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Design

to

BS 5950

Part 1

DESIGN TO BS 5950 : PART 1: 1990

LIMIT STATE DESIGN OF TUBULAR STRUCTURES

USING HOT FINISHED STRUCTURAL HOLLOW SECTIONS.

Preface

This brochure has been produced to assist Structural Engineers and Designers who use Hot finished

Structural Hollow Sections whose section properties comply with BS 4848 : Part 2 (Ref 1) and

whose Steel qualities comply with EN 102 10-l (Ref 2) to design using the Limit State basis as

covered by BS 5950 : Part 1 (Ref 3).

It is important for designers to recognise that hollow sections, unlike their rolled open section

counterparts, can be produced by a hot or cold forming process. The process of cold forming

produces different mechanical properties in the section to that of hot forming and a reduction in the

sectional properties used in design.

Designers wishing to use cold formed hollow sections should design in accordance with the

appropriate cold formed standard and with the sectional properties as given in BS 6363 (Ref 4).

Further guidance is given in British Steels Tubes & Pipes publication TD369 - ‘Cold Formed Hollow Sections’.

In addition to the information contained in this publication, further assistance and design guidance is

given in companion British Steel Tubes & Pipes publications (references 16 to 21) and the Steel

Construction Institute (references 8 to 15) publications as given in Appendix A.

Extracts from British Standards are reproduced by permission of the British Standards Institution,

2 Park Street, London, W1 A 2BS from whom complete copies can be obtained.

The information given is not intended in any way to replace that given in the Standards themselves

to which reference should always be made. Where reference is made to specific clauses and tables

throughout the text, these refer to BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990 plus amendment No. 1.

Disclaimer

Care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication are accurate, but British Steel plc and its subsidiary

companies do not accept responsibility for errors or for information which is found to be misleading. Suggestions for or

descriptions of the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and British Steel

plc and its subsidiaries accept no liability in respect thereof. Before using products supplied or manufactured by British

Steel plc the customer should satisfy himself of their suitability. If further assistance is required, British Steel plc within

the operational limits of its research facilities may often be able to help.

Contents Page

1.0 INTRODUCTION 2

2.1 Structural Steel 2

2.2 Physical properties of structural steel 2

L 2.3 Hollow Section range 2

2.4 Design Grade 3

2.5 Design Strength py 4

.

2.6 Section Classification 5

3.1 Members in tension 8

3.2 Members in compression 10

3.3 Members in bending 14

4.1 Tension members 17

4.2 Compression members 18

4.3 Web bearing and buckling 19

7.1 Empirical rules 22

7.2 Effective area 22

APPENDIX A REFERENCES 25

BS 5950

Part 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Limit State design approach for buildings and structures is based on BS 5950 : Part 1 code 1.1

of practice for design in simple and continuous construction : hot rolled sections, and relates to

the use of hot rolled steel sections and plates and hot finished Structural hollow sections.

Whilst the standard requires that all relevant limit states of strength, stability and serviceability 2.4

should be considered this publication relates primarily to the limit state of strength. When

considering the limit states of stability and serviceability due regard must be taken of the differing 2.5

load factors and combinations that may apply.

BS 5950 : Part 1 covers the design of structures fabricated from weldable structural steels in 3.1

designated design grades to the appropriate product grade which for hot finished structural

hollow sections are found in EN 10210-l (Ref 2). Other steels may be used provided due 2.4.4

allowance is made for variation in properties, including ductility. 2.4.4.3

EN 10210-l : 1993 contains the technical delivery requirements for Hot Finished Structural

Hollow Sections, including British Steel Tubes dz Pipes two standard production grades of

S275J2H and S355J2H. Tables in annex A and B detail the required chemical analysis,

mechanical properties, testing and certification for hot finished SHS. For further details see

TD 364 (Ref 17).

Designers are recommended to consider the use of Grade S355 steels in structures. Design

strengths for grade S355 are significantly higher than grade S275 steels at only a small extra

cost, often resulting in more economical designs.

The values of tensile strength and minimum yield strength specified in EN 102 lo- 1 for the two

standard production grades of Hot Finished SHS are;

Product Grade Tensile Strength Yield Strength Yield Strength

N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2

(3mm 5 t 5 65) (t 5 16mm) (16 <t s 40)

S275J2H 410/560 275 265

S355J2H 490/6 30 355 345

Note: Other grades and sub-grades including steel for off-shore applications are available.

Structural Hollow Sections (SHS) comprise a range of circular hollow sections (HFCHS) and

rectangular hollow sections - including squares (HFRHS).

