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Public administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. It is the management of affairs of the government at all levels --- national, state, local. It is a branch of the wider field of administration dealing with machinery & procedures of government activities. It is the systematic ordering of affairs & the calculated use of resources aimed at making desired things happen. Public administration is carried out by public servants who work in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government, and perform a wide range of tasks. Public administrators collect and analyze data (statistics), monitor budgets, draft legislation, develop policy, and execute legally mandated government activities. Public administrators serve in many roles: ranging from "front-line" positions serving the public (e.g., peace officers, parole officers, border guards); administrators (e.g., auditors); analysts (e.g., policy analysts); and managers and executives of government branches and agencies. The use of word “public” in public administration restricts the area of administration. However defining the restricted area is debatable issue. There are two views regarding it: a) It refers to the study of the government (legislature, executive or judiciary) or b) it is restricted to the executive. In any case it means government. Public administration is also an academic field. In comparison with related fields such as political science, public administration is relatively new, having emerged in the 19th century. Multidisciplinary in character, it draws on theories and concepts from political science, economics, sociology, administrative law, behavioral science, management and a range of related fields. The goals of the field of public administration are related to the democratic values of improving equality, justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness of public services usually in a non-profit, non-taxable venue; business administration, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with taxable profit. For a field built on concepts (accountability, governance, decentralization, clientele), these concepts are often ill-defined and typologies often ignore certain aspects of these concepts (Dubois & Fattore 2009) Some well known definitions of Public administration L.D. White “Public administration is the direction, coordination & control of many persons to achieve some purpose or objective” McCanny “Administration is the organization & use of man & material to accomplish a purpose. It is the specialized vocation of managers who have skills of organizing & directing men & materials just as definitely as the engineer has the skill of building structures or a doctor has the skill of understanding human ailments.”
this regional network of schools of public administration set up by the governments in Latin America is the oldest in the region.net. state & local government” Waldo “ Public administration is the art & science of management as applied to the affairs of state. Policy making 3. 2. It is the only worldwide scholarly association in the field of public management. . Belgium.ebape. The oldest is the International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA).e. mass movement. interest groups. 4.br/inpae.Simon “ By public administration is meant. terrorism etc. They include sub regional and National forums like CLAD. Venezuela. public bureaucracy.org. ASPA. seeking to mould government’s action & behaviour. The Center for Latin American Administration for Development (CLAD). this regional network of schools is unique in that it is the only organization to be composed of institutions from North and Latin America and the Caribbean working in public administration and policy analysis. at any rate that of it which is dependent on governmental funding.fgv. in common usage. Both the process of administration & the substantive concerns. visit www. The activities of its members include education and training of administrators and managers.iiasiisa.htm. It has more than 49 members from top research schools in various countries throughout the hemisphere. For general information about these regional networks. The executive in action i. Information about CLAD is accessible at www.GlobalMPA. it may be concluded that it deals with the study of: 1.ve. INPAE and NISPAcee. IASIA is an association of organizations and individuals whose activities and interests focus on public administration and management. Based in Brussels. Created in 2000.” From the above discussion on the meaning of public administration.be/schools/aeacc. and 5.clad. Non governmental agencies like political parties. International public administration There are several organizations that are active. the activities of the executives branches of national. Corporate sector. Visit their Web site at www. APSA. based in Caracas. The Institute is a founding member and played a central role in organizing the InterAmerican Network of Public Administration Education (INPAE). Also the International Committee of the US-based National Association of School of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) has developed a number of relationships around the world.Herbert A. www.
nispa. The centralized. power-sharing and openness. Shared understanding of social reality: The capacity to cope with social and administrative complexity can be enhanced by a deliberate policy of organizational openness. These organizations have helped to create the fundamental establishment of modern public administration. Implementation Capability: Effective policy implementation is going to test the coping capacity of the governments in today's complex situations. and the American Society of Public Administration www. and often .apsanet.NISPAcee is a network of experts. Principles of the past or the administrative recipes of bureaucratic routine are no longer appropriate tools for analysis of today’s problems & solutions. Administration as a learning experience: Shifting social reality and complex environmental conditions impose certain rigorous conditions on Public Administration today. Policy Sensitivity: As governments are called upon to play increasingly active roles in times of rapid changes and social crisis. This would necessitate a new preparedness within the administrative set-up that had hardly any precedence in the past. innovative and timely policy formulation becomes a prime necessity in the government.org. in practice.sk/_portal/homepage. the middle managers. insular bureaucracy does not fit in with the contemporaneous socio-administrative reality. Public Administration has to be explicitly 'public' in terms of democratic values. The strength of the government itself would depend more and more on the administration's capacity to deliver the goods in time and in response to the demands of the citizens. Major concerns of the discipline are: Promoting (public ness): In a democratic society. has to absorb the principles of democracy as an overarching form of the government. www.aspanet. scholars and practitioners who work in the field of public administration in Central and Eastern Europe. APSA and ASPA. The underlying assumption here is the administration needs to understand the diverse interests and influences. The US public administration and political science associations like NASPA. Scope It is widely acknowledged that the scope of the discipline of Public Administration has to be wide enough to respond to the complex social realities of today. Public Administration in modern time has to be proactive.php. construction of administrative reality has to be based on the shared understanding of its actors such as the men at the top. In today's complex administrative world.org. Public Administration. For more information visit the Web sites of American Political Science Association. programming and projections have to be followed step by step. including the Russian Federation and the Caucasus and Central Asia. Goals have to be clearly set. Their English Web site is located at www. planning. the employees and the citizens. This calls for a new climate in the bureaucracy. innovative. and project management in all its ramifications has to have top priority in government. risk-taking.
