Vitamin A

Antioxidant synthesized from beta-carotene; needed for healthy eyes, skin, hair, and mucous membranes. Promotes healthy bone growth.

Vitamin D

A group of steroids needed for development and maintenance of bones and teeth.

Vitamin E

Antioxidant that prevents oxidation of vitamin A and Polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Vitamin K

Need for synthesis of substances active in clotting blood


Vitamin C

Antioxidant; needed for forming collagen; helps maintain capillaries, bones, and teeth

Thiamine (B1)

Part of coenzyme needed for cellular respiration; also promotes activity of the nervous system.

Riboflavin (B2)

Part of coenzymes, FAD; aids cellular respiration, including oxidation of protein and fat.

Niacin (B3)

Part of coenzymes NAD; needed for cell respiration, including oxidation of protein and fat

Folic acid (B9)

Coenzyme needed for production of hemoglobin and formation of DNA

Vitamin B6

Coenzyme needed for synthesis of hormones and hemoglobin; Central Nervous System control

Pantothenic Acid (B5) Vitamin B12

Part of Coenzyme A needed for oxidation of carbs and fats; aids in the formation of hormones and certain neurotransmitters Complex, cobalt-containing compound; part of the coenzyme needed for synthesis of nucleic acids and myelin

Biotin (B7)

Coenzyme needed for metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids

MINERALS -- MAJOR (More than 100 mg/day ne


Strong bones and teeth, nerve conduction, muscle contraction


Bone and soft tissue growth; part of phospholipids, ATP, and nucleic acids


Nerve conduction, muscle contraction


Stabilizes protein shape, neutralizes toxic substances


Nerve Conduction, pH and water balance


Part of various enzymes for nerve and muscle contraction, protein synthesis


Water balance

TRACE MINERALS (less than 20 mg/day ne Zinc
Protein synthesis, wound healing, fetal development and growth, immune function


Hemoglobin synthesis


Hemoglobin synthesis


Thyroid hormone synthesis


Part of antioxidant enzyme


Part of enzymes

Food Sources
dark green/yellow/orange veggies, fruits, cheese, whole milk, butter, eggs Milk fortified with vitamin D, fish liver oil, also made in the skin when exposed to sunlight (UV) leafy green vegetables, fruits, veggie oils, nuts, wholegrain breads, and cereals Leafy green vegetables, cabbage, and cauliflower Citrus fruits, leafy green veggies, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage Whole-grain cereals, dried beans and peas, sunflower seeds, nuts Nuts, dairy products, whole-grain cereals, poultry, leafy green veggies Peanuts, poultry, whole-green cereals, leafy green veggies, beans Dark leafy green veggies (spinach) nuts, beans, whole-grain cereals Whole-grain cereals, bananas, beans, poultry, nuts, leafy green veggies Nuts, beans, dark green veggies, poultry, fruits, milk Dairy products, fish, poultry, eggs, fortified cereals eggs

Conditions With…
Too Little
Night blindness and Impaired growth of bones and teeth Ricketts (children), decalcification, and weakening of bones unknown

Too Much
Headache, dizziness, hair loss, nausea, abnormal development of fetus

Calcification of soft tissues, diarrhea, possible renal damage Diarrhea, nausea, headaches, fatigue, muscle weakness

Easy bruising and bleeding Scurvy, delayed wound healing, infections Beriberi, muscular weakness, enlarged heart Dermatitis, blurred vision, growth failure Pellagra, diarrhea, mental disorders Megaloblastic, anemia, spina bifida Rarely, convulsions, vomiting, seborrhea, muscular weakness Rarely, loss of app. mental depression, numbness Pernicious anemia

Can interfere with anticoagulant medication

Gout, kidney stones, diarrhea, decreased copper Can interfere with absorpotion, of other vitamins Unknown

High blood sugar and uric acid, vasodilation, etc. May mask B12 deficiency Insomnia, neuropathy Unknown


skin rash, nausea, fatigue


MAJOR (More than 100 mg/day needed)

Dairy products, leafy green veggies

Stunted growth in children, low bone density in adults

Kidney stones; interferes with iron and zinc absorption Low blood and bone calcium levels Vomiting, heart attack, death In animals, depresses growth

Meat, dairy products, sunflower seeds, food additives Many fruits and veggies, bran

Weakness, confusion, pain in bones and joints Paralysis, irregular heartbeat, eventual death

Meat, dairy products, legumes

Not likely…

Table salt

Lethary, muscle cramps, loss of appetite

Edema, high blood pressure Diarrhea

Whole grains, leafy green veggies

Muscle spasm, confusion irregular HB, convulsions, personality changes

Table salt

Not likely…

Vomiting, dehydration

RALS (less than 20 mg/day needed)
Meats, legumes, whole grains
Delayed wound healing night blindness, diarrhea, mental lethargy Anemia, renal failure diarrhea, vomiting, abnormal cholest levels

Whole grains, meats, prune juice, clams, soybeans, pumpkin seeds Meats, nuts, legumes

Anemia, physical and mental sluggishness Anemia, stunted growth in children

Iron toxicity disease, organ failure, eventual death Damage to internal organs if not excreted Depressed thyroid function, anxiety

Iodized table salt, seafood

Thyroid deficiency

Seafood, meats, eggs

Vascular collapse, possible cancer development

Hair and fingernail loss, discolored skin Confusion, coma, death

Nuts, legumes, green veggies

Weakness and confusion

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