2

BS 5950

Part 1

The range of Structural Hollow Sections manufactured by British Steel is generally in

accordance with BS 4848, Hot Rolled Structural Steel Sections, Part 2 Hollow Sections. This

standard gives dimensional and sectional properties and relates generally to the international

standard IS0 657 Hot Rolled Steel Sections, Part 14 Hot Finished Structural Hollow Sections.

The manufacturing range normally produced by British Steel is given in the leaflet TD 167

(Ref 16). Larger sizes of HFCHS, not detailed in that leaflet, may be obtained on application.

To provide a transition path from the single U.K. standard of BS 4360 to the four European

Standards for Structural Steel, BS 5950 : Part 1 Amendment 1 has introduced the term design

grade.

Reference to Table 2 of BS 5950 : Part 2 will show the relationship between the design grade

and the appropriate product standard and grade which following the implementation of the

European Standard for hot finished structural hollow sections is EN 10 2 10-l.

Note: BS4360 is now withdrawn.

The following table shows the appropriate product grade in EN 102 10-l for the BS 5950 design

grade plus, for information purposes only, the previous product grades as given in BS4360 :

1990.

Current Previous

BS 5950 EN 10 210-l BS 4360 : 1990

Design Grade Product Grade Product Grade

43D S 275 J2H 43D

43EE S 275 NLH 43EE

50D S 355 J2H 50D

50EE S 355 NLH 50EE

55c - 55c

55EE - 55EE

55F S 460 NLH 55F

Note: The Standard production grades for Tubes & Pipes SHS is S275J2H and S355J2H,

previously BS 4360 Grade 43D and 50D respectively.

3

BS 5950

Part 1

2.5 Design Strength py

Throughout the design procedures the two factors of Design Strength (py) and Section

Classification repeatedly occur. One or both will be required to be known in order to complete

the design procedure.

The design strength pY is taken as equal to the specified minimum yield strength but not more 3.1.1

than 0.84 of the minimum ultimate tensile strength from EN 10210-l.

Based upon EN 10210-l the design strengths for different design grades of steel are given in

BS 5950 Table 6 which for the range of SHS thicknesses are:

(part)

Py Nmm2)

43 5 16 275

> 16 540 265

50 1.16 355

> 16 1 4 0 345

55 * 5 16 460

> 16 1 2 5 440

* Values have been shown for steel in grade 55 but the designer is

advised to check availability before proceeding with its use.

Note that currently rectangular hollow sections are limited to 20mm thick and circular hollow

sections to 50mm thick.

Thus in practice for sections up to and including 16mm thick, py = 275 N/mm2 (Design Grade 43)

or 355 N/mm2 (Design Grade 50). For sections over 16mm and up to 40mm thick py = 265 and

345 respectively for Design Grades 43 and 50. However, this design strength will be reduced

when, due to their size and thickness, sections are classified as slender (see section classification).

4

BS 5950

Part 1

2.6 Section Classification

The classification of a section gives an indication of its expected performance with 3.5

particular reference to the elements of the cross section that are in compression due to

bending or axial load.

The majority of SHS members will tend to fail at ultimate load by compressive yielding

in one or more elements of the cross section. However it is recognised that cross sections

with slender elements may fail in compression by local buckling before reaching the full

yield strength thus limiting the ultimate capacity of the section.

The onset of local buckling will also be influenced by the level of axial stress. Thus if

high yield steel is used (and the applied stress is greater) then the width to thickness ratio

of elements must be within smaller limits to prevent local buckling.

The Code places sections into four classifications namely plastic, compact,

semi-compact and slender as follows: 3.5.2

(illustrated diagramatically in Figure 1).

CLASS 1 PLASTIC

(Can form plastic hinge with

rotation capacity required

for plastic design)

CLASS 2 COMPACT

(Can develop full plastic

moment but with limited

rotation capacity)

CLASS 3 SEMI-COMPACT

(Stress in extreme fibres can

reach yield)

CLASS 4 SLENDER

(Design strength pY must be

reduced to prevent local

buckling) 3.6

Table 7

Figure 1 Section classification

5

BS 5950

Part 1

Class 1 Plastic:

Sections in which under bending a plastic hinge can form with sufficient rotation capacity to Class 1

allow redistribution of moment within the structure. Stress will reach the full design strength

pY in a rectangular stress block configuration which will be retained during rotation with no

significant deformation of the cross section.

Class 2 Compact:

Sections in which under bending the full plastic moment can be developed but local buckling Class 2

may prevent the development of a plastic hinge with sufficient rotation capacity to permit

redistribution of moment. In this case elastic analysis of the frame should be used.

