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(Plato, reality) 2) People in particular (mind and body) 3) People s behavior (ethics and morality) 4) Political Morality Lawhead s 4 definitions of Philosophy 1) Search for self-understanding 2) Love and pursuit of wisdom 3) Asking questions about the meaning of basic concepts 4) Search for fundamental beliefs that are rationally justified 2/3 Wednesday Class Beauty is in the eye of beholder Nietzsche was a subjective relativist: the only reality we can know is the reality that is subjectively constructed by each individual. He rejected Correspondence Theory of Truth. We can never have objective truth. <Correspondence Theory of Truth> OBJECTIVISTS 1) Reality has a determinate, objective character 2) A belief is true if it corresponds to the objective features of reality. Nietzsche believed in perspectivism: the theory that there cannot be any uninterpreted facts or truths because everything we encounter is seen from one perspective or another. We create a vision of the world that not only makes sense to us but that conforms to our subjective needs. Truth is independent of belief. Relativism: Truth and knowledge is relative to individual or culture. Truth depends on individual culture. 2/8 Class Plato [The worlds of reality and knowledge] Being Most real, independent, unchanging, eternal, ideal, perfect, exemplary, original, form, universal, intelligible, knowledgeable Becoming Less real, dependent (derivative), changing, transitory, actual, imperfect, approximation, (imitation, imagery, representation, picture), instance, particular, feasible, senses, opinions
we have knowledge.Socrates was executed because .Knowledge is knowing approximation.Philosophers understand the true reality . . . and it should give us an accurate picture of reality (pg 76) (There s universal form.Allegory of the cave .We know ideals of reason before we have sense experience of objects. the mind exists with knowledge since before we were born. 2) Because we can do proofs. 5) In order to know that it is imperfect. ideal standard . (innate ideas) 7) Learning is remembering (reminiscence) 8) The mind is eternal (reason/intellect) Lower Levels (sensible) is changing and transitory Higher Levels(reason) is perfect and unchanging. you must already have knowledge of perfect concept. 3) What we sense are imperfect representations of ideals. LOWER = We see HIGHER = We cannot see Some of Plato s BIG IDEAS 1) There is a higher level of reality beyond what we sense.Through senses we have opinions 3) We see imperfect instances as version of the same ideal.The ideal triangle did not really exist as an objective standard of judgment.We have had knowledge of ideals .People living in restricted area without knowing the higher reality . we cannot judge one picture to be better one or a closer approximation than another.Through reason we have knowledge of perfect . majority can be wrong. 1) The ideal triangle truly exists . that is why we compare triangles) . What we have knowledge of must exist. 6) The mind exists with knowledge before earth. Ideals did not exist. .Therefore. 4) Mind-independence: mathematical truth don t depend on belief and it must have to exist outside our mind (pg 77) 5) Reason left us deal with reality. its ideals .We have sense experience since we were born . which we would not do it.We compare it to perfect.People can be mistaken. With respect to knowledge: it is an imperfect representation of higher truths that are revealed to us through reason. With respect to reality: the shadows that the prisoners see are lesser realities that are representative of the wooden figures behind them. 5 Arguments for their existing of the higher level of reality. 2) Things we see/say are only pictures and representations of things that cannot be sensed. 4) Reason provides knowledge of perfect concepts that cannot be found in the senses.
definitions are not about the world. depends on what actually exists *If the truth of a statement is not dependent on a particular state of the universe. Matter of fact A posteriori 1) Known by observation 2) Denial makes sense not contradiction. David Hume (divorces reason from the world) Relative ideas A priori 1) Known purely by thought 2) Denial is a contradiction 3) Central 2+2 4) Not dependent on what is any where existent in the universe . not the world CONCLUSION: A PRIORI KNOWLEDGE IS KNOWLEDGE IF DEFINITIONS. Hume argued that all our knowledge of cause and effect came through habit. the more certain they will be. but because we have seen it rise countless times.Empiricism 2/18/10 Rationalism the mind s faculty of reason provides knowledge of the world independent of my sense experience A priori knowledge Something known to be true/false independently of apart from any sense experience Rationalist A priori thruths are about the world. the truth is not about the universe. if we see the Sun rising it is not because it corresponds to some eternal and unchangeable law. * Definitions are true independent of the world. . the more we have experienced things.We have knowledge of must also exist * We know bachelors are unmarried regardless of the world. a priori truth is known purely by reason.It s raining. Therefore. Empiricism ALL knowledge about the world comes from sensory experience. or it s not rainy . However. So. for instance. Definitions are about words.
