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Yorman Amador

AP Human Geography

Chapter 2 Notes


• Agricultural Density- The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of

arable land

• Agricultural Revolution- (8000 BC) when human beings first began

domesticating plants & animals, and no longer relied entirely on hunting and


• Arithmetic Density-The total number of people divided by the total land area

• Carrying Capacity- The ability of the land to sustain a certain number of


• Chain Migration- When immigrants from other countries establish themselves

in one location, and others of the same background move into the location

( Italians in New york, Koreans in Los Angeles)

• Census-A record of the population

• Crude Birth Rate (CBR) or Natality Rate - The total number of live births in a

year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

• Crude Death Rate-The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people

alive in the society

• Demographic Transition-A similar process of change shared amongst multiple


• Demographic Equation- Global births minus the global deaths in order to

determine the population growth rate for the world.

• Demography-The scientific study of population characteristics.

• Dependency Ratio- The number of people who are too young or too old to

work, compared to the number of people in their productive years

• Distance Decay- When people assimilate in the culture in which they are

presently living

• Doubling Time- The number of years needed to double a population, assuming

a constant rate of natural increase

• Ecumene- The portion of earth’s surface covered by permanent human

settlement; habitable area that includes relatively flat land, water sources, and

available food sources

• Emigrants- People who leave a country or region

• Epidemiologic Transition- Distinctive causes in each stage of the

demographic transition

• Epidemiology-The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence,

distribution, and control of diseases that affect a large number of people

• Forced migrants- People who are literally forced out of their homes for political

or enviormental reasons such as Native Ameicans

• Immigrants- People who move into a country or region

• Industrial Revolution-Mid 1700s when advances in machinery greatly

improved levels of production, and forms of transportation

• Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)-The annual number of deaths of infants under 1

year of age, compared with total live births

• Intercontinental Migration- Movement of people across an ocean or


• Life Expectancy- at birth measures the average number of years a newborn

infant can expect to live at the current mortality levels

• Linear Growth- the growth that occurs evenly across each unit of time. (10 ppl

every year)

• Medical Revolution- When medical technology invented in Europe and North

America diffused to less developed countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

• Migration- the movement of people

• Natural Increase Rate (NIR) - The percentage by which a population grows in

a year. By subtracting the CDR from the CBR

• Net Migration- The number of Immigrants minus the number of emigrants

• Overpopulation-When an area’s population exceeds the environments capacity

to support it as an acceptable standard of living

• Pandemic- A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affect a very

high proportion of the population

• Physiological Density- The number of people supported by a unit of arable

land; Takes into consideration land that is being used by humans in someway

• Place Utility- When incentives are offered in order to attract people to their


• Population Pyramid-A bar graph displaying a countries population by gender

and age

• Population Projection- the use of demographic data to determine future


• Pull Factor- A positive perception about a location that induces a person to

move there

• Push Factor- A negative perception about a location that induces that person to

move away from that location

• Refugees- People who are forced to flee their homeland to seek some type of

asylum in another country

• Sex Ratio-The number of males per hundred females.

• Total Fertility Rate-The number of children a woman will have throughout her

child bearing years.

• Zero Population Growth- When a countries CBR declines to the point where it

equals to the CDR, and the NIR approaches zero.

Main Points of the Chapter:

1. The Demographic Transition Model is a tool demographers use to categorize

countries population growth rates and economic structure. The model

analyzes CBRs, CDRs, and total population trends in a society at a given point

of time. Once a country moves into the next stage of the model, it CANNOT

go back to previous stages, unless afflicted by nuclear war or another horrific


2. British economist Thomas Malthus coined the term overpopulation in the late

1700s. Malthus suggested that the world’s population was growing dater the

rate of food production, and as a result, mass starvation would occur. Malthus

was correct in his assumption about the world population increase but was

incorrect in his assessment of agricultural ability to produce sufficient food.

