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Shallow Foundation
BEARING CAPACITY
If a footing is subjected to too great a
, load som e of the soilsupporting it w ill
reach a failure state and the footing
m ay experience a bearing capacity
. failure
T h e b e a rin g ca p a city is th e
lim itin g p re ssu re th a t th e fo o tin g
. ca n su p p o rt
Supporting soil
Definitions and Key
Terms
Foundation: Structure transmits
loads to the underlying ground (soil).
Footing: Slab element that
transmit load from superstructure to
ground
Embedment depth, D
f
: The depth
below the ground surface where the
base of the footing rests.
Bearing pressure(q): The normal
stress impose by the footing
on the supporting ground.
(weight of superstructure +
self weight of footing + weight of
earthfill if any.)
Definitions and Key
Terms
Ultimate bearing capacity
q
ult
/q
f
/q
u
: The maximum
bearing pressure that the soil
can sustain (i.e it fails).
Ultimate net bearing capacity
(q
unet
/q
nf
/q
nu
):
The maximum bearing
pressure that the soil can
sustain above its current
overburden pressure
D q q or
D q q
nf f
f nf
γ
γ
+ ·
− ·
G Ground
Safe bearing capacity: it is the
maximum pressure which the soil
can carry without shear failure or
ultimate bearing capacity, q
f
,
divided by Factor of safety ,F.
•
•
Net safe bearing capacity: It is
the net ultimate bearing capacity
divided by factor of safety, F.
•
•
D
F
q
D q q
nf
ns s
γ γ + · + ·
F
q
q
nf
ns
Definitions and Key Terms
(Cont.)
Allowable bearing capacity:
(q
all
/q
a
): The working pressure
that would ensure an acceptable
margin of safety against bearing
capacity failure, or It is the net
loading intensity at which neither
soil fails in shear nor there is
excessive settlement detrimental
to the structure.
Factor of safety: The ratio
between (q
unet
) and (q
all
). (F.S. =
q
unet
/q
all
)
Definitions and Key Terms
(Cont.)
Ultimate limit state: A state that
defines a limiting shear stress that
should not be exceeded by any
conceivable or anticipated loading
during the life span of a foundation
or any geotechnical system.
Serviceability limit state: A state
that defines a limiting deformation
or settlement of a foundation,
which, if exceeded will impair the
function of the supported
structure.
Basics
Basics
D
D
f
/ B 1
Terzaghi
D
f
/ > B 4
D
f
/  . B 2 2 5
Others
Design Requirements
1. The foundation
must not
collapse
or become
unstable under
any
conceivable
load
2. Deformation
(settlement) of
the
structure
must be within
tolerable
limits
Stages in load
settlement of shallow
foundations
Relatively elastic vertical
compression
The loadsettlement curve is
almost
straight.
Local yielding starts to
affect
Upward and outward
movement of
the soil with a possible
surface
heave.
General shear failure
Large settlements are
produced as
plastic yielding is fully
developed
within the soil.
In dense sands: softening
can
occur after collapse.
Collapse and Failure
Loads
( ) c Punching shear failure
( ) a General shear failure
( ) b Local shear failure
§
Shallow foundations in rock and
undrained clays are governed by
the general shear case.
§
Shallow foundations in dense
sands are governed by the general
shear case. In this
context, a dense sand is one
with a relative density, D
r
, greater
than about 67%.
§
Shallow foundations on loose to
medium dense sands (30% < D
r
<
67%) are probably
governed by local shear.
§
Shallow foundations on very
loose sand
(D
r
< 30%) are probably
governed by punching shear.
•
Characteristics of Each
Failure Mode
General shear (Dense sand):
– well defined failure mechanism
– continuous slip surface from
footing to surface
– sudden catastrophic failure
Local shear (Loose sand):
– failure mechanism well defined
only beneath the footing
– slip surfaces do not extend to
the soil surface
– considerable vertical
displacement
– lower ultimate capacity
Guide lines to know
whether failure is local
or general
(i) Stressstrain test: (c soil)
general shear failure occurs at low
strain, say <5 % while for local shear
failure stressstrain curve continues to
rise at strain of 10 to 20 %.
(ii) Angle of shear resistance: For
> 36
o
,general shear failure and <
28
o
local shear failure.
(iii) Penetration test: N 30 : G.S.F
N 5 : L.S.F
… Contd
(iv) Plate Load Test: Shape of the
load
settlement curve decides
whether it is G.S.F or L.S.F
(v) Density Index : I
D
> 70 G.S.F
I
D
< 20
L.S.F
For purely cohesive soil, local
shear failure may be assumed to
occur when the soil is soft to
medium, with an unconfined
compressive strength q
u
10 t/m
2
(or c
u
5 t/m
2
).
… Contd
Punching shear (Very Loose
sand):
– failure mechanism less well
defined
– soil beneath footing
compresses
– large vertical
displacements
– lowest ultimate capacity
– very loose soils or at large
embedment depth
Foundation
Requirements
1.Safe against failure (bearing capacity or
structural failure)
2.Should not exceed tolerable
settlement(probable maximum and
differential settlement)
3.Its construction should not make any
change to existing structure.
4.Should be adequate depth from
consideration of adverse
environment influence:
i. Zones of high volume change due to
moisture fluctuations.
ii.Depth of frost penetration
iii.Organic matter; peat and muck.
iv.Abandoned garbage dumps or
loosed fill areas.
v.Scouring depth
BEARING CAPACITY
ANALYSES IN SOIL
GENERAL SHEAR CASE
Methods of Analyzing Bearing
Capacity
q To analyze spread footings for bearing
capacity failures and design them in a way to
avoid such failures, we must understand the
relationship between bearing capacity, load,
q
footing dimensions, and soil
properties. Various researchers have
studied these relationships using a variety of
techniques, including:
Ø
Assessments of the performance
of real foundations, including full
scale load tests.
Ø
Load tests on model footings.
Ø
Limit equilibrium analyses.
Ø
Detailed stress analyses, such as
finite element method (FEM)
analyses.
• Fullscale load tests, which consist
of constructing real spread footings
and loading
them to failure, are the most
precise way to evaluate bearing
capacity. However, such tests are
expensive, and thus are rarely, if
ever, performed as a part of routine
design. A few such tests have been
performed for research purposes.
• Model footing tests have been
used quite extensively, mostly
because the cost of these tests
is far below that for fullscale
tests. Unfortunately, model tests
have their limitations, especially
when conducted in sands,
because of uncertainties in
applying the proper scaling
factors. However, the advent of
centrifuge model tests has
partially overcome this problem.
• Limit equilibrium analyses are
the dominant way to assess bearing
capacity of shallow foundations.
These analyses define the shape of
the failure surface, as shown in
Figure , then evaluate the stresses
and strengths along this surface.
These methods of analysis have their
roots in Prandtl' s studies of the
punching resistance of metals
(Prandtl,
1920). He considered the ability of
very thick masses of metal (i.e., not
sheet metal) to resist concentrated
loads. Limit equilibrium analyses
usually include empirical factors
developed from model tests.
zD u c ult
s N q σ + ·
• Occasionally, geotechnical engineers
perform more detailed bearing
capacity analyses using numerical
methods, such as the finite element
method (FEM). These analyses are
more complex, and are justified
only on very critical and unusual
projects. We will consider only limit
equilibrium methods of bearing
capacity analyses, because these
methods are used on the
overwhelming majority of projects.
Essential Points so far
• Failure mode in sands
depends on the density of
the soil.
• More settlement is expected
in loose soils than in dense
soils (for the same load).
Alternatively, dense soils can
sustain more load.
The limit equilibrium
method
consider the continuous footing as
shown in Figure.
Let us assume this footing
experiences a bearing capacity
failure, and that this failure occurs
along a circular shear surface as
shown.
Assume the soil is an undrained clay
with a shear strength s
u
.
Neglect the shear strength between
the ground surface and a depth D.
Thus, the soil in this zone is considered
to be only a surcharge load that
produces a vertical total stress of
zD
D = D at a depth D.
§
The objective of this derivation is
to obtain a formula for the
ultimate bearing capacity,q
ult
,which is the bearing pressure
required to cause a bearing
capacity failure.
§
consider a slice of the foundation
of length b and taking moments
about Point A, we obtain the
following:
zD u ult
zD u ult A
s q
B Bb B Bb s B Bb q M
σ π
σ π
+ ·
− − ·
2
) 2 / ( ) )( ( ) 2 / )( (
It is convenient to define a new
parameter, called a bearing capacity
factor, N
c
and
rewrite Equation as:
Equation is known as a bearing
capacity formula, and could be used to
evaluate the
bearing capacity of a proposed
foundation. According to this
derivation, N
c
= 2 = 6.28.
This simplified formula has only
limited applicability in practice
because it considers
zD u c ult
s N q σ + ·
… Contd
only continuous footings and
undrained soil conditions ( = 0),
and it assumes the
foundation rotates as the
bearing capacity failure occurs.
