Human Comfort

Evaluating Comfort
and Related Physical
Properties of Textiles
28 - 30° C
Human Comfort
Comfort is freedom from pain, freedom
from discomfort. It is a neutral state
1
Comfort is a pleasant state of physiological,
psychological and physical harmony
between a human being and the
environment
2
1
Hatch, K.L. (1993). Textile science. Minneapolis, MN: West
Publishing Co., p. 26.
2
Slater, K. (1985). Human comfort. Springfield, IL: Charles
C. Thomas Publisher, p. 4.
What Comfort really is:
Relative
Subjective
Psychological
Physiological
Thermal-
Sensorial-
Mobile-
Human Comfort
Psychological Comfort implies that
individuals need specific garments, fabrics,
colors and design features to help them feel
confident and at ease within the context of
the various roles they assume.
Factors:
Self-Image
Relationship with others: Trust, love and
respect
Need of privacy: Solitude, silence, anonymity
Human Comfort
Physiological Comfort refers to
maintenance of thermal balance: The proper
relationship between body heat production
and loss.
Factors:
Cardiovascular system
Skeleto-muscular system
Central nervous system
Pulmonary system
Digestive system
Thermoregulatory mechanism
Human Comfort
Physical Aspects of Comfort refer to
different sensations and feelings of
discomfort and/or pain, which influence the
two types of comfort.
Factors:
Touch
Sight
Hearing
Taste
Smell
Comfort-Related Physical
Properties of Textiles
Thermo-physiological Comfort
Thermal resistance
Water vapor permeability (breathability)
Wickability
Sorption of water
Water resistance, repellency and proofness
Drying rate
Sensorial (Neuro-physiological) Comfort
Prickliness, itchiness, inflammation
Roughness
Thermal character (warm/cool feeling)
Electrostatic propensity
Body-Movement Comfort
Stretch
Weight
Pressure/compression
Physical Characteristics of Textile
Materials Influencing Thermal Comfort
Fabric Mass
Fabric Thickness
Fiber, Yarn, and Fabric Structures
Porosity is the ratio of air space to the total
volume of the fabric, expressed as a
percentage
Cover Factor is defined as the opacity or
hiding power in textiles
The Physics of Human Comfort
Body metabolism
Heat transfer
Evaporation
H
B
h
t
h
F
h
FC
h
FR
h
FK
T
a
o
a
I
a
, T
a
, o
a'
I
cl
T
cl
o
cl
T
sk
, o
sk
h
tC
, h
tR
,
h
tK
, h
tE
Comfort Model
Body Thermal Balance
W M H
B
=
´ ) 0 = n
F t B
h h H S
´ ) ¦
cl a cl
f I I h , , p L
Body Thermal Balance
´ )
¦
¦
¦

¦
'
+

'

+
¦
'
+

'

+
¦
'
+

'

A
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ + + =
n
w a r
R S
R S
t
k
x
k
x
k
x
A
T
K
T T k R
C C C
E E E
K C R E h
-
2 1
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer refers to the transfer of heat
energy from one environment to another.
Heat transfer occurs whenever a
temperature difference (AT) exists between
two environments; heat moves from the
warmer surface or area to the cooler surface
or area.
The rate at which heat is transferred
depends on AT as well as any resistance
imposed between the two environments.
Modes of Heat Transfer
Conduction: is the transfer of heat by physical
contact, either within a body or between two
touching bodies
Convection: is heat transfer via a moving air
mass within space
Radiation: involves heat transfer through space
in the form of electromagnetic energy
Heat Transfer
Units. Several terms are used to quantify heat transfer:
Thermal transmittance (U): is the rate of heat transfer
per unit area, U = W/m
2
K°.
Thermal conductance ©: is defined by the same
formula, C = W/m
2

