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Text Book from foreign Author:
1. French T E, Vierck C J, Foster R J, Graphics Science and
Design - Mc Graw-Hill Book Company New York, Fourth
Edition, 1984.

Text Book from Indian Author:


1. Bhatt N D, Elementary Engineering Drawing -Charoter
Publishing, Anand, Thirty First Edition,1990.

Refrence books:
1. Sidheswar P, Kannaiah P, Sastry VVS, Machine Drawing,
Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 1996.
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A fully developed language in its own right: A graphical
language that Engineers understand all over the world
irrespective native tongue. Communication between
“DESIGNER and MANUFRACTURER” As in any language,
certain rules (standards) must be followed.

BSI, ISO, BIS etc.

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Instruments box containing the following minimum items:
1. A large compass (150 mm)
2. A bow compass with adjusting screws (100 mm)
3. A large divider
4. A bow divider with adjusting screws (100 mm)
5. A good quality drafter
6. A pair of set squares: 45°-45°, 30°-60° (250 mm, 2.5 mm thick)

7. A protractor
8. A scale, 300 mm (steel or hard plastic)
9. Good quality drawing pencils (2H, H, HB)
10.A sharpener, good quality eraser and a clean soft cloth
11.A sticking tape
12.Drawing board (optional)
13.A drawing sheet (optional)
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Some Basic Generalizations:
• A surface perpendicular to projection plane will appear as
line

• A line perpendicular to the projection plane will appear as


point

• A surface parallel to projection plane will appear in true


shape

• A line parallel to projecting plane will appear in true length

• A line inclined to projecting plane will always appear


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Grades and designation of wooden pencil:

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BIS layout of Drawing Sheet:

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BIS Standard Sizes of Drawing Sheet:

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Projections.
Orthographic projection.
The word orthographic means to draw at right angles and is
derived from the Greek words:
ORTHOS - straight, rectangular, upright
GRAPHOS - written, drawn

Orthographic projection is the graphical method used in


modern engineering drawing. In order to interpret and
communicate with engineering drawings a designer must
have a sound understanding of it's use and a clear vision of
how the various projections are created.
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Projections.

Orthographic projection.

There are two predominant orthographic projections used


today.
They define four separate spaces, or quadrants. Each of these
quadrants could contain the object to be represented.
Traditionally however, only two are commonly used, the first
and the third.

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Projections.
Orthographic projection.
There are two predominant orthographic projections used
today.
They define four separate spaces, or quadrants. Each of these
quadrants could contain the object to be represented.
Traditionally however, only two are commonly used, the first
and the third.

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Projections.
Orthographic projection.
1. Projections created
with the object
placed in the first
quadrant are said to
be in First Angle
projection.
2. And projections
created with the
object placed in the
third quadrant are
said to be in Third
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Projections.
Orthographic projection symbols.
1. Both systems of projection, First and Third angle, are
approved internationally and have equal status.
2. The system used must be clearly indicated on every
drawing, using the appropriate symbol shown in Figure
below :

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Projections.
Recommended proportions for symbols.

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Pictorial Drawing
Orthographic projection.
1. Orthographic projection is
1. Perspective
used as an accurate way of
pictorial
providing information,
projections,
primarily for manufacturing
and detail design.
2. This form of representation
can however make it difficult
2. Isometric pictorial
to visualise objects.
projections, and
3. Pictorial views can be
created to give a more three
dimensional impression of
the object.
4. There are three types of
3. Oblique pictorial
pictorial projections
projections.
commonly used, as shown:
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Pictorial Drawing
Perspective pictorial projections:

Perspective: Used more with


freehand sketching.
Parallel lines appear to converge
and meet at what is referred to
as the vanishing point.
You can have one, two or three
vanishing points (VP).

Remember that this VP is not


Vertical Plane but instead it is
vanishing point(s).

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Pictorial Drawing
Isometric pictorial projections:

Isometric:
Receding lines
drawn at 30° and
are usually kept at
true measured
lengths.

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Pictorial Drawing
Oblique pictorial projections:

Oblique: Front face


sketched as a true
shape.
Starts with two axes,
one horizontal, one
vertical.
The third axis is
usually drawn at 45º
and lengths are
reduced by 50% of
true lengths.
Sometimes called
'cabinet' projection.

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Pictorial Drawing
First angle projection.

The given Drawing will,(for


this example) consist of four
views:
• Front F
• Left L
• Right R
• Plan (Top) P

Usual practice is to orient


the component in a position
that it is most likely to be
found in.
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Pictorial Drawing
Oblique pictorial projections:
Our aim is to create, from the front view, an orthographic projection drawing as shown
in the following Figure.

Note how the views are constructed in line with each other, allowing the features to
be 'projected' between the views.

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Pictorial Drawing
Third angle projection.
The construction method used is
the same.

The difference between first and


third angle projection when
creating or reading really lies
with the positions of the views.

For the same component, an


orthographic projection drawing
with the same front, side and
plan views would look like Figure
in next slide.
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Pictorial Drawing
Oblique pictorial projections:
Observe how, in third angle, the views give the image then the object.
In other words, what you see then what you are looking at.

In first angle you are given the object then the image,
Or what you are looking at, then what you see.

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Line styles or types

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Line styles or types

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Arrow Dimensions

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Dimensioning conventions:

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Dimensioning conventions (Radii):

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Dimensioning conventions (Circles):

Circles on engineering drawings are usually either spheres, holes or cylinders of some
description.

The dimension refers to the diameter, and the diameter symbol is ∅


∅.

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Dimensioning conventions (Circles):
Holes equally spaced on a pitch circle can be dimensioned as shown below.

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Chamfers, countersinks and counterbores:

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Dimensioning conventions (Counterbore):

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Location dimensions:
Due to the nature of manufacturing, actual finished dimensions of manufactured
components are never perfect.
This has to be considered when dimensioning features that require accurate location.

In order to enable accurate measurement, such a feature is usually dimensioned from


a reliable reference such as a machined surface.

This reference is referred to as a Datum.

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ESSENTIALS OF HAND LETTERING:
1. USE THE SINGLE-STROKE, VERTICAL, GOTHIC STYLE OF
LETTERING.
2. USE UPPER CASE (CAPITAL) LETTERS ONLY!
3. ALWAYS SKIP A SPACE BETWEEN ROWS OF LETTERS.
4. ALWAYS USE VERY LIGHT GUIDE LINES.
5. NORMAL LETTERING IS MADE 1/8" OR 3 mm HIGH.
6. TITLES SHOULD BE LETTERED 1/4" OR 6 mm HIGH.
7. FRACTIONS ARE LETTERED TWICE THE HEIGHT OF NORMAL
LETTERS.
8. FRACTION BARS ARE ALWAYS DRAWN HORIZONTAL.
9. USE A MEDIUM (B, HB, F OR H) LEAD FOR NORMAL
LETTERING.
10. USE A HARD (4H TO 9H) LEAD FOR DRAWING GUIDE LINES.
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Lettering:

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