However, this simple derivation
illustrates the general methodology
required to develop more
comprehensive bearing capacity
formulas.
•
… Contd
q
No exact analytical solution for
computing bearing capacity of
footings is available at present
because the basic system of
equations describing the yield
problems is nonlinear.
On account of these reasons,
Terzaghi (1943) first proposed a semi
empirical equation for computing the
ultimate bearing capacity of strip
footings by taking into account
cohesion, friction and weight of soil,
and replacing the overburden pressure
with an equivalent surcharge load at
the base level of the foundation.
The ultimate bearing capacity, or
the allowable soil pressure, can be
calculated either from bearing
capacity theories or from some of the
in situ tests.
Each theory has its own good and
bad points. Some of the theories are
of academic interest only. However, it
is the purpose of the author to
present here only such theories
which are of basic interest to
students in particular and
professional engineers in general.
Terzaghi's Bearing
Capacity Formulas
Assumptions:
The depth of the foundation is less than or
equal to its width (D B).
The bottom of the foundation is sufficiently
rough that no sliding occurs between the
foundation and the soil.
The soil beneath the foundation is a
homogeneous semiinfinite mass (i.e., the soil
extends for a great distance below the
foundation and the soil properties are uniform
throughout).
The shear strength of the soil is described by
the formula s = c' + ' tan '.
The general shear mode of failure
governs.
No consolidation of the soil occurs
(i.e., settlement of the foundation is
due only to
the shearing and lateral
movement of the soil).
The foundation is very rigid in
comparison to the soil.
The soil between the ground
surface and a depth D has no shear
strength, and serves
only as a surcharge load.
The applied load is compressive
and applied vertically to the centroid
of the foundation and no applied
moment loads are present.
Bearing Capacity
Failure
Transcosna Grain
Elevator Canada (Oct.
18, 1913)
West side of foundation
 sank 24 ft
P
Surcharge
= Pressure
zD
 / 45 2
 / 45 2
Passive Zone
Lowest Shear Surface
Radial Shear Zone
Wedge Zone
D
B
B
Collapse and Failure
Loads
Terzaghi considered three zones in the
soil, as shown in Figure, immediately
beneath the foundation is a wedge zone
that remains intact and moves downward
with the foundation.
Next, a radial shear zone extends from
each side of the wedge, where he took
the shape of the shear planes to be
logarithmic spirals.
Finally, the outer portion is the linear
shear
zone in which the soil shears along
planar surfaces
Since Terzaghi neglected the shear
strength of soils between the
ground surface and a depth D, the
shear surface stops at this depth
and the overlying soil has been
replaced with the surcharge pressure
zD
.This approach is conservative,
and is part of the reason for limiting
the method to relatively shallow
foundations (D < B).
Terzaghi developed his theory for
continuous foundations (i.e., those with
a very large L/B ratio).
This is the simplest case because it
is a two dimensional problem.
He then extended it to square and
round foundations by adding empirical
coefficients obtained from model
tests and produced the following
bearing capacity formulas:
For square foundations:
•
For continuous
foundations:
•
•
For circular foundations
γ
γ σ BN N N c q
q zD c ult
′
+
′
+
′
· 3 . 0 3 . 1
γ
γ σ BN N N c q
q zD c ult
′
+
′
+
′
· 5 . 0
γ
γ σ N B N N c q
q zD c ult
′
+
′
+
′
· 4 . 0 3 . 1
Because of the shape of the failure
surface, the values of c and only
need to represent the soil between
the bottom of the footing and a
depth B below the bottom. The soils
between the ground surface and a
depth D are treated simply as
overburden.
Terzaghi's formulas are presented in
terms of effective stresses. However,
they also
may be used in a total stress
analyses by substituting c
T
T
and
D
for c', ', and
D
If saturated
undrained conditions exist, we may
conduct a total stress analysis with the
shear strength defined as c
T
= S
u
and
T
= O. In this case, N
c
= 5.7, N
q
= 1.0,
and N
= 0.0.
The Terzaghi bearing capacity
factors are:
… Contd
( )
,
`
.

−
′
′
·
>
′
′
−
·
·
′
·
·
′
+
·
′ ′ −
1
cos 2
tan
0
tan
1
0 7 . 5
) 2 / 45 ( cos 2
2
tan 360 / 75 . 0
2
2
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
γ
γ
φ φ π
θ
θ
p
q
c
c
q
K
N
for
N
N
for N
e a
a
N
… Contd
For strip footing:
D R BN . R ) N ( D cN .
F
q
D R BN . R ) N ( D cN .
F
q
D R BN . R ) N ( D cN
F
q
w w q c s
w w q c s
w w q c s
γ γ γ
γ γ γ
γ γ γ
γ
γ
γ
+ + − + ·
+ + − + ·
+ + − + ·
2 1
2 1
2 1
3 0 1 3 1
1
: footing circular For
4 0 1 3 1
1
: footing square For
5 0 1
1
Computation of safe
bearing capacity
φ φ
γ
γ
tan / tan c of / c
factor reduction table Water R and R
g.s.f for cohesion c
failure shear
local for factors capacity Bearing N , N , N
failure shear general for φ on depending
factors capacity Bearing N , N , N
footing of diameter or footing of Width B
footing of Depth D
to safety of Factor F
m m
w w
q c
q c
3 2 and 3 2
3 2 Where
2 1
· ·
·
·
·
′ ′ ′
·
·
·
·
1
2
1
0 1 5 0
1
2
1
0 1 5 0
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
1 1 1 1
1
1
· · · · ·
,
`
.

+ ·
· · · ·
,
`
.

+ ·
w w w w w
w
w
w w w w
w
w
R , B R , B Z If , R Z If
B
Z
. R
R , D Z If , R Z If
D
Z
. R
[ ( )] BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS After Terzaghi and Peck 1948
N
q
and N
c
N
(
)
d
e
g
r
e
e
s
N
N
q
N
c
Bearing Capacity Factors
Effective Stress Analysis
Two situations can be simply
analysed.
The soil is dry. The total and
effective stresses are identical and
the analysis is identical to that
described above except that the
parameters used in the equations
are c´, ´,
dry
rather than c
u
,
u
,
sat
. If the water table is more
than a depth of 1.5 B (the footing
width) below the base of the
footing the water can be assumed to
have no effect.
Further Developments
Skempton (1951)
Meyerhof (1953)
Brinch Hanson (1961)
De Beer and Ladanyi
(1961)
Meyerhof (1963)
Brinch Hanson (1970)
Vesic (1973, 1975)
) 4 . 1 tan( ) 1 (
cot ) 1 (
) 2 / 45 ( tan
5 . 0 : Load Inclined
5 . 0 : load Vertical
2 tan
φ
φ
φ
γ
γ
γ
φ π
γ γ γ
γ γ γ
− ·
− ·
+ ·
′
+ + ·
′
+ + ·
q
q c
q
q q q c c c ult
q q q c c c ult
N N
N N
e N
d i N B d i N q d i cN q
d s N B d s N q d s cN q
Meyerhof Bearing
Capacity Equations
. L or D/ /B L ratio use 6,  4 section. in presented 2),  (4
equation of subscripts , For and , as and
shape of sets two compute to have may you 0) or H
0 either yH (and H load a and load a vertical With . 3
. H load
horizontal a by ng accompanyi load a vertical or load
a vertical either with consistent are above values The 2.
. c Vesi by not but n Hanse
by L . B dimension base e effectiv of use Note . 1
. . , . . .
B
B L
B
′ ′
>
·
′
′ ′ ′ ′
L i d d s s d
s
L i B i L i B i i
i
Notes:
1.Use H
i
as either H
B
or H
L
. Or both if H
L
>0.
2.Hansen did not give an i
c
for > 0 . The
value above is from Hansen and also
used by Vesic .
3.Variable c
a
= base adhesion on the order of
0.6 to1.0 x base cohesion.
4.refer to sketch for identification of angles
and , footing width D, location of
H
i
(parallel and at top of base slab;
usually also produces eccentricity).
Especially note V = force normal to base
and is not the resultant R from combining
V and H
i
.
Bearing –capacity
equations by the several
authors indicated
Terzaghi(1943). See table 42 for
typical values and for k
p
values.
•
8 0 6 0 0 1
3 1 3 1 0 1
1
2
1
2 45
5 0
2
2 75 0
2
2
. . . s
. . . s
square round strip For
cos
K
tan
N
cot ) N ( N
e a
) / ( cos a
a
N s BN . N q s cN q
c
p
q c
tan ) / . (
q q c c ult
γ
γ
γ
φ φ π
γ γ
φ
φ
φ
φ
γ
,
`
.

− ·
− ·
·
+
· + + ·
−
0 0 0
0
2
1
2
90
1 : n Inclinatio
0 1
10 1 0 1
B
2 0 1 : Depth
0 1
10 1 0 1
2 0 1 : Shape
For e Valu Factors
· > ·
>
,
`
.

− ·
,
`
.