Class 3 Semi-compact:

Sections in which under bending the stress at the extreme fibres can reach the design strength Class 3

pY in a triangular stress block configuration but local buckling will prevent the development of

the full plastic moment, and the moment capacity is therefore based upon the elastic modulus.

Class 4 Slender:

Sections in which local buckling will prevent the stress in the section from reaching the design Class 4

strength pi and consequently a reduced value of design strength pyr must be used in calculating

the bending capacity, which is based upon the elastic modulus, and the compression resistance.

The classification of a section is determined by comparing the width to thickness ratio of each Table 7

element of the section, or diameter to thickness ratio for a HFCHS, with the appropriate limiting

values given in BS 5950 Table 7. These limiting values are scheduled for each classification

and type of element and include a factor E (defined as (275/~y)O.~) which takes account of the

steel grade of the section.

The limiting values that apply to structural hollow sections are given in Table 7, part of which Table 7

is reproduced on page 7. Elements that exceed the semi-compact limits of 39s for HFRHS or

80~~ for HFCHS are classified as slender.

BS 5950

Part 1

Limiting width to thickness ratio for SHS

b b b

Internal element of I 26~ I 32~ I 39&

compression flange i t t

d I 79& d d I 120&

Web, with neutral axis at I 98&

mid-depth t t t

t- 0.4 + 0.60~ t - OL

Web, where whole section

d d d

is subject to compression. I 39& I 39& 5 39s

t t t

Circular tube subject to moment

D D D

or axial compression I 40&2 I 57E2 I 80E2

t T t

0.5

and a = 2y, Notes to

Table 7

d

Note that for HFRHS the element width is taken as the side wall length less 3 times the

thickness as shown in Figure 2.

HFRHS Figure 3

b=B-3t

d=D-3t

When members are subject to bending about one axis only the classification may be read

directly from Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950 : Part 1 (Ref 10);

7

BS 5950

Part 1

3.0 MEMBER DESIGN

Design examples of members to BS 5950 : Part 1 can be found in reference 11 and Appendix C.

BS 5950: Part 1 imposes maximum thickness limits for members subject to tensile stresses in 2.4.4

service due to applied axial load or moment when brittle fracture is required to be considered.

SHS supplied to EN 102 10-l grades have adequate notch toughness within the service temperature Table 4

limits taken as -5 “C for internal conditions and -15 “C for external conditions except for sections

greater than 30mm thick in design grade 50C.

When steel is subject to lower temperatures the charpy impact performance at the minimum 2.4.4.3

service temperature should not be less than:

y,t

710 K

pt = Ae Py 4.6.1

where A, is the effective area of the section as determined from Clause 3.3.3.

Eccentric connections

When members are connected eccentric to the axis of the member the resulting moment 4.6.2

has to be allowed for in accordance with Clause 4.8.2 (See Section 4.0, axially loaded

members with moment).

The effective area, &, of each element of a member at a connection, where fastener 3.3.3

holes occur may be taken as K, times its net area, but not more than its gross area,

where for steels complying with BS 5950 design grades:

BS 5950

Part 1

In hollow section members with bolted flattened end connections, as in Figure 3, it is

necessary to make allowance for fastener holes.

- 76.1 x 5 HFCHS

with 2 holes 18mm diameter

Figure 3

The 76.1 x 5 circular hollow section (design Grade 43) member in Figure 3 has a gross cross

section area of 11.2 cm (from Dimensions and Properties tables).

In accordance with clauses 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 the effective area at the connection may be

taken as K, times the net area, but not more than the gross area, where K, = 1.2 for design

grade 43 steel.

= (11.2 x 102) - (4 x 18 x 5) x 1.2

= (1120 - 360) x 1.2

= 760 x 1.2

= 912 mm* 5 1120

9

3.2 MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION

the gross cross sectional area and pc is the compressive strength

The compressive strength pc is obtained from the relevant strut curve and depends upon

the slenderness l/r ( = h) and the design’strength py, or reduced design strength pyr in

the case of slender sections.

(1) Select trial section and determine the value of the design strength py.

(2) Determine whether or not the section is slender. For slender sections in order to prevent

local buckling reduce the design strength as follows.

For HFCHS obtain the reduced design strength pyr from the semi-compact limit of the circular

tube in table 7. Thus from d/t s = 80 &2 and E = (275/~,)O.~ pyr = 80 x (275/ (d/t))

For HFRHS reduce the design strength py by the stress reduction factor for the internal element ot

compression flange in table 8: 31

b -8

TE

(3) Determine the effective length b

(5) Select the relevant strut curve according to the section-shape and the axis of buckling.

For hot rolled structural hollow sections strut curve a is always used.