3. The world’s population is growing exponentially. Most of the growth is

occurring in less developed countries. More developed countries are either at

or near zero population growth. Some eastern European countries are

actually losing some of their population.

4. Population pyramids show the age and sex demographics of a particular

country, city , or neighborhood. Inverted pyramids indicate a large

percentage of elderly persons in the community. A large base indicates a lot

of children in the society and could indicate a less developed country.

5. There are three primaries push and pull factors: economic, political, and

environmental. Each of these has caused millions of people to move.

6. Refugees volunteer to leave an area for fear of death or persecution. Forced

migrants are forced by the government to move. Forced migrants can suffer

the same fate as refugees if they do not obey the government mandate to for

them to relocate.


• For the majority of the time that humans have been on earth, population has

been increasing slowly. But in the past 100 years we have experienced a

population explosion.

• Two major factors in demography are the crude birth rate (CBR) and the

crude death rate (CDR).

• An area becomes overpopulated when the area exceeds its Carrying


• Humans are not able to live in 5 distinct areas:

-Where it is too hot, Where it is too cold Where it is too wet, Where it is to hilly,
and Where it is too dry

• So , humans are only able to thrive on just a small percentage of the planet
Population distribution and density:

• Arithmetic density is important when looking at a country’s population trends,

but it doesn’t tell the whole story

• Physiologic density is a more accurate way to measure a country’s population


The five main areas of population density in the world, are called the

Population Distributions of The world. (From Highest to lowest)

1. East Asia: Composed of China, South Korea, North Korea, and Japan. The

area has favorable climate conditions for growing food, but the

mountainous areas make it hard to develop adequate transportation


2. South Asia: Composed of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Within the

next 50 years India will surpass china in terms of population.

3. Southeast Asia: Includes Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia.

4. Western & Central Europe: Includes cities such as London, Moscow,

and Paris. Unlike many east Asian and south Asian regions, which are

dominated by agricultural and rural economies, these cities are urbanized.

5. Northeastern United states and Canada: Includes cities such as

Boston, Massachusetts, Washington DC (All along interstate 95). Also

includes the cities of Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal.

• Each of these areas has a high population density that is conducive for economic

growth. Access to agriculture is one of the major factors.

Demographic Transition Model

• Stage 1: Hunting and Gathering Societies

• When societies are in this stage they have a LOW total population, and the

birth and death rates are negatively correlated. The negative correlation is

due to the changes in the economy. When food sources and the economy are

good people have more children. The reverse is also true. Population levels

remain low due to parental fear of starvation. No countries are in this stage


• Stage 2: Agricultural Societies

-Instead of relying on seasonal vegetation and animals, people began

experimenting with farming. This was known as the First Agricultural revolution.

High birth rates and low death rates .Theses societies see a population

explosion, due to the availability of food. Birth rates stay high but death rates

decrease sharply. It is usually composed of farmers trying to just feed their

families. Men usually work in the fields while the women take care of the

children. More kids increase the labor force on the farms, and increases

productivity. Advances in medical technology reduce deaths. Life expectancy is

low. Women will also have more children to offset the high infant mortality rate.

• Stage 3: Industrial Societies

• The industrial revolution in the 1700s spurred many European countries to

adopt a more mechanized system of farming. Mass production begins to take

place in urban factories. The reason that child birth rates decrease is because

the dependency for them to work decreases. Child labor laws lower child
employment. Children now become more of a BURDEN than an ASSET.

Women are also entering the work force, so they delay in having children,

which eventually lowers the fertility rate of a country. More farmers move

into urban areas to work in factories. Factories are free from the naturalistic

burdens that affect farmers. Birth rates started out high but then get lower.

Death rates continue to drop due to the continuing advancement in medicine

and increased quality of food. Countries at the end of this stage will have

average to low, birth and death rates. High birth rates and low death rates

indicate a countries entrance to this stage.