− · ·
· · ·
> + · ·
+ ·
· · ·
> + · ·
+ ·
φ θ
γ
φ
φ
θ
γ
φ
θ
φ
γ
φ
γ
φ
φ
γ
φ
γ
φ
for i
o
o
i
Any
o
o
q
i
c
i
d
q
d
o
B
D
p
K . d
q
d
Any
D
p
K .
c
d
s
q
s
o
L
B
p
K . s
q
s
Any
L
B
p
K .
c
s
H
R
V
<
Where K
p
= tan
2
( + / 45 2)
=
angle of
resultant R
measured from
vertical without a
: = sign if 0 all
i =
. 1 0
. . B L D =
previously defined
 Table 4 3
• Meyerhof(1963) see Table 43 for
shape, depth and inclination
factors.
•
φ
φ
φ
γ
γ
γ
φ π
γ γ
γ γ
4 1 1
1
2 45
5 0 : Load Inclined
5 0 : Load Vertical
2
. tan N N
cot N N
/ tan e N
i d B . i d N q i d cN q
d s B . d s N q d s cN q
q
q c
tan
q
q q q c c c ult
q q q c c c ult
− ·
− ·
+ ·
′
+ + ·
′
+ + ·
Hansen (1970).* See Table 45 for
shape, depth, and other factors.
φ
φ
γ
γ
γ γ γ γ γ γ
tan N . N
N
N
q g b i d s s . q
b g i d s BN .
b g i d s N q b g i d s cN q
q
c
q
c c c c c u ult
q q q q q q c c c c c c ult
1 5 1
above Meyerhof as same
above Meyerhof as same
1 14 5 use
0 When
5 0
: General
− ·
·
·
+
′
−
′
−
′
−
′
+
′
+ ·
·
+
+ ·
0.6
L
B
0.4 1.0
γ(V)
s
φ all for 1.0
γ
d 0.6
L
B
0.4 1.0
γ(H)
s
____ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
φ all for
above defined k tanφ
L
B
1.0
q(V)
s
k
2
sinφi (1 φ 2tan 1
q
d sinφ
L
B
1.0
q(H)
s
_______ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
radians in k strip for 1.0
c
s
1 D/B for (D/B)
1
tan k
L
B
.
c
N
q
N
1.0
c(V)
s
1 D/B for
B
D
k
L
B
.
c
N
q
N
1.0
c(H)
s
)
o
0 (φ 0.4k
c
d )
o
0 (φ
L
B
0.2
c(H)
s
factors Depth factors Shape
equations capacity bearing c Vesi or
Hansen the in use for factors depth and Shape
≥ − ·
· ≥
′
′
− ·
+ ·
− ′ + ·
′
′
+ ·
·
>
−
· + ·
≤ ·
′
′
+ ·
· · ′ ·
′
′
· ′
′
 ( ) TABLE 4 5 a
( )
radians in
) tan . exp( b
) tan exp(
q
b
) (
o
o
c
b
cot
a
c
f
A V
i
H
o
/
o
.
i
) (
o
o
c
b
cot
a
c
f
A V
i
H .
i
) base tilted ( factors Base
) tan . ( g
q
g
cot
a
c
f
A V
i
H .
q
i
o
o
.
c
g
q
N
q
i
q
i
c
i
o
o
c
g
a
c
f
A
i
H
.
c
i
_ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
) slope on base ( factors Ground factors n Inclinatio
_ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
η
φ η
γ
φ η α
φ
η
α
φ
η
γ
φ
η
α
φ
γ
α
β
γ
α
φ
β
β
7 2
2 5
2
2
0
147
1
2
450 7 0
1
0
147
1
7 0
1
5
1
2
5
5 0 1
1
5 0
1
147
0 1
1
1
147
1 5 0
− ·
− · ≤ ≤
> − ·
+
−
− ·
· · ′
+
− ·
≤ ≤
− · ·
+
− ·
− ·
−
−
− ·
· ′ − − · ′
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
 ( ) TABLE 4 5 b
• Vesic (1973, 1975).* See Table 45
for shape, depth, and other factors.
_ __________ __________ __________ __________
tan N N
above Meyerhof as same N
above Meyerhof as same N
q
c
q
φ
γ
1 2
above. equations s Hansen' use
+ ·
·
·
* These methods require a trial process to obtain
design base
dimensions since width B and length L are needed
to compute
, , . shape depth and influence factors
† .  See Sec 4 6 when i
i
< . 1
( )
( )
( )
2
1
2
0 1
1
2
14 5
2
1
1
2
0 0 1 0 1
base) (tilted factors Base
0 1 0 1
with defined below defined and
0
14 5
1
0
1
1
14 5
0 1
slope) on (base factors Ground factors n Inclinatio
terms. of tion identifica for sketch to refer and below es not See
equations. capacity bearing 1973,1975b c Vesi the
for factors base and ground, n, inclinatio of Table
φ η
φ
β
φ
φ
β
φ
φ
φ
φ
β
β
φ
γ
γ
γ
tan . b b
B / L
B / L
m m
tan .
b
L / B
L / B
m m
) ( g b
cot c A V
H
. . i
__________ __________
tan . g g
cot c A V
H
. i
i i m , i
tan .
i
i g ) (
N
i
i i
radians in
.
g ) (
N c A
mH
i
______ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
______ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________
q L
c B
c c
m
a f
i
q
m
a f
i
q
c q q
q
q c
q
q
q c
c
c a f
i
c
− · ·
+
+
· ·
− ·
+
+
· ·
· ′ · ′
]
]
]
+
− − ·
− · ·
]
]
]
+
− ·
>
−
− · >
−
−
− ·
· ′ · − · ′
− ′
+
 ( ) Table 4 5 c
• Notes:
1. When = 0 (and 0) use N
= 2
sin(± ) in N
term.
2. Compute m = m
B
when H
j
= HB (H
parallel to B) and m = m
L
when H
i
=H
L
(H
parallel to L). If you have both H
B
and H
i
,use m
= m
B
2
+m
2
L
Note use of B and L, not B', L
3. Refer to Table sketch and Tables 45a,b
for term identification.
4. Terms N
c
,N
q
, and N
are identified in
Table 41.
5. Vesic always uses the bearing
capacity equation given in Table 41 (uses B‘
in the N
term even when H
i
= H
L
).
6. H
i
term < 1.0 for computing i
q
, i
(always).
General Observations about
Bearing Capacity
• 1. The cohesion term dominates in cohesive soils.
• 2. The depth term (γ D Nq) dominates in cohesionless soils. Only a small
increase in D
• increases qu substantially.
• 3. The base width term (0.5 γ B Nγ) provides some increase in bearing capacity
for both
• cohesive and cohesionless soils. In cases where B < 3 to 4 m this term could be
• neglected with little error.
• 4. No one would place a footing on the ground surface of a cohesionless soil
mass.
• 5. It's highly unlikely that one would place a footing on a cohesionless soil with
a
• Dr < 0.5. If the soil is loose, it would be compacted in some manner to a higher
• density prior to placing footings on it.
• 6. Where the soil beneath the footing is not homogeneous or is stratified, some
judgment
• must be applied to determining the bearing capacity.
EFFECT OF WATER TABLE
ON BEARING CAPACITY
• The theoretical equations developed
for computing the ultimate bearing
capacity qu of soil are
• based on the assumption that the
water table lies at a depth below
the base of the foundation equal
• to or greater than the width B of the
foundation or otherwise the depth
of the water table from
• ground surface is equal to or greater
than (D,+ B). In case the water
table lies at any intermediate
• depth less than the depth (D,+ B),
the bearing capacity equations are
affected due to the presence of
• the water table.
• Two cases may be considered here.
• Case 1. When the water table lies
above the base of the foundation.
• Case 2. When the water table lies
within depth B below the base of
the foundation.
• We will consider the two methods for
determining the effect of the water
table on bearing
• capacity as given below.
Method 1
For any position of the water table
within the depth (D
f
+ B), we may
write Eq. as:
Eq. of terms third and second
the both in purposes practical all for
. foundation the of level base the
below table water for factor eduction
, foundation the of level base the
above table water for factor reduction
2
1
sat
2
1
2 1
γ γ
γ γ
γ
·
·
·
+ + ·
r R
R Where
R BN R N D cN q
w
w
w w q f c u
• Case 1:When the water table lies
above the base level of the
foundation or when Dwl/Df < 1
• (Fig. 12.10a) the equation for Rwl
may be written as
. . R have we , . D / D for and
, . R have we , D / D For
D
D
R
w f w
w f w
f
w
w
0 1 0 1
5 0 0
1
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
· ·
· ·
,
`
.

+ ·
• Case 2:When the water table lies
below the base level or when
Dw2/B < 1 (12.1 Ob) the equation
for R
w2
is
•
•
•
•
•
• Method 2: Equivalent effective
unit weight method
0 1 0 1
5 0 0
1
2
1
2 2
2 2
2
2
. R have we , . B / D for and
. R have we , B / D For
B
D
R
w w
w w
w
w
· ·
· ·
,
`
.