(6) Obtain the compressive strength pc from strut table 27a for the appropriate values of

design strength py (or pyr) and slenderness h (= L/r)

Slender sections

Slender sections under compression will fail by local buckling before the stress in the

section reaches the full design strength py. Local buckling is avoided by reducing the

design strength pyr as described above.

Problematically, on occasion it will be found that pyr is less that the lowest value of py

(= 225 N/mm2) tabulated in table 27 and in such cases the compressive strength pc must

be calculated according to Appendix Cl and C2.

Note that since no HFCHS section in the current range is slender, the reduced value of pY

will only apply to a limited range of HFRHS.

Generally speaking it is the thinner wall sections of side length 200 and above that need to be

checked. Section clarification for members subject to bending is given in published form

(see Appendix A reference 9).

10

BS 5950

Part 1

3.2.3 Effective length of struts

actual length L centre to centre of restraint in the relevant plane as given in table 24

of BS 5950: Part 1. The effective length factors from Table 24 are given below and

are shown diagrammatically in Figure 4 as follows:

Figure 4

.! 2.0

7.2.4

Conditions of restraint at ends (in plane Effective

under consideration) length, L

held in at both ends 0.7L

position at

both ends Partially restrained in

direction at both ends 0.85L Table 24

Restrained in direction

at one end OML

at either end l.OL

held in in restrained

position and position in direction 1.2L

restrained

in direction Partially

restrained

in direction 1.5L

NOT restrained

in direction 2.OL

11

BS 5950

Part 1

3.2.4 Lateral restraint

Lateral restraint to compression members should have sufficient strength and stiffness 4.7.1.2

to inhibit movement of the restrained point in position and direction as appropriate.

Compression chord members forming part of a lattice beam, girder or roof truss may require

one or more lateral restraint within the span, these intermediate lateral restraints should be

capable of resisting a total force of not less than 2.5% of the maximum factored force in the

compression chord, divided between the intermediate lateral restraints in proportion to their

spacing.

bracing capable of transferring the restraint forces to the beam, girder or trusses, effective points

of support, or else connected to an independent robust part of the structure capable of fulfilling

a similar function.

Where two or more parallel members require lateral restraint at intervals, it is not adequate

merely to connect the members together such that they become mutually dependent.

Where three or more intermediate lateral restraints are provided, each intermediate lateral 4.3.2.2

restraint should be capable of resisting a force of not less than 1% of the maximum factored force

in the compression chord.

In this case, the bracing system should be capable of resisting the greater of the effects of:

(a) the 1% restraint force considered as acting at only one point at a time;

(b) the restraint forces described in 4.3.2.1

Where more than three parallel members share the same system of restraints, the combined 4.3.2.3

lateral restraint force should be taken as the sum of the three largest lateral restraint forces

required for each individual restrained member, as determined in accordance with 4.3.2:1 and

4.3.2.2.

The value of the slenderness ratio h (= L&) should not exceed the following: 4.7.3.2

I

09 for members resisting self weight and wind loads only 250

I

@I for any member normally acting as a tie but subject to

reversal of stress resulting from action of wind

Members whose slenderness exceeds 180 should be checked for self weight deflection. If this

exceeds length/1000 the effect of bending should be taken into account in design.

12

BS 5950

Part 1

3.3 MEMBERS IN BENDING

All members in bending should be checked to take account of the following: 4.2

a) At critical points the combination of maximum moment and co-existent shear and 4.2.1.3

the combination of maximum shear and co-existent moment.

flange has full lateral restraint,

3.3.2 Shear

Shear force F, should not exceed the shear capacity P, which is given by: P, = 0.6 pyA,. 4.2.3

For rectangular hollow sections with the applied load parallel to the web the shear

area A, is:

A, = (D/D+B)) x A

A further check is given in the Code for shear buckling of thin webs (where d/t ratio

exceeds 63&), but since the sizes in the current BS 4848: Part 2 range do not exceed

this limit the check is not applicable.

Where a flexural member is not provided with sufficient lateral restraint to the 4.3

compression flange, then lateral torsional buckling will occur before the member can

develop its maximum bending capacity. 4.2.2

Hollow sections possess a high degree of torsional stiffness and do not generally suffer

from lateral torsional buckling.

It can be seen from Appendix B that for square and circular hollow sections

(where I, = IY) the factory’ will always be equal to zero. It follows that the buckling B.2.5

index @t., and the equivalent slenderness h LT will also be equal to zero, indicating that

lateral torsional buckling does not occur with square or circular hollow sections.