• Stage 4: Tertiary Societies

-In this stage a country will experience the zero population growth

phenomenon. In this stage more people are focused on providing services and

selling, rather than producing. (Ex. There are more people who fix and sell cars,

than those who produce them) Total fertility rate at this stage are at or below

two (Which is required to replace parents). When the total fertility rate is below

two, then the country experiences a loss of population. Countries at this point

are trying to offset this lack of population growth by offering incentives for

having children (Ex. A Toy company in Japan recently offered to pay their

employees to have children.)Children become even more of a liability. Although

the population is high at this stage, access to birth control has limited the

number of children being born. Population growth has halted.

Population Structure

• Analyzing the population pyramid is the easiest way to determine the sex

ratio and the population projection.

• Population pyramids of LDCs have wider bases because the majority of the

population is younger than 15. There are few elderly people due to the lack of

sanitation and medical care.

• People in the workforce are usually between the ages of 15-64. Everyone else is

in the dependency ratio.

• Countries that are in stage 2 have a Demographic Momentum; these young

people will eventually produce more offspring than their parents’ generation.

These countries will experience the momentum for at least 50 years and likely


• In stage 3 countries there will be more adults and elderly (wider tops), and fewer

children (Narrower Bottoms) compared to the stage 2 countries.

• In stage 4 countries the pyramid resembles that of a stage 3, but there are

dramatically less children. And wider center (those in the workforce).

• Population pyramids help us by determining the need of the area. If there are

large numbers of toddlers in the area, they will be moving into the educational

system soon. So new schools have to be built.

Birth and Death Rates

• A country’s population is affected by the CBR, CDR, and the Infant mortality


• High Infant mortality rates are indicating social and developmental problems.
• A major problem is the high birth rate in LDCs. People in these countries tend to

lack adequate birth control, due to low income, religious intolerance, or poor


• In stage 3 or 4 society’s women with a higher education, will have less children

in order to advance their careers.

• In countries where there is a gender gap, women tend to not have the rights that

men have.

• One of the most successful measures of government birth control has been in

China. In 1979 in applied the one child policy. China was successful in lowering

their natural increase rate, total fertility rate, and birth rate. But Due to the

culture males were preferred (in order to pass the family name), and if you

couldn’t afford the taxes placed with having more than one child, they would

abort female fetuses. One of the consequences of Chinas policy will be a large

gender gap.

Causes of Population Increase

1. Medical Advances

2. Quantity and Quality of food

3. Ethnic and religious issues- Many cultures forbid the use of birth


4. Economic Issues-If the economy is based of agriculture then you can

expect and increase in population. But if the economy is based on

industry and services population growth is minimal.

Causes of population decline

1. Natural disasters (famine or plagues)

2. War or political turmoil

a. Economic issues- if the economy is bad and there are no jobs you have

to go to where jobs are available. This inner migration does not affect

the world population.

Immigration, Migration, and Refugees

Three types of push and pull factors are

1. Economic- People continuously relocates to find a job.

2. Political

3. Environmental (Voluntary)-People who move to places with better

suited climates

World Health Threats

Defined by Abdel Omran (1971)

Epidemiologic Transition Stage1:

• Infectious and Parasitic diseases

• Accidents and attacks by humans/animals

• Malthus called these causes of deaths “natural checks’’ on the growth of

human population in stage 1

Epidemiologic Transition stage 2:

• The receding of pandemics

Epidemiologic Transition stage 3:

• Degenerative and human created diseases

• Characterized by a decrease in deaths due to diseases and an increase in

deaths due to aging

Epidemiologic Transition stage 4: Extended by S. Jay Olshansky & Brian


• The Stage of degenerative diseases

• Cardiovascular and Variations of Cancer

Epidemiologic Transition Possible Stage 5:

• Due to evolution, poverty, and improved travel medical analyst argue that

there will be a stage of reemergence, where diseases that were thought to be

eradicated or controlled have returned.