+ ·
WT above lying soil
of weight unit saturated or moist
foundation the of
level base the above lying soil of
weight unit effective weighted
effective weighted Where
2
1
2
1
2 1
·
·
·
+ + ·
m
e
e
e q f e c u
BN N D cN q
γ
γ
γ
γ γ
γ
sat
=saturated unit weight of soil
below the WT (cas1 or case 2)
=Submerged unit weight of
soil =(
sat

w
)
Case 1
An equation for
e1
may be
written as
γ γ γ γ
γ γ
γ γ
γ γ γ γ
′
− +
′
·
·
′
·
′
− +
′
·
m
w
e
m e
e
m
f
w
e
B
D
D
D
2
2
1
2
1
1
2 Case
Which Equations to Use
q
There are few fullscale footing
tests reported in the literature
(where one usually goes to find
substantiating data).
q
The reason is that, as previously
noted, they are very expensive to do
and the cost is difficult to justify
except as pure research (using a
government grant) or for a precise
determination for an important
project— usually on the basis of
settlement control.
q
Few clients are willing to
underwrite the costs of a fullscale
footing load test when the
bearing capacity can be obtained—
often using empirical SPT or CPT
data directly—to a sufficient
precision for most projects.
Use for Best for
Terzaghi
Hansen,
Meyerhof ,
Vesic
Hansen ,
Vesic
Very cohesive soils where D/B 1or for a
quick estimate of q
ult
to compare with other
methods. Do not use for footings with
moments and/or horizontal forces or for tilted
bases and/or sloping ground.
Any situation that applies, depending on user’s
preference or familiarity with a particular
method.
When base is tilted; when footing is on a slope
or when D/B > 1
Bearing Pressure from In
situ Tests
• From Empirical Formulae
• SPT
• (Terzaghi & Peck )
• Sandy Soil
•
( )
o
n
n n
w
n
w n a
w n w n
log . C
N C N
al et Peck overburden for Correction
mm in settlement Allowable s
correction table water c
) necessary if e submergenc and (
overburden for value N corrected average N
m / t s c N . q
. mm exceeding not settlement for pressure net q where
kPa c N . m / t c N . q
σ
200
77 0
041 0
25
25 10 025 1
2
25
2
25
·
× ·
·
·
·
·
·
· ·
C
n
max. = 2
o
in t/m
2
(10
Ton/m
2
)
o
2.5 t/m
2
Correction for
submergence
(very fine silty
sand below water
table and N > 15)
N =15+ ½(N
n
– 15)
•
•
o
t/m
2
C
n
0 2
0.6 – 1.0 1.8
1.5 – 2.0 1.6
10 1.0
For
o
. / 2 5 t m
2
Bearing Pressure for
Rafts and Piers
•
q
50
=2.05 N
n
c
w
t/m
2
•
q
50
= net pressure for settlement =
50 mm or differential settlement =
20 mm
•
c
w
= 0.5 + 0.5 D
w
/D + B 1
•
Where D
w
= depth of water table
below the ground surface
•
c
w
= 0.5 for D
w
= 0 and c
w
= 1 for
D
w
= D + B
• The proximity of water table is likely
to reduce the bearing capacity by
50 % or increase the settlement by
100 % .
• For designing of footings, generally N
values are determined at 1 m
interval as the test boring is
advanced.
• Generally the average corrected
values of N over a distance from
the base of footing to a depth B –
2B below the footing is calculated.
When several borings are made,
the lowest average should be used.
• For raft. N is similarly calculated or
determined, if N
n
is less than 5.
• Sand is too loose and should be
compacted or alternative
foundation on piles or piers should
be considered.
• If the depth of raft D ie less than 2.5
m, the edges of raft settle more
than the interior because of lack of
confinement of sand.
By Meyerhof’s Theory
•
q
net 25
=11.98 N
n
F
d
For B 1.22m and 25
mm settlement, q = kN/m
2
•
q
net 25
=7.99 N
n
F
d
(B + 0.305/B)
2
For B >
1.22m
• B in mm
• By Bowles (50 % above)
•
q
net 25
=19.16 N
n
F
d
(s/25.4) For B 1.22 m
(kN/m
2
)
•
q
net 25
=11.98 (B + 0.305/B)
2
(For B >
1.22m) x N
n
F
d
(s/25.4)
•
Where F
d
= Depth factor = 1 + 0.33(D
f
/B)
1.33
• s = tolerable settlement.
•
Parry’s Theory
q
ult
= 30 N kN/m
2
D B
Teng (For continuous or strip footing)
q
net (ult)
=1/60 { 3 N
2
BR
w
+ 5(100 + N
2
)
D
f
R
w
}
For square and circular:
q
net (ult)
=1/30 {N
2
BR
w
+ 3(100 + N
2
)
D
f
R
w
}
q
net
= ulltimate bearing capacity in t/m
2
N = corrected SPT value
R
w
, R
w
= correction factor for water
table
B = width of footing
D
f
= depth of footing
•
•
•
•
•
Empirical relationships for C
N
(Note:
o
is in kN/m
2
)
Source C
N
Liao and Whitman
(1960)
Skempton (1986)
Seed et al. (1975)
Pecket al. (1974)
o
.
σ
′
1
78 9
o
. σ
′
+ 01 0 1
2
,
`
.

′
−
6 95
25 1 1
.
log .
o
σ
2
5 2
1912
77 0
m / kN . for
log .
o
o
≥
′
,
`
.

′
σ
σ
SAFE BEARING PRESSURE
FROM EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS
BASED ON CPT VALUES FOR
FOOTINGS ON COHESIONLESS
SOIL
mm. 25 of settlement a
for been have equations above The
kPa in and kg/m
in resistence point cone the is where
kPa 7 2
widths all for formula e approximat An
m 2 1 for kPa
1
1 1 2
m 2 1 for kPa 6 3
2
2
2
2
2
. q
q
R q . q
. B R
B
q . q
. B R q . q
s
c
w c s
w c s
w c s
·
≥
,
`
.

+ ·
≤ ·
Meyerhof (1956)
• Allowable bearing pressure of sand
can be calculted:
•
q
c
is in units kg/cm
2
. If q
c
is in other
units kg/cm
2
, you must convert
them before using in the equation
below.
4
55
c
q
N
By Meyerhof (1956)
( )
( )
m B
m / kN ce tan resis n penetratio cone q where
mm settlement m . B For
B .
B . q
q
mm settlement m . B For
q
q
c
c
net all
c
net all
·
·
>
,
`
.

+
·
≤ ·
2
2
25 22 1
28 3
1 28 3
25
25 22 1
15
Terzaghi
• The bearing capacity factors for the use
in Terzaghi equations can be
estimated as:
•
•
Where q
c
is avaeraged over the depth
interval from about B/2 above to 1.1B
below the footing base. This
approximation should be applicable
for D
f
/ B 1.5. For chesionless soil
one may use:
•
Strip q
ult
= 28  0.0052 (300 q
c
)
1.5
(kg/cm
2
)
•
For square q
ult
= 48  0.009 (300 q
c
)
1.5
(kg/cm
2
)
•
c q
q N . N . ≅ ≅
γ
8 0 8 0
For clay one may use
2
2
kg/cm 34 0 5
kg/cm 28 0 2
c ult
c ult
q . q square
q . q Strip
Bearing Capacity from Plate
Load Test
q
This is reliable method to obtain
bearing capacity.
q
The cost is very high.
•
•
•
•
•
•
q
By using several sizes of plates this
equation can be solved graphically for
q
ult
.
•
term N the
is N and terms N and N the includes M Where
B
B
N M q
q q
q c
test load
foundation
foundation ult
test load ult foundation ult
γ
+ ·
·
,
, ,
q
Practically, for extrapolating plate load
tests for sands (which are often in a
configuration so that the N
q
term is
negligible), use the following
•
•
•
•
q
It is not recommended unless the
B
foundation
/B
plate
is not much more than
about 3. When the ratio is 6 to 15 or more
the extrapolation from a plate load test is
little more than a guess that could be
obtained at least as reliably using an SPT or
CPT correlation.
plate
foundation
plate ult
B
B
q q
Housel's (1929) Method of
Determining Safe Bearing
Pressure from Settlement
Consideration
Objective
To determine
the load Q
f
and the
size of a
foundation for a
permissible
settlement S
f
.
Housel
suggests two plate
load tests with
plates of different
sizes, say B
1
x B
1
and
B
2
x B
2
for this
purpose.
. shear perimeter to
ing correspond t tan cons another n
pressure bearing the
to ing correspond t tan cons a m
plate of perimeter P
plate of area contact A
plate given a on applied load Q Where
n P m A Q
p
p p
·
·
·
·
·
+ ·
Procedure
1 Two plate load tests are to be
conducted at the foundation level of
the prototype as per the procedure
explained earlier.
2. Draw the loadsettlement curves
for each of the plate load tests.
3. Select the permissible settlement
S
f
. for the foundation.