14

BS 5950

Part 1

The Code (Appendix B.2.6.1. Table 38) gives a limiting slenderness ratio below which box

sections of uniform wall thickness (including RHS) need not be checked for lateral torsional B.2.6.1

buckling effects. In practice, where normal deflection limits apply, this limit of slenderness is

unlikely to be exceeded, and consequently hollow sections in bending may generally be

considered as beams with full lateral restraint.

By applying the limits as given in Table 38 to the current range of Rectangular Hollow Sections

sizes in Design grades 43 and 50 the following limiting values of h are obtained: Table 38

-_

D/B h for design grade 43 h for design grade 50

D

1 infinity infinity 01 -_

2 350 271 B !

i - i

It follows that based upon these values of h (which is equal to L&y) for each RHS size there

is a corresponding limiting length L,, beyond which a check should be made for lateral

torsional buckling.

For example, consider a simply supported laterally unrestrained rectangular hollow section

beam 200 x 100 x 5 design grade 43 with D/B = 2.

----------m-------B--

AL

------~~~~~~--_------I

AL

sl

I LC = 14.7m I

= 14.7m

This length (14.7m) is termed the limiting length L, and is tabulated on pages 147, 148, 321 and

322 of the Steelwork Design Guide Volume 1 (Reference 9).

Square and circular hollow sections have a limiting length of infinity and, as indicated

previously need not be checked for Lateral Torsional Buckling.

15

BS 5950

Part 1

3.3.4 Moment capacity M,

The Code gives two sets of expressions for determining M, moment capacity in the absence of 4.2.5

axial load, the first for members with low shear load (where F, 5 = 0.6 Pv) and the second,

giving reduced moment capacity, for members with high shear load (where Fv > 0.6 P,). 4.2.6

Since RHS beam members have two vertical webs it is unlikely that the shear load will exceed

0.6 of the shear capacity and therefore the moment capacity can usually be taken as follows:

Class 3 Semi-compact sections M, = pYZ.

Class 4 Slender sections M, = PyrZ

where pyr < pY (Clause 3.6) 4.2.5

* This restriction is to ensure that plasticity does not occur at working load. For most I-sections

the shape factor S/Z is less than 1.2. Only for hollow sections is S/Z greater than 1.2 and in

such cases the constant 1.2 may be replaced by the average load factor (i.e. the ratio of the

factored load to the un-factored load).

Note that in the Steelwork Design Guide - Volume 1 (Reference 9) most of the tabulated

values of M, for hollow sections are governed by M, 5 = 1.2 pYZ. Since in most design cases

the average load factor is greater than 1.2 it generally follows that M, can be taken as the

higher value derived from M, = pYS.

The design procedure will normally be similar to that for a beam with full lateral restraint.

Or check that span < L,

strength using the same procedure given section 3.2.2

page 10 for members in compression.

With low shear load 4.2.5

With high shear load 4.2.6

16

BS 5950

Part 1

4.0 AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS WITH MOMENTS

Tension members with moments should be checked for the following two effects: 4.8.2

and 2) check for capacity under the combined effects of axial load and moment at the points of

greatest bending moments and axial loads, usually at the ends.

F Mx MY

+ - + - Il.0

Ae Py MC, MC,

where

is the effective area; (3.3.3)

MC, is the moment capacity about the major axis in the absence of axial load; (4.2.5

and 4.2.6)

MY

is the applied moment about the minor axis at critical region;

is the moment capacity about the minor axis in the absence of axial load (4.2.5

MC,

and 4.2.6)

Alternatively for greater economy in plastic or compact cross sections only the following

relationship should be satisfied.

where

Mr x* and Mr y * are the reduced moment capacities about the major and minor

axis respectively in the presence of axial load obtained from the published tables

(see Ref 10).

)ie”rx and Mr Y are the reduced moment capacities which are calculated by using a

reduced plastic modulus. The published tables (ref. 9) are for the case where the plastic neutral

axis lies within the area bounded by the walls of a rectangular section or the internal radius of a

circular section. When the plastic neutral axis lies within the wall thickness of rectangular sections

the modified reduced plastic modulus is given in Appendix B of this publication.

17

BS 5950

4.2 COMPRESSION MEMBERS Part 1

2) overall buckling 4.8.3.3

a) F Mx MY Il.0

+ - +

Ai? PY MC, MC,

+ -

0% YJ (Mr y>

Note: for further reference to M rx and M ry see Page 17 of this publication. 4.8.3.3

2) Overall buckling

+ - + -

A, PC Mb* PY ZY

+ -

Max May

Where

Max is the maximum buckling moment about the major axis in the

presence of axial load, taken to be the lesser of:

MC,

(I- $3

(1+&q

Ma, is the maximum buckling moment about the minor axis in the

presence of axial load taken as:

CY

(l-e)

(1+y)

where

M,x is the moment capacity about the major axis

MC, is the moment capacity about the minor axis but not subject to ( 4.2.5

the restriction M, I 1.2~~ Z;

P cx is the compression resistance about the major axis; 4.;: )

P CY is the compression resistance about the minor axis.

