Founding Brothers: The Duel The duel between Hamilton and Burr occurred July 11, 1804 and while

Aaron Burr, the victor of this duel, may have won, both duelists were ultimate losers. Ellis provides for the reader some of the duelists’ backgrounds and ancestries as well as insight into the unclear components of the duel. Hamilton is described as "the bastard brat of a Scotch pedlar." by John Adams with Ellis adding only that the mother was French and that the Father was Scottish. Hamilton brought Doctor David Hosack and his aid, Nathaniel Pendleton to the duel. Hamilton outranked Burr by military rank holding the title of General Hamilton of the New Army. Burr on the other hand was a Colonel. Burr was also the grandson of Jonathan Edwards, a great theologian. Burr's accompanying aid to the duel was William Van Ness. The duel occurred near the plains of Weehawken on a narrow ledge twenty feet above the water. Burr's party arrived just before 7 A.M. and Hamilton's soon after, the aids reviewed the rules of the "interview" as dueling was illegal. The aids, oarsmen and the doctor turned away from the duel for deniability. Hamilton choose the weapons for the duel as .54 caliber pistols that, without the hair-trigger and during the duel, needed 20 lbs. of pressure to fire. Hamilton earlier wrote that he intended to waste the first shot yet he wore his eyeglasses during the duel. Hamilton's choice of weapons (smooth barrel without hair-trigger) should have made it very difficult to hit someone so it would seem neither party wanted to kill the other. Yet, Hamilton was hit and died the next day. While two shots were heard yet Hamilton, does not remember having fired, as denoted when the oarsmen tried to move his gun and Hamilton warned it was yet loaded. Burr became the most despised leader of the time and was forced to flee the state. Ellis concludes that they dueled because they were insured and wanted to feel like gentlemen. Founding Brothers: The Dinner A meeting between Alexander Hamilton and James Madison brokered was by Thomas Jefferson shortly after his return from France. The purpose of this meeting was, in Jefferson's mind, to prevent the paralysis of the legislative body. Hamilton was the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury at the time and Madison was putting down the core of his financial plan for 1790. This core is referred to as assumption through out the chapter and is the plan of the federal government assuming the debt of each state. In short, combining 13 ledgers into one. Madison, who had collaborated in the creation of "Publius" in The Federalist Papers, was against this proposition for the reason that it would make many southern states "slaves" to the northern states.

New York. Others leading candidates were: Annapolis. Virginia was something of a split state however when it came down to it. Founding Brothers: The Silence This chapter provides a vivid insight into the thoughts of the people who made up the government right after the revolutionary war and their thoughts immediately after the revolutionary war. Oddly enough. Delegates from Georgia and South Carolina were characteristically unhappy about this. Germantown. there were a great number of other deals including one to make Philadelphia the home of the temporary capital in exchange for making the Potomac the final capital." A representative's side depended on if they based their opinions from 1776 or 1787. The ultimate resolution to the problem was this: Madison would not block assumption and Hamilton would use his influence to make the Potomac the site of the new capital. 1790 another petition arrived from the Pennsylvania Abolition Society asking that slavery be abolished. Frederick. wanted the capital built on the Potomac (Patowmac) and it was predicted by Jefferson that this could generate an additional half million dollars a year for Virginia. Many in the south.5 million dollars in debt. Were the original assumption implemented it would increase the debt that many southern states had to work off." and that it would go away. the Quakers were asking for something already unavailable. after assumption they would have a debt of around 5 million. Carlisle. However since the constitution forbade such action by the federal government. notably the Virginians. In this case they currently held 3. many of the southern states had paid a good deal of it off already however. At around the same time there was a great deal of debate over where the nation's capital should be located (residency question).All the states had debt at the time. they were . northern states tended to follow '76 while the states of the Deep South followed 1787's example. 1790 when Quaker delegations (New York and Philadelphia) brought before the house petitions calling for an immediate end to the African slave trade. Of course. Philadelphia Susquehanna and Trenton. The whole thing started February 11th. The chief example in this chapter is Virginia. Madison suggested that the petition be sent to a committee "as a matter of course. What was most problematic about this petition was that it arrived under the signature of Benjamin Franklin. It names and it gives statistics state by state (p102) and in the end how the congress accomplished very little with this forbidden subject and legislation. It did not however as on February 12th. This petition also pointed out that slavery was incompatible with the "values of '76. Baltimore.