4. Determine the loads Q
1
and Q
2
from
each of the curves for the given
permissible settlement s
f
Now we may write the following equations
Q
1
=mA
p1
+ nP
p1
For plate load test 1.
Q
2
=mA
p2
+ nP
p2
For plte load test2.
The unknown vaues of m&n can be found by
solving
the above equations.
The equation for a prototype foundation may be
written as
Q
f
= mA
f
+ nP
f
Where A
f
area of the foundation, P
f
=perimeter of
the foundation.
When A
f
and P
f
are known, the size of the foundation
can be determined.
•
•
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
Case (a): Strong over
weak (su
1
/su
2
>1).
q / If H B is
relatively , small
failure would
occur as punching
in the first
, layer followed
by general shear
failure in the
( second the ) weak
layer
q / If H B is
relatively , large
the failure surface
would be fully
contained within
the first ( upper
). layer
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
Case (a): Strong over
weak (su
1
/su
2
>1) (cont.)
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
Case (a): Strong over
weak (su
1
/su
2
>1) (cont.)
Where:
B = width
of
foundation
L =
length of
foundation
N
c
= 5.14
(see chart)
s
a
=
cohesion
along the
line aa' in
the
previous
figure.
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
Case (b): Weak over
strong (su1/su2 <1)
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
II) Dense or compacted
sand above soft clay
If H is relatively
small, failure
would
extend into the
soft
clay layer
If H is relatively
large, the
failure
surface would
be
fully contained
within the sand
layer.
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
II) Dense or compacted
sand above soft clay
(cont.)
Bearing Capacity on
Layered Soils
II) Dense or compacted
sand above soft clay
(cont.)
BEARING CAPACITY
BASED ON BUILDING
CODES
(PRESUMPTIVE
PRESSURE)
• In many cities the local building code
stipulates values of allowable soil
pressure to use when designing
foundations. These values are
usually based on years of
experience, although in some cases
they are simply used from the
building code of another city.
q
Values such as these are also
found in engineering and building
construction handbooks.
q
These arbitrary values of soil
pressure are often termed
presumptive pressures.
q
Most building codes now stipulate
that other soil pressures may be
acceptable if laboratory testing and
engineering considerations can
justify the use of alternative values.
q
Presumptive pressures are based
on a visual soil classification.
Table 48 indicates representative
values of building code pressures.
These values are
primarily for illustrative purposes,
since it is generally conceded that in
all but minor construction projects
some soil exploration should be
undertaken
• Major drawbacks to the use of
presumptive soil pressures
are that they do not reflect
the depth of footing, size of
footing, location of water
table, or potential
settlements.
BEARING CAPACITY
I a fo o ti g i su b j cte d to to o g re a t a f n s e l a d , so m e o f th e so i o lsu p p o rti g i w i l n t l re a ch a fa i u re sta te a n d th e fo o ti g l n m a y exp e ri n ce a b e a ri g ca p a ci e n ty fa i u re . l T h e b e a rin g ca p a city is th e lim itin g p re ssu re th a t th e fo o tin g ca n su p p o rt.
Supporting soil
loads to the underlying ground (soil). Footing: Slab element that transmit load from superstructure to ground Embedment depth, Df : The depth below the ground surface where the base of the footing rests. Bearing pressure(q): The normal stress impose by the footing on the supporting ground. (weight of superstructure + self weight of footing + weight of
Foundation: Structure transmits
Definitions and Key Terms
Definitions and Key Termscapacity Ultimate bearing qult /qf /qu : The maximum bearing pressure that the soil can sustain (i.e it fails). Ultimate net bearing capacity (qunet /qnf /qnu ): The maximum bearing qnf = q f − γ D pressure that the soil can sustain above its current or q f = qnf + γ D overburden pressure Ground G .
nf qs = qns + γ = D +γ D • F • Net safe bearing capacity: It is the net ultimate bearing capacity qnf divided by factor of safety.F. F.Safe bearing capacity: it is the maximum pressure which the soil can carry without shear failure or ultimate bearing capacity. qf . qns = F • . divided by Factor ofqsafety .
) Allowable bearing capacity: (qall /qa): The working pressure that would ensure an acceptable margin of safety against bearing capacity failure. = . or It is the net loading intensity at which neither soil fails in shear nor there is excessive settlement detrimental to the structure.S. (F. Factor of safety: The ratio between (qunet ) and (qall ).Definitions and Key Terms (Cont.
which.) Ultimate limit state: A state that defines a limiting shear stress that should not be exceeded by any conceivable or anticipated loading during the life span of a foundation or any geotechnical system. Serviceability limit state: A state .Definitions and Key Terms (Cont. that defines a limiting deformation or settlement of a foundation. if exceeded will impair the function of the supported structure.
Basics .
Basics .
5 Others Df /B > 4 .Df /B 1 D Terzaghi Df /B 22.
.
.Design Requirements The foundation must not collapse or become unstable under any conceivable load 2. Deformation (settlement) of the structure must be within tolerable limits 1.
Local yielding starts to affect Upward and outward movement of the soil with a possible surface heave. General shear failure Large settlements are produced as plastic yielding is fully . Stages in loadsettlement of shallow foundations Relatively elastic vertical compression The loadsettlement curve is almost straight.
Collapse and Failure Loads .
( a ) General shear failure ( b ) Local shear failure ( c ) Punching shear failure .
Shallow foundations in rock and undrained clays are governed by the general shear case. § . a dense sand is one with a relative density. § Shallow foundations in dense sands are governed by the general shear case. In this context. greater than about 67%. Dr .
§ Shallow foundations on very loose sand (Dr < 30%) are probably governed by punching shear.Shallow foundations on loose to medium dense sands (30% < Dr< 67%) are probably governed by local shear. • § .
Characteristics of Each Failure Mode General shear (Dense sand): – well defined failure mechanism – continuous slip surface from footing to surface – sudden catastrophic failure Local shear (Loose sand): – failure mechanism well defined only beneath the footing – slip surfaces do not extend to the soil surface – considerable vertical displacement – lower ultimate capacity .
S.general shear failure and < 28o local shear failure.S.F (i) Guide lines to know whether failure is local or general Contd … . (iii) Penetration test: N 30 : G. (ii) Angle of shear resistance: For > 36o .F N 5 : L.Stressstrain test: (c soil) general shear failure occurs at low strain. say <5 % while for local shear failure stressstrain curve continues to rise at strain of 10 to 20 %.
S.Contd … (iv) Plate Load Test: Shape of the load settlement curve decides whether it is G. with an unconfined compressive strength qu 10 t/m2 (or cu 5 t/m2). .F ID < 20 L.F For purely cohesive soil.S.S. local shear failure may be assumed to occur when the soil is soft to medium.F or L.F (v) Density Index : ID> 70 G.S.
Punching shear (Very Loose sand): – failure mechanism less well defined – soil beneath footing compresses – large vertical displacements – lowest ultimate capacity – very loose soils or at large .
Should not exceed tolerable settlement(probable maximum and differential settlement) 3.Foundation Requirements 1. 4.Its construction should not make any change to existing structure.Safe against failure (bearing capacity or structural failure) 2.Should be adequate depth from consideration of adverse environment influence: .
Scouring depth .Abandoned garbage dumps or loosed fill areas.Depth of frost penetration iii.i. iv. Zones of high volume change due to moisture fluctuations. peat and muck. ii. v.Organic matter.
load.BEARING CAPACITY ANALYSES IN SOILGENERAL SHEAR CASE Methods of Analyzing Bearing Capacity q To analyze spread footings for bearing capacity failures and design them in a way to avoid such failures. Various researchers have studied these relationships using a variety of techniques. q footing dimensions. and soil properties. including: . we must understand the relationship between bearing capacity.
Ø . Ø Limit equilibrium analyses. Ø Detailed stress analyses. Ø Load tests on model footings.Assessments of the performance of real foundations. such as finite element method (FEM) analyses. including fullscale load tests.
such tests are expensive. performed as a part of routine design. A few such tests have been performed for research purposes. if ever. which consist of constructing real spread footings and loading them to failure.• Fullscale load tests. are the most precise way to evaluate bearing capacity. . and thus are rarely. However.
However. mostly because the cost of these tests is far below that for fullscale tests. Unfortunately.• Model footing tests have been used quite extensively. the advent of centrifuge model tests has partially overcome this problem. . because of uncertainties in applying the proper scaling factors. model tests have their limitations. especially when conducted in sands.
1920). then evaluate the stresses and strengths along this surface..• Limit equilibrium analyses are the dominant way to assess bearing capacity of shallow foundations. These analyses define the shape of the failure surface. not sheet metal) to resist concentrated loads. He considered the ability of very thick masses of metal (i. Limit equilibrium analyses usually include empirical factors . These methods of analysis have their roots in Prandtl' s studies of the punching resistance of metals (Prandtl. as shown in Figure .e.
qult = N c su + σ zD .