The steady expansion of the public sector in India. As a body of knowledge. is expected to draw a sharper distinction between the public and private management.workman. for instance. Hence. head of division. In India. directing. 'if continues unabated. the private sector plays a very important role in the American economy and society. It has to develop' in close association with the dynamic social changes. In the USA. entrepreneurial zeal is expected to transform 'bureaucracy' into a new kind of learning organization. The discipline of Public . organizing. The how is the process or processes. more adaptable to changes. . it is cleared that public administration is concerned not only with the how of the government but also with the what. These are the major concerns of government in all democratic countries. it must develop explanatory strength to analyze socio-economic complexity and (assist in the ushering in of a new society free of exploitation and human misery. while the what is the subject matter. and more accessible to the clientele. Some well known definitions of Scope of Public administration Henry Fayol “Every employee is an undertaking. coordinating.adventurous. This new. by contrast. staffing. The essential components of the public administration may be described through the famous acronym PODSDCORB standing for planning. as Public Administration has a pivotal role to play in the socio-economic reconstruction of post-colonial societies. greatly influenced by the. the public sector is slowly emerging as the dominant '/sector in the context of mixed economy. head of department and if it is a state enterprise. The public sector is in many days dependent on the private sector for the supply of goods and services. poverty. the tendency in that country is toward a blurring of lines rather than a distinct bifurcation of responsibilities. shop manager. In view of various definitions of the scope of public administration . reporting & budgeting. political philosophy of each nation. the means by which the purposes & goals of the government are realized.Administration cannot live in isolation. these have added significance. the series extends to the minister or head of the state – takes a larger or smaller share in the work of administration.” L D White “ Public administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy “ John H Corson “ Public administration is the action part of the government. Distinction between Public & Private Administration Distinction between the public and the private sector is however. In the developing countries. more open to new insights and innovations.
There are of course general laws regulating business. VI) Public Administration as organization is thus much more complex. much more well-knit and single-minded in operation. Public administration an hardly ignore the needs of.constraint on performance. insularity and autonomy of . iv) In Public Administration. By contrast. the administrators are to be very consistent and impartial in their dealings with the public. in open department have ramifications that spread over several other departments. By contrast business administration is basically oriented toward earning profit for the business proprietors. discrimination is freely practiced due to competitive demands. public satisfaction are the ends that public administration: must serve. has more compactness. Inability to earn profit will soon drive a private enterprise out of business. There is much less complexity in organization and operations. nor is it so very closely watched by the public and the media. any show of discrimination or partiality will evoke public censure or legislative commotion. many minds have to meet and discuss. On the contrary business administration is relatively free from such constraints of law and regulations. but individual business firms have considerable flexibility to adapt their operations to changing situations. ii) Public Administration has to operate strictly according to law. Any unit of government administration is 'tied' up with network of allied public organizations and has to work in close interaction with them. In business administration. business administration overtly practices discrimination which is almost a part of business culture. rules & regulations. business administration is. The pressures are certainly almost non-existent. There are many pulls and pressures. is exceedingly cmplex. as discussed below: i) The major purpose of Public Administration is to serve the public hence general welfare and. consultations go on in several rounds of meetings before decisions are taken. Adherence to law brings in a degree of rigidity & operation in the public sector. compared to business or private organization. Hence. Yet. iii) The actions of Public Administration are much more exposed to the public gaze. This is possible because of their relative freedom from specific laws and rules that abound in Public Administration. the 2 types are basically different. At the other hand. In the choice of products and in fixing prices. V) Public Administration.There is always the fear of audit or accountability that acts as a. in specific cases. but a little fault hits the newspaper headline.Activities -.. especially at higher levels of government. This wide publicity is not to be found in business administration. An achievement rarely gets publicity.Considerations of general welfare should be the common concern of both public and business administration. generally speaking. efficient management. A private organization by contrast. Organizations like the police have to be on their toes to make sure that their operations do not incur the public wrath.
.html en.ac.coursework.action. much more.pdf . Business organizations have to follow the guidelines laid down by the public authorities. It is therefore. Value oriented./The_Definition_of_Public_Administration_L86418.in/bitstream/123456789/25474/1/Unit-1. VII) Public Administration has overarching responsibilities in terms of nation-building. Related study www.org/wiki/Public_administration http://www.info/..egyankosh.wikipedia. and shaping the future society.
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