The simplified approach for overall buckling assumes that lateral / torsional buckling controls.

This is not true for circular or square hollow sections and only true for rectangular hollow

sections with long unrestrained lengths. It is therefore recommended that the more exact

approach be generally used.

18

BS 5950

Part 1

4.3 WEB BEARING AND BUCKLING

The basic expression for web checks are given in Clause 4.5.2.1 (buckling) and 4.5

Clause 4.5.3. (bearing) as follows:

(Ref 9) which contains tables for the beam factor Cl, stiff bearing factor C2 and

the flange plate factor C3. Details are shown in Figures 7 and 8.

I D

t = thickness of web

tp = thickness of flange plate

Cl = beam factor

c2 = stiff bearing factor

Bearing web capacity = Cl + (bl.C2) +(tp.C3) c3 = welded flange plate factor

welded factor C3 should be

divided by 2.5.

19

BS 5950

Part 1

The beam buckling factor Cl allows for dispersion of load in two directions and applies

to a member which is continuous over bearing or an end bearing member with a

continuously welded sealing plate (see Figure 9).

Figure 9

2) There are two sets of values given for factor Cl, C2 and C3: the first (larger

values) are for welded flange plates, and the second (smaller values) for

non-welded flange plates.

When loads or reactions are applied through non-welded flange plates the

additional effects of moment in the web due to eccentric loading have to be taken

into account, resulting in lower buckling values (see Figure 10).

t 07 B

iJ

t-l

P P

e

D MY

LT MY

The total resistance of a member to torsional loading is composed of the sum of two

components known as ‘uniform torsion’ and ‘warping torsion’.

As the torsional rigidity of a Structural hollow section is very large compared with its

warping rigidity, the section may be reasonably regarded as subject to pure torsion only.

TsZ

Iz) = GJ

z = the length of member subject to T4

G = Shear modulus of elasticity (79000 N/mm*)

J = Torsional constant for cross section

BS 5950

Part 1

and the pure torsional shear stress is given by:

=-

Tq

Tt

C

where C = Torsional Modulus Constant

Torsional constants for circular, square and rectangular hollow sections plus basic theory

and worked examples for members subject to torsion loading including combined bending

and torsion, are given in the SC1 publication (Ref 11).

Purlins and side rails may be designed on the assumption that the cladding provides lateral

restraint to the face against which it is connected. The type of cladding and its fixings

should be such that it is capable of acting in this manner.

Deflection should be limited to suit the characteristics of the particular cladding system.

Wind loading, excluding local pressure effects, should be determined from CP3 Chapter V : part 2.

Alternatively, in the case of roof slopes not exceeding 30” from horizontal or wall cladding 4.12.4

not exceeding 15” from vertical, purlins and side rails may be designed using empirical rules.

For purlins a minimum substantially uniform loading of 0.75 N/mm2 should be used and the

modulus (Z) and section depth (D) and width (B) for spans not exceeding 6.5m found by:

2000 Table

29

RHS WPL L/70 L/150

1800

Where Wp is the total unfactored load on one span of the purlin (in kN), L is the l.ength centre to

centre of the main supports (in mm).

Side rails should generally be designed for wind loads and self weight of the cladding. The

minimum values of the elastic modulus (Zl) about the axis parallel to the plane of cladding and the

section depth (D) measured perpendicular to the cladding, and the corresponding elastic modulus

(22) and section width (B) are found by:-

30

RHS WJ W2L L/70 L/l00

1800 1200

Where W1 and W2 are total unfactored loads on one span of the side rail acting perpendicular to and

parallel to the plane of the cladding respectively, (in kN), L is the span of the rail (in mm) for a) Zl

andDandb)Z2andB.

21

BS 5950

Part 1

7.0 COLUMN BASES 4.13

BS5950 provides empirical rules for determining the thickness of concentrically loaded rectangular

base plates but also allows other rational means to be used.

The minimum thickness in mm for rectangular base plates carrying concentrically loaded 4.13.2.2

t

RHS member is:

1

2.5

t = w (a* - 0.3b2) > RHS wall thickness

PYP

and for circular or square base plates for solid rounds or CHS members the minimum

thickness in mm is given by the following expression which was based on requirements for

solid columns and may give unacceptably large thickness for CHS members. Reference to the

effective area method is recommended for CHS baseplates.

