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With Navjeet Community Health Centre
Written By: Alok Pendse – PGP-09-142 Roopa Yesodharan – PGP-09-158 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Table of Contents
1. Preface……………………………………………………………………………………. 4 2. Acknowledgments………………………………………………………………………... 5 3. Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………….... 7 4. Background………………………………………………………………………………. 8 4.1.Self Help Groups……………………………………………………………………... 8 4.2. NGO - Navjeet Community Health Centre…………………………………………. 9 5. Project Objectives and Deliverables………………………………………………......... 11 6. Project Scope………………………………………………………………………........ 12 7. About the Organization………………………………………………………………..... 14 7.1. Comprehensive Healthcare…………………………………………………….. 14 7.2. Integrated Education…………………………………………………………… 15 7.3. Women’s empowerment……………………………………………………….. 17 7.4.Utkarsh Rural Outreach………………………………………………………… 18 8. Study of SHGs………………………………………………………………………… 19 8.1.Observations……………………………………………………………………. 19 8.2.Problems and Challenges……………………………………………………...... 21 8.3.Our Approach…………………………………………………………………… 22 8.3.1. Field visits and effective SHG parameters defined……………. . 22 8.3.2. Application of statistical tool…………………………………… 23 8.3.3. Identifying the distinguishing parameters………………………. 26 8.3.4. Analysis of functions…………………………………………… 37 8.3.5. Group Characteristics…………………………………………… 38 8.3.6. Summary ……………………………………………............ 42
9. Implementation - Training Session……………………………………………………. 44 9.1.Training 1………………………………………………………………………. 44 9.2.Training 2………………………………………………………………………. 48 10. Study of Sahara SHG – Chembur………………………………………………........... 50 10.1.Introduction………………………………………………………………….. 50 10.2.Solution………………………………………………………………………. 53
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11. Asangaon…………………………………………………………………………........... 57 12. Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………….. 59 13. Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………….. 60 14. Contact Directories…………………………………………………………………….. 62 15. Weekly Activities…………………………………………………………………….... 63 16. Annexure 1…………………………………………………………………………….. 66 17. Annexure 2…………………………………………………………………………….. 75 18. Annexure 3…………………………………………………………………………….. 76
S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research
Self Help Groups has been instrumental in harnessing the strength of once neglected woman for the overall development of the community. Self help groups are a means to empower women and reduce poverty. There are approximately 69000 Self Help Groups federations in India. DOCC, Development of Corporate Citizenship is a unique program under the PGDM programme of SPJIMR, S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research under which students of SPJIMR, S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research undertake projects in the social sector either in rural or urban areas. DOCC, Development of Corporate Citizenship is a 6 weeks program wherein the student attempt to put to use the business and management tools that they have learned over one year for smoothing the workings of NGOs. The aim of this programme is to sensitize the future managers towards the social needs of the corporate world. Each participant works with the CSR, Corporate Social Responsibility cell of an organization or with an NGO to understand the intricacies of this sector. This report is an attempt to bring together a comprehensive document on the workings of SPJIMR students for SHGs of NGO – Navjeet Community Health Centre. The report is meant to serve as a reference point for DOCC and NGO – Navjeet Community Health Centre. The report covers in detail how the students of SPJIMR tackled three problems faced by the NGO – Navjeet Community Health Centre. The report has been compiled by a team of two students of S.P. Jain Institute of management & Research as a conclusion of the work they did for 6 weeks with Navjeet Community Health Centre. We have tried to make the report as comprehensive as possible and hope to make the matters as clear and succinct as possible. The report has been written in a short span of time so we have tried our best to be objective and factual in presenting the findings and in the interpretation. We accept full responsibility for any factual errors in the report.
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Our heartfelt thanks to: Sitara – Health worker and SHG leader – Bandra West Kusum – Health worker and SHG leader – Chembur We would like to thank Prof.Acknowledgements We would like thank Sister Kusum. Chairperson. S. Centre for Development of Corporate Citizenship for helping us in making a difference to the society and giving us this wonderful experience. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 5 . Development of Corporate Citizenship committee for the smooth functioning of the entire process of getting us the projects and being the contact point. director of Navjeet Community Health Centre who provided us with this wonderful project which tested our learning’s and skills all through. Nirja Mattoo. We would like particularly thank the various Social Workers and Health workers who accompanied and helped us during surveys. Heartfelt thanks to DOCC. Particular thanks to.P. Roshana – Social Worker in charge of Bandra East and West Madhav – Social Worker in charge of Chembur and Asangaon Jayanth – Social Worker in charge of Asangaon We would like to thank Sister Shanti who had taken over Sister Kusum during the tenor of the DOCC project. We thank her for facilitating the smooth transition and making the environment at the NGO conducive for our work.
P. We appreciate her help and advice which helped us in this endeavor S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 6 . Pallavi Mody for giving their insights and supporting us during the entire stint.And lastly and most importantly we would like to extend our gratitude to our guide for this project Prof.
P. The SHGs under Navjeet consists of 12-20 women staying in the same neighborhood. Comprehensive Education. 12 Mahila Mandals and community based organizations under the. are turning to the SHG model as a means to empower women and reduce poverty NGO – Navjeet Community Health Centre provides Integrated Health Care. To empower women Navjeet has 26 SHGs. and Community Development Projects to the rural and urban poor. They are seen as partners in mainstream institutions. who form a significant percentage of the population. Results of the research will point to possible solutions for the problems. The report consists of the findings generated through our research and the analysis of the same. NGOs and others concerned with the development. Out of that three problems has been identified as focus areas for the road ahead. women’s Self Help Groups are playing a major role in poverty reduction and women’s empowerment through financial inclusion. Since the time of inception Navjeet has face some problems with the SHGs. The report also details our approach for the implementation of our models for all the three models S. The report will focus on following issues: Developing marketing strategy for Sahara-SHG. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 7 .Executive Summary In India. SHGs emerged as a result of the failure of mainstream institutions to reach poor and women. Education and Development Facilities. Social workers and health workers with Navjeet ensure smooth functioning of the Self help groups and Mahila Mandals. Navjeet is established with a broad agenda to revitalize slum communities with Health. Governments. Women Self Help Groups are widespread throughout India as policy markers. comprehensive training module for the all the SHGs and identifying possible business opportunities for poor people at Asangaon.
NGOs and others worldwide. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 8 . credit. health care etc. A SelfHelp Group (SHG) is a registered or unregistered group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic backgrounds. Government has introduced an effective Self-Employment programme ‘Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar’. With the coming in to force of SGSY. voluntarily coming together to save regular small sums of money.P. flat interest rates are used for most loan calculations. To make the book-keeping simple enough to be handled by the members. mutually agreeing to contribute to a common fund and to meet their emergency needs on the basis of mutual help. SGSY will be funded by the centre and the states in the ration of 75: 25.1 Self Help Groups Villages and slum dwellers are faced with problems related to poverty illiteracy. GKY and MWS are no longer in operation. training. technology. In return they receive easy access to loans with a small rate of interest to start their micro unit enterprise. S. This is a holistic programme covering all aspects of self employment such as organization of the poor in to self help groups. TRYSEM. The group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure proper end-use of credit and timely repayment. lack of skills. DWCRA. widely used by microfinance institutions. infrastructure and marketing. The poor collect their savings and save it in banks. This system eliminates the need for collateral and is closely related to that of solidarity lending. SITRA. Self employment is a significant step to have sustained incomes and remove the shackles of poverty. The SHG method is used by the government. or SGSY This new programme has been launched from April 1999. Today these groups known as Self help groups have become the vehicle of change for the poor and marginalized.4. These are problems that cannot be tackled individually but can be better solved through group efforts. Background 4. Self help group is a method of organizing the poor people and the marginalized to come together to solve their individual problem. Programme for self-employment of the poor has been an important component of the antipoverty programmes implemented through government initiatives in the rural areas of India. the earlier programmes IRDP.