Emancipation. 1799." this article has become known as "Washington's Farewell Address" despite it being titled as such in only one paper. the Courier of New Hampshire. . Jefferson's betrayal (slander) of Washington and Jay's treaty is also covered in this chapter. warnings against the party system. had two major problems "How would the owners be compensated?” or rather where would the estimated 140 million dollars come from. and provided America a right to trade in the West Indies in exchange for having any "outstanding" pre-revolutionary repaid and for something of a pro-English trade situation. One last thing Washington wished to stress but ultimately hardly mentioned was that of a national university. Everyone was happy about this. This address was written originally to bring Washington's first term to a close and was drafted by Madison however his advisers were able to convince him to stay a second term. warnings against permanent foreign alliances. religion. even unthinkable. Washington officially left office March 1797 and returned to Mount Vernon. this address was based upon the original drafted by Madison partly to show that he never wanted to run a second term in the first place and to help defend against critics who felt Washington was abusing his power. Jefferson's claims of Washington's senility ended relations between the two when a newspaper printed one of Jefferson's letters. established America's claim for damages from British ship seizures. morality. except the Quakers. The main issues in the address were those of the benefits of the federal government. and "Where would the slaves go?" as mentioned in Jefferson's Notes of the State of Virginia. As his second term came to a close George Washington had Alexander Hamilton aid in his farewell address. Jay's treaty eliminated British control of western posts. (P108-112 Franklin Bio) Founding Brothers: The Farewell George Washington died December 14th. In the end debate over slavery was put to an end until the civil war. stable public credit. This chapter describes his Farewell address which was published in the form of an article made to "the people of the United States. as opposed to a proFrench. as it may have saved the union for another 71 years. both gradual and immediate. and that of an over-powerful military. The address was ultimately based wholly upon Washington's ideas.against emancipation. The only other place to go would be either a colony (like Sierra Leone which failed horribly) or a "homeland" in the western territories. involved some of Madison's words and quite a few of Hamilton's words. It was agreed that the people would never accept a tax sufficient to cover the 140 million dollars need to buy the freedom of all slaves and even if they were freed it was agreed that incorporation was unlikely.

Jefferson lent his writing to the patriot cause more than his voice and became know as the "silent member" of Congress. Virginia. At the time only four men would really even be considered to become commander-and-chief: George Washington(retired). Adams went back to Europe a few more times before he finally returned to become the first vice president of the United States. Adams commanded New England while Jefferson had control of South. Seeing as how Washington was retired and Franklin was dead that left only Adams and Jefferson to run for office.The full address can be found at http://www. He studied at the College of William and Mary. At 33 he drafted the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin (dead).edu/lawweb/avalon/washing. Jefferson became the vice president although having been an opponent of Adams. Which brings up the point that . John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Adams was born in 1735 south of Boston and was later educated at Harvard. correspondence between Abigail Adams and President Jefferson.htm Founding Brothers: The Collaborators Due to Washington's retirement it was necessary to find a replacement and this new nation had yet to have experienced such a thing before. Ultimately Adams won the election coming in three votes above Jefferson. He later wrote Thoughts on Government. In 1772 he married Martha Skelton and took her to live in Monticello. hostile. was eight years younger than Adams having been born in 1743 near Albemarle County. In 1777 Adams and Franklin went to Paris to negotiate an alliance with France. Upon his return he drafted the Massachusetts Constitution with minor aid. It was also because of Adams that it was decided that the vice president was not allowed to speak in the Senate.yale. He then became a schoolteacher then an apprentice lawyer. Founding Brothers: The Friendship The Friendship begins with a short. In the end Jefferson reluctantly entered the race against Adams. Subsequently after having failed to revive their "great collaboration" Adams ended up almost ignoring his cabinet and Jefferson. the other candidate. Jefferson was Secretary of State in Washington's Cabinet until he resigned in 1793. In 1764 he married Abigail Smith and in 1765 he began opposition of British policy. Once the votes were cast the votes were split. his mountaintop home. Subsequently Adams cast more tie breaking votes than any other vice president since during his eight years in office. Jefferson.

