Basic Concepts of Public Administration
Public administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. It is the management of affairs of the government at all levels --- national, state, local. It is a branch of the wider field of administration dealing with machinery & procedures of government activities. It is the systematic ordering of affairs & the calculated use of resources aimed at making desired things happen. Public administration is carried out by public servants who work in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a wide range of tasks. Public administrators collect and analyze data (statistics), monitor budgets, draft legislation, develop policy, and execute legally mandated government activities. Public administrators serve in many roles: ranging from "front-line" positions serving the public (e.g., peace officers, parole officers, border guards); administrators (e.g., auditors); analysts (e.g., policy analysts); and managers and executives of government branches and agencies. The use of word “public” in public administration restricts the area of administration. However defining the restricted area is debatable issue. There are two views regarding it: a) It refers to the study of the government (legislature, executive or judiciary) or b) it is restricted to the executive. In any case it means government. Public administration is also an academic field. In comparison with related fields such as political science, public administration is relatively new, having emerged in the 19th century. Multidisciplinary in character, it draws on theories and concepts from political science, economics, sociology, administrative law, behavioral science, management and a range of related fields. The goals of the field of public administration are related to the democratic values of improving equality, justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness of public services usually in a non-profit, non-taxable venue; business administration, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with taxable profit. For a field built on concepts (accountability, governance, decentralization, clientele), these concepts are often ill-defined and typologies often ignore certain aspects of these concepts (Dubois & Fattore 2009) Some well known definitions of Public administration L.D. White “Public administration is the direction, coordination & control of many persons to achieve some purpose or objective” McCanny “Administration is the organization & use of man & material to accomplish a purpose. It is the specialized vocation of managers who have skills of organizing & directing men & materials just as definitely as the engineer has the skill of building structures or a doctor has the skill of understanding human ailments.”
Corporate sector.org. 4. It has more than 49 members from top research schools in various countries throughout the hemisphere. mass movement. in common usage.
International public administration
There are several organizations that are active. it may be concluded that it deals with the study of: 1. this regional network of schools is unique in that it is the only organization to be composed of institutions from North and Latin America and the Caribbean working in public administration and policy analysis. IASIA is an association of organizations and individuals whose activities and interests focus on public administration and management. Also the International Committee of the US-based National Association of School of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) has developed a number of relationships around the world. seeking to mould government’s action & behaviour. Both the process of administration & the substantive concerns. It is the only worldwide scholarly association in the field of public management.e. and 5.clad. interest groups.fgv. The Center for Latin American Administration for Development (CLAD). APSA. Visit their Web site at www.net.ve.Simon “ By public administration is meant. Based in Brussels. Information about CLAD is accessible at www. The executive in action i.ebape. For general information about these regional networks.
. The activities of its members include education and training of administrators and managers. Non governmental agencies like political parties. this regional network of schools of public administration set up by the governments in Latin America is the oldest in the region. 2.htm. The oldest is the International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA).Herbert A.be/schools/aeacc. They include sub regional and National forums like CLAD. at any rate that of it which is dependent on governmental funding. ASPA. INPAE and NISPAcee. www. Venezuela. The Institute is a founding member and played a central role in organizing the InterAmerican Network of Public Administration Education (INPAE). public bureaucracy. the activities of the executives branches of national.GlobalMPA. Belgium. state & local government” Waldo “ Public administration is the art & science of management as applied to the affairs of state. visit www.iiasiisa. Policy making 3. terrorism etc. Created in 2000.” From the above discussion on the meaning of public administration. based in Caracas.br/inpae.
the employees and the citizens. and project management in all its ramifications has to have top priority in government. Principles of the past or the administrative recipes of bureaucratic routine are no longer appropriate tools for analysis of today’s problems & solutions.
It is widely acknowledged that the scope of the discipline of Public Administration has to be wide enough to respond to the complex social realities of today. Public Administration. insular bureaucracy does not fit in with the contemporaneous socio-administrative reality. Policy Sensitivity: As governments are called upon to play increasingly active roles in times of rapid changes and social crisis. and the American Society of Public Administration www.sk/_portal/homepage. risk-taking. This would necessitate a new preparedness within the administrative set-up that had hardly any precedence in the past. including the Russian Federation and the Caucasus and Central Asia. innovative. Goals have to be clearly set. Shared understanding of social reality: The capacity to cope with social and administrative complexity can be enhanced by a deliberate policy of organizational openness.aspanet. For more information visit the Web sites of American Political Science Association. www. The US public administration and political science associations like NASPA. Public Administration in modern time has to be proactive. These organizations have helped to create the fundamental establishment of modern public administration. construction of administrative reality has to be based on the shared understanding of its actors such as the men at the top. This calls for a new climate in the bureaucracy. has to absorb the principles of democracy as an overarching form of the government.php. The centralized.apsanet. Their English Web site is located at www. the middle managers. and often
. APSA and ASPA. scholars and practitioners who work in the field of public administration in Central and Eastern Europe.org. Public Administration has to be explicitly 'public' in terms of democratic values. power-sharing and openness. programming and projections have to be followed step by step. The strength of the government itself would depend more and more on the administration's capacity to deliver the goods in time and in response to the demands of the citizens. Administration as a learning experience: Shifting social reality and complex environmental conditions impose certain rigorous conditions on Public Administration today. innovative and timely policy formulation becomes a prime necessity in the government. in practice. In today's complex administrative world. The underlying assumption here is the administration needs to understand the diverse interests and influences. planning.org.nispa. Major concerns of the discipline are: Promoting (public ness): In a democratic society. Implementation Capability: Effective policy implementation is going to test the coping capacity of the governments in today's complex situations.NISPAcee is a network of experts.