Sister Kusum looks after the management of this NGO. health workers and Sister Kusum. The NGO is associated with the Holy Family Hospital and it works for SHG’s. Monthly staff meetings are held at the head office that is Bandra attended by social workers. The purpose of the meeting is to see where all the groups stand. fine tune their businesses if they are involved in any and build a healthy rapport with them. They have a dedicated staff comprising of social workers and heath workers. women have been given the capacity to take up issues which are important to their lives. This is a very active NGO. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 9 . Each person handles a particular region looking after the SHG’s or Mahila Mandals in that region. Education. Bandra. Community etc. This process brings accountability to social workers and health workers. leadership training.2 NGO: Navjeet Community Health Centre Navjeet Community Centre is head quartered at Bandra West working for the betterment of people. They undergo training like motivational training. The social workers and health workers visit the SHG’s and Mahila Mandals every week to address their issues.4. Mission is to help people in their own small little way for the over their overall growth in life. The aim of the Navjeet Community Centre is empowerment of people in the community. The strength of the once neglected woman has thus been harnessed towards the overall development of the community. Mahila Mandal. This NGO is attached to Holy Family Hospital.P. community organization and economic empowerment activities. leadership training etc. Through various educational programmes. The NGO holds training for the staff to better equip them to tools to facilitate their work. which is genuinely interested in making a difference in the society. They help them in their account keeping process. what’s the future plan and discuss the feasibility of the same. S. resulting in overall improvement in their status and a decline in domestic violence.
The working environment is free and very friendly.The NGO has flexible timings for their workers.P. Navjeet Community health Centre provides integrated Health Care. at the start of the week they report their week’s goals. Everyone has a freedom to voice their opinions and has the right to contribute to the NGO’s workings. Comprehensive Education and Community Development Projects to the rural and urban poor S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 10 .
Now the people in Asangaon have got very menial income to survive on. Either they have low motivation level or unrefined business acumen or absence of group support etc. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 11 . Marketing strategy for Sahara SHG involved in paper plate making business. All the SHG’s are at different level of development. Since the needs of the SHGs are varied a systematic training module would be required to address these. A comprehensive training module for all the SHG’s. some were very organized keeping a track of their accounts and also have monthly report on their workings. They have the necessary man power and raw material but don’t not able to market their product and sell in a profitable manner. Based on our visit and information from the NGO.5. This SHG comprises of 10 members and are involved in paper plate making business. A lot of soft and hard skills are needed to be imparted to refine their business models. Navjeet Community Centre we identified 3 problems which need to be tackled.P. Giving them a ray of hope by forming a SHG will be our endeavor S. Formation of SHG at Asangaon. Some SHG’s were very motivated to do a business of their own. Kusum from Sahara SHG has bought 2 paper plate making machines using the loan sanctioned by BMC etc. Every SHG is facing some problem or the other in their day to day working. But there were also SHG’s who were doing really well example Sitara from Ujala SHG has her own mid day meal business. Project objectives and deliverables After meeting around 10 – 15 SHG’s (details of which are there in annexure 1) we identified 3 problems. some are at a very nascent stage that is they have just formed the group and monthly contributing money for savings.
Our focus is not to scale up the business but make it profitable with the current state. The module will be comprehensive with respect to the types of training to be held for particular set of people and frequency of the same. The training module will be built in consultation with the various stakeholders. In the process we will also train the SHG leader so that she will be able to tackle similar problem in the future. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 12 . Only 3 training sessions will be held under our guidance rest will be taken forward by the social workers and health workers. S. Focus of the training module will be on These modules will help the SHGs carry out their businesses more effectively from operation point of view. We will be trying to bring in the same order size as it was previously servicing. Project scope The project is restricted to the 30 SHGs of Navjeet Community Health Centre surveyed by us. Effective utilization the loan amount Day to day accounts management and cash management The Navjeet empowerment programs is supported by the following 3 pillars 1 • 26 Self help groups (SHGs) • 12 Mahila Mandals (MMs) • Community Based Organisations (CBOs) 2 3 For Sahara SHG we will be focusing mainly on developing marketing strategy for their business. Sensitize regarding various business opportunities that exist in the areas in which they operate Sensitize on opportunities that exist in scaling up the business.6.P.
The people who are involved in this business lack business acumen and are not cohesive as a group.Following bulletins will be our focus Understanding their business Cost and profit analysis Analysis of the market Securing an order for the SHG through effective marketing strategy At Asangaon business that is carried out is collecting leaves and selling them in local markets in Asangaon. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 13 . Our only aim will be to get them together. The business faced with problem of very thin margins.P. Focus will on Understanding their community Understanding the inter personal relations in their community Business structure analysis Encouraging them to form a group by pointing out the benefits of the same S. try and form a SHG so that they can avail of the benefits of SHG.
2006 demographic survey showed that the per capita income is Rs. education.P. Programs under Navjeet Community Health Centre are as follows: 7. Govandi and Chembur. Santa Cruz. is a breeding ground for disease and social ills. Navjeet’s core philosophy is to partner with the slum community to equip them with skills. About the Organization More than 30 years old Navjeet Community Health Centre provides opportunities of empowerment to children. Extensive training has been imparted to 200 CHWs who visit 150 homes per month.7. Navjeet projects include integrated health care. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 14 . Other initiatives under the health care system are Health Education: Sessions are held in the slums.1 Comprehensive Health Care: The Navjeet mission is to build healthy individuals. focusing on the environment. The CHW checks implementation of healthy lifestyle by the families. S. women. knowledge. community development and empowerment of women. This centre an outreach of Holy Family Hospital has served poor slum communities since 1978. youth and senior citizens. and access to information. 1600. families and communities within the constraints of a slum which typically. Navjeet targets slums of Bandra East and West. Navjeet Health System is organized in a 3 tier system Primary – At the doorstep Secondary . Khar.At the Navjeet Clinic Tertiary – Referral to Holy Family Hospital Providing primary care community health worker (CHW) forms backbone of the system.
II and III stages of malnutrition.2 Integrated Education Navjeet has championed the cause of Universal. Health insurance: On Women's Day 2005. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 15 . Navjeet Weekly Clinic: Children are immunized. AIDS/HIV: Navjeet continues in its mission in helping the poor from our target groups who are suffering from the scourge of T. Referral Care: Poor patients can avail of laboratory investigations at discounted rates.P. Special care for TB patients. All-round Education through various initiatives to give children in poverty a step up to equal opportunities with the better privileged. 6-15 year olds attend BMC (municipal) schools which have been “adopted” by Navjeet. The program is carried out through pre-school centers Early Childhood Education Centers/Balwadis for children in 3-5 years age groups. and Coaching Classes. About 25-30 patients are treated yearly. S. and if required. Grade I. and take remedial measures. Youth in the age group 16-25 attend educational and vocational skills development programs. 7.B. Navjeet launched “Swastha Suraksha” a low-premium health insurance scheme to make expensive treatments accessible to the poor. CHWs monitor weight and health of the under-5s in various areas and certify them as Grade A. Under fives: Is a particularly vulnerable age and is given special attention by Navjeet Community health centre. Malnourished. for in-patient treatment. There is also an Ante-Natal clinic which provides specialized care to mothers-to-be. Value-Based.