1 The apple is red. heat Quality: property. really exists in the object. appearance. qualitative Examples: color. effect in mind.Perception of second quality do not correspond to object OBJECTS HAVE PROPERTIES. red. as far as the table is concerned.2/22/10 John Locke page 95 Primary Qualities Objective. The main thing Locke was trying to do is to limit knowledge to the things that could be said to be primary qualities. Scientific Evolution (same as Issac Newton s) Ex. cause. mind-independent. sound. So. reality. relative to mind. and sweet . 4 Garbage is stinky its delicious . number Secondary Qualities Subjective. on the other hand.The qualities are in the object and it can be judged MIND-INDEPENDETLY Ex. resemble objects correspond to. features. WE TEND TO CONFUSE ITS EFFECTS WITH THE PRIMARY QUALITIES OF OBJECTS. mind-dependent **LOCKE DOESN T THINK THAT FIRE. quantitative/measurable Examples: solidity. features that is in on object mind-independently Locke s Belief Apotheos. and heavy Mind-dependent: requires or relies on mind for its existence Inherent Quality: A properties. only exists in the mind. the room is cold no matter what **Just because effects on your mind are not necessarily inherent qualities of objects heat may not be the quality of fire** **causes me to feel the cold = effect in mind** ** the room is cold = exists in the object** Ex. SAUNAS ARE IN YOUR MIND EXTINGUISHING THE PERSPECTIVES THAT ARE IN YOUR MIND FROM PROPERTIES IN YOUR MIND. such things as its size. Do not resemble objects that correspond. mind/mental. mind-dependent. characteristics. shape and weight are fixed and measurable. taste.Smell and taste are subjective. ** Atom smallest. is a matter of subjective opinion. invisible matter = leads to primary qualities Experience . figure. WE HAVE REASON TO THINK THAT IT IS IN THE FIRE. inherent. . pain. sound. motion or rest.2 The room is cold The room is warm What s the right answer?! . smell. Its colour.Inherent quality. matter (material). extension. shape. round.
. mind-dependent [ 2 Arguments against the primary and secondary differences ] (THERES NO DIFFERENCE) 1) Because it is inconceivable that primary qualities could not exist without secondary qualities.Because secondary qualities are in mind. 2) All qualities are secondary qualities. these qualities cannot be inherent in the object.Our perception is caused by material objects . it doesn t mean fire is hot 2) Objects cannot have contradictory properties . empiricists cannot believe in what we cannot see.Empiricists cannot know object exists independent of the senses . extension.If pain is in the mind.Color. or red and not red. Matter is nothing . It cannot be both large and small 2) Same arguments that Locke used. relative to mind (secondary qualities.Berkeley s skeptical that primary qualities resemble secondary qualities have smell. stinky. . mind-independent causing our perception is incompatible with empiricism . cannot be both large and small. so too is the heat of the fire.Because of atom. and figure are also in our mind. taste depend on mind for its existence .The belief that there are material atoms.There is no one point of view that tells you what shape it is. they cannot be separated. primary qualities are also in mind . we get to see/sense things . delicious. Just because fire causes pain doesn t mean fire is pain.Those perceptions. also applies to primary qualities.The only thing similar to perception is perception . sound.Something cannot be both warm and cold.Empiricists cannot believe in causal theory of perception . IT IS INCONCEIVABLE -Berkeley thinks that solidity. [Locke] .(pg 96) We don t say fire is making me pain. mind dependent) 2/24/10 Bishop George Berkeley (STRAIGHTUP EMPIRICIST) Berkeley s criticisms to John Locke 1) Everything we know comes from the senses.Pain in the head does not resemble pain in fire because there is no pain in fire . fire is pain = NO!!! .[Locke s arguments that secondary qualities do not inhere in objects] 1) X causes Y does not say X is Y . But objects can be perceived to have opposite qualities.Locke and all empiricists cannot know there are material atoms that are too small to see .Materialism = everything is made of matter . Berkeley s Approach . Just because fire causes a feeling of heat. or stinky and not stinky. color.How can matter exist without mental/spirit.
This means that if we cannot imagine what the perception of something must be like. In other words. for if all the qualities that we ascribe to it are either primary or secondary qualities. .To be is to be perceived = existence depends on mind.A mind-independent object could not have these qualities because these sensations are experienced within the mind. Latin for "To be is to be perceived"). Berkeley's main argument is meant to show that it is impossible for something to exist without being perceived (or. when we say that an object is red.There s gotta be mental/spirit that makes us to see the truth when we are not around.as Locke argues . It is God that makes you experience and perceive life. Idealism= Everything is made up of ideas. The Master Argument. we cannot really say that it exists. not in the object or . existence is mind-dependent The main arguments for Idealism are based on the idea that our perceptions of objects are in us. in spirit or mental . esse est percipi. Berkeley uses this idea to attack the notion of substance or matter. can we actually say that the substance itself exists? . as he says. its redness is part of our perception of it.an effect of some power of redness in the object.
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