We will consider only limit equilibrium methods of bearing capacity analyses.• Occasionally. . geotechnical engineers perform more detailed bearing capacity analyses using numerical methods. because these methods are used on the overwhelming majority of projects. and are justified only on very critical and unusual projects. These analyses are more complex. such as the finite element method (FEM).
Essential Points so far • Failure mode in sands depends on the density of the soil. dense soils can sustain more load. More settlement is expected in loose soils than in dense soils (for the same load). • . Alternatively.
Thus. the soil in this zone is considered to be only a surcharge load that produces a vertical total stress of The limit equilibrium method . Assume the soil is an undrained clay with a shear strength su.consider the continuous footing as shown in Figure. Let us assume this footing experiences a bearing capacity failure. and that this failure occurs along a circular shear surface as shown. Neglect the shear strength between the ground surface and a depth D.
which is the bearing pressure required to cause a bearing capacity failure. consider a slice of the foundation of length b and taking moments about Point A. we obtain the M A = ( qult Bb)( B / 2) − ( suπBb)( B ) − σ zD Bb( B / 2) following: qult = 2π su + σ zD .§ § The objective of this derivation is to obtain a formula for the ultimate bearing capacity.qult .
According to this derivation. Nc and rewrite Equation qult = N c su + σ zD as: Equation is known as a bearing capacity formula. Nc = 2 = 6.28. This simplified formula has only limited applicability in practiceContd… because it considers . called a bearing capacity factor. It is convenient to define a new parameter. and could be used to evaluate the bearing capacity of a proposed foundation.
• . However.Contd… only continuous footings and undrained soil conditions ( = 0). this simple derivation illustrates the general methodology required to develop more comprehensive bearing capacity formulas. and it assumes the foundation rotates as the bearing capacity failure occurs.
friction and weight of soil. Terzaghi (1943) first proposed a semiempirical equation for computing the ultimate bearing capacity of strip footings by taking into account cohesion. On account of these reasons.q No exact analytical solution for computing bearing capacity of footings is available at present because the basic system of equations describing the yield problems is nonlinear. . and replacing the overburden pressure with an equivalent surcharge load at the base level of the foundation.
. The ultimate bearing capacity. it is the purpose of the author to present here only such theories which are of basic interest to students in particular and professional engineers in general. or the allowable soil pressure. can be calculated either from bearing capacity theories or from some of the in situ tests. Some of the theories are of academic interest only. Each theory has its own good and bad points. However.
The shear strength of the soil is described by the formula s = c' + ' tan '. Assumptions: Terzaghi's Bearing Capacity Formulas The depth of the foundation is less than or equal to its width (D B). . the soil extends for a great distance below the foundation and the soil properties are uniform throughout). The soil beneath the foundation is a homogeneous semiinfinite mass (i..e. The bottom of the foundation is sufficiently rough that no sliding occurs between the foundation and the soil.
. The foundation is very rigid in comparison to the soil.e. The general shear mode of failure governs. No consolidation of the soil occurs (i. settlement of the foundation is due only to the shearing and lateral movement of the soil). .
The applied load is compressive and applied vertically to the centroid of the foundation and no applied moment loads are present. . The soil between the ground surface and a depth D has no shear strength. and serves only as a surcharge load.
Bearing Capacity Failure .
1913) West side of foundation .Transcosna Grain Elevator Canada (Oct. 18.
P B Wedge Zone B D 45 . / 2 Passive Zone Lowest Shear Surface Radial Shear Zone . / 2 Surcharge Pressure = zD 45 .
Collapse and Failure Loads .
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the outer portion is the linear shear zone in which the soil shears along planar surfaces . Terzaghi considered three zones in the soil. where he took the shape of the shear planes to be logarithmic spirals. as shown in Figure. Next. immediately beneath the foundation is a wedge zone that remains intact and moves downward with the foundation. a radial shear zone extends from each side of the wedge. Finally.
Since Terzaghi neglected the shear strength of soils between the ground surface and a depth D. the shear surface stops at this depth and the overlying soil has been replaced with the surcharge pressure zD . and is part of the reason for limiting the method to relatively shallow foundations (D < B). .This approach is conservative.
those with a very large L/B ratio). This is the simplest case because it is a two.Terzaghi developed his theory for continuous foundations (i. He then extended it to square and round foundations by adding empirical coefficients obtained from model tests and produced the following bearing capacity formulas: ..e.dimensional problem.
For square foundations: • ′ qult = 1.3γ ′ BNγ For circular foundations .3 c′N c + σ zD N q + 0.3 c′ N c + σ zD N q + 0.5γ ′ BN γ ′ qult = 1.4 γ ′ B N γ For continuous foundations: • • ′ qult = c′N c + σ zD N q + 0.
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The soils between the ground surface and a depth D are treated simply as overburden. . the values of c and only need to represent the soil between the bottom of the footing and a depth B below the bottom.Because of the shape of the failure surface.
The Terzaghi bearing capacityContd… factors are: . and D If saturated undrained conditions exist.0. Terzaghi's formulas are presented in terms of effective stresses. they also may be used in a total stress analyses by substituting cT T and D for c'.7. '. and N = 0. we may conduct a total stress analysis with the shear strength defined as cT= Su and T= O. Nc = 5. However. Nq = 1.0. In this case.
Contd… a 2θ Nq = 2 cos2 ( 45 + φ ′ / 2) aθ = eπ ( 0.7 Nq −1 Nc = tan φ ′ for φ ′ = 0 for φ ′ > 0 tan φ ′ K pγ Nγ = cos2 φ ′ − 1 2 .75−φ ′ / 360 ) tan φ ′ N c = 5.
3cN c + γD( N q − 1 )Rw1 + 0.Computation of safe bearing capacity For strip footing: qs = For qs = For qs = 1 [ cN c + γD( N q − 1 )Rw1 + 0.3γBN γRw 2 ] + γD F .5γBN γRw 2 ] + γD F square footing : 1 [1.4γBN γRw 2 ] + γD F circular footing : 1 [1.3cN c + γD( N q − 1 )Rw1 + 0.
N γ = B earingcapacity factors dependingon φ for general shear failure ′ N c′ . N q . N q′ .W here F = F actorof safety 2 to 3 D = D epth of footing B= W idth of footingor diam eterof footing N c .s.f Rw1 and Rw 2 = W ater table reduction factor c m = 2 / 3 of c and tanφm = 2 / 3 tanφ . N γ = B earingcapacity factors for local shear failure c = cohesion for g.
If Z w 2 = B . Rw 2 = 1 2 . Rw 2 = B . 2 If Z w 1 = D . Rw 1 = 1 1 If Z w 2 = 0 Rw 2 = .5 1 + w 1 D Z Rw 2 = 0.Z Rw1 = 0.5 1 + w 2 B 1 If Z w1 = 0 Rw1 = .
Nq N ( degrees ) Nc N q and N c N BEARING CAPACITY FACTORS [ After Terzaghi and Peck ( 1948 )] .
Bearing Capacity Factors .
5 B (the footing width) below the base of the footing the water can be assumed to . ´. dry rather than cu. The soil is dry.Effective Stress Analysis Two situations can be simply analysed. If the water table is more than a depth of 1. sat . u. The total and effective stresses are identical and the analysis is identical to that described above except that the parameters used in the equations are c´.
Further Developments Skempton (1951) Meyerhof (1953) Brinch Hanson (1961) De Beer and Ladanyi (1961) Meyerhof (1963) Brinch Hanson (1970) Vesic (1973. 1975) .
5γB′N γ sγ dγ Inclined Load : qult = cN cic d c + q N qiq d q + 0.5γB′N γ iγ dγ N q = eπ tan φ tan 2 ( 45 + φ / 2) N c = ( N q − 1) cot φ N γ = ( N q − 1) tan(1.4φ ) .Meyerhof Bearing Capacity Equations Vertical load : qult = cN c sc d c + q N q sq d q + 0.
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L′ by Hansen but not by Vesic′. si . The values above are consistent with either a vertical load or a vertical load accompanying by a horizontal load H B . 3. Lsubscripts of equation (4 . L. d i . B . B . With a vertical load and a load H L (and either yH B = 0 or H B > 0) you may have to compute two sets of shape si and d i as si . 4 . presented in section. .2). Note use of ′effective′ base dimension B′. Land d i .6. For i. use ratio L′/B or D/L′.1. 2.
refer to sketch for identification of angles and . location of Hi(parallel and at top of base slab.Notes: 1. Or both if HL >0. 4.6 to1.Hansen did not give an ic for > 0. footing width D. 2. usually also produces eccentricity).0 x base cohesion. . The value above is from Hansen and also used by Vesic .Variable ca = base adhesion on the order of 0. 3.Use Hi as either HB or HL . Especially note V = force normal to base and is not the resultant R from combining V and Hi .
5γ γsγ BN a2 Nq = a cos 2 ( 45 + φ/ 2 ) a = e ( 0.0 0. qult = cN c sc + qN q + 0. Bearing –capacity equations by the several authors indicated Terzaghi(1943).6 0.3 sγ 1.3 1. See table 42 for typical values and for kp values.0 1.75 π− φ/ 2 ) tan φ N c = ( N q − 1 ) cot φ tan φ K pγ Nγ = − 1 2 2 cos φ For strip round square sc 1.8 • .