Thermal resistance (r): the rate of flow of heat
through a fabric under standard conditions. The r-
value is the inverse of thermal transmittance (r =
1/U).
A fabric has a thermal resistance of one ³tog´ when a
temperature difference between two surfaces of
0.1°C produces a heat flow equal to 1 W/m
2
.
A ³clo´ is the resistance necessary to keep a resting
person (producing heat at a rate of 58 W/m
2
)
comfortable at 21°C and at an air movement rate of
0.1 m/s.
1 clo = 1.55 togs; 1 clo = 0.1548r; 1 clo = U/0.1548
Effect of Fabric Properties on Heat Transfer
Fiber type and structure
Yarn type and structure
Fabric type and structure
Finishes applied
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer
Standard Test Methods
CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 70.1 ± 94, Thermal
insulation performance of textile materials
ASTM D 1518 ± 85, Thermal transmittance of
textile materials
Thermal Insulation
cold plate
hot plate
specimen
Procedure 1
cold plate
specimen
hot plate
Procedure 2
cold plate
cold plate
specimen
specimen
hot plate
Guarded Hot Plate
Thermal Character
Thermal absorptivity (b) is a transient-state
parameter that describes the thermal contact
properties of a textile material (warm-cool feeling)
at the beginning (first two seconds) of its contact
with human skin.
Where:
P = thermal conductivity
Vc = thermal capacity
The lower the value of (b), the warmer the feeling
b = (PVc)
1/2
[Ws
1/2
/m
2
K]
Alambeta:
measurement of
transient and
steady-state
thermo-physical
properties
Moisture Transfer
It refers to the transfer of liquid water or vapor.
The transfer of moisture generally is from the
wetter environment to the drier environment until
equilibrium is reached. Moisture is produced by
the body in the form of perspiration (insensible
and sensible perspirations).
Types of Moisture Transfer
Diffusion
Sorption
Wicking
Evaporation
Water-Proof Fabric
OUTER
INNER
Breathable Fabric
water vapour
Liquid water
Moisture Transfer
Factors Affecting Moisture Transfer
Fiber type and structure
Yarn type and structure
Fabric type and structure
Finishes applied
Moisture Transfer
Standard Test Methods
CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 49 ± 99, Resistance of
materials to water vapour diffusion
ASTM F1868-98, Thermal and evaporative
resistance of clothing materials using a sweating
hot plate
ISO 11092: 1993 (E), Measurement of thermal and
water-vapour resistance under steady-state
conditions (sweating guarded-hotplate test)
ASTM E 96, Water vapor transmission of materials
ASTM D 4772, Standard test method for surface
water absorption of terry fabrics (water flow test
method)
AATCC Method 79, Absorbency of bleached
textiles
WATER
VAPOUR
DIFFUSION
Sweating Guarded Hot Plate
Water Resistance and Repellency
Water Resistance: a physical barrier to
water penetration
Water Repellent: does not allow water
penetration in one side but it allows
moisture transfer from body
Water-proof: does not allow any penetration
of water from either side to the other.
Shower-proof, Rain-proof
AIR
water drop
Hydrophilic
Cotton (attractive surface)
AIR
water drop
Hydrophobic
Olefin (repulsive surface)
Factors Affecting Water Resistance and
Repellency
Fiber type and structure
Yarn type and structure
Fabric type and structure
Finishes applied
Water Resistance and Repellency
Water Resistance and Repellency
Standard Test Methods
AATCC Method 21, Water repellency: Static
absorption test
AATCC Method 22, Water repellency: Spray test
AATCC Method 35, Water resistance: rain test
AATCC Method 42, Water resistance: Impact
penetration test
AATCC Method 70, Water repellency: Tumble jar
dynamic absorption test
AATCC Method 127: Water resistance: Hydrostatic
pressure test
Impact penetration
tester
Rain tester Hydrostatic
pressure tester
Air Permeability
It is the degree to which the material is
penetrable by air. It is also the rate of air
flow through a fabric when there is a
different air pressure on either surface of the
fabric.
Air Permeability
Factors Affecting Air Permeability
Fiber type and structure
Yarn type and structure
Fabric type and structure
Finishes applied
Standard Test Methods
CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 36 ± M89, Air
permeability
ASTM D ± 737, Air permeability of textile
fabrics