Regular teachers and supplementary teachers are provided to BMC schools to improve educational standards of children. has 12 to 14 year olds.with a group of young girls. where 665 children from our target slums are educated. Umang (Girl Child Project): In October 2005. Children of 4th and 7th Std were also tutored for scholarship examinations. Health. Teachers are given regular training to update their knowledge. School accessories are given to the children. whereas the Voyagers has 15-17 year olds. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 16 .P.Various initiatives taken up: Balwadis: The pre. The Challengers. Coaching Class: 3 Coaching Classes tutor 396 children. Nine ECECs cater to 230 children. BMC schools: Navjeet has partnered with the Government in this major initiative. by adopting 5 BMC Schools. Personality Development and Communication Skills. These Balwadis were started to inculcate the need of early education so as to prepare them for admission in to formal schools. Navjeet inaugurated Umang “Hope for a better future” . 50 girls meet regularly for confidence building exercises on Self Image. In these classes. Football for street children: 25 children regularly attend the weekly football training. S. children are helped to revise their lessons and complete their homework.school units popularly called Balwadis were started for children from poor families living in the slums.
detergents. Preparation of Eco-friendly cloth bags and purses for a variety of purposes is an activity with high potential for income generation. Navjeet organizes skill training programs for production of household articles. quality control and marketing.3 Women’s empowerment Under the care and guidance of Navjeet. Self Help Groups: The need for augmenting family income was expressed by most women who came in touch with Navjeet team. tailoring.7. Presently.P. This translates into a total of 340 women who participate in this programme. there are 12 Mahila Mandals and 26 SHGs spread over Bandra and Chembur. greeting cards and jewelery. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 17 . Mahila Mandal: Several women from a slum join together to form a Mahila Mandal to proactively solve the many peculiar problems and injustices that they face. Pravah Counseling Committee: Women living in slums are at much higher risk of physical and psychological abuse. flower making. CEHAT. 18 women were trained as para-counsellors with the support of Dilaasa. In order to support and help women cope with domestic violence. Sui & Dhaga – Tailoring the future: Regular sewing classes are held thrice a week. Navjeet collaborates with an Italian NGO. Internationale Bouwoede Organization (IBO) on this project. a branch of the NGO. S. IBO volunteers train the ladies in design. Four para-counsellors formed the core team of PCC. the Pravah Counseling Committee (PCC) was set up.
Thane. Navjeet has joined hands with Deenabandhu Charitable Trust.P. Navjeet's plan is to uplift the lives of the Katkaris through Agriculture. are on the brink of extinction. Education and Health Care and Community Development programs.Utkarsh – Rural outreach The Katkaris. to reach out to the Katkaris and other tribals in Asangaon. S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 18 . primitive tribals. Water harvesting.
A comprehensive survey was prepared as an input for the statistical analysis. Study of SHGs 8. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 19 . They all are involved in one business and are working towards one common goal of bringing benefits for the entire group as a whole. None of them are involved in any business.8. Whereas SHG Poornima consists of only passive members. Their sole aim is to find a way to build their savings and contribute in their own little way to income generation of the family.P. Urban SHGs are not characterized by the supportive attitude that is prevalent in rural SHGs. The members make use of the SHG money to meet various household expenses or even to start their own business. Following are our observations: Each SHG comprises of minimum 10 to maximum 20 women who stays in the same locality Average number of businesses per SHG is 2 – 3. SHGs involved in businesses have active members between 2 – 4 maximum. S. The SHGs at Navjeet Community Health Centre consists of 10 – 20 women staying at the same locality having few means to earn their income. But Sahara SHG is more of an exception than a norm. Annapurna SHG is an enterprising SHG. The survey questionnaire and survey results are given in Annexure 2. Example SHG Annapurna has all active members and they support each other in their business. For example Sahara SHG is an excellent example of team building skills.1 Observations: The SHGs at Bandra East and West & Asangaon were studied by us for the purpose of this training module. Supporting and team building skills is also not a common characteristic in SHGs. There are exceptions of 2 SHG wherein all the members are involved in the business. The activeness of women varies across the group.
Family and house work is one of the hindrances in scaling up the business or in starting their own venture. Most of the women enter into an SHG to inculcate the habit of saving. Canteen and Paper Plate making businesses. S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 20 . Rest all are either not scalable or are cyclical in nature or the members of the SHGs are not willing to scale up the business as that would mean more investment of time. Lack of business ideas. The motivational level across the SHG is very low. The attendance level in the monthly meetings held by the leader is quiet good except for few SHGs Accounting keep practices is restricted to recordings of monthly collection and interest and principle repayment in case of any loan availed Most of the SHGs within one or 2 years of existence have got into some form of businesses On an average only one or two literate is available per SHG Commitment level varies across the groups The scale of the business is at a pretty low level except for a few like Mid Day Meal. They don’t believe in themselves to carry out a business successfully. All the women are housewives hence they juggle both house work as well as business related work. energy and money and they are happy the way things are The aspirational element is very low amongst the group. They are happy with the state of affairs and have no big dreams set for themselves and their business They are all willing to undergo training if the benefits of the same are pointed out to them. Most of the women are very shy and not proactive. There are few SHGs who are willing to do business but lack in idea generation. They don’t have an ambition to start their own business neither are they willing to join the other women in their businesses.
P. The skill sets of the SHG and the requirements of the same are not definite for all the SHGs as a whole.2 Problem and Challenges Based on these observations we defined the problems and challenges faced by us in formulating the training module: Each SHG is at a different development phase. Some SHG find it as a burden on their already pressed for time schedule whereas others are super enthusiastic to learn more tools. The willingness to attend this training is also varied. The husbands are supportive in most of the SHGs. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 21 . In fact in few SHGs the spouses are also involved in the business. Access to loans to fund their requirements as far as business is concerned is not an issue. The needs of the SHG depend on the development phase they are in. Almost all are married. 8. The women fall in the age bracket of 25 – 60 years. S. Giving straight jacket training to all SHGs will not solve the purpose as the requirements vary from SHG to SHG.
enthusiasm of the group and willingness to expand. Field visits and effective SHG parameters defined: In the first few weeks.1.3 Our Approach The development of training modules: The procedure followed for the grouping of the SHGs was as follows: 8. After 2-3 visits. we mainly focused on the businesses that were being carried out by these SHGs. There were also some quantitative parameters like the number of businesses that the groups were doing and the no of active people. we visited several SHGs that were operating under the guidance of Navjeet community Health Centre. During these field visits. These were mostly the subjective parameters like leadership level. we identified the basic parameters on which we can rate these businesses. The purpose of this grading was to understand the stage of development of these SHGs and to be able to identify the specific needs of these SHGs which need to be looked into.3.8. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 22 . The parameters that were included: Number of members Active members: The members actually involved in the business Number of businesses Demand level: The level of demand for the business:-Cyclical. seasonal or intermittent Motivation level Leadership level: Strong and inspiring leadership External loan management: Availing and using external loans Scale of business Years into operation S.P.
