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The Role and Design of Instructional Materials

The Role and Design of Instructional Materials

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01/08/2013

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THE ROLE and DESIGN of INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

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Instructional materials can be in the form of
‡Printed materials (books,workbooks, etc.) ‡Non-print materials (audio and video cassettes, computer-based materials) ‡Materials that comprise both print and non-print sources (self-access materials and materials on the internet)
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vocabulary and pronunciation A source of stimulation and ideas for classroom activities A syllabus A support for less experienced teachers 3 .The role of materials in FLT: (Cunningsworth) A resource for presentation materials (spoken and written) A source of activities for learner practice and communicative interaction A reference source for learners on grammar.

John for the teachers of ESP courses. materials serve the following functions:  as a source of language  as a learning support  for motivation and stimulation  for reference 4 .According to Dudley-Evans & St.

Advantages of authentic materials are:  They have positive effect on learner motivation.  They provide authentic cultural information about the target culture.  They support a more creative approach to teaching 5 .  They relate more closely to learners· needs.  They provide exposure to real language.

 Authentic materials often contain difficult language.  Created materials may be superior to authentic materials since they are generally built around a graded syllabus.Critics of authentic materials  Created materials can also be motivating for learners. 6 .  Using authentic materials might be a burden for teachers.

SYLLABUS DESIGN CRITERIA  LEARNABILITY (students are able to learn it)  FREQUENCY (the set up of time)  COVERAGE (scope)  USEFULNESS (the useful of the syllabus) 7 .

The grammar syllabus The lexical syllabus The functional syllabus The situational syllabus The topic-based syllabus The task based syllabus 8 HW: Make a summary of what are they«.. 6. 4.DIFFERENT TYPES OF SYLLABUSES 1. 3. 5. . 2.

However. tasks. language functions. topics.THE MULTI-SYLLABUS IS: the combination of items from grammar. situations. 9 . different language skill tasks or pronunciation issues. this might cause a compromise between the competing claims of different organizing elements in practice. lexis.

selection and grading Language study activities Language skill activities Topics Cultural acceptability Usability Teacher¶s guide 10 .SELECTING AREAS FOR ASSESSMENT ‡ Price ‡ Availability Layout and design Instructions Methodology Syllabus type.

STATING BELIEFS  THE PAGE SHOULD LOOK CLEAN AND UNCLUTTERED  THE LESSON SEQUENCE SHOULD BE EASY TO FOLLOW THE ILLUSTRATIONS SHOULD BE ATTRACTIVE AND APPROPRIATE THE INSTRUCTIONS SHOULD BE EASY TO READ 11 .

USING STATEMENTS FOR ASSESSMENT Area Assessment Statements The page is uncluttered The lesson sequence is easy to follow The illustrations are attractive and appropriate for the age group The instructions are easy to read Coursebook 1 Coursebook 2 Coursebook 3 OK OK X OK OK X X OK Layout and design OK OK OK X Which one do you choose? .

effectiveness.Teacher Record Unit / Lesson General comments (timing.) Comment on the advantages/disadvantages of: Exercise 1: Exercise 2: Exercise 3: Exercise 4: How did the students react to the lesson? 13 . etc. ease.

Student Response  What was your favorite lesson in the book during the last semester? Why? the book during last semester? Why? the last semester?  What was your least favorite lesson from  What was your favorite activity during  What was your least favorite activity during the last semester? Why? Discuss with your friends«.. 14 .

creative.INTERESTS of the AUTHOR concerned to produce a text that teachers will find innovative. vs. 15 . INTERESTS of the PUBLISHER The publisher is primarily motivated by financial success. relevant to their learners· needs and that they will enjoy teaching from.

A GOOD PROVIDER OF MATERIALS WILL BE ABLE TO: 1. select appropriately from what is available 2. be creative with what is available 3. ssupplement by providing extra activities 16 . modify activities to suit learners· needs 4.

ADVANTAGES OF PREPARING MATERIALS FOR A PROGRAM 1. Reputation 4. Flexibility 17 . Relevance 2. Develop expertise 3.

Quality 3. Cost 2. Training 18 .DISADVANTAGES OF PREPARING MATERIALS FOR A PROGRAM 1.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD MATERIALS (According to Rowntree)  arouse the learners· interest  remind them of earlier learning  tell them what they will be learning next  explain new learning content to them  relate these ideas to learners· previous learning  get learners to think about new content  help them get feedback on their learning  encourage them to practice  make sure they know what they are supposed to be doing  enable them to check their progress  help them to do better 19 .

Factors to consider before making a plan  Language level of our students  Their educational and cultural background  Their likely levels of motivation  Their different learning styles  The content and the organization of the syllabus  Requirements of any exams students are working towards 20 .

Four main planning elements  Activities: what kind of activity is best for our students?  Skills: making the decision about which language skills we wish our students to develop  Language: deciding to what extent we are going to introduce language and have our students learn it  Content: Finding contents that will fascinate the students is the hardest part 21 .

PRE-PLANNING AND THE PLAN Teacher¶s knowledge of the students Teacher¶s knowledge of the syllabus Activities Language skills Language type Subject & content Practical realities THE PLAN 22 .

TYPES OF TEACHERS IN TERMS OF LESSON PLANNING jungle path vague (corridor) plan formal plan 100% 0% follow the coursebook exactly planning notes 23 .

They participate well when not tired 3. The students need more oral fluency work 24 . Next item on Gr. ages 18-31 2. whiteboard. OHP 5. Light classroom. Topic: forms of transport 6. Class at intermediate level. Syllabus: should have + done 7.PRE-PLANNING BACKGROUND 1. 31 students. They like creative activities 4. The students have not had any reading skills work recently 8.

25 . The lesson should continue with the transport theme but make it significantly different in some way. The lesson should include the introduction of should have + done 3. 2. It would be nice to have some reading in the lesson. 4. The lesson should include an oral fluency activity.PRE-PLANNING DECISIONS 1.

Ending the story 4. 26 .THE PLAN Topic: A text about a space station The Sequence: 1. Role-play (Additional tasks might be necessary) These lesson plans can also be used as records and research tools. Language practice 6. Reading for prediction and gist 3. Oral fluency activity 2. New language introduction 5.

procedures. They are very detailed. not what the teacher is going to do. and what can be expected of them. We also need to say where the lesson fits in a sequence of classes. Lesson aims: Aims should reflect what we hope the students will be able to do.THE FORMAL PLAN  Class description and timetable fit: who the students are. Activities. 27 . and timing: these factors are all in the main body of a formal plan. Problems and possibilities: a good plan tries to predict these and suggests ways of dealing with them.

PLANNING A SEQUENCE OF LESSONS Before and during Short and long-term goals Thematic strands Language planning Activity balance 28 .

USING LESSON PLANS Action and Reaction Why we may need modification? Magic moments Sensible diversion Unforeseen problems 29 .

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