he b a s i s o f B r a n d M a s c o t a lo ne w h i c h c o me s t o a r o u n d 5 7 . 5 7 % w e r e a l w a ys a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t he p r o d u c t o n t he ba s i s o f i t s br a nd m a s c o t 35 28 21 14 7 0 Always Sometime Often Very Rare Q 3 .29% 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O f t h e 3 5 r e s p o nd e nt s 2 0 s a i d .respondents (out of 35) Y-Axis % 8. D o y o u re l a t e a n y p r o d u c t w i t h t o o n s ? 3 Ability of relating products with toons (X Axis) .

W h e r e a s o n l y 5 . of respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % Always 3 Sometime 14 Often 16 Very Rare 2 8. 7 1 % o f t he r e s p o n d e n t s ve r y r a r e l y r e l a t e d t h e p r o d u c t s w it h t o o ns 35 28 21 14 7 0 Always Sometime Often Very Rare .No. 7 % .7% 5.57% 40% 45.71% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : O u t o f 3 5 r e s p o nd e nt s 1 6 p e o p l e o ft e n r e l a t e d the p r o d u c t s w it h t he i r t o o n m a s c o t s w h i c h c o m e u p t o a r o u nd 4 5 .

of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34. 4 3 % o f t he t o t a l p e o p l e s u r ve ye d h a d t he o p i n io n t h a t B r a n d M a s c o t s a r e no t lo s i n g i m p o r t a nc e t o B r a nd P e r s o n a l it y w he r e a s 1 4 .43% 14.29% 51. 2 9 % ha d no o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s a m e 35 28 21 14 7 0 Yes No Don t No .29% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : 5 1 . D o y o u t h i n k n o w a d a y s B ra n d M a s c o t s a r e l o s i n g i m p o rt a n c e t o B ra n d P e r s o n a l i t y ? 4 Brand Mascots are losing importance to Brand Personality (X-axis) No 18 Don¶t No 5 Yes No.Q 4 .

71% 14.D i d o a nd C h i nt a m a n i w it h 1 4 . of 30 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 85. 8 6 % resp ect ive ly 35 28 21 14 7 0 Amul Butter Girl Fido Dido Chintamani Any Other .86% 0 I n t e r p re t a t i o n : o n t h e ba s i s o f t he s u r v e y c o nd u c t e d 8 5 . 7 1 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e nt s o p t e d fo r A m u l B u t t e r G ir l a s t h e i r mo s t m e mo r a b l e t o o n m a s c o t fo l lo w e d b y F i d o .29% 2. 2 9 % a nd 2 .Q 5 . W h i c h i s y o u r m o s t m e m o ra b l e t o o n m a s c o t ? 5 Most Memorable Toon Mascot (X-axis) Fido Dido 5 Chintamani 1 Any Other 0 Amul Butter Girl No.

Q 6 .28% 14.COM .28% 11.42% 20% 11.JIMDO. of 12 respondents (out of 35) Y-axis % 34. W h y d o y o u t h i n k t h i s B ra n d M a s c o t i s m o s t m e m o ra b l e o n e ? 6 Reason for Amul Butter Girl being most memorable (X-axis) Cute/ Happy 5 Good Attention Animation Seeking 4 7 Innovative 4 Long Lasting No.42% I n t e r p re t a t i o n : Ac c o r d i n g t o t he s u r v e y c o nd u c t e d A m u l B u t t e r G ir l i s t h e mo s t me mo r a b l e t o o n m a s c o t be c a u s e it h a s b e e n i n t he m a r k e t s i n c e a v e r y lo n g t i m e a nd a l s o it i s v e r y a t t e nt io n s e e k i n g b e c a u s e it i s a l w a y s r e l a t e d t o t he c u r r e nt a f f a i r s FOR COMPLETE REPORT AND DOWNLOADING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA.

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