We tried to glean information regarding the above parameters from their responses. 8. And rated these parameters.P.0 N 0 Missing Percent . Level of bonding Internal loans generated Book keeping process General Business Knowledge Level of enthusiasm Business involvement Scope Expansion: Readiness to expand into new businesses Scale Expansion: Readiness to scale up the business model There were several other parameters that were considered but afterwards filtered out. Application of statistical tools: The data was subjected to cluster analysis and tentative groups were formed: Case Processing Summarya Cases Valid N 30 Percent 100. we asked them questions regarding their business model and their demand levels and general selling practices. we decided to use statistical tools to identify differences and similarities in different SHGs which can be leveraged in training them in the future.0 a. Average Linkage (Between Groups) S. When we visited the SHGs. After we had developed a comprehensive database of different SHGs.3.2. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 23 .0 N 30 Total Percent 100.
000 41.000 2.Agglomeration Schedule Stag e Cluster 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 16 21 14 27 20 5 14 6 19 6 22 19 5 16 14 3 5 3 14 3 9 3 Cluster 2 24 17 29 15 28 21 13 25 18 20 7 23 30 12 19 27 6 26 22 16 5 11 14 1.917 33.000 6.167 17.000 6.000 7.400 14.000 11.333 23.167 15.000 14.500 4.000 20.P.000 5.500 8.250 27.485 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 9 0 10 7 2 8 0 14 17 16 19 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 13 5 11 0 12 15 18 0 20 3 15 6 8 16 10 14 16 11 13 17 19 15 18 20 20 19 21 21 23 23 24 29 Cluster Combined Coefficien ts Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage S.250 29.000 7.500 11.000 8.000 1. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 24 .
500 102.000 122.000 179.P.000 106. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 25 .24 25 26 27 28 29 9 2 1 2 1 1 10 4 8 9 2 3 52.522 22 0 0 25 26 28 0 0 0 24 27 23 27 27 28 28 29 0 Cluster Membership Case 5 Clusters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 Clusters 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 S.000 143.
3. Identification of these parameters would help us in segregating the SHGs for different requirements like training etc. And the groups that were identified in the cluster analysis were used as grouping variable.P.0 S.0 .21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Cluster membership roughly identifies the groups in the data that is available with us. 8. We can see that most of the SHGs belong to the group 3 while there are limited members in other groups.3. Identifying the distinguishing parameters: The next task was to identify the parameters that were important for distinguishing among different SHGs. Analysis Case Processing Summary Unweighted Cases Valid Exclude d Missing or out-ofrange group codes At least one missing discriminating variable 0 . Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 26 .0 N 30 0 Percent 100. The statistical tool that was used for this purpose was multiple discriminate analyses.
000 .235 .310 .P.149 .782 5.400 30.751 13.000 .868 .826 4.Both missing or outof-range group codes and at least one missing discriminating variable Total Total 0 .450 .152 .005 .0 100.876 7.169 .998 34.562 .000 F df1 df2 Sig.446 .130 .000 .271 4 4 4 4 4 4 25 25 25 25 25 25 .0 Tests of Equality of Group Means Wilks' Lambda leadership extloan scale years bonding intloans books business_know enthusiasm involvement scope_Expansio n scale_expansion members active_members businesses demand motivation .000 . Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 27 .167 2.491 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 .179 .552 .159 .000 .689 .070 35.263 19.000 .954 13.656 33.000 .0 0 30 .004 .245 41.046 .000 .782 20. S.320 .000 .000 .880 2.676 .637 9.000 .038 .563 .397 28.
201 .000 Wilks' Lambda Chisquare df Sig.P.751 2 13.750 1.00 3.000 203.279 4.079 3.144 -2.284 -.00 5.115 12 .135 13.507 32 .244 4 -.154 42.864 21 .181 -.378 -.00 1 -6.00 2.400 3.439 Function 3 7. The various groups that could be formed were distributed as follows: Wilks' Lambda Test of Function( s) 1 through 4 2 through 4 3 through 4 4 .034 -14.000 .From the above table. Functions at Group Centroids Grou ps 1.469 12.795 -.565 -2. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 28 .343 Un standardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group means S.690 5 .005 117.058 .622 10.000 .00 4.084 -2.104 -2. we can see that the parameters that are important for the discrimination among the groups are almost all except for book keeping which was moderate among all the groups and the scale of the business which was exceptionally high only in one or two groups.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 29 .102 221.492 -33.948 -9.725 -14.00 1.840 involvement 119.955 42.136 scope_Expansio n active_members businesses demand (Constant) 21.052 -6.00 42.058 Fisher's linear discriminant functions S.282 199.671 32.088 148.P.124 161.00 leadership extloan enthusiasm -17.883 3.00 1.405 19.464 -7.394 3.Classification Function Coefficients Groups 1.701 12.600 1.301 -99.402 -.333 1.163 6.437 6.243 190.528 222.925 92.725 2.684 8.105 -24.733 4.293 -20.371 38.084 -6.491 5.712 -6.608 20.807 -74.821 -30.00 -36.693 41.412 -59.842 1.717 20.339 36.428 24.
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353 -3. similarly groups 4 and 3 are close.467 -1.00 3. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 35 .298 2 17.The results show that group 1 and group 5 are quite close on the canonical function map.933 63.178 S.483 4 .131 15.P.00 2. We can identify the characteristics of these groups by evaluating the canonical functions: Function 1: Functions at Group Centroids Grou ps 1.184 Function 3 13.003 -.600 -.523 2.00 1 -48.487 .
315 7.535 .385 -2.751 20.153 4.454 2.00 -4.135 -.419 .133 -.968 .981 -.591 .135 4.314 -6.030 3.658 .436 .001 Un standardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group means Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients Function 1 Members active_members Businesses Demand Motivation Leadership Extloan Scale Years Bonding Intloans Books business_know Enthusiasm Involvement scope_Expansio n scale_expansion -2.608 8.432 8.283 -1.250 -1.261 -.835 -.436 .542 -.003 -.619 .478 -2.180 -.113 .101 .571 -1.606 -1.4.457 .314 2.871 2 .P.537 -.426 -.758 .576 .154 -4.578 .110 4 1.152 2.638 8.248 -8.00 5.498 -.703 S.845 -.389 .216 -9.307 -2.784 -.273 1.221 .943 -5.204 3 .381 2. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 36 .358 -2.020 -6.387 -2.966 -1.881 -42.425 2.015 6.028 .849 2.722 .837 -2.611 -23.307 2.565 -1.386 4.334 .130 1.
Similar analysis proves that the businesses for this group are in premature stage. Group 2: This group has distinct characteristics.4 Analysis of the functions: Group 1 and Groups 5: Rank high on function 2 and low on function 1: This implies good business scale in both these groups from function parameters.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 37 . The parameters like motivation and business knowledge have lower negative magnitude for function 2. This group is quite distinct from the rest of the groups.3. Group 3 and Group 4: Rank low on function 2 and high on function 1: This indicates that business is still in premature stage. Hence lower value of function 1 implies advanced business scale. Hence the characteristics of these different groups formed after Multiple Discriminant Analysis are as follows: S. Hence the higher value for function 2 implies advanced business scale.8. This is because the parameters such as business knowledge and involvement are highly negative in function 1. This group has good business knowledge but they lack the will to expand.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 38 .5 Group Characteristics: Group 1: Ujala Positives: Very good business knowledge High motivation level Excellent leadership Good involvement and enthusiasm Good external loan management Good internal loan generation Advanced business scale Ready for expansion Scope of training and improvement: Book keeping and accounting specially cash management Training: The accounting training (Training 2 ) was designed for this purpose and cash management was stressed upon in that session The future training can focus on cash management The group is very much efficient in business operations and training for the same won’t be necessary. Annapurna Positives: Sound Business knowledge Involvement of the group is good External loan management is sound S. Group 2: Sai Sagar.8.P.3.