W 3

t = Dp (Dp - 0.9D)

1

2.4 Pyp

b is the lesser projection of the plate beyond the column

w is the uniform pressure on the underside of the plate

pYp is the design strength of the plate with a maximum of 270 N/mm*

Dp is the length of side or diameter of base plate, not less than 1.5 (D + 75)nu-n

D is the CHS diameter

If the bearing pressure beneath the base plate is not uniform, calculations should be made to 4.13.2.3

determine the bending moments in the plate which should not exceed 1.2 pypZ where

pyp I 270 N/mm* and Z is the elastic modulus of the base plate.

Caution must be exercised in use of the above formulae as they assume uniform loading is present at

the underside of the base plate and the maximum moment occurs at the external corner of the RHS.

Resultant base sizes may not produce this condition particularly when dimension D is large in

relation to dimension B. As an alternative the effective area method may be used.

The basis and method are taken from the publication entitled ‘Joints in Simple Construction,

Volume 1 Design Methods’ published by the BCSA and Steel Construction Institute.

The shaded area in figure 11 represents the area of base plate assumed to be effective in

transmitting the factored column load onto the foundations by imposing a uniform

pressure on the concrete not exceeding the limiting bearing strength. The bearing strength

is taken as 0.6 fcU in accordance with BS 8110: Part 1: 1985.

Required effective area Areq = ( mean wall perimeter length ) x ( width of wall

thickness plus two outstands )

= (2D+2B-4t)(t+2K)

Note that when K is greater than ( B - 2t) /2 then the internal outstands overlap and the

effective area becomes Areq = ( D + 2K ) ( B + 2K )

22

BS 5950

Part 1

8.0 DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS

Whilst the Code gives guidance for bolted connections no specific detail is included for overall

design of welded joints. The following reference is therefore included to assist the designer.

Lattice structures are usually designed on the basis of pin jointed frames with members in tension

or compression and the forces noding at the joint. Bracing and chord members are determined in

accordance with the normal laws of statics. Research work has shown that the strength of such

joints is dependent on a number of factors:

chord width/thickness ratio

chord compressive loading

gap or overlap of bracings

Work conducted with the International Institute of Welding and the CIDECT organisation

has led to the publications (Ref 18) of design rules for welded joints for circular, square

and rectangular chords, which will be included in Eurocode No. 3. This work has highlighted

that the final joint strength is substantially influenced by the relative bracing-to-chord sizes and the

general joint geometry which is the province of the design engineer as it involves his member

selection for both analysis and design. Resulting from this, it becomes necessary for the designer

to fully consider the joint design as part of his work. Final sizing of welds can be left to the

fabricator provided one important point is specified. The weld at the toe of a bracing member

(highest stressed point) should, if the bracing angle is less than 60” be bevelled and a butt weld

used. Further information on welding can be found in BS 5 135 (Ref 5) and British Steel Welded

Tubes publication SHS Welding (Ref 19).

BS 5950 : Part 1 gives guidance for the design of cased beam or column sections but no

reference is made to hollow sections as this will be covered in Part 3, Code of practice

for design in composite construction. A separate design manual for limit state design of

concrete filled hollow sections based on BS 5400 : Part 5 (Ref 6), is available

from British Steel Welded Tubes (Ref 20).

The means to evaluate and define the fire resistance of Structural elements is given in

BS 5950 : part 8 (Ref 7).

The code recognises that Structural Steelwork can in certain conditions have the required

fire resistance even when unprotected. Alternatively, adequate fire resistance can be achieved

by use of either externally applied systems such as boards or spray materials or internal

systems such as concrete or water filling.

The thickness of externally applied systems is determined using the section factor Hp/A

and fire protection manufacturers data (Ref 15).

The evaluation of concrete filling is contained in the standard (Ref 7) and further information

is contained in Welded Tubes publication for concrete filled columns (Ref 20) and, in the

case of CHS columns, in ECCS Technical Note 55 *.

The evaluation of water filling and the use of bare external structural steel is referenced by

the standard to publications issued by the Steel Construction Institute (Ref 12 and 13) who

also publish a handbook to BS 5950 part 8 (Ref 15).

* ECCS publications are available through The British Constructional Steelwork Association

Limited, 4 Whitehall Court, Westminster, London, SWlA 2ES.

24

Appendix A

REFERENCES

1. BS 4848 : Part 2 - Specification for hot-rolled Structural Steel Sections. Part 2 - Hollow Sections.

2. EN 10210-l : Hot finished structural Hollow Sections in non alloy and fine grain Structural Steels - Part 1 :

Technical delivery conditions.