these have added significance. poverty. The steady expansion of the public sector in India. it must develop explanatory strength to analyze socio-economic complexity and (assist in the ushering in of a new society free of exploitation and human misery. shop manager. The essential components of the public administration may be described through the famous acronym PODSDCORB standing for planning. the private sector plays a very important role in the American economy and society. The discipline of Public . head of department and if it is a state enterprise. In view of various definitions of the scope of public administration . coordinating. Some well known definitions of Scope of Public administration Henry Fayol “Every employee is an undertaking. It has to develop' in close association with the dynamic social changes. more adaptable to changes. In the developing countries.
. by contrast. reporting & budgeting.adventurous. The how is the process or processes. This new. greatly influenced by the. 'if continues unabated. and more accessible to the clientele. is expected to draw a sharper distinction between the public and private management. organizing. the tendency in that country is toward a blurring of lines rather than a distinct bifurcation of responsibilities. as Public Administration has a pivotal role to play in the socio-economic reconstruction of post-colonial societies. entrepreneurial zeal is expected to transform 'bureaucracy' into a new kind of learning organization. Hence.Administration cannot live in isolation. more open to new insights and innovations. the public sector is slowly emerging as the dominant '/sector in the context of mixed economy. In the USA.” L D White “ Public administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy “ John H Corson “ Public administration is the action part of the government. These are the major concerns of government in all democratic countries.
Distinction between Public & Private Administration Distinction between the public and the private sector is however. staffing. directing. political philosophy of each nation. the means by which the purposes & goals of the government are realized. head of division. In India. As a body of knowledge. The public sector is in many days dependent on the private sector for the supply of goods and services. while the what is the subject matter. it is cleared that public administration is concerned not only with the how of the government but also with the what. for instance.workman. the series extends to the minister or head of the state – takes a larger or smaller share in the work of administration.
Any unit of government administration is 'tied' up with network of allied public organizations and has to work in close interaction with them. In business administration. business administration is. especially at higher levels of government. Adherence to law brings in a degree of rigidity & operation in the public sector. much more well-knit and single-minded in operation. In the choice of products and in fixing prices. There are of course general laws regulating business. discrimination is freely practiced due to competitive demands. as discussed below: i) The major purpose of Public Administration is to serve the public hence general welfare and. By contrast business administration is basically oriented toward earning profit for the business proprietors.Considerations of general welfare should be the common concern of both public and business administration. rules & regulations. efficient management. At the other hand. V) Public Administration. many minds have to meet and discuss. Organizations like the police have to be on their toes to make sure that their operations do not incur the public wrath. Inability to earn profit will soon drive a private enterprise out of business. Yet. iii) The actions of Public Administration are much more exposed to the public gaze. compared to business or private organization. the 2 types are basically different. This is possible because of their relative freedom from specific laws and rules that abound in Public Administration. business administration overtly practices discrimination which is almost a part of business culture. but a little fault hits the newspaper headline. There are many pulls and pressures. ii) Public Administration has to operate strictly according to law. public satisfaction are the ends that public administration: must serve. There is much less complexity in organization and operations. By contrast. but individual business firms have considerable flexibility to adapt their operations to changing situations. insularity and autonomy of
. On the contrary business administration is relatively free from such constraints of law and regulations. Public administration an hardly ignore the needs of. generally speaking. is exceedingly cmplex. in open department have ramifications that spread over several other departments. any show of discrimination or partiality will evoke public censure or legislative commotion. nor is it so very closely watched by the public and the media. in specific cases.Activities -. has more compactness. The pressures are certainly almost non-existent. the administrators are to be very consistent and impartial in their dealings with the public. VI) Public Administration as organization is thus much more complex. Hence.There is always the fear of audit or accountability that acts as a. iv) In Public Administration. This wide publicity is not to be found in business administration. An achievement rarely gets publicity.constraint on performance. consultations go on in several rounds of meetings before decisions are taken. A private organization by contrast..
ac. Value oriented. VII) Public Administration has overarching responsibilities in terms of nation-building.html en.info/.action. and shaping the future society.in/bitstream/123456789/25474/1/Unit-1.pdf
./The_Definition_of_Public_Administration_L86418.wikipedia.egyankosh.. It is therefore. Business organizations have to follow the guidelines laid down by the public authorities. much more. Related study www.org/wiki/Public_administration http://www.coursework..