P.Improvement points: Low desire for expansion Not a very stable demand level Moderate enthusiasm Training: Motivation training can be helpful Idea generation Marketing These issues were addressed to some extent in the first and second training sessions which were conducted for business and motivation Group 3: Positives: Most of the SHGs in this group are in the formative stage and are yet to completely scale up their operations Improvement points: The general business sense needs to enhanced Training: The training for business skills need to be arranged Also the groups can be trained in selling strategies because most of the SHGs in this group are not able to find markets or adequate selling points. S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 39 .
Group 4 ( Kripa): Positives: This group has sound idea generation skills but implementation needs to be improved Willingness to expand both scope and scale expansion Openness to ideas Improvement Points: Not being able to find markets Implementation problems Training: The training in business skills and also loan management can be helpful for this group.P. The group can also be given training specific to the business that they are pursuing Group 5: Positives: Good business knowledge Advanced business operation S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 40 .
the group’s 1 and 5 are quite close to each other. Group 3 and Group 4: Both these groups have businesses in the nascent stage and hence operation training for these groups can be similar. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 41 . They differ only in the demand stability of the business. Hence the operational aspects of these two groups are on the same level. S. Good external and internal loan management High involvement Advanced business scale Improvement points: Marketing acumen Demand level stability Training: The training regarding selling strategy will be helpful Training them to find markets can prove helpful because these groups have a strong hold over the operational aspects of the business Difference between Group1 and Group 5: As we can see from the canonical map.P.
P. Annapurna Sound loan management and business knowledge Demand level and not very willing to expand Willingness to expand and scale up the business has to be there. Motivation training can be helpful 7 3 Most of the Book keeping is SHGs having small businesses moderate Business skills need to be enhanced and market finding Basic business trainings 5 4 Kripa Idea generation Business Business 6 S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 42 .6 Summary: Group Number as per the MDA Prominent SHGs within this group Characteristics Improvements Training possible Session Our Rating On a scale of 10 Strong motivation Cash management Cash Management and accounting 9 1 Ujala level. Sound business knowledge 2 Sai Sagar.3. leadership and accounting and involvement.8.
P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 43 . Sahara.is good implementation implementation and selling strategies need to improve training. selling strategies 5 Roshini. Jai Bhawani Excellent business sense and strong involvement Some demand stability is required Selling strategies and accounting 9 S.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 44 . The first training was on motivation which was lacking in almost every SHG.1 Training One: To design the module we held 2 training sessions to see how well received they are. To hit this communication gap we selected 6 -7 women who are doing well for themselves to narrate their success stories.P. The women lack self confidence and will to start their own business. How they are fairing and how they are managing their SHGs. Though there are few women who have been successful in their venture but inter SHG interaction is minimal because of which such success stories are not heard off. Aim was to hold some training sessions to get a healthy feedback from the women themselves. The women of different SHGs rarely interact so they don’t know what other SHGs are up to.9 Implementation: Training Sessions 9. For speakers we chose: Sitara: Mid day meal business Kusum: Paper Plate making business Surekha: Canteen business Arifa: Sari business Gita: Tailoring business Maya: Sari business S. This way women will get to know about people like themselves doing well and also will be kind of like an inspiration to start with an idea of their own.
All the speakers have started from scratch and have faced a lot of hardships to reach this level. The idea was to make other women see that if they do good work and are committed they will also be recognized in the same way all they need is to stay motivated. getting all the bills approved from various schools. She has bought 2 paper plate making machine. approval to start this business from BMC etc. She has been doing business since the last 10 years and is also one of the health workers at Navjeet Community Health Centre Her unique quality being her enthusiasm for everything. Sitara: Sitara runs the mid day meal business. Kusum: Kusum like Sitara is one of the health workers at Navjeet Community Health Centre. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 45 . Her SHG is involved in paper plate making business. She has the support of her husband and three other women in her SHG. S. because of which she never gives up on anything. cash management etc. candles etc.5 Lakh from BMC. Even now she faces a lot of trouble when it comes to collecting money from BMC. Previously women of this group were involved in small business like Agarbatti. The entire SHG is involved in this business. She is the leader of Sahara SHG.P. She has got a loan of 1. Then later on they decided they would like to scale up the business and that’s how they got into paper plate making business. Sunita: Candle making business The speakers were welcomed on the dias with a gift and were given special treatment. She has toiled hard to get the papers approved for various tenders for her mid day meal business.
The canteen business is handled by women belonging to 2 – 3 SHGs.P. S. After that she has been making clothes for the orders that Navjeet Community Health Centre gets from an Italian NGO. The business is handled efficiently and the commitment level of the women is very high. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 46 . Navjeet Community Health Centre and BMC for her business. Maya: Maya belongs to Roshini SHG and does sari business. She has availed of loans from Navjeet Community Health Centre to run her business smoothly. She gets small loans from CITI bank. She also gets the saris from Surat but sells it in her locality only. Gita: Gita got tailoring training at Navjeet Community Health Centre.Rs 25 per sari. Her husband is supportive and accompanies her to Surat twice a month. Arifa: Arifa is doing very well in the sari business. The order coming from the Italian NGO is not constant but she is making a profit of Rs 100 per day on an average. She gets the saris from Surat and sells to ferry wallas at her locality. She is the only one who is doing sari business in her locality because of which she had very good demand from her locality that is Bandra East.Surekha: Surekha and her team member handle the food business at Holy Family Hospital canteen. She makes a profit of Rs 20 . Internationale Bouwoede Organization (IBO).
Sunita: Sunita is the leader of Sai Sagar SHG. All the women in this SHG is involved in the candle making business. The number of candles sold by each of them depends upon their own convenience.Sari Speaker Gita – Tailoring Speaker Maya – Sari business Speaker Sunita – Candle Business Shabeena Conclusion by giving away the gifts S. The business is cyclical and faces a surge in demand during festive times. The schedule for the first training: Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 Timing 3:30 – 3:35 pm 3:35 – 3:40 pm 3:40 – 3:50 pm 3:50 – 4:00 pm 4:00 – 4:10 pm 4:10 – 4:20 pm 4:20 – 4:30 pm 4:30 – 4:40 pm 4:40 – 4:50 pm 4:50 – 5:00 pm 5:00 – 5:10 pm 5:10 – 5:15 pm Prayer Introduction Welcome all the speakers to the dais Speaker Sitara – Mid Day Meal Speaker Kusum – Paper Plate Speaker Surekha – Canteen Speaker Arifa . They sell these candles at Mount Mary. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 47 .P.
2 Training Two: During our field visit we had observed that none of SHGs follow any book keeping policies. transportation (F). Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 48 . labor (V).9. They just make a record of the contributions made by the women every month and the loan repayment.P. There way of working is that do business such that they are at least pay off the interest on loan. The problems that were identified are: Identification of various costs involved in their business was missing Nobody knew the actual profit made by them Cash management was poor Were not able to identify problems in their business as they were unaware of various factors involved in their business. Even the women who are doing their business don’t know the actual profit made by them. Objectives of the training: Familiarize them to accounting cost What are the costs to be considered and nature of the costs (fixed of variable) Accounting period to be considered Pointers to be covered during the training session: Introduction to revenue and costs Types of costs – raw material (V). rent (F) and electricity costs (F) Treatment of costs – over operating cycles Treatment of interests S.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 49 . And re touch upon the all the points to clear the picture S.P. If the above points are clear then relation between profit and variable costs will be introduced To further explain the above points following examples will be taken up which are relevant to them: Paper plate making business: First two points can be illustrated by this example Mid day meal : Perfect example to explain credit terms Grocery shop: To explain inventory and cash management.