28 - 30° C

K. MN: West Publishing Co. Textile science. Human comfort. Springfield. IL: Charles C. K. (1993). It is a neutral state1 Comfort is a pleasant state of physiological. p. p.. Thomas Publisher. 26. freedom from discomfort. psychological and physical harmony between a human being and the environment2 1 Hatch.L. (1985). . 4. Minneapolis. 2 Slater.Human Comfort Comfort is freedom from pain.

What Comfort really is: Relative Subjective Psychological Physiological ThermalSensorialMobile- .

love and respect  Need of privacy: Solitude. silence. anonymity . colors and design features to help them feel confident and at ease within the context of the various roles they assume. fabrics. Factors:  Self-Image  Relationship with others: Trust.Human Comfort Psychological Comfort implies that individuals need specific garments.

Human Comfort Physiological Comfort refers to maintenance of thermal balance: The proper relationship between body heat production and loss. Factors:       Cardiovascular system Skeleto-muscular system Central nervous system Pulmonary system Digestive system Thermoregulatory mechanism .

Human Comfort Physical Aspects of Comfort refer to different sensations and feelings of discomfort and/or pain. Factors:      Touch Sight Hearing Taste Smell . which influence the two types of comfort.

Comfort-Related Physical Properties of Textiles Thermo-physiological Comfort       Thermal resistance Water vapor permeability (breathability) Wickability Sorption of water Water resistance. repellency and proofness Drying rate .

itchiness.Sensorial (Neuro-physiological) Comfort     Prickliness. inflammation Roughness Thermal character (warm/cool feeling) Electrostatic propensity Body-Movement Comfort  Stretch  Weight  Pressure/compression .

Yarn.Physical Characteristics of Textile Materials Influencing Thermal Comfort Fabric Mass Fabric Thickness Fiber. and Fabric Structures Porosity is the ratio of air space to the total volume of the fabric. expressed as a percentage Cover Factor is defined as the opacity or hiding power in textiles .

The Physics of Human Comfort Body metabolism Heat transfer Evaporation .

Comfort Model Tsk. htR. Ja' . Ta. Jsk Icl Tcl Jcl Ta Ja HB ht htC. htK. htE hF hFC hFR hFK Ia.

Body Thermal Balance H B ! M W S  HB  .

ht  hF ! 0 L L.

Ia . fcla I .h p_ cl.

Body Thermal Balance ht ! E  R  C  K E ! ES  E R C ! CS  CR R ! k r .

 © ¹ ¼ ª k ºn ½ ­ª k º1 ª k º 2 .Ta  Tw (T K! «¨ x ¸ ¨ x ¸ ¨ x¸ » A ¬© ¹  © ¹ .

Heat Transfer Heat Transfer refers to the transfer of heat energy from one environment to another. . The rate at which heat is transferred depends on (T as well as any resistance imposed between the two environments. Heat transfer occurs whenever a temperature difference ((T) exists between two environments. heat moves from the warmer surface or area to the cooler surface or area.

Heat Transfer Modes of Heat Transfer  Conduction: is the transfer of heat by physical contact. either within a body or between two touching bodies  Convection: is heat transfer via a moving air mass within space  Radiation: involves heat transfer through space in the form of electromagnetic energy .

 Thermal conductance ©: is defined by the same formula.  1 clo = 1. 1 clo = U/0.1548 . C = W/m2K°  Thermal resistance (r): the rate of flow of heat through a fabric under standard conditions.1 m/s. Several terms are used to quantify heat transfer:  Thermal transmittance (U): is the rate of heat transfer per unit area. 1 clo = 0. U = W/m2K°. The rvalue is the inverse of thermal transmittance (r = 1/U).1°C produces a heat flow equal to 1 W/m2.  A fabric has a thermal resistance of one ³tog´ when a temperature difference between two surfaces of 0.55 togs.  A ³clo´ is the resistance necessary to keep a resting person (producing heat at a rate of 58 W/m2) comfortable at 21°C and at an air movement rate of 0.1548r. Units.