If you have read the little notes near the front of the book you will notice that other books also written by Mr. Ellis include Passionate Sage: The Character and Legacy of John Adams and American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson. cut the budget. 1826. He then attacked Mercy Warren because of her three volumes History of the American Revolution (1805) didn't make Adams a major player in the revolution. Mr. and after having read this book. It is important to note that the Constitution didn't really give Jefferson to do this in the first place.Jefferson was the first president to actually run his own campaign as well as that of sponsoring the smear campaign arranged through Calendar. These two characters are of course John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Benjamin Rush eventually began attempting to resurrect the friendship between Adams and Jefferson. Jefferson's second term however is regarded as a failure especially because of the Embargo Act in 1807. Jefferson also acquired the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon in 1803. There was mention of a classless system and how it would never work because of human nature. He first attempted to write and autobiography. Meanwhile Adams was attempting to be remembered in history. It eventually succeeded leading to a 14year correspondence via letter. Ellis obviously is writing about what he knows. Adams eventually began a correspondence with Benjamin Rush regarding each other’s dreams and this seems to have healed Adams psyche. slashed military expenditures and reduced the national debt by a third. The correct answer could be one of these. He then sent memoirs to the Boston Patriot in order to "set the record straight". and Ellis does an excellent job storytelling these six historical events. The Friendship then continues onto Jefferson's presidential career. Thomas Jefferson died July 4th. Overall Argument of Founding Brothers Founding Brothers is an interesting book as history lessons go. John Adams died the same day. which damaged the economy. An example of such a dream is given on page 215 in which Adams lectures a "royal menagerie" on the principles of liberty and equality among living creatures. effectively doubling the country's size. it could be both of these and at . which ended without an end as a rant against Adams' political enemies. Adams also began drafting essays for the Patriot in which he compared himself to a wild animal and enduringly showed himself halfcrazy if not insane. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation you may notice that two characters appear in every chapter. But what is the overall argument of Founding Brothers? Is it that without two or three men the American Revolution would have failed? Or perhaps it is that before the fairy tale they were real people working towards a better future for their children. During Jefferson's incredibly successful first term he eliminated the unpopular tax on whiskey.

However I would assert that the greatest argument made throughout the course of Founding Brothers is that of my second option." In the first chapter is showed how even these political giants are mortal with Hamilton's death. every founding father depicted in this book is shown to not have been the perfect. . they were not all so eager to fight for a freedom that would have hurt profits. With "The Dinner" it is explained to us that many of the things that happened didn't just happen. Throughout these two chapters we are shown more fallibility in these founding fathers than any other. to whom King George III admitted inferiority. they are shown to be mortal men just like everybody else. In the end. "It is that before the fairy tale they were real people. John Adams obsession with fame was perhaps his major flaw. there were deals behind closed doors some of which may have saved the new nation from collapse and civil war. Thomas Jefferson's damage to the economy during his second term and his sponsoring Calendar to produce slander against former president and former friend John Adams in order to win the race for presidency. Chapter four was entitled The Farewell and it showed that even the great Washington had critics. The Duel also shows that despite Washington's "perfect" example not all of the founding fathers were immune to corruption as was Aaron Burr in his attempt to betray his countrymen to the British. superhuman depicted in many revolutionary stories. and that even George Washington. In the end even what some would call the greatest leaders in American history couldn't fix this problem so they just shoved it back under the table until it ended up in civil war. "The Silence". These two chapters are all about Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. our nations "dirty little secret" of the time is discussed as well as why nothing was immediately done and it points out that while many of our freedom fighters were all for fighting for their freedom.the same time the correct answer may be neither. even he was mortal and susceptible to old age. Chapters five and six run connect more clearly than any of the other chapters. Then in chapter three. for a time. was not perfect as he was made out to be.

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