3. BS 5950 : Part 1 - Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction. Hot rolled sections.

4. BS 6363 - Specification for Welded Cold formed Steel Structural Hollow sections.

5. BS 5 135 - Specification for Arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels.

References 1 to 7 are available from the British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London, WlA 2BS

9. Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990, Vol 1. Section properties member capacities, 3rd Edition.

References 8 to 15 are available from The Steel Construction Institute, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN.

References 16 to 21 are available from British Steel Tubes & Pipes, SHS Technical Sales.

25

Appendix C

C 1 Design Examples

l

Design in Simple and Continuous Construction: Hot Rolled

Sections, presents the engineer with a change in design

philosophy with the use of limit state principles and, partly as a

direct result of this, a change in the detail procedures of design.

B.S. 449 by the end of 1987 and in this event, familiarisation of the

new standard is important.

prepared using Structural Hollow Sections. Whilst it has not been

possible to cover every aspect of the code, it is hoped that the

examples will be of practical use in the design of elements.

clauses in B.S. 5950 which have been given in the margin

throughout the examples. In addition reference is made to tables

given in the “Steelwork Design Guide - Volume 1, Section

Properties and Member Capacities” published by the Steel

Construction Institute, and are shown in the margin thus 1x1.

Design Guide’.

2.1

EXAMPLE 2 Ref.

(SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION)

Factored Loading

50

80

40

40 170 kN

3.0m

100

3.5m

f’

+I#-

85

140

100

140

85

325 kN

5

500 kN

Generally, for axially loaded compression members with moments, cl. 4.8.3,

separate checks are required for local capacity cl. 4.8.3.2., and overall buckling

cl. 4.8.3.3. The requirements for overall buckling may be satisfied by either the

‘Simplified approach’ cl. 4.8.3.3.1, or the ‘More exact approach’ using

cl. 4.8.3.3.2.

However for columns of the type in this example a further option is available by

reference to cl. 4.7.7, ‘Columns in simple multi-storey construction’ subject to

compliance with the qualifying conditions. This clause dispenses with the need

for a separate local capacity check, and it is only necessary to apply the rules

defined in the ‘Simplified approach’.

F mM, mM

+-+---ql.O 4.8.3.3.1

A,p, Mb Pyz,

pc = Compressive strength

A, = Gross cross - sectional area

m = Equivalent uniform moment factor

Mb= Buckling resistance moment Capacity (major axis)

Z, = Elastic section modulus (minor axis)

pY = Design strength

4.5

Ref.

Volume 1 (3rd Edition), Section properties, Member capacities’

RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTION 250 x 150 x 8 Design grade 50

Section is PLASTIC for bending about X-X El

322

Web Shear

Shear force F, (max) = 82.5 kN I330

]

Shear capacity P, = 814 kN

Check shear F, (at max. bending) = 60 kN < O-6 P, = 488 kN

:. Shear force is ‘low’, and M, need not be reduced. 4.2.5

Moment Capacity

Applied moment M, = 178 kNm I322

Moment capacity M, = 176 kNm* Note

047

*governedbyM,=1.2pYZ=176kNm

Higher value may be used since S, = 1.22 Z, > 1.2 Z,

and constant 1 - 2 may be replaced by 1 - 5 (average load factor).

M,=p,S,<+5p,Z

=355x505x10~3~1~5x355x413x10-3

= 179 kNm < 220 kNm

:. M,= 179 kNm > M, = 178 kNm O.K.

Limiting length L, = 16 - 7 m I

322

Since span 5.0 m < L, = 16.7 m LATERAL TORSIONAL

BUCKLING need not be checked.

Web Bearing

Bearing load = 82 - 5 kN I

330

Beam factor (end) Cl = 114 kN

Stiff bearing factor (end) = 5 - 68 kN/mm = C2

Bearing capacity = Cl + (b, x C2) + (tP x C3)

=114+(75x5~68)+(Ox14~2)

= 540 kN O.K.

Web Buckling

Buckling load = 82.5 kN

Beam factor (end) Cl = 798 kN

cl

330

Buckling resistance = Cl + (b, x C2) + (tP x C3)

=798+(75x3*19)+(0x3.19)

= 1037 kN O.K.

APPENDIX C=2

STEELWORK DESIGN GUIDE TO BS5950 : PART 1 : 1990

Volume 1 - Section Properties and Member Capacities

PO Box 101, Weldon Road, Corby, Northants. NN17 5UA TD 365/5E/94

Tel: 01536 404120/1 Fax: 01536 404005

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