Heat Transfer Effect of Fabric Properties on Heat Transfer     Fiber type and structure Yarn type and structure Fabric type and structure Finishes applied .

70. Thermal insulation performance of textile materials  ASTM D 1518 ± 85.Heat Transfer Standard Test Methods  CAN/CGSB-4.1 ± 94. Thermal transmittance of textile materials .2 No.

Thermal Insulation cold plate specimen Procedure 1 hot plate cold plate Procedure 2 cold plate specimen hot plate specimen specimen hot plate Guarded Hot Plate cold plate .

Thermal Character Thermal absorptivity (b) is a transient-state parameter that describes the thermal contact properties of a textile material (warm-cool feeling) at the beginning (first two seconds) of its contact with human skin. b = (PVc)1/2 [Ws1/2/m2K] Where: P = thermal conductivity Vc = thermal capacity The lower the value of (b). the warmer the feeling .

Alambeta: measurement of transient and steady-state thermo-physical properties .

Types of Moisture Transfer     Diffusion Sorption Wicking Evaporation . The transfer of moisture generally is from the wetter environment to the drier environment until equilibrium is reached.Moisture Transfer It refers to the transfer of liquid water or vapor. Moisture is produced by the body in the form of perspiration (insensible and sensible perspirations).

OUTER Water-Proof Fabric Liquid water water vapour Breathable Fabric INNER .

Moisture Transfer Factors Affecting Moisture Transfer     Fiber type and structure Yarn type and structure Fabric type and structure Finishes applied .

2 No. Resistance of materials to water vapour diffusion  ASTM F1868-98. Standard test method for surface water absorption of terry fabrics (water flow test method)  AATCC Method 79. Thermal and evaporative resistance of clothing materials using a sweating hot plate  ISO 11092: 1993 (E). Water vapor transmission of materials  ASTM D 4772.Moisture Transfer Standard Test Methods  CAN/CGSB-4. Measurement of thermal and water-vapour resistance under steady-state conditions (sweating guarded-hotplate test)  ASTM E 96. 49 ± 99. Absorbency of bleached textiles .

WATER VAPOUR DIFFUSION .

Sweating Guarded Hot Plate .

Rain-proof .Water Resistance and Repellency Water Resistance: a physical barrier to water penetration Water Repellent: does not allow water penetration in one side but it allows moisture transfer from body Water-proof: does not allow any penetration of water from either side to the other. Shower-proof.

Hydrophilic AIR water drop Cotton (attractive surface) Hydrophobic AIR water drop Olefin (repulsive surface) .

Water Resistance and Repellency Factors Affecting Water Resistance and Repellency     Fiber type and structure Yarn type and structure Fabric type and structure Finishes applied .

Water resistance: rain test  AATCC Method 42. Water repellency: Spray test  AATCC Method 35. Water repellency: Static absorption test  AATCC Method 22.Water Resistance and Repellency Standard Test Methods  AATCC Method 21. Water repellency: Tumble jar dynamic absorption test  AATCC Method 127: Water resistance: Hydrostatic pressure test . Water resistance: Impact penetration test  AATCC Method 70.

Impact penetration tester Rain tester Hydrostatic pressure tester .

. It is also the rate of air flow through a fabric when there is a different air pressure on either surface of the fabric.Air Permeability It is the degree to which the material is penetrable by air.

2 No.Air Permeability Factors Affecting Air Permeability     Fiber type and structure Yarn type and structure Fabric type and structure Finishes applied Standard Test Methods  CAN/CGSB-4. Air permeability  ASTM D ± 737. 36 ± M89. Air permeability of textile fabrics .

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