With the help of Navjeet Community Health Centre she secured a loan of 1. they entered into an agreement with them. The group meets monthly to discuss future plans and see what all options are available for them. Initially all the women were involved in small businesses like incense sticks. With this loan amount the SHG bought two machines of Rs 20. Four women help in making the plates and two women handle all the logistics related issues. Each member contributes Rs 100 per month. They have the rented the place that Navjeet Community Health Centre own in their locality to use as their work place. Due to the low margins involved in their previous initiatives they decided to pull in their efforts and start a combined business. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 50 . Six women of Sahara SHG are involved in this business. Analysis of Sahara SHG . The SHG was formed in 2008.P.1 Introduction Sahara SHG comprises of 10 women belonging to the Chembur locality. candles etc. the place where Krupa is located. The order size depends on the capacity of the women. S. Sometimes even the spouses come and do the plates.5 lakh with 50% subsidy from the government.000 each.10. Out their few people were involved in making these plates and they gave her the necessary information.Chembur 10. When they bought machines from Krupa Ltd. Kusum got the inspiration of paper plate making business from one of the BMC schools that she had visited once. Krupa supplies them all the raw materials free of cost and buys 100 plates from them at Rs 10. She is the most pro active in this SHG. The women have to make the plates and take it to Badlapur. They themselves used to make the candles and sell in their locality. Kusum is the leader of this SHG. They had very low margins for these products.
The objective: To find the right market for the Sahara SHG by first indentifying the costs involved and then doing a market research The several costs revenues involved in the business are: Rent: Rs 1000 per month Loan costs Rs 3125 per month Electricity Rs 500 per month with both machines working Raw material costs Rs 5 per 300 plates Logistics costs is Rs 200 per 8000 plates Sold at Rs 10 per 100 plates S. With the current expertise the women are able to make 2000 to 2500 plates per day. The market rate for paper plates range from Rs 13 to Rs. Even if the SHG pays for the raw material Krupa is not ready to increase the selling price from Rs 10 per 100 plates. They don’t take into consideration the electricity bill. As if now Kusum doesn’t pay any salary but distributes any profit equally amongst the six of them. Now Krupa is demanding money for the raw material that they supply and want the Sahara SHG to find their own market. Since they aren’t aware of their cost structure they are not able to find out the figure the price they should quote per plate.P. The set of problems identified are: Marketing of their product is non existent Their approach for costing is wrong. The place has a monthly rent of 1000 and electricity bill goes up to Rs 500. 12 per 50 plates. rent and labor charges. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 51 .It’s been four month since they have bought the machines.
So over all the costs can’t be reduced any further.P.25 6375 -906.75 2656. Rent.25 Currently with the Krupa order the SHG is making loss. It is able to make the monthly payments for the loan. Labor costs will increase because eventually women will have to pay the salary they deserve.25 3125 1000 500 4625 7281.5 1593. But rent and other costs are not being realized from this business. Raw material costs will only increase as currently they are procuring it at no costs. S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 52 .The costing of the plates is as follows: Costing of the paper plates Number of plates produced per month Variable costs Raw material cost( Paper cost) Logistics cost Total variable Fixed costs salaries Interest Rent Electricity Total Fixed Total cost Sales Net Profit 63750 1062. monthly installments for the loan and electricity bills are fixed costs which can’t be done away with. To make it a profitable venture either Sahara SHG will have to reduce the cost or increase their revenues.
P. Now this is excluding labor costs. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 53 . 2. This would mean finding new market for the paper plates. The market rate for direct consumer for paper plates are Rs 13 per 50 plates that is Rs 26 per 100 plates.2 Solution: 1. 8. Krupa Ltd. Hence the costs are not getting recovered from the revenues generated through the sale of plates. at very low rates. Accepting an order below this price will be a loss making order. To find the costs per plate hence minimum price that can be quoted per plate to make profit: The total cost that is fixed costs and variable costs for 63750 plates is 7281. eventually reaching direct customers.So in order to make profit the selling price has to go up.25 Rs.25 Rs as the per plate costs is more than the selling price of a plate. knew they were the only customers for Sahara SHG hence they were not willing to increase the selling price. Next to figure out the value chain for paper plates: Previously Sahara SHG was dealing with a trading company. Thus under the Krupa order Sahara SHG is making a loss of 906. So to be profitable the minimum costs to be quoted will work out to be Rs 13. if that is also added then the costs will range from Rs 9 to Rs 12. This trading company that is Krupa Ltd. used to source paper plates from numerous SHGs and small groups who have very less bargaining power. In turn the trading company sells to distributors at higher price difference being their margin. 10. S.8. Thus the costs per plate come out to be Rs.
Right now they are at level 1 as shown in the figure below & Krupa Ltd. From these people we got the contact number of some distributors. We found the rate at which these people procure paper plate. Pani Puri stalls etc is Rs 12 . The existing market rate for the small shops like sandwich wallas. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 54 . is at level 2.P. Pani Puri stalls etc.If Sahara SHG wants to get higher price for their products then they need to climb up the value chain.13 per 50 plates. we first went and spoke to the direct customers like small retail shops. Now these distributors procure the plates from various sources at the rate of Rs 9. sandwich wallas. Level 1 SHG involved in paper plate business Small Groups SHGs Level 2 Trading Company Level 3 Distributor Level 4 Direct Customer Distribution System of Paper Plates To find a market for the paper plates.5 -10 for 50 plates that is Rs 19 -20 per 100 plates S.
5 1593.25 12750 5468.Now if can push the SHG up the value chain by directly selling to the distributors they can sell at Rs 19 – 20 for 100 plates thus gaining 9 to 10 Rs on every 100 plates.75 per month. In the above statement labor costs has not been included and logistics costs we have still considered as Rs 200 per 8000 plates.75 2656. The distributor is ready to buy 6000 plates every day for Rs 20 per 100 plates. S.75 Thus with this order Sahara SHG can possibly make a profit of Rs 5468. even after paying for the all the costs they will still be able to make some profit. raw materials and logistics costs.25 3125 1000 500 4625 7281. This profit is made after paying for interest expense. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 55 . With this improved pricing the profit made is as follows: Costing of the paper plates Number of plates produced per month Variable costs Raw material cost( Paper cost) Logistics cost Total variable Fixed costs salaries Interest Rent Electrcity Total Fixed Total cost Sales Net Profit 63750 1062.P. Thus we went and spoke to distributor at Khar market. This price increase will cover all their costs even labor costs. This because of the convenience of travel between Chembur and Khar via train which reduced the time spent and also the cost of travelling. and we got a deal of Rs 20 per 100 plates. rent. But this costs will go down to Rs 30 per 6000 plates. electricity bills.