2 K p B D d q = d γ = 1 + 0.3 Depth : D d c = 1 + 0.D = previously defined .0 B.L.1 K p B d q = dγ = 1 Inclination : V H < R 2 θo ic = iq = 1 − o Any φ 90 o 2 θ iγ = 1 − o φ> 0 φ iγ = 0 for θ > 0 φ= 0 Where Kp = tan2 (45+ /2) = angle of resultant R measured from vertical without a sign: if = 0 all i = 1.1 K p L sq = sγ = 1 For Any φ φ> 10 o φ= 0 Any φ φ> 10 o φ= 0 Table 4 .Factors Shape : Value B sc = 1 + 0.2 K p L B sq = sγ = 1 + 0.
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depth and inclination factors.5γ ′sγd γ B • Inclined Load : qult = cN c d c ic + q N q d q iq + 0.4φ) .• Meyerhof(1963) see Table 43 for shape.5γ ′d γiγ B N q = e πtan φ tan 2 ( 45 + φ/ 2) N c = ( N q − 1) cot φ N γ = ( N q − 1) tan( 1. Vertical Load : qult = cN c sc d c + q N q sq d q + 0.
5( N q − 1) tan φ . General : When use qult = cN c sc d c ic g c bc + qN q sq d q iq g q bq + 0. depth.14 su ( 1 + sc′ + d c′ − ic′ − bc′ − g c′ ) + q N q = same as Meyerhof above N c = same as Meyerhof above N γ = 1.5γ γsγd γiγ g γbγ BN φ= 0 qult = 5. Hansen (1970).* See Table 45 for shape. and other factors.
TABLE 4  5 ( a )
S ap an d thfactorsfor u in th H sen h e d ep se e an or V c′ b esi earin cap g acityeq atio s u n S ap factors h e D thfacto ep rs B′ o ′ s =0 .2 (φ =0 ) d′ =0 k (φ =0o) .4 c c(H ) L′ N q B′ s =1 + .0 . k = DBforD ≤1 /B c(H ) N L′ c N q B s =1 + .0 . k = tan−1(D ) forD >1 /B /B c(V ) N L c s =1 fo strip .0 r kinrad ian s c __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ _______ B′ s =1 + sinφ .0 d =1+2 tan ′(1 −sin i 2k φ φ q q ) (H L′ B s =1 + tan .0 φ kd efin ab ed ove q ) (V L forallφ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ ____ B′ s =1 −0.4 .0 ≥0 .6 d =1.0 for allφ γ γ(H ) L′ B s =1 −0 .0 .4 ≥0 .6 γ(V ) L
TABLE 4  5 ( b )
___________________________________________________ Inclination factors Ground factors( base on slope ) ___________________________________________________ H βo i ′ ′ ic = 0.5 − 1 − gc = A ca 147 o f 1 − iq βo ic = iq − gc = 1.0 − Nq − 1 147 o α 1 0.5 H i iq = 1 − gq = gγ = ( 1 − 0.5 tan β)5 V + A c cot φ f a 2≤α ≤5 1 Base factors( tilted base ) ηo ′ bc = ( φ= 0 ) 147 o α ηo bc = 1 − ( φ> 0 ) 147 o bq = exp( −2ηtan φ) bγ = exp( −2.7ηtan φ) η in radians
1 0.7 H i iγ = 1 − V + A c cot φ f a
α
0.7 − ηo / 450 o H 2 i iγ = 1 − V + A ca cot φ f
(
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2≤α ≤5 2
use Hansen' s equations above. and other factors. . 46 when ii < 1. †See Sec. depth.* See Table 45 for shape. 1975). N q = same as Meyerhof above N c = same as Meyerhof above N γ = 2( N q + 1) tan φ _________________________________________ *These methods require a trial process to obtain design base dimensions since width B and length L are needed to compute shape. depth.• Vesic (1973. and influence factors.
ground.0 − tan β) 2 Base factors (tilted base) __________ __________ Hi iγ = 1.0 − V + A f c a cot φ m iq defined with ic g q = g γ = ( 1. and m defined below Hi iq = 1.14 tan φ iq .Table of inclinatio n.0 − V + A f c a cot φ 2+B / L m = mB = 1+ B / L 2+L/ B m = mL = 1+ L / B m +1 ′ bc′ = g c bc = 1 − ( φ= 0 ) 2β 5.14 tan φ 2 bq = bγ = ( 1. See not es below and refer to sketch for identifica tion of terms.14 β in radians __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ ______ g c = iq − 1 − iq φ> 0 5.0 − 1.0 − ηtan φ) . and base factors for the Vesi c ′( 1973. Ground factors (base Table 4 .1975b ) bearing − capacity equations.5 ( c Inclinatio nfactors __________ __________ __________on slope) ) __________ __________ ______ ic′ = 1 − ic = iq − mH i A f ca N c 1 − iq Nq −1 ( φ= 0 ) ( φ> 0 ) ′ gc = β 5.
• Notes: 1. 6. L 3. When = 0 (and 0) use N = 2 sin(± ) in N term. Terms Nc. 5.b for term identification. not B'. Vesic always uses the bearingcapacity equation given in Table 41 (uses B‘ in the N term even when Hi = HL).Nq. 4.0 for computing iq. . Hi term < 1.use m = mB 2 +m2L Note use of B and L. Compute m = mB when Hj = HB (H parallel to B) and m = mLwhen Hi =HL (H parallel to L). 2. and N are identified in Table 41. If you have both HB and Hi . Refer to Table sketch and Tables 45a. i (always).
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No one would place a footing on the ground surface of a cohesionless soil mass. it would be compacted in some manner to a higher density prior to placing footings on it. Where the soil beneath the footing is not homogeneous or is stratified. 4. 3. It's highly unlikely that one would place a footing on a cohesionless soil with a Dr < 0. The cohesion term dominates in cohesive soils. In cases where B < 3 to 4 m this term could be neglected with little error. .General Observations about Bearing Capacity • • • • • • • • • • • • 1. 6.5. some judgment must be applied to determining the bearing capacity. The base width term (0. The depth term (γ D Nq) dominates in cohesionless soils.5 γ B Nγ) provides some increase in bearing capacity for both cohesive and cohesionless soils. 2. Only a small increase in D increases qu substantially. 5. If the soil is loose.
EFFECT OF WATER TABLE ON BEARING CAPACITY • The theoretical equations developed for computing the ultimate bearing capacity qu of soil are • based on the assumption that the water table lies at a depth below the base of the foundation equal • to or greater than the width B of the foundation or otherwise the depth of the water table from .
. the bearing capacity equations are affected due to the presence of • the water table.+ B). In case the water table lies at any intermediate • depth less than the depth (D.• ground surface is equal to or greater than (D.+ B).
.• Two cases may be considered here. • Case 2. When the water table lies within depth B below the base of the foundation. When the water table lies above the base of the foundation. • Case 1. • We will consider the two methods for determining the effect of the water table on bearing • capacity as given below.
γ = γ for all practical purposes in both the sat second and third terms of Eq. . Method 1 For any position of the water table within the depth (Df+ B). as: D BN u c Where Rw1 Rw 2 2 = reduction factor for water table above f q w1 γ w2 the base level of the foundation. we may write cN + γ N R + 1 γ R q = Eq. = reduction factor for water table below the base level of the foundation.
• Case 1:When the water table lies above the base level of the foundation or when Dwl/Df < 1 • (Fig. we have Rw1 = 1.10a) the equation for Rwl may be written as Dw1 1 Rw1 = 1 + 2 Df For Dw1 / D f = 0 .5 . and for Dw1 / D f = 1. we have Rw1 = 0.0 .0. . 12.
1 Ob) the equation for Rw2 is D 1 • Rw 2 = 1 + w 2 2 B • For Dw 2 / B = 0 . we have Rw 2 = 0.0 • • • Method 2: Equivalent effective .• Case 2:When the water table lies below the base level or when Dw2/B < 1 (12.0 . we have Rw 2 = 1.5 • and for Dw 2 / B = 1.
1 qu = cN c + γ 1 D f N q + γ 2 BN γ e e 2 Where γ 1 = weighted effective e γ 2 = weighted effective unit weight e of soil lying above the base level of the foundation γ = moist or saturated unit weight of m soil lying above WT .
sat =saturated unit weight of soil below the WT (cas1 or case 2) =Submerged unit weight of soil =(sat .w) .
Case 1 An equation for e1 may be written Dw1 as ( γm − γ′) γ 1 = γ′ + e Df γ 2 = γ′ e Case 2 γ1 = γ e m Dw 2 ( γm − γ′) γ 2 = γ′ + e B .