Sahara SHG Distributor Pani Puri Stalls Sandwich Wallas Small retail shops or direct customers Distribution System of Sahara SHG after securing the Khar Order S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 56 .
are on the brink of extinction. Navjeet has joined hands with Deenabandhu Charitable Trust. Education and Health Care and Community Development programs. Each family sells the leaves individually because of which they have very less bargaining power. Our observations on these tribal units: Very back ward and don’t have a steady means to earn their income Uneducated No skills acquired so far Unity amongst the people is very less Not ready to fight for their rights Even children are not sent to schools for education No guarantee even of meals On an average a village consist of 7 – 8 families The men these household drink a lot Accountability is nil when it comes to these people They have no hopes of their conditions improving They are involved in small business like collecting leaves. S. Thane. primitive tribals. The village had 6 families having on an average 2 kids per family. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 57 . to reach out to the Katkaris and other tribals in Asangaon. Water harvesting. The women were involved in household work and help their spouses in collecting leaves and selling in to the middle man at the station who in turn sell it at Dadar. Navjeet's plan is to uplift the lives of the Katkaris through Agriculture. They don’t directly at Dadar station because of amount of traveling involved. growing vegetable if land available All of them do business individually because of which they have very less bargaining power they are characterized by complex social and political relations Our focus was on a village in Asangaon comprising of Katkari tribe.P.11 Asangaon The Katkaris.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 58 . These families are yet not recognized under the BPL scheme of government because unfortunately they were missed when the survey was held The unity is missing amongst the members of this village. There is a mental barrier in making a progress. When we visited for the first time there was only one family rest of them had gone to find some work. This family was the only one to receive us enthusiastically. They will first build rapport with them and try to gain their trust. We told them the opportunities available to them if only they were ready to take some initiatives The work will be taken forward by Madhav and Jayant.P. They don’t trust each other enough to work together. And slowly in phased manner they will introduce new initiatives to improve their condition. The men in this village squander all the money on drinks and don’t manage any family affairs. S. Because of the paucity of time all we could do was to get them together and hold a meeting on the benefits of doing business together. They have very few dreams for themselves and don’t think that anyone can change their fortunes. They told us even if they wanted to they would not be able to get all the families together.The people in this village are uneducated and don’t send their kids to schools.
The training module and all its parameters are backed by proper statistical analysis hence we have tried our level best to avoid uncertainty of the solution. The acquisition of the order from a distributor at Khar market will help SHG register profit in the coming month. S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 59 . Two training sessions were help as a pilot run to see how it has to be conducted and what all things to be taken care of. The order has also reduced the transportation costs for SHG. At Asangaon the people are very backward and they need to be sensitized about the benefits of forming a group. Sahara SHG now is well aware of all the cost elements involved in their business and is in a better position to negotiate with potential customers.P. We were successful in bringing these people together and convey a meeting which can pose as a building block for future endeavors. The training module has taken care of the needs and requirements of all the SHGs and individual treatment has been given to every SHG. We have made the SHG climb up the value chain and hence are able to demand more margins. We had approached an adivasi village which had 8 families living. For Sahara SHG we have been successful in finding the right market.12 Outcomes The training module has been successfully developed and explained to Navjeet Community Health Centre. The module has been designed such that the social workers at Navjeet can take it forward once after the DOCC project gets over. The SHG leader is more proactive now that she knows what is expected out of her.
So we focused on their problems to make their initiative more successful as we felt we will be able to make a difference in Sahara SHG. Navjeet has 26 SHGs under them and smooth functioning of these SHGs is their Endeavour. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 60 . Navjeet is helping the poor in every way possible. So we decided we will formulate a comprehensive training module which will address all the problems faced by them. Women empowerment. Our project focus was on one vertical at Navjeet. The module will be helpful in pin pointing the progress of a particular SHG and address their issues. The SHG is aware S. and labor etc. Sahara SHG has shown a progress which very few SHGs have. We were successful in pulling Sahara SHG up the value chain. When we came we got to know that though SHGs have been formed urban SHGs are not fully utilizing the opportunities available to them. Though the social workers at Navjeet undergo training themselves they are not aware of demand gap faced by the SHGs. Dedicated staff and passion to make a difference in the society has driven their growth since 1978. In coming months they will be making substantial profits which will also increase their income levels. but lacked market acumen to profitably sell their products. Hence the problems and challenges faced by them differ across the groups. equipment. They had the necessary raw materials.13 Conclusions Navjeet Community Health Centre believes in empowerment of people and this mission has been facilitated by their innumerable programs. Prior to our arrival the business run by Sahara SHG was making loss and were not able to sustain their losses. A common program wouldn’t have helped as every SHG is at a different level of development. The module will help Navjeet in classifying the SHGs according to their needs and will help them in focusing at their core issues.P. Because of their lack of marketing strategy they were under loss.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 61 . S.P. Our work at Asangaon was limited because of paucity of time and resources. But we were successful in getting the people of that village together and hopefully the work will be taken forward by the social workers at Navjeet Community Health Centre. This will help them in expanding the market and hence expand their consumer base.of their cost and revenue structure and possess better negotiation power.
P.14 Contact directories Sister Kusum Director of Navjeet Community Health Centre 9833285779 Sister Shanti Present Director of Navjeet Community Health Centre Roshana Social worker In charge of Bandra area 9322658699 Madhav Social Worker In charge of Chembur and Asangaon 967206746 Jayant Social Worker In charge of Asangaon 9226172430 Kusum Health worker Sahara SHG leader 9833475514 Sitara Health Worker Ujala SHG leader S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 62 .
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 63 . Consolidation of the information gathered SHG field visit Bandra East Monday Tuesday 22/03/10 23/03/10 Wednesday 24/03/10 Thursday Friday 25/03/10 26/03/10 Week 2 Day Date Activity Monday Tuesday 29/03/10 30/03/10 Chembur SHG field visit Data consolidation and analysis of the field visits Preparation for the training session.P.Bandra West.15 Weekly Activities Week 1 Day Date Activity Design of the project outline. Building SHG data base Microfinance survey Wednesday 31/03/10 Thursday Friday 1/4/2010 2/4/2010 S. Work out the schedule with Social workers Working on the questionnaire for the first visit SHG field visit .
P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 64 .Week 3 Day Date Activity Monday Tuesday 5/4/2010 6/4/2010 Asangaon field visit Motivation training design First training session held at Navjeet motivational Statistical analysis of SHG data Work on the case study Wednesday 7/4/2010 Thursday Friday 8/4/2010 9/4/2010 Week 4 Day Date Activity Monday Tuesday 12/4/2010 13/4/2010 Visit to paper plate distributor in Mulund Asangaon field visit 2 Preparation for business training Statistical analysis of SHG data Visit to distributors in Bandra Wednesday 14/4/2010 Thursday Friday 15/4/2010 16/4/2010 S.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 65 .P.Week 5 Day Date Activity Monday Tuesday 19/4/2010 20/4/2010 Visit to distributors at Khar market Second training session held at Navjeet business Analysis of the value chain of Chembur SHG business Contacting distributor based on value chain analysis Visit to distributor at Khar market with the SHG leader Wednesday 21/4/2010 Thursday Friday 22/4/2010 23/4/2010 Week 6 Day Date Activity Negotiation round with the distributor at Khar & sample analysis Educating social workers and Chembur SHG on how to take forwards the Khar deal Project Report and Case study Final touches to training module Handover of all the Data to Navjeet Monday Tuesday 26/4/2010 27/4/2010 Wednesday 28/4/2010 Thursday Friday 29/4/2010 30/4/2010 S.
2. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 66 . She doesn’t have the necessary man power to take care of day to day operations. The most enthusiastic person in this SHG is the one who handled the mid day meal. Also this group has the most elaborate of the operations and needs to have training with respect to basic book keeping and cash management. BMC gives rice at a subsidy. S.P. Employs four people to prepare the food and deliver them to the respective schools. kirana shops. She is the leader does all the report writing and account keeping. Vegetable & Samosa Contribution by each member Loan status Rs 100 per month 1 lakh was taken and repaid in full. Right now taken another loan of 1.Annexure 1 SHG: Ujala Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Remarks 18 14 Mid day meal.5 lakh Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Basic book keeping is existent Once every month Other than people already involved in business none of the other women are interested in starting their own business Remarks: 1. Her business is going good with good response from schools.
flowers etc. Basic accounting would help. Also the women are not willing to scale up as they are happy with the current state of affairs 2. The operations carried out by SHG are highly seasonal mainly around the Fair.Sai Sagar: Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Remarks 11 All but seasonal Candles. There are many issues such as late recovery of money due from BMC. The operations can be scaled up to some extent in these eight days.P. In the meanwhile the day to day cash requirement is always managed by the funds raised from loan etc. Rs 100 per month 100000 subsidy Basic book keeping is proper Once every month One person is basically handling the accounts and business. Interest levels among other members is very much seasonal Remarks: 1. SHG . S.3. However for the rest of the year the business can’t be scaled up to a great extent. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 67 .
The business is mainly around tailoring. Also it is difficult to scale up operations to a great extent. The problem with tailoring is high competition in the area.SHG . The women are willing to do more but because of demand constrain are not able to scale up the business S.P.Anand: Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Once every month Not a very high enthusiasm with respect to doing business. Finding demand would be essential for the business. 2. Remarks 16 3 Mainly tailoring Rs 100 per month Remarks: 1. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 68 .
Remarks: 1.5 lakh loan Good Once every month They have a well established business set up and they are not actually looking to scale up the business.SHG . They have been in the business for 10 years even before the formation of the SHG. S. Looking for a loan not as a SHG but more of a personal type. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 69 .P.Annapurna: Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Remarks 11 All Candle making Rs 100 per month 1.
Other ladies are not interested in starting their own business.Durga: Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Once every month Small businesses and basic accounting training would help. Remarks 16 2-3 Vegetable and toys etc Rs 100 per month Remarks: 1. Mainly shop based businesses. SHG . Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 70 .P.Poornima: Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Remarks 15 1 Tuition Rs 100 per month S.SHG .
Prakash: Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Once every month Increasing demand would help. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 71 . Remarks 14 2 Tailoring Rs 100 per month S.Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level No loan Once every month A new group basically. Remarks: 1.P. Some people are interested in starting their own business but are not able to find any viable idea SHG . Interest level the business is very low.
SHG - Kripa:
Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Interest level Once every month Small businesses and basic accounting training would help. Looking for new business ideas already applied for loan Remarks 21 4-5 Tiffin, beauty parlor products Rs 100 per month
SHG - Jai Bhawani:
Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Remarks 13 9 Tailoring, Sari Business & Jewellery Rs 50 per month Small loans taken from Holy family hospital. Day to day operations not recorded. No basic
S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research
understanding of the accounts Meetings held Interest level Once every month The interest level is high with women taking active participation. Happy with the way things are right now
Remarks: 1. 3 women involved in jewellery business, 5 in tailoring and 1 person in sari business. Jewellery business gets orders from Holy family hospital only. For tailoring women are currently undergoing training. 2. The woman who is in the sari business gets the saris from Surat twice every month. Every times she gets a lot that costs around 8000-15000. Sells with a margin of 20 or 25 rupees in the locality itself. The loans that she gets from Holy Family Hospital has a interest of 2%
SHG - Roshani:
Name Number of members People involved in some sort of business Types of business Contribution by each member Loan status Status on book keeping Meetings held Remarks 12 1 Dress material Rs 50 per month Small grant from BMC Day to day operations not recorded. Once every month
S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research
It is ok in this SHG, currently only one woman into the dress material business. Others are waiting for the loan to get sanctioned
Remarks: 1. Interestingly these women when we need of money to get the material they go to Swadhaar Fin Service Pvt. Ltd. 2. They form a group and take a loan to meet their short term need at an interest of 2.5% from this bank. 3. You need not be a member of this bank to take loan for business. As the trust level build up more amounts can be withdrawn.
S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research
Questionnaire: 1. Name of SHG 2. Number of members in the SHG 3. Number of business that the women of the SHG is involved in 4. Demand level for their businesses 5. Motivational level in the group 6. Existence of leadership qualities in the group 7. Sophistication of external loan management 8. Scale of their business 9. Number of years since the SHG has been operational 10. The level of bonding in the group 11. The number of internal loans taken by the group and management of the same 12. Book keeping practices followed by the group 13. General business knowledge 14. Level of enthusiasm in the group to do their own business 15. Level of involvement of women in the groups business 16. Scope expansion that is openness to new ideas 17. Possibility of scale expansion of the group
S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research
Annexure 3 Data used for Analysis: Group 1: Number Name of SHG Ujala Groups 1 of Number of active Number of Demand level 5 members members businesses 18 14 4 External Motivation level 4 loan Leadership management 4 4 scale of Years into Level of internal loans business operation bonding generated 5 5 4 4 Scope book General level of Business expansion( openness to new Scale expansion 5 5 keeping business process 3 knowledge 5 enthusiasm involvement ideas 4 5 Group 2: Number Name of SHG Sai sagar Annapurna Groups 2 2 of Number of active Number of Demand Motivation level 2 5 level 2 5 members members businesses 11 11 11 11 3 1 S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 76 .P.
External loan Leadership management 2 5 4 5 scale of Years into Level of internal loans book keeping business operation bonding generated process 2 3 4 10 3 5 4 5 3 3 Scope General business knowledge 3 5 level of Business expansion( openness to new Scale expansion 1 5 1 1 enthusiasm involvement ideas 2 4 1 3 Group 3: Number Number of of Name of SHG Anand Durga Poornima Prakash Prayas Milan Shri ganesha Groups 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 active Number of Deman d level 1 2 1 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 Motivatio n level 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 Leadershi p 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 member member businesse s 16 16 15 14 14 16 11 s 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 s S. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 77 .P.
Saraswati Aman Raman Bai Sneha Jagruti Jai Maharahstra Omkar God Gift Jankalyan Amardeep Kandeshwari Siddhivinaya k Utsahi Ahilya Seva Bismilla 3 3 3 3 3 11 12 11 16 11 3 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 11 12 18 15 11 11 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 16 14 12 11 11 4 2 3 2 2 5 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 External loan management 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 scale of Years into Level of internal loans business operation bonding generated 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 5 3 4 4 4 3 3 1 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 78 .
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 79 .P.1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 3 5 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 Scope book General level of Business expansion( openness to new Scale expansion 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 keeping business process 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 1 knowledge 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 enthusiasm involvement ideas 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 S.
Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 80 .P.2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 Group 4: Number Name of SHG Kripa Groups 4 of Number of active Number of Demand level 4 members members businesses 21 5 3 External Motivation level 4 loan Leadership management 4 4 scale of Years into Level of business operation bonding 3 3 4 S.
Scope internal loans book General level of Business expansion( openness to new Scale expansion 5 3 keeping business knowledge 4 generated process 4 3 enthusiasm involvement ideas 4 4 Group 5: Number Name of SHG Jai bhawani Roshani Sahara Groups 5 5 5 of Number of active Number of Demand Motivation level 4 5 3 level 4 5 5 members members businesses 13 12 10 9 2 6 3 1 1 External loan Leadership management 5 5 5 4 5 5 scale of Years into Level of internal loans business operation bonding generated 4 5 5 3 4 2 4 5 5 4 5 5 Scope book General level of Business expansion( openness to new Scale expansion 3 5 4 5 5 5 keeping business process 3 3 4 knowledge 4 4 5 enthusiasm involvement ideas 4 4 5 5 5 5 S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Page 81 .
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