Which Equations to Use There are few fullscale footing tests reported in the literature (where one usually goes to find substantiating data). as previously noted. they are very expensive to do and the cost is difficult to justify except as pure research (using a government grant) or for a precise determination for an important project— usually on the basis of settlement control. q The reason is that. q .
q Few clients are willing to underwrite the costs of a fullscale footing load test when the bearing capacity can be obtained— often using empirical SPT or CPT data directly—to a sufficient precision for most projects. .
Do not use for footings with moments and/or horizontal forces or for tilted bases and/or sloping ground. when footing is on a slope or when D/B > 1 Hansen.Use for Terzaghi Best for Very cohesive soils where D/B 1or for a quick estimate of qult to compare with other methods. Vesic Hansen . Meyerhof . Any situation that applies. Vesic . When base is tilted. depending on user’s preference or familiarity with a particular method.
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025 N c t / m = 10. where 2 25 n w n w 25 Bearing Pressure from In situ Tests qa = 0.• • • • • From Empirical Formulae SPT (Terzaghi & Peck ) q = 1.041 N n c w s t / m 2 N n = average corrected N value for overburden ( and submergence if necessary ) c w = water table correction s = Allowable settlement in mm Correction for overburden ( Peck et al ) N n = Cn × N C n = 0.25 N c kPa Sandy Soil q = net pressure for settlement not exceeding 25mm .77 log 200 σo .
5 t/m2 o t/m2 0 0.8 1.6 1.0 10 Cn 2 1. = 2 o in t/m2 (10 Ton/m2 ) o 2.0 .6 – 1.5 – 2.5 t/m2 Correction for submergence (very fine silty sand below water table and N > 15) N =15+ ½(Nn – 15) For o 2. Cn max.0 1.
05 Nn cw t/m2 • q50 = net pressure for settlement = 50 mm or differential settlement = 20 mm • cw= 0.5 for Dw= 0 and cw= 1 for Dw= D + B • The proximity of water table is likely .Bearing Pressure for Rafts and Piers • q50 =2.5 + 0.5 Dw /D + B 1 • Where Dw = depth of water table below the ground surface • cw = 0.
• For designing of footings, generally N values are determined at 1 m interval as the test boring is advanced. • Generally the average corrected values of N over a distance from the base of footing to a depth B – 2B below the footing is calculated. When several borings are made, the lowest average should be used. • For raft. N is similarly calculated or determined, if Nn is less than 5.
• Sand is too loose and should be compacted or alternative foundation on piles or piers should be considered. • If the depth of raft D ie less than 2.5 m, the edges of raft settle more than the interior because of lack of confinement of sand.
By Meyerhof’s Theory
• qnet 25 =11.98 Nn Fd For B 1.22m and 25 mm settlement, q = kN/m2 • qnet 25 =7.99 Nn Fd (B + 0.305/B)2 For B > 1.22m • B in mm • By Bowles (50 % above) • qnet 25 =19.16 Nn Fd(s/25.4) For B 1.22 m (kN/m2) • qnet 25 =11.98 (B + 0.305/B)2 (For B > 1.22m) x Nn Fd (s/25.4) • Where Fd = Depth factor = 1 + 0.33(Df /B) 1.33 • s = tolerable settlement.
Parry’s Theory qult = 30 N kN/m2 DB Teng (For continuous or strip footing) qnet (ult) =1/60 { 3 N2 BRw + 5(100 + N2) Df Rw} qnet (ult) Df Rw} For square and circular: =1/30 {N2 BRw + 3(100 + N2) qnet = ulltimate bearing capacity in t/m2 N = corrected SPT value Rw . Rw = correction factor for water .
77 log ′ σo ′ for σo ≥ 2.5 kN / m 2 . (1974) CN 1 9. (1975) Pecket al.78 ′ σo 2 ′ 1 + 0. Empirical relationships for CN (Note: o is in kN/m2) Source Liao and Whitman (1960) Skempton (1986) Seed et al.01 σo ′ σo 1 − 1.25 log 95.6 1912 0.
The above equations have been for a settlement of 25 mm. 2 .7 qc Rw 2 kPa where qc is the cone point resistence in kg/m 2 and qs in kPa .6 q R kPa for B ≤ 1.2 m s c w2 1 qs = 2.1 qc 1 + Rw 2 kPa for B ≥ 1.SAFE BEARING PRESSURE FROM EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS BASED ON CPT VALUES FOR FOOTINGS ON COHESIONLESS SOIL q = 3.2 m B An approximate formula for all widths qs = 2.
you must convert them before using in the equation below. qc N 55 ≅ 4 .Meyerhof (1956) • Allowable bearing pressure of sand can be calculted: • q c is in units kg/cm2. If qc is in other units kg/cm2.
22 m settlement 25 mm 25 3.28 B + 1 For B > 1.By Meyerhof (1956) qall ( net ) qc = 15 For B ≤ 1.28 B where qc = cone penetration resis tan ce kN / m 2 .22 m settlement 25 mm 2 qall ( net ) = B =m qc 3.
For chesionless soil one may use: • Strip qult = 28 .8 N ≅ q 0.qc)1.5.5 (kg/cm2) 1.Terzaghi • The bearing capacity factors for the use in Terzaghi equations can be estimated as: N ≅ 0.8 q γ c • • Where qc is avaeraged over the depth interval from about B/2 above to 1.0052 (300.5 . This approximation should be applicable for Df / B 1.1B below the footing base.0.
34qc ( kg/cm ) ( kg/cm ) 2 2 . For clay one may use Strip qult = 2 + 0.28qc square qult = 5 + 0.
load test qult. foundation = qult. The cost is very high. qult.Bearing Capacity from Plate Load Test obtain q This is reliable method to q bearing capacity. foundation = M + N B foundation Bload test • • • • • • q Where M includes the N c and N q terms and N is the N γ term By using several sizes of plates this .
for extrapolating plate load tests for sands (which are often in a configuration so that the Nq term is negligible).q Practically. use the following • • • qult B foundation = q plate B plate • q It is not recommended unless the Bfoundation /Bplate is not much more than about 3.load test is little more than a guess that could be obtained at least as reliably using an SPT or . When the ratio is 6 to 15 or more the extrapolation from a plate.
Housel suggests two plate load tests with plates of different sizes. Q = Ap m + Pp n Where Q = load applied on a given plate A = contact area of plate Pp = perimeter of plate m = a cons tan t corresponding to the bearing pressure n = another cons tan t corresponding to perimeter shear . . Housel's (1929) Method of Determining Safe Bearing Pressure from Settlement Consideration Objective To determine the load Qf and the size of a foundation for a permissible settlement Sf. say B1 x B1 and B2 x B2 for this purpose.
Select the permissible settlement Sf. 4. for the foundation. Determine the loads Q1 and Q2 from each of the curves for the given permissible settlement sf .Procedure 1 Two plate load tests are to be conducted at the foundation level of the prototype as per the procedure explained earlier. 3. Draw the loadsettlement curves for each of the plate load tests. 2.
The unknown vaues of m&n can be found by solving the above equations. Pf =perimeter of the foundation. Now we may write the following equations Q1 =mAp1 + nPp1 For plate load test 1. . the size of the foundation can be determined. Q2 =mAp2 + nPp2 For plte load test2. The equation for a prototype foundation may be written as Qf = mAf + nPf Where Af area of the foundation. When Af and Pf are known.
the failure surface would be fully contained within the first ( upper layer ). . followed by general shear failure in the second ( the weak ) layer q If H / B is relatively large . small .Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils Case (a): Strong over q If H / B is relativelyweak (su1/su2 >1). failure would occur as punching in the first layer .
Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils Case (a): Strong over weak (su1/su2 >1) (cont.) .
Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils Case (a): Strong over Where: weak (su1/su2 >1) (cont.)
of foundation L= length of foundation Nc = 5.14 (see chart) sa = cohesion along the line aa' in the B = width
Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils Case (b): Weak over strong (su1/su2 <1)
small, failure would extend into the soft clay layer
Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils II) Dense or compacted If H is relatively sand above soft clay
If H is relatively large, the failure surface would be fully contained
) .Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils II) Dense or compacted sand above soft clay (cont.
Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils II) Dense or compacted sand above soft clay (cont.) .
• BEARING CAPACITY BASED ON BUILDING CODES (PRESUMPTIVE In many cities the local building code PRESSURE) stipulates values of allowable soil pressure to use when designing foundations. These values are usually based on years of experience. although in some cases they are simply used from the building code of another city. .
q . q Presumptive pressures are based on a visual soil classification.Values such as these are also found in engineering and buildingconstruction handbooks. q These arbitrary values of soil pressure are often termed presumptive pressures. q Most building codes now stipulate that other soil pressures may be acceptable if laboratory testing and engineering considerations can justify the use of alternative values.
since it is generally conceded that in all but minor construction projects some soil exploration should be undertaken . These values are primarily for illustrative purposes. Table 48 indicates representative values of building code pressures.
• Major drawbacks to the use of presumptive soil pressures are that they do not reflect the depth of footing. size of footing. or potential settlements. . location of water table.
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